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Moldova (, ; ), officially the Republic of Moldova ( ro, Republica Moldova), is a
landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign s ...
in
Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of , geographical, ethnic, cultural, and connotations. , located in Eastern Europe, is both the ...

Eastern Europe
. It is bordered by
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
to the west and
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
to the north, east, and south. Additionally, the unrecognised state of
Transnistria Transnistria, officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR), is an List of states with limited recognition, unrecognised breakaway state located in the narrow strip of land between the river Dniester and the Moldova–Ukraine border, ...

Transnistria
lies across the
Dniester The Dniester ( ) is a river in Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of , geographical, ethnic, cultural, and conn ...
on the country's eastern border with Ukraine. The
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
and largest city is
Chișinău Chișinău ( , , ), also known as Kishinev (russian: Кишинёв, r=Kishinjóv ), is the Capital city, capital and largest city of the Republic of Moldova. The city is Moldova's main industrial and commercial center, and is located in the m ...
. Most of Moldovan territory was a part of the
Principality of Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic: or ) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural Culture () is a ...
from the 14th century until 1812, when it was ceded to the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical that extended across and from 1721, succeeding the following the that ended the . The Empire lasted until the was proclaimed by the that took power after the ...
by the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th a ...
(to which Moldavia was a
vassal state A vassal state is any state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...
) and became known as
Bessarabia Bessarabia (; gag, Besarabiya; ro, Basarabia; russian: Бессарабия, ''Bessarabiya''; tr, Besarabya; uk, Бессара́бія'', Bessarabiya''; bg, Бесарабия, ''Besarabiya'') is a historical region Historical regions (or ...

Bessarabia
. In 1856, southern Bessarabia was returned to Moldavia, which three years later united with
Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia (; ro, Țara Românească, lit=The Romanian Land' or 'The Romanian Country, ; : ', : ) is a and geographical region of . It is situated north of the and south of the . Wallachia is traditionally divided into two sections ...
to form
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...
, but Russian rule was restored over the whole of the region in 1878. During the 1917
Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relatio ...
, Bessarabia briefly became an autonomous state within the
Russian Republic The Russian Republic., referred to as the Russian Democratic Federal Republic in the Decree on the system of government of Russia (1918), 1918 Constitution, was a short-lived state (polity), state which controlled, ''de jure'', the territory ...
, known as the
Moldavian Democratic Republic The Moldavian Democratic Republic ( ro, Republica Democratică Moldovenească), also known as the Moldavian Republic, was a state proclaimed on by the '' Sfatul Țării'' (National Council) of Bessarabia, elected in October–November 1917 ...
. In February 1918, the Moldavian Democratic Republic declared independence and then integrated into Romania later that year following a vote of its assembly. The decision was disputed by
Soviet Russia The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links=no, Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya ...
, which in 1924 established, within the
Ukrainian SSR The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR, UkrSSR or UkSSR; uk, Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, translit=Ukrainska Radianska Sotsialistychna Respublika, abbreviated ...
, a Moldavian autonomous republic (MASSR) on partially Moldovan-inhabited territories to the east of Bessarabia. In 1940, as a consequence of the
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact , long_name = , image = Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H27337, Moskau, Stalin und Ribbentrop im Kreml.jpg , image_width = 200 , caption = Joseph Stalin, Stalin and Joachim von Ribbentrop, Ribbentrop shaking hands after the signing of the pact in the Mos ...
, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
, leading to the creation of the
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic ( mo, Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ) was one of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ...
(Moldavian SSR), which included the greater part of Bessarabia and the westernmost strip of the former MASSR (east of the
Dniester River The Dniester ( ) is a river in Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Western Europe and Asia. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of ...
). On 27 August 1991, as the
dissolution of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal political, e ...
was underway, the Moldavian SSR declared independence and took the name Moldova. The
constitution of Moldova The Constitution of the Republic of Moldova is the Constitution, fundamental law of Moldova. The Constitution of Moldova (1994), current Constitution of Moldova was adopted on 29 July 1994 by the Moldovan Parliament. It came into force on 27 Augus ...
was adopted in 1994. The strip of the Moldovan territory on the east bank of the Dniester has been under the ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with ''de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
'' control of the breakaway government of
Transnistria Transnistria, officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR), is an List of states with limited recognition, unrecognised breakaway state located in the narrow strip of land between the river Dniester and the Moldova–Ukraine border, ...

Transnistria
since 1990. Due to a decrease in industrial and agricultural output following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the
service sector The tertiary sector of the economy, generally known as the service sector, is the third of the three economic sector Image:Economic sectors and income.JPG, 250px, This figure illustrates the percentages of a country's economy made up by differen ...
has grown to dominate Moldova's economy and is over 60% of the nation's
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any ...
. It is the second poorest country in Europe by GDP per capita. Although Moldova has a relatively high
Human Development Index The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of , (mean years of schooling completed and expected years of schooling upon entering the education system), and indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers ...
, it is the lowest in the continent, ranking 90th in the world. Moldova is a
parliamentary republicThe Parliamentary Republic can refer to: * A republican form of government with a Parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democracy, democratic government, governance of a sovereign state, state (o ...
with a
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
as
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
and a
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpar ...
as
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred ...
. It is a member state of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
, the
Council of Europe The Council of Europe (CoE; french: Conseil de l'Europe, ) is an international organization, international organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold European Convention on Human Rights, human rights, democracy and the Law in Eu ...

Council of Europe
, the
World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates and facilitates international trade between nations. Governments use the organization to establish, revise, and enforce the rules that govern international ...
(WTO), the
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) or international organization is an organization composed primarily o ...
(OSCE), the
GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development , az, GUAM Demokratiya və İqtisadi İnkişaf naminə Təşkilat , ro, GUAM Organizația pentru Democrație și Dezvoltare Economică , linking_name = GUAM , symbol_type = Logo , image_symbol = GUAM logo.png ...
, the
Commonwealth of Independent States The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; russian: Содружество Независимых Государств, СНГ, translit=Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv, SNG) is a regional intergovernmental organization in Eastern Euro ...

Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS), and the
Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) is a regional international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relations, interna ...
(BSEC).


Etymology

The name ''Moldova'' is derived from the
Moldova River The Moldova is a river in Romania, in the historical regions of Romania, historical region of Moldavia. It is a right tributary of the river Siret (river), Siret.Ovidiu Gabor - , map page 10 The river rises from the Moldavian-Muntenian Carpathian ...
; the valley of this river served as a political centre at the time of the
foundation Foundation may refer to: * Foundation (nonprofit), a type of charitable organization ** Foundation (United States law), a type of charitable organization in the U.S. ** Private foundation, a charitable organization that, while serving a good cause, ...
of the
Principality of Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic: or ) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural Culture () is a ...

Principality of Moldavia
in 1359. The origin of the name of the river remains unclear. According to a legend recounted by Moldavian chroniclers
Dimitrie Cantemir 200px, Dimitrie Cantemir on a Moldovan stamp Dimitrie or Demetrius Cantemir (, russian: Дмитрий Кантемир; 26 October 1673 – 21 August 1723), also known by other spellings Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a ...

Dimitrie Cantemir
and
Grigore Ureche 300px, A page of his "Letopiseț" manuscript Grigore Ureche (; 1590–1647) was a Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic: or ) is a historical region Historical regions (or historica ...
, Prince Dragoș named the river after hunting an
aurochs The aurochs (''Bos primigenius'') ( or ), also known as urus or ure, is an extinct cattle species that was first described in 1827. With a shoulder height of up to in bulls and in cows, it was one of the largest herbivores in Holocene Europe ...

aurochs
: following the chase, the prince's exhausted hound ''Molda (Seva)'' drowned in the river. The dog's name, given to the river, extended to the Principality. For a short time in the 1990s, at the founding of the
Commonwealth of Independent States The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; russian: Содружество Независимых Государств, СНГ, translit=Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv, SNG) is a regional intergovernmental organization in Eastern Euro ...

Commonwealth of Independent States
, the name of the current Republic of Moldova was also spelled ''Moldavia''. After the
dissolution of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal political, e ...
, the country began to use the Romanian name, ''Moldova''. Officially, the name ''Republic of Moldova'' is designated by the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
.


History


Prehistory

The prehistory of Moldova covers the period from the
Upper Paleolithic The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) also called the is the third and last subdivision of the or Old . Very broadly, it dates to between 50,000 and years ago (the beginning of the ), according to some theories coinciding with the ...
which begins with the presence of
Homo sapiens Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread of , characterized by and large, complex brains. This has enabled the development of advanced , , and . Humans are highly social and tend to live in complex s composed of many ...

Homo sapiens
in the area of
Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the ...
some 44,000 years ago and extends into the appearance of the first written records in
Classical Antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ...
in
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2021; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed ...
. In 2010 N.K. Anisjutkin discovered
Oldowan The Oldowan (or Mode I) was a widespread stone tool A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of Rock (geology), stone. Although stone tool-dependent societies and cultures still exist today, ...

Oldowan
flint tools at Bayraki that are 800,000–1.2 million years old. During the Neolithic Stone-Age era, Moldova's territory stood at the centre of the large
Cucuteni–Trypillia culture 300px, Chalcolithic cultures of Southeastern Europe, with major archaeological sites (including typesites) The Cucuteni–Trypillia culture ( and ), also known as the Tripolye culture (), is a Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final divi ...
that stretched east beyond the
Dniester River The Dniester ( ) is a river in Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Western Europe and Asia. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of ...
in Ukraine and west up to and beyond the
Carpathian Mountains The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians () are a range of mountains forming an arc throughout Central and Eastern Europe Central and Eastern Europe is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region ...

Carpathian Mountains
in Romania. The people of this civilization, which lasted roughly from 5500 to 2750 BC, practised agriculture, raised livestock, hunted, and made intricately designed pottery.


Antiquity and the early Middle Ages

Carpian tribes inhabited Moldova's territory in the period of
classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ...
. Between the first and seventh centuries AD, the south came intermittently under the control of the
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...

Roman
and then the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
s. Due to its strategic location on a route between Asia and Europe, the territory of modern Moldova experienced many invasions in late antiquity and the
Early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages ...
, including by
Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi) were a Germanic people who played a major role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of medieval Europe. In his book ''Getica'' (c. 551), ...
,
Huns The Huns were a nomadic people A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral ...

Huns
,
Avars Avar(s) or AVAR may refer to: Peoples and states * Avars (Caucasus), a modern Northeast Caucasian-speaking people in the North Caucasus, Dagestan, Russia **Avar language, the modern Northeast Caucasian language spoken by the Avars of the North Ca ...
,
Bulgarians Bulgarians ( bg, българи, Bǎlgari, ) are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Le ...
,
Magyars Hungarians, also known as Magyars ( ; hu, magyarok ), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország) and Kingdom of Hungary, historical Hungarian lands who share a common Hungarian culture, culture, Hungarian histor ...

Magyars
,
Pechenegs The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a from speaking the which belonged to the branch of the . Ethnonym The Pechenegs were mentioned as ''Bjnak'', ''Bjanak'' or ''Bajanak'' in medieval and texts, as ''Be-ča-nag'' in documents, and as '' ...
,
Cumans The Cumans (or Kumans), also known as Polovtsians or Polovtsy (plural only, from the Russian exonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by ...
,
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") ...
and
Tatars The Tatars (; tt, , , , crh, tatarlar; otk, 𐱃𐱃𐰺, Tatar) is an umbrella term for different Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic groups bearing the name "Tatar". Initially, the ethnonym ''Tatar'' possibly referred to the Tatar confederation ...
. In the 11th century, a
Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In ...

Viking
by the name of Rodfos was possibly killed in the area by the Blakumen who betrayed him. In 1164, the future
Byzantine emperor This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse), Tsargrad ...

Byzantine emperor
Andronikos I Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos ( gr, Ἀνδρόνικος Κομνηνός;  – 12 September 1185), usually Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * L ...

Andronikos I Komnenos
, while attempting to reach the
Principality of Halych Principality of Halych or Kalieshi/Kialioshi (meaning 'The Key of Heavens') ( uk, Галицьке князівство, translit=Halytske kniazivstvo; rus, Галицкое княжество; orv, Галицкоє кънѧжьство; ro, Cn ...
, was taken prisoner by Vlachs, possibly in the area of future Moldova. The East Slavic
Hypatian ChronicleThe Hypatian Codex (also known as Hypatian Letopis, Ipatiev Letopis, Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hie ...
mentions the
Bolohoveni
Bolohoveni
in the 13th century. The chronicle records that this land bordered on the principalities of
Halych Halych ( uk, Га́лич, Halyč ; ro, Halici; pl, Halicz; russian: Га́лич, Galič; german: Halytsch, ''Halitsch'' or ''Galitsch'') is a historic city on the Dniester River The Dniester ( ) is a river in Eastern Europe Eastern Eu ...
,
Volhynia Volhynia (; uk, Волинь, Volyn'; be, Валынь (); pl, Wołyń ), is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe Central and Eastern Europe is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe Central Europe is the central r ...
and
Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also share ...
. Archaeological research has identified the location of 13th-century fortified settlements in this region. Alexandru V. Boldur identified Voscodavie, Voscodavti, Voloscovti, Volcovti, Volosovca and their other towns and villages between the middle course of the rivers Nistru/Dniester and Nipru/Dnieper. The Bolohoveni disappeared from chronicles after their defeat in 1257 by
Daniel of Galicia Daniel of Galicia ( uk, Данило Романович (Галицький): ''Danylo Romanovych (Halytskyi)''; Old Ruthenian: Данило Романовичъ: ''Danylo Romanovyčъ''; pl, Daniel I Romanowicz Halicki; 1201 – 1264) was a K ...
's troops. In the early 13th century, the ''Brodniks'', a possible
Slavic
Slavic
Vlach "Vlach" ( or ), also "Wallachian" (and many other variants), is a historical term and exonym used from the Middle Ages until the Modern Era to designate mainly Romanians but also Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians and other East ...
vassal A vassal or liege subject is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power (social and political), power over others, acting as a master, a chief ...
state of
Halych Halych ( uk, Га́лич, Halyč ; ro, Halici; pl, Halicz; russian: Га́лич, Galič; german: Halytsch, ''Halitsch'' or ''Galitsch'') is a historic city on the Dniester River The Dniester ( ) is a river in Eastern Europe Eastern Eu ...
, were present in much of the region's territory (towards 1216, the Brodniks are mentioned as in service of
Suzdal Suzdal ( rus, Суздаль, p=ˈsuzdəlʲ) is a town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and ...
).


Founding of the Principality of Moldavia

The
Principality of Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic: or ) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural Culture () is a ...
began when a
Vlach "Vlach" ( or ), also "Wallachian" (and many other variants), is a historical term and exonym used from the Middle Ages until the Modern Era to designate mainly Romanians but also Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians and other East ...
voivode Voivode (, also spelled Voievod, Voivoda, Vojvoda or Wojewoda) is a title denoting a "military-leader" or "warlord A warlord is a strong leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a s ...
(military leader), Dragoș, arrived in the region of the
Moldova River The Moldova is a river in Romania, in the historical regions of Romania, historical region of Moldavia. It is a right tributary of the river Siret (river), Siret.Ovidiu Gabor - , map page 10 The river rises from the Moldavian-Muntenian Carpathian ...

Moldova River
. His people from
Maramureș Maramureș ( ro, Maramureș ; uk, Мармарощина, ''Marmaroshchyna''; hu, Máramaros) is a geographical, historical and cultural region in northern and western . It is situated in the northeastern , along parts of the upper drainag ...
soon followed. Dragoș established a polity as a vassal to the Kingdom of Hungary in the 1350s. The independence of the Principality of Moldavia came when Bogdan I of Moldavia, Bogdan I, another Vlach voivode from Maramureș who had fallen out with the Hungarian king, crossed the Carpathian mountains in 1359 and took control of Moldavia, wresting the region from Hungary. The Principality of Moldavia was bounded by the
Carpathian Mountains The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians () are a range of mountains forming an arc throughout Central and Eastern Europe Central and Eastern Europe is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region ...

Carpathian Mountains
in the west, the
Dniester The Dniester ( ) is a river in Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of , geographical, ethnic, cultural, and conn ...
River in the east, and the Danube River and Black Sea to the south. Its territory comprised the present-day territory of the Republic of Moldova, the Western Moldavia, eastern eight counties of Romania, and parts of the Chernivtsi Oblast and Budjak region of present-day Ukraine. Locals referred to the principality as ''Moldova'' - like the present-day republic and Romania's north-eastern region.


Between Poland and Hungary

The history of what is today Moldova has been intertwined with that of Poland for centuries. The Polish chronicler Jan Długosz mentioned Moldavians (under the name ''Wallachians'') as having joined a military expedition in 1342, under King Władysław I the Elbow-high, Ladislaus I, against the Margraviate of Brandenburg. The Polish state was powerful enough to counter the Hungarian Kingdom which was consistently interested in bringing the area that would become Moldova into its political orbit. Ties between Poland and Moldavia expanded after the founding of the Moldavian state by Bogdan I of Moldavia, Bogdan of Cuhea, a Vlach
voivode Voivode (, also spelled Voievod, Voivoda, Vojvoda or Wojewoda) is a title denoting a "military-leader" or "warlord A warlord is a strong leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a s ...
from
Maramureș Maramureș ( ro, Maramureș ; uk, Мармарощина, ''Marmaroshchyna''; hu, Máramaros) is a geographical, historical and cultural region in northern and western . It is situated in the northeastern , along parts of the upper drainag ...
who had fallen out with the Hungarian king. Crossing the Carpathian mountains in 1359, the voivode took control of Moldavia and succeeded in creating Moldavia as an independent political entity. Despite being disfavored by the brief union of History of Poland during the Piast dynasty, Angevin Poland and Hungary (the latter was still the country's overlord), Bogdan's successor Lațcu of Moldavia, Lațcu, the Moldavian ruler also likely allied himself with the Poles. Lațcu also accepted Religious conversion, conversion to Catholic Church, Roman Catholicism around 1370, but his gesture was to remain without consequences.


The Polish influence grows

Petru I of Moldavia, Petru I profited from the end of the Polish-Hungarian union and moved the country closer to the History of Poland during the Jagiellon dynasty, Jagiellon realm, becoming a Vassalage, vassal of king Władysław II Jagiełło, Jogaila of Poland on 26 September 1387. This gesture was to have unexpected consequences: Petru supplied the Polish ruler with funds needed in the war against the Teutonic Knights, and was granted control over Pokuttya until the debt was to be repaid; as this is not recorded to have been carried out, the region became disputed by the two states, until it was lost by Moldavia in the Battle of Obertyn (1531). Prince Petru also expanded his rule southwards to the Danube Delta. His brother Roman I conquered the Hungarian-ruled Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, Cetatea Albă in 1392, giving Moldavia an outlet to the Black Sea, before being toppled from the throne for supporting Fyodor Koriatovych in his conflict with Vytautas the Great of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Lithuania. Under Stephen I of Moldavia, Stephen I, growing Polish influence was challenged by Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, Sigismund of Hungary, whose expedition was defeated at Ghindăoani in 1385; however, Stephen disappeared in mysterious circumstances. Although Alexander I of Moldavia, Alexander I was brought to the throne in 1400 by the Hungarians (with assistance from Mircea I of Wallachia), this ruler shifted his allegiances towards Poland (notably engaging Moldavian forces on the Polish side in the Battle of Grunwald and the Siege of Marienburg (1410), Siege of Marienburg), and placed his own choice of rulers in Wallachia. His reign was one of the most successful in Moldavia's history.


Increasing Ottoman influence

For all of his success, it was under the reign of Alexander I that the first confrontation with the Ottoman Turks took place at Cetatea Albă in 1420. A deep crisis was to follow Alexandrel's long reign, with his successors battling each other in a succession of wars that divided the country until the murder of Bogdan II of Moldavia, Bogdan II and the ascension of Peter III Aaron in 1451. Nevertheless, Moldavia was subject to further Hungarian interventions after that moment, as Matthias Corvinus deposed Aron and backed Alexăndrel to the throne in Suceava. Petru Aron's rule also signified the beginning of Moldavia's
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th a ...
allegiance, as the ruler agreed to pay tribute to Sultan Mehmed II.


The Age of Invasions

During this time, Moldavia was invaded repeatedly by Crimean Tatars and, beginning in the 15th century, by the Turks. In 1538, the principality became a tribute, tributary to the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th a ...
, but it retained internal and partial external autonomy. Nonetheless, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth continued to strongly influence Moldavia both through national politics as well as on the local level through significant intermarriage between Moldavian nobility and the Polish szlachta. When in May 1600, Michael the Brave removed Ieremia Movilă from Moldavia's throne by winning the battle of Bacău, briefly reuniting under his rule Moldavia,
Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia (; ro, Țara Românească, lit=The Romanian Land' or 'The Romanian Country, ; : ', : ) is a and geographical region of . It is situated north of the and south of the . Wallachia is traditionally divided into two sections ...
, and Transylvania, a Polish army led by Jan Zamoyski drove the Wallachians from Moldavia. Zamoyski reinstalled Ieremia Movilă to the throne, who put the country under the vassalage of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Moldavia finally returned to Ottoman vassalage in 1621.


Transnistria

While the region of Transnistria (geographical region), Transnistria was never politically part of the Principality of Moldavia, there were sizable areas which were owned by Moldavian boyars or the Moldavian rulers. The earliest surviving deeds referring to lands beyond the Dniester river date from the 16th century. Moldavian chronicle
Grigore Ureche 300px, A page of his "Letopiseț" manuscript Grigore Ureche (; 1590–1647) was a Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic: or ) is a historical region Historical regions (or historica ...
mentions that in 1584 some Moldavian villages from beyond the Dniester in the Kingdom of Poland were attacked and plundered by Cossacks. Many Moldavians were members of Cossacks units, with two of them, Ioan Potcoavă and Danylo Apostol, Dănilă Apostol becoming hetmans of Ukraine. Ruxandra Lupu, the daughter of Moldavian voivode Vasile Lupu who married Tymish Khmelnytsky, lived in Rașcov according to Ukrainian tradition. While most of today's Moldova came into the Ottoman orbit in the 16th century, a substantial part of Transnistria remained a part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until the Second Partition of Poland in 1793.


The Russian Empire

In accordance with the Treaty of Bucharest, 1812, Treaty of Bucharest of 1812, and despite numerous protests by Moldavian nobles on behalf of the sovereignty of their principality, the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th a ...
(of which Moldavia was a Vassal state, vassal) ceded to the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical that extended across and from 1721, succeeding the following the that ended the . The Empire lasted until the was proclaimed by the that took power after the ...
the Bessarabia, eastern half of the territory of the Principality of Moldavia along with Khotyn and old Bessarabia (modern Budjak), which Russia had already conquered and annexed. The new Russian province was called Bessarabia Governorate, Oblast of Moldavia and Bessarabia, and initially enjoyed a large degree of autonomy. After 1828 this autonomy was progressively restricted and in 1871 the Oblast was transformed into the Bessarabia Governorate, in a process of Forced assimilation, state-imposed assimilation, Russification. As part of this process, the Tsarist administration in Bessarabia gradually removed the Romanian language from official and religious use.


Union with Romania and the return of the Russians

The Treaty of Paris (1856) returned the Southern Bessarabia, southern part of Bessarabia (later organised as the Cahul County, Cahul, Bolgrad and Ismail counties) to Moldavia, which remained an autonomous principality and, in 1859, Unification of Moldavia and Wallachia, united with
Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia (; ro, Țara Românească, lit=The Romanian Land' or 'The Romanian Country, ; : ', : ) is a and geographical region of . It is situated north of the and south of the . Wallachia is traditionally divided into two sections ...
to form
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...
. In 1878, as a result of the Treaty of Berlin (1878), Treaty of Berlin, Romania was forced to cede the three counties back to the Russian Empire.


A multiethnic colonization

Over the 19th century, the Russian authorities encouraged the colonization of Bessarabia or parts of it by Romanians (Budjak), Russians in Moldova, Russians, Ukrainians, Bessarabian Germans, Germans, Bessarabian Bulgarians, Bulgarians, Poles in Moldova, Poles, and Gagauzes, primarily in the northern and southern areas vacated by Turks and Nogais, Nogai Tatars, Tatar, the latter having been expelled in the 1770s and 1780s, during the Russo-Turkish Wars; the inclusion of the province in the Pale of Settlement also allowed the immigration of more Bessarabian Jews, Jews. The Romanian proportion of the population decreased from an estimated 86% in 1816, to around 52% in 1905. During this time there were anti-Semitic riots, leading to an exodus of thousands of Jews to the United States.


The Russian Revolution and Greater Romania

World War I brought in a rise in political and cultural (ethnic) awareness among the inhabitants of the region, as 300,000 Bessarabians were drafted into the Red Army, Russian Army formed in 1917; within bigger units several "Moldavian Soldiers' Committees" were formed. Following the Russian Revolution (1917), Russian Revolution of 1917, a Bessarabian parliament, Sfatul Țării (a National Council), was 1917 Sfatul Țării election, elected in October–November 1917 and opened on . The Sfatul Țării proclaimed the
Moldavian Democratic Republic The Moldavian Democratic Republic ( ro, Republica Democratică Moldovenească), also known as the Moldavian Republic, was a state proclaimed on by the '' Sfatul Țării'' (National Council) of Bessarabia, elected in October–November 1917 ...
() within a federal Russian state, and formed a Pantelimon Erhan Cabinet, government (). After the Romanian army Romanian military intervention in Bessarabia, occupied the region in early January at the request of the National Council, Bessarabia proclaimed independence from Russia on and requested the assistance of the French army present in Romania (general Henri Mathias Berthelot, Henri Berthelot) and of the Romanian Army. On , the Sfatul Țării decided with 86 votes for, 3 against and 36 abstaining, to Union of Bessarabia with Romania, unite with the Kingdom of Romania. The union was conditional upon fulfilment of the Land reform in Romania, 1921, agrarian reform, autonomy, and respect for universal human rights. A part of the interim Parliament agreed to drop these conditions after Bukovina and Transylvania also joined the Kingdom of Romania, although historians note that they lacked the quorum to do so. This union was recognized by most of the principal Allies of World War I, Allied Powers in the Treaty of Paris (1920), 1920 Treaty of Paris, which however was not ratified by all of its signatories. The RSFSR, newly Soviet Russia did not recognize Romanian rule over Bessarabia, considering it an occupation of Russian territory. Uprisings against Romanian rule took place in 1919 at Khotyn Uprising, Khotyn and Bender Uprising, Bender, but were eventually suppressed by the Romanian Army. In May 1919, the Bessarabian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed as a government in exile. After the failure of the Tatarbunary Uprising in 1924, the Moldavian Autonomous Region, created earlier in the Transnistria region, was elevated to an Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Ukrainian SSR.


World War II and Soviet era


Annexation by the USSR

In August 1939, the
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact , long_name = , image = Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H27337, Moskau, Stalin und Ribbentrop im Kreml.jpg , image_width = 200 , caption = Joseph Stalin, Stalin and Joachim von Ribbentrop, Ribbentrop shaking hands after the signing of the pact in the Mos ...
and its secret additional protocol were signed, by which Nazi Germany recognized Bessarabia as being within the Soviet sphere of influence, which led the latter to actively revive its claim to the region. On 28 June 1940, the Soviet Union issued an Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, ultimatum to Romania requesting the cession of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, with which Romania complied the following day. Soon after, the
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic ( mo, Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ) was one of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ...
(Moldavian SSR, MSSR) was established, comprising about 65% of Bessarabia, and 50% of the now-disbanded Moldavian ASSR (the present-day
Transnistria Transnistria, officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR), is an List of states with limited recognition, unrecognised breakaway state located in the narrow strip of land between the river Dniester and the Moldova–Ukraine border, ...

Transnistria
). Ethnic Germans Heim ins Reich, left in 1940.


Reincorporation into Romania, the Holocaust, and the Soviet occupation

As part of the 1941 Operation Barbarossa, Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, Romania regained the territories of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, and seized a territory which became known as Transnistria Governorate. Romanian forces, working with the Germans, Ion Antonescu#Antonescu and the Holocaust, deported or massacred about 300,000 Jews, including 147,000 from Bessarabia and Bukovina. Of the latter, approximately 90,000 died. Between 1941 and 1944 Moldovan resistance during World War II, partisan detachments acted against the Romanian administration. The Soviet Army re-captured the region in February–August 1944, and re-established the Moldavian SSR. Between the end of the Second Jassy–Kishinev Offensive in August 1944 and the end of the war in May 1945, 256,800 inhabitants of the Moldavian SSR were drafted into the Soviet Army. 40,592 of them perished. During the periods 1940–1941 and 1944–1953, Soviet deportations from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, deportations of locals to the northern Ural Mountains, Urals, to Siberia, and northern Kazakhstan occurred regularly, with the largest ones on 12–13 June 1941, and 5–6 July 1949, accounting from MSSR alone for 18,392 and 35,796 deportees respectively. Other forms of Soviet persecution of the population included political arrests or, in 8,360 cases, execution.


Moldova in the USSR after World War II

In 1946, as a result of a severe drought and excessive delivery quota obligations and requisitions imposed by the Soviet government, the southwestern part of the USSR suffered from a major Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union, famine. In 1946–1947, at least 216,000 deaths and about 350,000 cases of dystrophy were accounted by historians in the Moldavian SSR alone. Similar events occurred in the 1930s in the Moldavian ASSR. In 1944–53, there were several anti-Soviet resistance groups in Moldova; however the NKVD and later Ministry for State Security (USSR), MGB managed to eventually arrest, execute or deport their members. In the postwar period, the Soviet government organized the immigration of working age Russian speakers (mostly Russians, Belarusians, and Ukrainians), into the new Soviet republic, especially into urbanized areas, partly to compensate for the demographic loss caused by the war and the emigration of 1940 and 1944. In the 1970s and 1980s, the Moldavian SSR received substantial allocations from the budget of the USSR to develop industrial and scientific facilities and housing. In 1971, the Council of Ministers (Soviet Union), Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a decision "About the measures for further development of the city of Chișinău, Kishinev" (modern Chișinău), that allotted more than one billion Soviet rubles (approximately 6.8 billion in 2018 US dollars) from the USSR budget for building projects. The Soviet government conducted a campaign to promote a Moldovan ethnic identity distinct from that of the Romanians, based on a theory developed during the existence of the Moldavian ASSR. Official Soviet policy asserted that the language spoken by Moldovans was distinct from the Romanian language (see Moldovenism). To distinguish the two, during the Soviet period, Moldovan was written in the Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet, Cyrillic alphabet, in contrast with Romanian, which since 1860 had been written in the Latin alphabet. All independent organizations were severely reprimanded, with the National Patriotic Front (Moldova), National Patriotic Front leaders being sentenced in 1972 to long prison terms. The Commission for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Moldova is assessing the activity of the communist totalitarian regime.


Glasnost and Perestroika

In the 1980s, amid political conditions created by the glasnost and perestroika, a Democratic Movement of Moldova was formed, which in 1989 became known as the nationalist Popular Front of Moldova (FPM). Horia C. Matei, "State lumii. Enciclopedie de istorie." Meronia, București, 2006, p. 292-294 Along with several other Soviet republics, from 1988 onwards, Moldova started to move towards Independence of Moldova, independence. On 27 August 1989, the FPM organized a mass demonstration in Chișinău that became known as the Grand National Assembly, Chișinău 1989, Grand National Assembly. The assembly pressured the authorities of the Moldavian SSR to adopt a language law on 31 August 1989 that proclaimed the Moldovan language written in the Latin script to be the state language of the MSSR. Its identity with the Romanian language was also established. In 1989, as opposition to the Communist Party of Moldova, Communist Party grew, there were 1989 Moldovan civil unrest, major riots in November.


Independence and aftermath

The 1990 Moldovan parliamentary election, first democratic elections for the local Moldovan Parliament, parliament were held in February and March 1990. Mircea Snegur was elected as Speaker of the Moldovan Parliament, Speaker of the Parliament, and Mircea Druc as Prime Minister. On 23 June 1990, the Parliament adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty of the "Soviet Socialist Republic Moldova", which, among other things, stipulated the supremacy of Moldovan laws over those of the Soviet Union. After the failure of the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, Declaration of Independence of Moldova, Moldova declared its independence on 27 August 1991. On 21 December of the same year, Moldova, along with most of the other Soviet republics, signed the constitutive act that formed the post-Soviet
Commonwealth of Independent States The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; russian: Содружество Независимых Государств, СНГ, translit=Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv, SNG) is a regional intergovernmental organization in Eastern Euro ...

Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS). Moldova received official recognition on 25 December. On 26 December 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist. Declaring itself a neutral state, Moldova did not join the military branch of the CIS. Three months later, on 2 March 1992, the country gained formal recognition as an independent state at the United Nations. In 1994, Moldova became a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace program, and a member of the Council of Europe on 29 June 1995.


Transnistria breaks away (1990 to present)

In the region east of the
Dniester The Dniester ( ) is a river in Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of , geographical, ethnic, cultural, and conn ...
river,
Transnistria Transnistria, officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR), is an List of states with limited recognition, unrecognised breakaway state located in the narrow strip of land between the river Dniester and the Moldova–Ukraine border, ...

Transnistria
, which includes a large proportion of predominantly russophone East Slavs of Ukrainian (28%) and Russian (26%) descent (altogether 54% as of 1989), an independent Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed on 16 August 1990, with its capital in Tiraspol. The motives behind this move were fear of the rise of nationalism in Moldova. In the winter of 1991–1992 clashes occurred between Transnistrian forces, 14th Army involvement in Transnistria, supported by elements of the 14th Army, and the Law enforcement in Moldova, Moldovan police. Between 2 March and 26 July 1992, the conflict escalated into a War of Transnistria, military engagement. It was a brief war between Moldovan and separatist Transnistrian forces, with Russia intervening militarily on Transnistria's side. It ended with a ceasefire and the establishment of a security zone policed by a three-way peacekeeping force of Russian, Transnistrian, and Moldovan personnel.


Market economy (1992)

On 2 January 1992, Moldova introduced a market economy, liberalizing prices, which resulted in rapid inflation. From 1992 to 2001, the country suffered a serious economic crisis, leaving most of the population below the poverty line. In 1993, the Government of Moldova introduced a new national currency, the Moldovan leu, to replace the Moldovan cupon, temporary cupon. The economy of Moldova began to change in 2001; and until 2008 the country saw a steady annual growth between 5% and 10%. The early 2000s also saw a considerable growth of emigration of Moldovans looking for work (mostly illegally) in Russia (especially the Moscow region), Italy, Portugal, Spain, and other countries; remittances from Moldovans abroad account for almost 38% of Moldova's GDP, the second-highest percentage in the world, after Tajikistan (45%).


Elections: 1994-2010

In the 1994 Moldovan parliamentary election, 1994 parliamentary elections, the Democratic Agrarian Party of Moldova, Democratic Agrarian Party gained a majority of the seats, setting a turning point in Moldovan politics. With the nationalist Popular Front now in a parliamentary minority, new measures aiming to moderate the ethnic tensions in the country could be adopted. Plans for a Movement for the unification of Romania and Moldova, union with Romania were abandoned, and the new Constitution of Moldova (1994), Constitution gave autonomy to the breakaway Transnistria and Gagauzia. On 23 December 1994, the Parliament of Moldova adopted a "Law on the Special Legal Status of Gagauzia", and in 1995 the latter was constituted. After winning the 1996 Moldovan presidential election, 1996 presidential elections, on 15 January 1997, Petru Lucinschi, the former First Secretary of the Communist Party of Moldova, Moldavian Communist Party in 1989–91, became the country's second president (1997–2001), succeeding Mircea Snegur (1991–1996). In 2000, the Constitution was amended, transforming Moldova into a
parliamentary republicThe Parliamentary Republic can refer to: * A republican form of government with a Parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democracy, democratic government, governance of a sovereign state, state (o ...
, with the president being chosen through indirect election rather than direct popular vote. 2001 Moldovan parliamentary election, Winning 49.9% of the vote, the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (reinstituted in 1993 after being outlawed in 1991), gained 71 of the 101 MPs, and on 4 April 2001, elected Vladimir Voronin as the country's third president (re-elected in 2005). The country became the first post-Soviet state where a non-reformed Communist Party returned to power. New governments were formed by Vasile Tarlev (19 April 2001 – 31 March 2008), and Zinaida Greceanîi (31 March 2008 – 14 September 2009). In 2001–2003 Moldova–Russia relations, relations between Moldova and Russia improved, but then temporarily deteriorated in 2003–2006, in the wake of the failure of the Kozak memorandum, culminating in the 2006 Russian ban of Moldovan and Georgian wines, 2006 wine exports crisis. The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova managed to stay in power for eight years. In the April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election, April 2009 parliamentary elections, the Communist Party won 49.48% of the votes, followed by the Liberal Party (Moldova), Liberal Party with 13.14% of the votes, the Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova, Liberal Democratic Party with 12.43%, and the Party Alliance Our Moldova, Alliance "Moldova Noastră" with 9.77%. The controversial results of this election sparked the April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election protests. In August 2009, four Moldovan parties (Liberal Democratic Party, Liberal Party, Democratic Party of Moldova, Democratic Party, and Our Moldova Alliance) agreed to create the Alliance For European Integration that pushed the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova into opposition. On 28 August 2009, this coalition chose a new Speaker of the Moldovan Parliament, parliament speaker (Mihai Ghimpu) in a vote that was boycotted by Communist legislators. Vladimir Voronin, who had been President of Moldova since 2001, eventually resigned on 11 September 2009, but the Moldovan presidential election, November–December 2009, Parliament failed to elect a new president. The acting president Mihai Ghimpu instituted the Commission for constitutional reform in Moldova to adopt a new version of the Constitution of Moldova. After the 2010 Moldovan constitutional referendum, constitutional referendum aimed to approve the reform failed in September 2010, the parliament was dissolved again and a 2010 Moldovan parliamentary election, new parliamentary election was scheduled for 28 November 2010. On 30 December 2010, Marian Lupu was elected as the Speaker of the Parliament and the acting President of Republic of Moldova. After the Alliance for European Integration lost a no confidence vote, the Pro-European Coalition was formed on 30 May 2013.


Banking crisis

In November 2014, Moldova's central bank took control of ''Banca de Economii'', the country's largest lender, and two smaller institutions, ''Banca Sociala'' and ''Unibank''. Investigations into activities at these three banks uncovered 2014 Moldovan bank fraud scandal, large-scale fraud by means of fraudulent loans to business entities controlled by a Moldovan-Israeli business oligarch, Ilan Shor, of funds worth about 1 billion U.S. dollars. The large scale of the fraud compared to the size of the Moldovan economy are cited as tilting the country's politics in favour of the pro-Russian Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova. In 2015, Shor was still at large, after a period of house arrest.


Pavel Filip's government (2016)

Following a period of political instability and massive public protests, a new Government led by Pavel Filip was invested in January 2016. Concerns over statewide corruption, the independence of the judiciary system, and the intransparency of the banking system, were expressed. Germany's broadcaster Deutsche Welle also raised concerns over the alleged influence of Moldovan oligarch Vladimir Plahotniuc over the Filip government. In the 2016 Moldovan presidential election, December 2016 presidential election, Socialist, pro-Russian Igor Dodon was elected as the new president of the republic.


2019 constitutional crisis

In 2019, from 7 June to 15 June, the Moldovan government went through a period of dual power in what is known as the 2019 Moldovan constitutional crisis. On 7 June, the Constitutional Court, which is largely believed to be controlled by Vladimir Plahotniuc from the Democratic Party of Moldova, Democratic Party, announced that they have temporarily removed the sitting president, Igor Dodon, from power due to his ‘inability’ to call new parliamentary elections as the parliament did not form a coalition within 3 months of the validation of the election results. According to Moldovan constitutional law, the president may call snap elections if no government is formed after 3 months. However, on 8 June, the NOW Platform DA and PAS reached an agreement with the Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova, Socialist party forming a government led by Maia Sandu as the new prime minister, pushing the Democratic Party out of power. This new government was also supported by Igor Dodon. The new coalition and Igor Dodon argued that the president may call snap elections after consulting the parliament but is not obligated. Additionally, because the election results were verified on 9 March, 3 months should be interpreted as 3 calendar months, not 90 days as was the case. The former prime minister, Pavel Filip from the Democratic Party, said that new parliamentary elections will be held on 6 September and refused to recognize the new coalition, calling it an illegal government. After a week of dual government meetings, some protest, and the international community mostly supporting the new government coalition, Pavel Filip stepped down as prime minister but still called for new elections. The Constitutional court repealed the decision on 15 June effectively ending the crisis.


COVID-19 pandemic

In March 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the government called a "national red code alert" as the number of coronavirus cases in the country rose to six on 13 March 2020. Government "banned all gatherings of over 50 people until 1 April 2020 and closed all schools and kindergartens in an attempt to curb the spread of the virus". Flights were banned to Spain, Italy, France, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Germany, Ireland, the U.K., Poland, Portugal and Romania. On 17 March, Parliament declared a state of emergency for at least 60 days, suspended all international flights and closed borders with neighbours Romania and Ukraine. Moldova reported 29 cases of the disease on 17 March 2020. The country reported its first death from the disease on 18 March 2020, when the total number of cases reached 30.


Presidency of Maia Sandu since 2020

In the 2020 Moldovan presidential election, November 2020 presidential election, the pro-European opposition candidate Maia Sandu was elected as the new president of the republic, defeating incumbent pro-Russian president Igor Dodon and thus becoming the first female elected president of Moldova. In December 2020, Prime Minister Ion Chicu, who had led a pro-Russian government since November 2019, resigned a day before Sandu was sworn in. The parliament, dominated by pro-Russian Socialists, did not accept any Prime Minister candidate proposed by the new president. On 28 April 2021, Sandu dissolved the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova as the Constitutional Court of Moldova, Constitutional Court ruled it valid. Parliamentary elections 2021 Moldovan parliamentary election, took place on 11 July 2021. The snap parliamentary elections resulted into a landslide win for the pro-European Party of Action and Solidarity. On 6 August 2021, the Natalia Gavrilița-led Gavrilița Cabinet, cabinet was sworn in to office with 61 votes, all from the Party of Action and Solidarity.


Government

Moldova is a unitary state, unitary parliamentary system, parliamentary representative democracy, representative democratic republic. The 1994 Constitution of Moldova sets the framework for the government of the country. A parliamentary majority of at least two-thirds is required to amend the Constitution of Moldova, which cannot be revised in time of war or national emergency. Amendments to the Constitution affecting the state's sovereignty, independence, or unity can only be made after a majority of voters support the proposal in a referendum. Furthermore, no revision can be made to limit the fundamental rights of people enumerated in the Constitution.The country's central legislative body is the unicameral Moldovan Parliament ('), which has 101 seats, and whose members are elected by popular vote on proportional representation, party lists every four years. The head of state is the President of Moldova, who between 2001 and 2015 was elected by the Moldovan Parliament, requiring the support of three-fifths of the deputies (at least 61 votes). The president of Moldova has been elected by the parliament since 2001, a change designed to decrease executive authority in favour of the legislature. Nevertheless, the Constitutional Court of Moldova, Constitutional Court ruled on 4 March 2016, that this constitutional change adopted in 2000 regarding the presidential election was unconstitutional, thus reverting the election method of the President to a two-round system direct election. The president appoints a
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpar ...
who functions as the
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred ...
, and who in turn assembles a Cabinet of Moldova, cabinet, both subject to parliamentary approval. The 1994 constitution also establishes an Judicial independence, independent Constitutional Court of Moldova, Constitutional Court, composed of six judges (two appointed by the President, two by Parliament, and two by the Supreme Council of magistrate, Magistrature), serving six-year terms, during which they are irremovable and not subordinate to any power. The Court is invested with the power of judicial review over all acts of the parliament, over presidential decrees, and over international treaties, signed by the country.


Internal affairs

On 19 December 2016, Moldovan MPs approved raising the retirement age to 63 years from the current level of 57 for women and 62 for men, a reform that is part of a 3-year-old assistance program agreed with the International Monetary Fund. The retirement age will be lifted gradually by a few months every year until it is fully in effect in 2028. Life expectancy in the ex-Soviet country (which is among Europe's poorest) is 67.5 years for men and 75.5 years for women. In a country with a population of 3.5 million, of which 1 million are abroad, there are more than 700,000 pensioners.


Foreign relations

After achieving independence from the Soviet Union, Moldova's foreign policy was designed with a view to establishing relations with other European countries, neutrality, and European Union integration. In 1995 the country was admitted to the
Council of Europe The Council of Europe (CoE; french: Conseil de l'Europe, ) is an international organization, international organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold European Convention on Human Rights, human rights, democracy and the Law in Eu ...

Council of Europe
. In addition to its participation in NATO's Partnership for Peace programme, Moldova is also a member state of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, the
World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates and facilitates international trade between nations. Governments use the organization to establish, revise, and enforce the rules that govern international ...
, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Francophonie and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In 2005, Moldova and the EU established an action plan that sought to improve collaboration between its two neighbouring countries, Romania and Ukraine. At the end of 2005 EUBAM, the European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine, was established at the joint request of the presidents of Moldova and Ukraine. EUBAM assists the Moldovan and Ukrainian governments in approximating their border and customs procedures to EU standards and offers support in both countries' fight against cross-border crime. After the 1990–1992 War of Transnistria, Moldova sought a peaceful resolution to the conflict in the Transnistria region by working with Romania, Ukraine, and Russia, calling for international mediation, and co-operating with the OSCE and UN fact-finding and observer missions. The foreign minister of Moldova, Andrei Stratan, repeatedly stated that the Russian troops stationed in the breakaway region were there against the will of the Moldovan government and called on them to leave "completely and unconditionally". In 2012, a 2012 Moldova security zone incident, security zone incident resulted in the death of a civilian, raising tensions with Russia. In September 2010, the European Parliament approved a grant of €90 million to Moldova. The money was to supplement US$570 million in International Monetary Fund loans, World Bank and other bilateral support already granted to Moldova. In April 2010, Romania offered Moldova development aid worth of €100 million while the number of scholarships for Moldovan students doubled to 5,000. According to a lending agreement signed in February 2010, Poland provided US$15 million as a component of its support for Moldova in its European integration efforts. The first joint meeting of the Governments of Romania and Moldova, held in March 2012, concluded with several bilateral agreements in various fields. The European orientation "has been the policy of Moldova in recent years and this is the policy that must continue," Nicolae Timofti told lawmakers before Moldovan presidential election, 2011–2012, his election. On 29 November 2013, at a summit in Vilnius, Moldova signed an European Union Association Agreement, association agreement with the European Union dedicated to the European Union's 'Eastern Partnership' with ex-Soviet countries. The ex-Romanian President Traian Băsescu stated that Romania will make all efforts for Moldova to join the EU as soon as possible. Likewise, Traian Băsescu declared that the unification of Moldova with Romania is the next national project for Romania, as more than 75% of the population speaks Romanian. Moldova has signed the Association Agreement with the European Union in Brussels on 27 June 2014. The signing comes after the accord has been initialed in Vilnius in November 2013. It can be said that religious leaders play a role in shaping foreign policy. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russian Government has frequently used its connections with the Russian Orthodox Church to block and stymie the integration of former Soviet states like Moldova into the West.


Military

The Moldovan armed forces consists of the Moldovan Ground Forces, Ground Forces and Moldovan Air Force, Air Force. Moldova has accepted all relevant arms control obligations of the former Soviet Union. On 30 October 1992, Moldova ratified the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, which establishes comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment and provides for the destruction of weapons in excess of those limits. The country acceded to the provisions of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in October 1994 in Washington, D.C. It does not have nuclear, biological, chemical or radiological weapons. Moldova joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's Partnership for Peace on 16 March 1994. Moldova is committed to a number of international and regional control of arms regulations such as the UN Firearms Protocol, Stability Pact Regional Implementation Plan, the UN Programme of Action (PoA) and the OSCE Documents on Stockpiles of Conventional Ammunition. Since declaring independence in 1991, Moldova has participated in UN peacekeeping missions in Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Sudan and Georgia. Moldova signed a military agreement with Romania to strengthen regional security. The agreement is part of Moldova's strategy to reform its military and cooperate with its neighbours. On 12 November 2014, the US donated to Moldovan Armed Forces 39 Humvees and 10 trailers, with a value of US$700,000, to the 22nd Peacekeeping Battalion of the Moldovan National Army to "increase the capability of Moldovan peacekeeping contingents."


Human rights

According to Amnesty International, as of 2004 "Torture and other ill-treatment in police detention remained widespread; the state failed to carry out prompt and impartial investigations and police officers sometimes evaded penalties. Political dissidents from Ilașcu Group were released from arbitrary detention in the break-away Transdinester region only after an order of the European Court of Human Rights." In 2009, when Moldova experienced its most April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election protests, serious civil unrest in a decade, several civilians, including Valeriu Boboc, were killed and many more injured. According to United States' Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, Human Rights Report of the United States Department of State, released in April 2011, "In contrast to the previous year, there were no reports of killings by security forces. During the year reports of government exercising undue influence over the media substantially decreased." But "Transnistrian authorities continued to harass independent media and opposition lawmakers; restrict freedom of association, movement, and religion; and discriminate against Romanian speakers." Moldova "has made noteworthy progress on religious freedom since the era of the Soviet Union, but it can still take further steps to foster diversity," said the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief, UN Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief Heiner Bielefeldt, in Chișinău, in September 2011. Moldova improved its legislation by enacting the ''Law on Preventing and Combating Family Violence'', in 2008.


Administrative divisions

Moldova is divided into 32 districts (''raioane'', singular ''raion''), three municipalities and two autonomous territorial unit, autonomous regions (Gagauzia and the Administrative-Territorial Units of the Left Bank of the Dniester, Left Bank of the Dniester). The final status of Transnistria is Disputed status of Transnistria, disputed, as the central government does not control that territory. 10 other cities, including Comrat and Tiraspol, the administrative seats of the two autonomous territories, also have municipiu, municipality status. Moldova has 66 cities (towns), including 13 with municipality status, and 916 communes. Another 700 villages are too small to have a separate administration and are administratively part of either cities (41 of them) or communes (659). This makes for a total of 1,682 localities in Moldova, two of which are uninhabited. The largest city in Moldova is Chișinău with a population of 635,994 people.


Geography

Moldova lies between latitudes 45th parallel north, 45° and 49th parallel north, 49° N, and mostly between meridians 26th meridian east, 26° and 30th meridian east, 30° E (a small area lies east of 30°). The total land area is The largest part of the country (around 88% of the area) lies in
Bessarabia Bessarabia (; gag, Besarabiya; ro, Basarabia; russian: Бессарабия, ''Bessarabiya''; tr, Besarabya; uk, Бессара́бія'', Bessarabiya''; bg, Бесарабия, ''Besarabiya'') is a historical region Historical regions (or ...

Bessarabia
region, between Prut and
Dniester The Dniester ( ) is a river in Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of , geographical, ethnic, cultural, and conn ...
rivers, while a narrow strip in the east is located in Transnistria (region), Transnistria (east of the Dniester). The western border of Moldova is formed by the Prut river, which joins the Danube before flowing into the Black Sea. Moldova has access to the Danube for only about , and Giurgiulești is the only Moldovan port on the Danube. In the east, the Dniester is the main river, flowing through the country from north to south, receiving the waters of Răut, Bîc, Ichel, Botna. Ialpug flows into one of the Danube Liman (landform), limans, while Cogâlnic into the Black Sea chain of limans. The country is landlocked, though it is close to the Black Sea; at its closest point it is separated from the Dniester Liman, an estuary of the Black Sea, by only 3 km of Ukrainian territory. While most of the country is hilly, elevations never exceed – the highest point being the Dealul Bălănești, Bălănești Hill. Moldova's hills are part of the Moldavian Plateau, which geologically originate from the
Carpathian Mountains The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians () are a range of mountains forming an arc throughout Central and Eastern Europe Central and Eastern Europe is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region ...

Carpathian Mountains
. Its subdivisions in Moldova include the Dniester Hills (Northern Moldavian Hills and Dniester-Rāut Ridge, Dniester Ridge), the Moldavian Plain (Middle Prut Valley and Bălți Steppe), and the Central Moldavian Plateau (Ciuluc-Soloneț Hills, Cornești Hills—Codri Massive, "Codri" meaning "forests"—Lower Dniester Hills, Lower Prut Valley, and Tigheci Hills). In the south, the country has a small flatland, the Bugeac Plain. The territory of Moldova east of the river Dniester is split between parts of the Podolian Plateau, and parts of the Eurasian Steppe. The country's main cities are the capital Chișinău, in the centre of the country, Tiraspol (in the eastern region of Transnistria), Bălți (in the north) and Bender (in the south-east). Comrat is the administrative centre of Gagauzia.


Climate

Moldova has a climate which is moderately continental; its proximity to the Black Sea leads to the climate being mildly cold in the autumn and winter and relatively cool in the spring and summer. The summers are warm and long, with temperatures averaging about and the winters are relatively mild and dry, with January temperatures averaging . Annual rainfall, which ranges from around in the north to in the south, can vary greatly; long dry spells are not unusual. The heaviest rainfall occurs in early summer and again in October; heavy showers and thunderstorms are common. Because of the irregular terrain, heavy summer rains often cause erosion and river silting. The highest temperature ever recorded in Moldova was on 21 July 2007 in Camenca. The lowest temperature ever recorded was on 20 January 1963 in Brătușeni, Edineț county.


Biodiversity

Phytogeography, Phytogeographically, Moldova is split between the East European Plain and the Pontic–Caspian steppe of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. It is home to three terrestrial ecoregions: Central European mixed forests, East European forest steppe, and Pontic steppe. Forests currently cover only 11% of Moldova, though the state is making efforts to increase their range. It had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 2.2/10, ranking it 158th globally out of 172 countries. Game animals, such as red deer, roe deer and wild boar can be found in these wooded areas. The environment of Moldova suffered extreme degradation during the Soviet period, when industrial and agricultural development proceeded without regard for environmental protection. Excessive use of pesticides resulted in heavily polluted topsoil, and industries lacked emission controls. Founded in 1990, the Ecological Movement of Moldova, a national, non-governmental, nonprofit organization which is a member of the International Union for Conservation of Nature has been working to restore the damage to Moldova's natural environment. The movement is national representative of the Center "Naturopa" of the
Council of Europe The Council of Europe (CoE; french: Conseil de l'Europe, ) is an international organization, international organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold European Convention on Human Rights, human rights, democracy and the Law in Eu ...

Council of Europe
and United Nations Environment Programme of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
. Once possessing a range from the British Isles through Central Asia over the Bering Strait into Alaska and Canada's Yukon as well as the Northwest Territories, Saiga antelope, saigas survived in Moldova and Romania into the late 18th century. Deforestation, demographic pressure, as well as excessive hunting eradicated the native saiga herds which is Critically endangered, currently threatened with extinction. They were considered a characteristic animal of Scythia in antiquity. Historian Strabo referred to the saigas as the ''kolos'', describing it as "between the deer and ram in size" which (understandably but wrongly) was believed to drink through its nose. Another animal which was extinct in Moldova since the 18th century until recently was the wisent. The species was reintroduced with the arrival of three European bison from Białowieża Forest in Poland several days before Independence Day of the Republic of Moldova, Moldova's Independence Day on 27 August 2005. Moldova is currently interested in expanding their wisent population, and began talks with Belarus in 2019 regarding a bison exchange program between the two countries.


Economy

After the breakup from the USSR in 1991, energy shortages, political uncertainty, trade obstacles and weak administrative capacity contributed to the decline of economy. As a part of an ambitious economic liberalization effort, Moldova introduced a convertible currency, liberalized all prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises, backed steady land privatization, removed export controls, and liberalized interest rates. The government entered into agreements with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to promote growth. The economy subsequently declined from 1991 to 1999. Since 2000 the GDP (PPP) has had a steady growth as follows: Although estimates point to possible modest overvaluation of the real exchange rate, external competitiveness appears broadly adequate as reflected in strong sustained export performance. However, the near-term economic outlook is weak. Main risks to the near-term outlook relate to serious vulnerabilities and governance issues in the banking sector, policy slippages in the run up to the elections, intensification of geopolitical tensions in the region, and a further slowdown in activity in main trading partners. Moldova remains highly vulnerable to fluctuations in remittances from workers abroad (24 percent of GDP), exports to the
Commonwealth of Independent States The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; russian: Содружество Независимых Государств, СНГ, translit=Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv, SNG) is a regional intergovernmental organization in Eastern Euro ...

Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) and European Union (EU) (88 per cent of total exports), and donor support (about 10 per cent of government spending). The main transmission channels through which adverse exogenous shocks could impact the Moldovan economy are remittances (also due to potentially returning migrants), external trade, and capital flows. Moldova largely achieved the main objectives of the combined ECF/EFF (IMF financial credit) supported program. The economy recovered from the drought-related contraction in 2012. The gross average monthly salary in the Republic of Moldova has registered a steady positive growth after 1999, being 5906 lei or 298 euros in 2018. Corporate governance in the banking sector is a major concern. In line with FSAP recommendations, significant weaknesses in the legal and regulatory frameworks must be urgently addressed to ensure stability and soundness of the financial sector. Moldova has achieved a substantial degree of fiscal consolidation in recent years, but this trend is now reversing. Resisting pre-election pressures for selective spending increases and returning to the path of fiscal consolidation would reduce reliance on exceptionally high donor support. Structural fiscal reforms would help safeguard sustainability. Monetary policy has been successful in maintaining inflation within the NBM's target range. The implementation of structural reforms outlined in the National Development Strategy (NDS) Moldova 2020—especially in the business environment, physical infrastructure, and human resources development areas—would help boost potential growth and reduce poverty. Moldova's remarkable recovery from the severe recession of 2009 was largely the result of sound macroeconomic and financial policies and structural reforms. Despite a small contraction in 2012, Moldova's economic performance was among the strongest in the region during 2010–13. Economic activity grew cumulatively by about 24 percent; consumer price inflation was brought under control; and real wages increased cumulatively by about 13 percent. This expansion was made possible by adequate macroeconomic stabilization measures and ambitious structural reforms implemented in the wake of the crisis under a Fund-supported program. In November 2013, Moldova initialed an Association Agreement with the EU which includes provisions establishing a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA). A political crisis in early 2013 led to policy slippages in the fiscal and financial areas. The political crisis that broke out in early 2013 was resolved with the appointment of a government supported by a pro-European center-right/center coalition in May 2013. However, delays in policy implementation prevented completion of the final reviews under the ECF/EFF arrangements. Despite a sharp decline in poverty in recent years, Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe and structural reforms are needed to promote sustainable growth. Based on the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) regional poverty line of US$5/day (PPP), 55 percent of the population was poor in 2011. While this was significantly lower than 94 percent in 2002, Moldova's poverty rate is still more than double the ECA average of 25 percent. The NDS—Moldova (National Development System) 2020, which was published in November 2012, focuses on several critical areas to boost economic development and reduce poverty. These include education, infrastructure, financial sector, business climate, energy consumption, pension system, and judicial framework. Following the 1998 Russian financial crisis, regional financial crisis in 1998, Moldova has made significant progress towards achieving and retaining macroeconomic and financial stabilization. It has, furthermore, implemented many structural and institutional reforms that are indispensable for the efficient functioning of a market economy. These efforts have helped maintain macroeconomic and financial stability under difficult external circumstances, enabled the resumption of economic growth and contributed to establishing an environment conducive to the economy's further growth and development in the medium term. The government's goal of Moldova–European Union relations, EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. Moldova experienced better than expected economic growth in 2013 due to increased agriculture production, to economic policies adopted by the Moldovan government since 2009, and to the receipt of EU trade preferences connecting Moldovan products to the world's largest market. Moldova has signed the Moldova–European Union Association Agreement, Association Agreement and the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement with the European Union during summer 2014. Moldova has also achieved a Free Visa Regime with the EU which represents the biggest achievement of Moldovan diplomacy since independence. Still, growth has been hampered by high prices for Russian natural gas, a Russian import ban on Moldovan wine, increased foreign scrutiny of Moldovan agricultural products, and by Moldova's large external debt. Over the longer term, Moldova's economy remains vulnerable to political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, corruption, higher fuel prices, Russian pressure, and the separatist regime in Moldova's Transnistria region. According to IMF World Economic Outlook April 2014, the Moldovan GDP (PPP) per capita is 3,927 International Dollars, excluding grey economy and tax evasion.


Energy

With few natural energy resources, Moldova imports almost all of its energy supplies from Russia and Ukraine. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy is underscored by a growing US$5 billion debt to Russian natural gas supplier Gazprom, largely the result of unreimbursed natural gas consumption in the separatist Transnistria region. In August 2013, work began on a new pipeline between Moldova and Romania that may eventually break Russia's monopoly on Moldova's gas supplies. Moldova is a partner country of the EU INOGATE energy programme, which has four key topics: enhancing energy security, Technological convergence, convergence of member state energy markets on the basis of Internal energy market, EU internal energy market principles, supporting sustainable energy development, and attracting investment for energy projects of common and regional interest.


Wine industry

The country has a well-established wine industry. It has a vineyard area of , of which are used for commercial production. Most of the country's wine production is made for export. Many families have their own recipes and grape varieties that have been passed down through the generations. There are 3 historical wine regions: Valul lui Traian (south west), Stefan Voda (south east) and Codru (wine), Codru (center), destined for the production of wines with protected geographic indication. Mileștii Mici (winery), Mileștii Mici is the home of the largest wine cellar in the world. It stretches for 200 km and holds almost 2 million bottles of wine


Agriculture

Moldova's Chernozem, rich soil and temperate continental climate (with warm summers and mild winters) have made the country one of the most productive agricultural regions since ancient times, and a major supplier of agricultural products in southeastern Europe. In agriculture, the economic reform started with the land cadastre reform. Moldova's agricultural products include vegetables, fruits, grapes, wine, and grains.


Transport

The main means of transportation in Moldova are railways and a highway system ( overall, including of paved surfaces). The sole international air gateway of Moldova is the Chișinău International Airport. The Giurgiulești terminal on the Danube is compatible with small seagoing vessels. Shipping on the lower Prut and Nistru rivers plays only a modest role in the country's transportation system.


Telecommunications

The first million mobile telephone users were registered in September 2005. The number of mobile telephone users in Moldova increased by 47.3% in the first quarter of 2008 against the last year and exceeded 2.89 million.R. Moldova are deja peste două milioane de utilizatori ai serviciilor de telefonie mobilă
– Agenția Naționala pentru Reglementare în Comunicații Electronice și Tehnologia Informației (ANRCETI)
In September 2009, Moldova was the first country in the world to launch high-definition voice services (HD voice) for mobile phones, and the first country in Europe to launch 14.4 Mbit/s mobile broadband on a national scale, with over 40% population coverage. , there are around 1,295,000 Internet in Moldova, Internet users in Moldova with overall Internet penetration of 35.9%. On 6 June 2012, the Government approved the licensing of 4G / LTE for mobile operators.


Demographics


Ethnic composition

As of 2014 census, Moldovans were the largest ethnic group of Moldova (75.1% of the population). In addition, 7.0% of the population declared themselves Romanians, amid the controversy over ethnic and linguistic identity in Moldova. Although historical, the polarization based on ethnolinguistic criteria of the majority ethnic group reappeared with the national revival movement of the late 1980s, and, so far, there is no consensus regarding the mainstream identity in the Republic of Moldova (Moldovan or Romanian). The country has also important minority ethnic communities, as shown in the table below. Gagauz people in Moldova, Gagauz, 4.4% of the population, are Christians, Christian Turkic peoples, Turkic people. Greeks in Moldova, Greeks, Armenians in Moldova, Armenians, Poles in Moldova, Poles, Ukrainians, although not numerous, were present since as early as the 17th century, and had left cultural marks. The 19th century saw the arrival of many more Ukrainians from Podolia and Galicia (Central Europe), Galicia, as well as new communities, such as Lipovans, Russians in Moldova, Russians, Bessarabian Bulgarians, Bulgarians, and Bessarabia Germans, Germans. Most of Moldova's Bessarabian Jews, Jewish population emigrated away between 1979 and 2004. According to the Moldovan Census (2014), 2014 census preliminary data, 2,998,235 inhabitants lived in Moldova (within the areas controlled by the central government), an 11.3% decrease from the figure recorded at the 2004 census. The urbanization rate was 45% of the total population living in urban areas (). According to the last census in Transnistria (October 2015), the population of the region was 475,373, a 14.47% decrease from the figure recorded at the 2004 census. The urbanization rate was 69.9%. By ethnic composition, the population of Transnistria was distributed as follows: Russians - 29.1%, Moldovans - 28.6%, Ukrainians - 22.9%, Bulgarians - 2.4%, Gagauzians - 1.1%, Belarusians - 0.5%, Transnistrian - 0.2%, other nationalities - 1.4%. About 14% of the population did not declare their nationality. Also, for the first time, the population had the option to identify as "Transnistrian".


Languages

The official language of Moldova is Romanian language, Romanian, a Romance languages, Romance language related to Italian, French, Spanish, and Portuguese. The 1991 Moldovan Declaration of Independence, Declaration of Independence names the official language Romanian. The Constitution of Moldova (1994), Constitution of 1994 stated that the national language of the Republic of Moldova was Moldovan language, Moldovan, and its writing is based on the Latin alphabet. In 2013, the Constitutional Court of Moldova ruled that the name "Romanian", as used in the Declaration of Independence to identify the official language, prevails over the name "Moldovan", given in Article 13 of the Constitution. At the Moldovan Census (2014), 2014 census (which did not include data from the Transnistria, Transnistrian region), 54.7% of the population named Moldovan whereas 24.0% named Romanian as their first language in daily use. Although only 4.1% are ethnic Russians, Russian is still used as the main language by 14.5% of the total population. Around 50% of ethnic Ukrainians, 33% of Gagauz, 33% of Bulgarians, and 5.7% of Moldovans declared Russian as their daily use language. Historically Russian was taught in schools as the first foreign language, because of the relationship with the Russian Empire and Soviet Union. In the 21st century, the primary foreign language taught in the schools is English. In 2013 more than 60% of schoolchildren took it as their first foreign language. This was followed by French language, French, taken by less than 50% of students. Since 1996, the Republic of Moldova has been a full member of Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, La Francophonie. German language, German was the third-ranked choice.


Religion

The Metropolis of Chișinău and All Moldova (the Moldovan Orthodox Church), autonomous and subordinated to the Russian Orthodox Church, and the Metropolis of Bessarabia (the Bessarabian Orthodox Church), autonomous and subordinated to the Romanian Orthodox Church, both claim to be the national church of the country. For the 2004 census, Eastern Orthodox Church, Orthodox Christians, who make up 93.3% of Moldova's population, were not required to declare the particular of the two main churches they belong to. As of 2020, the U.S. Department of State estimated that 90% of the Orthodox adherents belong to the Moldovan Orthodox Church. More than 2.0% of the population is Protestant including a growing number of Jehovah's Witnesses, 0.9% belongs to other religions, 1.0% is non-religious, 0.4% is atheist, and 2.2% did not answer the religion question at the census.


Education

There are 16 state and 15 private institutions of higher education in Moldova, with a total of 126,100 students, including 104,300 in the state institutions and 21,700 in the private ones. The number of students per 10,000 inhabitants in Moldova has been constantly growing since the collapse of the Soviet Union, reaching 217 in 2000–2001, and 351 in 2005–2006. The National Library of Moldova was founded in 1832. The Moldova State University and the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, the main scientific organizations of Moldova, were established in 1946. The Republic of Moldova was ranked 59th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, down from 58th in 2019. , Romania allocates 5,000 scholarships in high schools and universities for Moldovan students. Likewise, more than half of preschool children in Moldova benefit from Romania funded program to renovate and equip kindergartens. Almost all the population is literate: the literacy rate of the population aged 15 and over is estimated at 99.4% ().


Crime

The CIA World Factbook lists widespread crime and underground economic activity among major issues in Moldova. Human trafficking of Moldovan women and children to other parts of Europe is a serious problem. In 2014, US$1 billion disappeared from three of Moldova's leading banks.The great Moldovan bank robbery
. BBC News. 18 June 2015.
In two days loans worth US$1 billion were transferred in to United Kingdom and Hong Kong-registered companies whose ultimate owners are unknown. Banks are administered by the National Bank of Moldova, so this loss was covered from state reserves.


Health and fertility

The total fertility rate (TFR) in Moldova was estimated in 2015 at 1.56 children/woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1. In 2012, the average age of women at first birth was 23.9 years, with 75.2% of births being to women under 30, and 22.4% of births being to unmarried women. The maternal mortality rate was 41 deaths/100,000 live births (in 2010) and the infant mortality rate was 12.59 deaths/1,000 live births (in 2015). The life expectancy in 2015 was estimated at 70.42 years (66.55 years male, 74.54 years female). Public expenditure on health was 4.2% of the GDP and private expenditure on health 3.2%. There are about 264 physicians per 100,000 people. Health expenditure was US$138 (PPP) per capita in 2004. Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, the country has seen a decrease in spending on health care and, as a result, the tuberculosis incidence rate in the country has grown. According to a 2009 study, Moldova was struggling with one of the highest incidence rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the world. The percentage of adults (aged 15–49) living with HIV/AIDS was estimated in 2009 at 0.40%.


Emigration

Emigration is a mass phenomenon in Moldova and has a major impact on the country's demographics and economy. The Moldovan Intelligence and Security Service has estimated that 600,000 to one million Moldovan citizens (almost 25% of the population) are working abroad.


Culture

Moldova's cultural tradition has been influenced primarily by the Origin of the Romanians, Romanian origins of its majority population, the roots of which go back to the second century AD, the period of Ancient Rome, Roman colonization in Dacia. Located geographically at the crossroads of Italic peoples, Latin, Slavic people, Slavic and other cultures, Moldova has enriched its own culture adopting and maintaining traditions of neighbouring regions and of other influential sources. The largest ethnic group, which had come to identify itself widely as "Moldovan" by the 14th century, played a significant role in the shaping of Culture of Romania#Classical age, classical Romanian culture. The culture has been also influenced by the Byzantine culture, the neighbouring Magyar and Slavic populations, and later by the Ottoman Turks. A strong Western European influence in Moldovan literature and arts was prevalent in the 19th century. During the periods 1812-1917 and 1944–89, Moldovans were influenced by Russian and Soviet administrative control as well and by ethnic Russian immigration. The country's cultural heritage was marked by numerous churches and monasteries built by the Moldavian ruler Stephen the Great in the 15th century, by the works of the later renaissance Metropolitans Varlaam, Metropolitan of Moscow, Varlaam and Dosoftei, and those of scholars such as
Grigore Ureche 300px, A page of his "Letopiseț" manuscript Grigore Ureche (; 1590–1647) was a Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic: or ) is a historical region Historical regions (or historica ...
, Miron Costin, Nicolae Milescu,
Dimitrie Cantemir 200px, Dimitrie Cantemir on a Moldovan stamp Dimitrie or Demetrius Cantemir (, russian: Дмитрий Кантемир; 26 October 1673 – 21 August 1723), also known by other spellings Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a ...

Dimitrie Cantemir
and Ion Neculce. In the 19th century, Moldavians from the territories of the medieval Principality of Moldavia, divided into
Bessarabia Bessarabia (; gag, Besarabiya; ro, Basarabia; russian: Бессарабия, ''Bessarabiya''; tr, Besarabya; uk, Бессара́бія'', Bessarabiya''; bg, Бесарабия, ''Besarabiya'') is a historical region Historical regions (or ...

Bessarabia
, Bukovina, and Western Moldavia (after 1859, Romania), made a significant contribution to the formation of the modern Romanian culture. Among these were many Bessarabians, such as Alecu Donici, Alexandru Donici, Alexandru Hâjdeu, Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, Constantin Stamati, Constantin Stamati-Ciurea, Costache Negruzzi, Alecu Russo, Constantin Stere. Mihai Eminescu, a late Romanticism, Romantic poet, and Ion Creangă, a writer, are the most influential Romanian language artists, considered national writers both in Romania and Moldova.


Media

In October 1939, ''Radio Basarabia'', a local station of the Romanian Radio Broadcasting Company, was the first radio station opened in Chișinău. Television in Moldova was Timeline of the introduction of television in countries, introduced in April 1958, within the framework of Soviet television. Through cable, Moldovan viewers can receive a large number of Television in Russia, Russian channels, a few Television in Romania, Romanian channels, and several Russian language versions of international channels in addition to several local channels. One Russian and two local channels are aired. Infotag is the state news agency.


Food and beverage

Moldovan cuisine is similar to neighbouring Romanian cuisine, Romania, and has been influenced by elements of Russian cuisine, Russian, Turkish cuisine, Turkish, and Ukrainian cuisine. Main dishes include beef, pork, potatoes, cabbage, and a variety of cereals. Popular alcoholic beverages are ''Moldovan wine#Divin, divin'' (Moldovan brandy), beer, and local wine. Traditional Moldovan dishes include Plăcintă, plăcinte (sweet and savoury pastries with fillings such as local cheese, cabbage, potatoes, apples, sour cherries and others), mămăligă, sarmale, and a chicken soup called zeamă. Total recorded adult alcohol consumption is approximately evenly split between spirits, beer and wine. Notably, Moldova is the country with the highest alcohol consumption per capita in world, at 15.2 liters of pure alcohol imbibed in 2016.


Music

Among Moldova's most prominent composers are Gavriil Musicescu, Ștefan Neaga and Eugen Doga. In the field of pop music, Moldova has produced the band O-Zone, who came to prominence in 2003, with their hit song "Dragostea Din Tei", which topped multiple notable single charts. Moldova has been participating in the Eurovision Song Contest since 2005. Another popular band from Moldova is Zdob și Zdub that represented the country in the 2005 Eurovision Song Contest, finishing sixth. In May 2007, Natalia Barbu represented Moldova in Helsinki at the Eurovision Song Contest 2007 with her entry "Fight (song), Fight". Natalia squeezed into the final by a very small margin. She took tenth place with 109 points. Then Zdob și Zdub again represented Moldova in the 2011 Eurovision Song Contest finishing 12th. The band SunStroke Project with Olia Tira represented the country in the 2010 Eurovision Song Contest with their hit song "Run Away (SunStroke Project and Olia Tira song), Run Away". Their performance gained international notoriety as an internet meme due to the pelvic thrusting and dancing of Sergey Stepanov, the band saxophonist. He has been dubbed "Epic Sax Guy". SunStroke Project featured again in the 2017 Eurovision entry "Hey Mama" which got third place. In 2015 a new musical project by the name of Carla's Dreams has risen in popularity around Moldova. Carla's Dreams reached the top charts in multiple countries in Europe with the release of their song "Sub Pielea Mea" in 2016. The song received a lot of airplay and reached number one place on the charts in Moldova as well as Russia. The group is still active and released their latest album in 2017. The theme of the musical group is "Anonymous" as they perform with painted faces, hoodies and sunglasses. The identity of the group members is still unknown. Among most prominent classical musicians in Moldova are Maria Bieșu, one of the leading world's sopranos and the winner of the Japan International Competition; pianist Mark Zeltser, winner of the USSR National Competition, Margueritte Long Competition in Paris and Busoni Competition in Bolzano, Italy.


Holidays

Most retail businesses close on New Year's Day and Independence Day of the Republic of Moldova, Independence Day, but remain open on all other holidays. Christmas is celebrated either on 7 January, the traditional date in Old Calendarists Eastern Orthodox Churches, or on 25 December, with both dates being recognized as public holidays. On 1 March features ''mărțișor'' gifting, which is a tradition that females are gifted with a type of talisman that is given for good luck.


Sports

Association football is the most popular team sport in Moldova. The governing body is the Moldovan Football Federation, which belongs to UEFA. The Moldova national football team played its first match in 1994, but never qualified to the UEFA European Championship. The most successful football club is FC Sheriff Tiraspol, Sheriff Tiraspol, the first and only Moldovan club to qualify for the group stage of the UEFA Champions League, Champions League and the UEFA Europa League, Europa League. Other winners of the Moldovan National Division include FC Zimbru Chișinău, Zimbru Chișinău, FC Dacia Chișinău, Dacia Chișinău, FC Tiraspol and FC Milsami Orhei, Milsami Orhei. ''Trîntă'' (a form of wrestling) is the national sport in Moldova. Rugby union is popular as well. More than 10,000 supporters turn out for home internationals. Since 2004, playing numbers at all levels have more than doubled to 3,200. Despite the hardships and deprivations the national team are ranked 34th in the world. The most prestigious cycling race is the Moldova President's Cup, which was first run in 2004. In chess, the Republic of Moldova has several international masters, among which can be mentioned Viorel Iordăchescu, Dmitry Svetushkin, and Victor Bologan, Viorel Bologan. Radu Albot is one of the most successful Moldovan tennis players, with Association of Tennis Professionals, ATP singles (2019 Delray Beach Open – Singles, 2019 Delray Beach Open) and doubles (2015 Istanbul Open – Doubles, 2015 Istanbul Open) titles. Athletes from Moldova have won European medals in track and field, athletics, biathlon, association football, football, and gymnastics; world medals in archery, judo, Swimming (sport), swimming, and taekwondo; as well as Olympic Games, Olympic medals in boxing, canoeing, shooting sports, shooting, Olympic weightlifting, weightlifting, and amateur wrestling, wrestling. Moldova made its Olympic debut at the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer. Olympic champions include Sergei Mureiko, Oleg Moldovan, Vitalie Grușac, Veaceslav Gojan, and Serghei Tarnovschi. Nicolae Juravschi represented the Soviet Union at the 1988 Summer Olympics, 1988 Seoul Games, winning two medals.


See also

* Outline of Moldova


Notes


References


External links


S.Res.148 - A resolution to express the sense of the Senate that the United States should support the right to self-determination of the people of the Republic of Moldavia and northern Bucovina
*
Moldova
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency.
Moldova, Republic of
from ''UCB Libraries GovPubs''. *
Moldova profile
from the BBC News. * *
Key Development Forecasts for Moldova
from International Futures. {{Authority control Moldova, Landlocked countries Romanian-speaking countries and territories Russian-speaking countries and territories Member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States Member states of the Council of Europe Member states of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie Member states of the United Nations Republics Southeastern European countries States and territories established in 1991 1991 establishments in Europe Countries in Europe Eastern European countries