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In
Christianity Christianity is an , based on the and of . It is the , with about 2.5 billion followers. Its adherents, known as , make up a majority of the population in , and believe that is the , whose coming as the was in the (called the in Christ ...

Christianity
, a minister is a person authorised by a
church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used to refer to the physical build ...
or other religious organization to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs; leading services such as
wedding A wedding is a ceremony A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gesture A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication or non-vocal communication Communication (from Latin ''communica ...

wedding
s,
baptism Baptism (from the noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a of and , almost invariably with the use of water, into . It may be performed by or water on the head, or by either partially or completely. The s recount that . Baptism is c ...

baptism
s or
funeral A funeral is a ceremony A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the ...

funeral
s; or otherwise providing spiritual guidance to the community. The term is taken from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
''minister'' ("servant", "attendant"). In
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics Catholic Church by country, worldwide . As the wo ...

Catholic
, Orthodox (
Eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in Shanghai *Eastern Air, former name of Zambia Skyways *Eastern Air Lines, a defunct American airline that operated from 1926 to 1991 *Eastern Air Lin ...
and
Oriental The Orient is a term for the East East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite ...
),
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia * ...

Anglican
and
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life ...
churches, the concept of a
priest A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the Sacred rite, sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deity, deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious ...

priest
hood is emphasized. In other denominations such as
Baptist Baptists form a major branch of Christianity distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (, as opposed to ), and doing so by complete (as opposed to or ). Baptist churches also generally subscribe to the s of (the responsibility a ...

Baptist
,
Methodist Methodism, also called the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations Denomination may refer to: * Religious denomination, such as a: ** Christian denomination ** Jewish denomination ** Islamic denomination ** Hindu d ...

Methodist
and
Calvinist Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, A ...
churches ( Congregationalist and
Presbyterian Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of ...
), the term "minister" usually refers to a member of the
ordained Ordination is the process by which individuals are , that is, set apart and elevated from the class to the , who are thus then (usually by the composed of other clergy) to perform various religious . The process and ceremonies of ordination va ...

ordained
clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established s. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religion's s and practices. Some of the terms used for ind ...
who leads a congregation or participates in a role in a
parachurchParachurch organizations are Christian faith-based organizations that work outside and across denominations to engage in social welfare Welfare is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet basic huma ...
ministry; such a person may serve as an
elder An elder is someone with a degree of seniority or authority. Elder or elders may refer to: Positions Administrative * Elder (administrative title), a position of authority Cultural * American Indian elder, a person who has and transmits cul ...
(
presbyter In the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Biblical canon#Christian canons, Christian biblical canon. It discusses the te ...
),
pastor A pastor (abbreviated as "Pr" or "Ptr" , or "Ps" ) is the leader of a Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus ...

pastor
, preacher,
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...

bishop
, or
chaplain A chaplain is, traditionally, a (such as a , , , , , or ), or a representative of a religious tradition, attached to a (such as a , , , , , , , , , , , ), or a private . Though originally the word ''chaplain'' referred to representatives of ...

chaplain
. With respect to
ecclesiastical address Ecclesiastical titles are the formal styles of address used for members of the clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established s. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presiding over speci ...
, many ministers are styled as "
The Reverend The Reverend is an style (manner of address), honorific style most often placed before the names of Christian clergy and Minister of religion, ministers. There are sometimes differences in the way the style is used in different countries and ...
"; however, some use "Pastor" or "Father" as a title.


Roles and duties

The
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
defines the ministry of priests as follows: Ministers may perform some or all of the following duties: *assist in co-ordinating volunteers and church community groups *assist in any general administrative service *conduct
marriage in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouse A religious marriage. A spouse is a significant other in a marriage in Stockholm Marr ...

marriage
ceremonies,
funerals A funeral is a ceremony A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gesture A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication or non-vocal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare' ...
and memorial services, participate in the
ordination Ordination is the process by which individuals are , that is, set apart and elevated from the class to the , who are thus then (usually by the composed of other clergy) to perform various religious . The process and ceremonies of ordination va ...

ordination
of other clergy, and confirming young people as members of a local church *encourage local church endeavors *engage in
welfare Welfare (or commonly, social welfare) is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet Basic needs, basic human needs such as food and shelter. Social security may either be synonymous with welfare, or ref ...
and community services activities of communities *establish new local churches *keep records as required by
civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil (journalism), a platform for independent journalism *Civilian, someone not a member ...
or
church law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction industries, to measure dist ...
*plan and conduct services of
public worship
public worship
*
preach
preach
*
pray Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship through deliberate communication. In the narrow sense, the term refers to an act of supplication or intercession directed towards a deity (a god), or a de ...

pray
and encourage others to be theocentric (that is, God-focused) *preside over
sacraments A sacrament is a Christian rite A rite is an established, Ceremony, ceremonial, usually religious, act. Rites in this sense fall into three major categories: * rites of passage, generally changing an individual's social status, such as marria ...
(also called ordinances) of the church. Such as: ** the
Lord's Supper The Eucharist (; also known as Holy Communion and the Lord's Supper among other names) is a Christian rite A rite is an established, Ceremony, ceremonial, usually religious, act. Rites in this sense fall into three major categories: * rites o ...

Lord's Supper
(a name derived from 1 Corinthians 11:20), also known as the Lord's Table (taken from 1 Corinthians 10:21), or
Holy Communion The Eucharist (; grc-gre, εὐχαριστία, eucharistía, thanksgiving) also known as Holy Communion and the Lord's Supper, among other names, is a Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monothe ...

Holy Communion
, and ** the
Baptism Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian rite of initiation, admission and Adoption (theology), adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity. It may be pe ...

Baptism
of adults or children (depending on the denomination) *provide leadership to the
congregation A congregation is a large gathering of people, often for the purpose of worship. Congregation may also refer to: *Church (congregation), a Christian organization meeting in a particular place for worship *Congregation (Roman Curia), an administrat ...
,
parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ ( ...
or church community, this may be done as part of a team with lay people in roles such as elders *refer people to community support services,
psychologist A psychologist is a professional who practices psychology and studies normal and abnormal mental states, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by experimenting with, and observing, interpreting, and recording how ...
s or
doctor Doctor or The Doctor may refer to: Personal titles * Doctor (title) Doctor is an Academic degree, academic title that originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning. The word is originally an Agent noun, agentive noun ...

doctor
s *research and study religion,
Scripture Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred Sacred describes something that is dedicated or set apart for the service or worship of ...
and
theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed ...
*supervise prayer and discussion groups, retreats and seminars, and provide religious instruction *teach on spiritual and theological subjects *train leaders for church, community and youth leadership *work on developing relationships and networks within the religious community *provide
pastoral care Pastoral care is an ancient model of emotion Emotions are biological states associated with all of the nerve systems brought on by neurophysiological changes variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of ...

pastoral care
in various contexts *provide personal support to people in crises, such as illness, bereavement and family breakdown *visit the sick and elderly to counsel and comfort them and their families *administer
Last Rites #REDIRECT Last rites The last rites, in Catholicism, are the last prayers and ministrations given to an individual of the faith, when possible, shortly before death. They may be administered to those Death row, awaiting execution, mortally inju ...
when designated to do so * the first style of ministering is the player coach style. In this style, the pastor is a "participant in all the processes that the church uses to reach people and see them transformed * the second style of ministering is the delegating style, in which the minister develops members of the church to point that they can be trusted * the third style of ministering is the directing style where the minister gives specific instructions and then supervises the congregation closely * the last and fourth style of ministering is the combination style, which a minister allows directional ministering from a pastoral staff member * mention prayer of salvation to those interested in becoming a believer


Training and qualifications

Depending on the denomination the requirements for ministry vary. All denominations require that the minister has a sense of calling. In regards to training, denominations vary in their requirements, from those that emphasize natural gifts to those that also require advanced
tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, be ...
qualifications, for example, from a
seminary A seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, or divinity school is an educational institution for educating students (sometimes called ''seminarians'') in scripture Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or ...
,
theological college A seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, or divinity school is an educational institution for educating students (sometimes called ''seminarians'') in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination to serve as clergy, in ...
or
university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...

university
.


New Testament

One of the clearest references is found in , which outlines the requirements of a
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...

bishop
(''episkopos'':
Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, Greek spoken and written d ...
, interpreted as
elder An elder is someone with a degree of seniority or authority. Elder or elders may refer to: Positions Administrative * Elder (administrative title), a position of authority Cultural * American Indian elder, a person who has and transmits cul ...
by some denominations):


Related titles and types of Christian ministries


Bishops, priests, and deacons

The
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics Catholic Church by country, worldwide . As the wo ...

Catholic
,
Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also cal ...
,
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia * ...

Anglican
,
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life ...
,
Calvinist Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, A ...
and some
Methodist Methodism, also called the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations Denomination may refer to: * Religious denomination, such as a: ** Christian denomination ** Jewish denomination ** Islamic denomination ** Hindu d ...

Methodist
churches have applied the formal, church-based leadership or an
ordained Ordination is the process by which individuals are Consecration, consecrated, that is, set apart and elevated from the laity class to the clergy, who are thus then authorization, authorized (usually by the religious denomination, denominational hi ...

ordained
clergy in matters of either the church or broader political and sociocultural import. The churches have three orders of ordained clergy: *
Bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...

Bishop
s are the primary clergy, administering all sacraments and governing the church. *
Priest A priest is a religious leader Clergy are formal leaders within established religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social w ...

Priest
s administer the sacraments and lead local congregations; they cannot ordain other clergy, however, nor consecrate buildings. *In some denominations,
deacon A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christianity, Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. Major Christian churches, such as the C ...

deacon
s play a non-sacramental and assisting role in the liturgy. File:San Francesco.jpg,
Francis of Assisi Francis of Assisi (born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone; it, Francesco d'Assisi; la, Franciscus Assisiensis; 1181 or 1182 – 3 October 1226), was an Italian , , and . He founded the men's , the women's , the and the . Francis is one of ...

Francis of Assisi
with the ecclesiastical
tonsure Tonsure () is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Bioch ...

tonsure
. Francis was an ordained deacon. File:Gilbert White.jpg,
Gilbert White Gilbert White Royal Society, FRS (18 July 1720 – 26 June 1793) was a "parson-naturalist", a pioneering England, English natural history, naturalist, ecologist and Ornithology, ornithologist. He is best known for his ''Natural History and Antiq ...

Gilbert White
,
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia * ...

Anglican
priest and pioneering
naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classif ...
and
ornithologist Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the "methodological study and consequent knowledge of birds with all that relates to them." Several aspects of ornithology differ from related disciplines, due partly to the high visibility and th ...
. File:Владимир (Богоявленский).jpg, Metropolitan Vladimir of Kiev, the first bishop to be martyred at the time of the
Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relatio ...

Russian Revolution
Until the Reformation, the clergy were the first estate but were relegated to the secular estate in Protestant
Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern region of Europe. Narrower definitions may describe Northern Europe as being roughly north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, which is about 54th parallel north, 54°N, or may be based on other geographic ...
. After compulsory celibacy was abolished during the Reformation, the formation of a partly hereditary priestly class became possible, whereby wealth and clerical positions were frequently inheritable. Higher positioned clergy formed this clerical educated upper class.
High Church Anglicanism The term ''high church'' refers to beliefs and practices of Christian ecclesiology, liturgy, and Christian theology, theology that emphasize formality and resistance to modernisation. Although used in connection with various Christian denomination ...
and High Church Lutheranism tend to emphasise the role of the clergy in dispensing the Christian sacraments. The countries that were once a part of the
Swedish Empire The Swedish Empire was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region The terms Baltic Sea Region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries/states refer to slightly ...

Swedish Empire
, i.e.
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
and the
Baltics The Baltic states ( et, Balti riigid, Baltimaad; lv, Baltijas valstis; lt, Baltijos valstybės), also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations, or simply the Baltics, is a geopolitical term, typically used to group the ...

Baltics
have more markedly preserved Catholic traditions and introduced far less
Calvinist Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, A ...
traditions, hence the role of bishops, priests and deacons are notably more visible. Bishops, priests and deacons have traditionally officiated over of acts worship, reverence, rituals and ceremonies. Among these central traditions have been
baptism Baptism (from the noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a of and , almost invariably with the use of water, into . It may be performed by or water on the head, or by either partially or completely. The s recount that . Baptism is c ...

baptism
,
confirmation In Christian denominations that practice infant baptism Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young child Biologically, a child (plural children) is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and wi ...
,
penance Penance is any act or a set of actions done out of repentance Repentance is reviewing one's actions and feeling contritionIn Christianity, contrition or contriteness (from the Latin ''contritus'' 'ground to pieces', i.e. crushed by guilt) is ...
,
anointing of the sick Anointing of the sick, known also by other names, is a form of religious anointing Anointing is the ritual act of pouring aromatic oil over a person's head or entire body. By extension, the term is also applied to related acts of sprinkling, d ...
,
holy orders In certain Christian churches Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholic Church ...
, marriage, the
mass Mass is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by assigning a numerical value ...
or the divine service, and
coronation A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasure of South Korea. It is basically following the stand ...

coronation
s. These so-called "social rituals" have formed a part of human
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals i ...

culture
for tens of thousands of years. Anthropologists see social rituals as one of many
cultural universals A cultural universal (also called an anthropological universal or human universal) is an element, pattern, trait, or institution that is common to all known human culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior ...
. File:Baptism Sainte-Chapelle MNMA Cl23717.jpg, Scene of baptism.
Stained glass File:Oostende Sint-Petrus-en-Pauluskerk Rosette.jpg, 300px, Outside-view of a stained glass of the Sint-Petrus-en-Pauluskerk from Ostend (Belgium), built between 1899 and 1908 The term stained glass refers to coloured glass as a material and to ...

Stained glass
from the
Sainte-Chapelle The Sainte-Chapelle (, Holy Chapel) is a royal chapel in the Gothic style, within the medieval Palais de la Cité, the residence of the Kings of France until the 14th century, on the Île de la Cité on Île de la Cité from upstream (the ea ...

Sainte-Chapelle
of Paris, last quarter of the 12th century. File:Confirmation VanderWeyden.png, A bishop administering
Confirmation In Christian denominations that practice infant baptism Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young child Biologically, a child (plural children) is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and wi ...

Confirmation
.
Rogier van der Weyden Rogier van der Weyden () or Roger de la Pasture (1399 or 140018 June 1464) was an Early Netherlandish painter Early may refer to: History * The beginning or oldest part of a defined historical periodHuman history is commonly divided into three m ...

Rogier van der Weyden
, '' The Seven Sacraments'' (detail), . File:Wedding of Grand Duke Alexandr Alexandrovich and Maria Feodorovna by M.Zichy (1867, Hermitage) detail.jpg, Wedding of and
Alexander III of Russia Alexander is a male given name. The most prominent bearer of the name is Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was ...

Alexander III of Russia
. Painting by Mihály Zichy, 1867. File:Extreme Unction Rogier Van der Weyden.jpg, Extreme Unction. Rogier van der Weyden, ''The Seven Sacraments'' (detail), c. 1445. File:1962 consecration of William Evan Sanders - Bishop of Tennessee.jpg, Consecration of William Evan Sanders as Episcopal Bishop Coadjutor of
Tennessee Tennessee (, ), officially the State of Tennessee, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The S ...

Tennessee
, 1962. Image:Исповедь берн собор.jpg, A penitent confessing his sins in the former
Latin rite Latin liturgical rites, or Western liturgical rites, are Catholic rites of public worship employed by the Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , ...
of the Bernhardines in
Lviv Lviv ( ; uk, Львів ; pl, Lwów ; russian: Львов ; german: Lemberg; see also other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Othe ...

Lviv
,
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
. File:Richthofen funeral.jpg, Funeral of
Manfred von Richthofen Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen (; 2 May 1892 – 21 April 1918), known in English as Baron von Richthofen, was a fighter pilot with the Luftstreitkräfte, German Air Force during World War I. He is considered the flying ace, ace- ...

Manfred von Richthofen
,
Bertangles Bertangles is a Communes of France, commune in the Somme (department), Somme Departments of France, department in Hauts-de-France in northern France. Geography Bertangles is situated on the D97 road, just off the N25, north of Amiens. A farming a ...
Cemetery, France, 22 April 1918.
The term ''
rector Rector (Latin for the member of a vessel's crew who steers) may refer to: Style or title *Rector (ecclesiastical), a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations *Rector (academia), a senior official in an educ ...
'' (from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
word for ''ruler'') or
vicar A vicar (; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...
may be used for priests in certain settings, especially in the Catholic and Anglican traditions. In the Episcopal Church in the United States, a parish, which is responsible for its own finances, is overseen by a rector. A bishop is nominally in control of a financially assisted parish but delegates authority to a vicar (related to the prefix "vice" meaning substitute or deputy).


Pastors

The term "
pastor A pastor (abbreviated as "Pr" or "Ptr" , or "Ps" ) is the leader of a Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus ...

pastor
" means "shepherd" and is used several times in the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
to refer to church workers. Many Protestants use the term as a prenominal title (e.g., Pastor Smith) or as a job title (like Senior Pastor or Worship Pastor).


Clergy

The English word ''clergy'' derives from the same root as ''clerk'' and can be traced to the Latin ''clericus'' which derives from the Greek word ''kleros'' meaning a "lot" or "portion" or "office". The term Clerk in Holy Orders is still the official title for certain Christian clergy and its usage is prevalent in
canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction industries, to measure dis ...
.
Holy orders In certain Christian churches Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholic Church ...
refer to any recipient of the sacrament of ordination, both the major orders (
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...

bishop
s,
priest A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the Sacred rite, sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deity, deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious ...

priest
s and
deacon A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christianity, Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. Major Christian churches, such as the C ...

deacon
s) and the now less known minor orders (
acolyte An acolyte is an assistant or follower assisting the celebrant in a religious service or procession. In many Christian denominations Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on t ...
,
lector Lector is Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it bec ...

lector
,
exorcist In some religions, an exorcist (from the Greek „ἐξορκιστής“) is a person who is believed to be able to cast out the devil File:Devils-from-Rila-monastery.jpg, upA fresco detail from the Rila Monastery, in which demons are dep ...
and
porter Porter may refer to: Companies * Porter Airlines, Canadian regional airline based in Toronto * Porter Chemical Company, a defunct U.S. toy manufacturer of chemistry sets * Porter Motor Company, defunct U.S. car manufacturer * H.K. Porter, Inc., a ...

porter
) who, save for certain reforms made at the Second Vatican Council in the Roman Catholic Church, were called clerics or ''clerk'', which is simply a shorter form of ''cleric''. Clerics were distinguished from the laity by having received, in a formal rite of introduction into the clerical state, the ''
tonsure Tonsure () is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Bioch ...

tonsure
'' or ''corona'' (crown) which involved cutting hair from the top and side of the head leaving a circlet of hair which symbolised the ''Crown of Thorns'' worn by Christ at his crucifixion. Though Christian in origin, the term can be applied by analogy to functions in other religious traditions. For example, a
rabbi A rabbi () is a spiritual leader or religious teacher in Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, monotheism, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civili ...

rabbi
can be referred to as being a clergy member. ''Parson'' is a similar term often applied to ordained priests or ministers. The word is a variant on the English word ''person'' from the Latin ''persona'' ("mask") used as a legal term for one having jurisdiction.


Dominie, Dominee, Dom, Don

The similar words "Dominie", "Dominee" and "Dom", all derived from the Latin ''domine'' (vocative case of Dominus "Lord, Master"), are used in related contexts.
Dominie Dominie ( Wiktionary definition) is a Scots language and Scottish English term for a Scottish schoolmaster usually of the Church of Scotland and also a term used in the US for a minister or pastor of the Dutch Reformed Church. Origin It comes from ...
, derived directly from Dutch, is used in the United States, "Dominee", derived from Dutch via
Afrikaans Alaric speaking Afrikaans. Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 5 ...
is used in South Africa as the title of a pastor of the
Dutch Reformed Church The Dutch Reformed Church (, abbreviated NHK) was the largest Christian denomination in the Netherlands from the onset of the Protestant Reformation until 1930. It was the foremost Protestant denomination, and—since 1892—one of the two maj ...

Dutch Reformed Church
. In Scottish English dominie is generally used to mean just schoolmaster. In various
Romance languages The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of informal sociolects of Latin Latin (, or , ) ...

Romance languages
, shortened forms of Dominus (''Dom, Don'') are commonly used for Catholic priests (sometimes also for lay notables as well) for example
Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a Christian monasticism, monastic Religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church following the Rule of Saint Be ...
Monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (f ...

Monk
s are titled ''Dom'', as in the style ''Dom Knight''. Dom or Dominus, as well as the English equivalent, Sir were often used as titles for priests in England up to the 17th century who held Bachelor of Arts degrees.


Chaplains and padres

Chaplain A chaplain is, traditionally, a cleric Clergy are formal leaders within established religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, wo ...

Chaplain
as in English or
almoner Image:La retraite de l'aumônier ou Le bréviaire.jpg, , ''The portrait of the almoner'' or ''The breviary'' (1886) by Jules-Alexis Muenier. An almoner is a chaplain or church officer who originally was in charge of distributing money to the deserv ...
(preferred in many other languages) or their equivalents refer to a minister who has another type of pastoral "target group" than a territorial parish congregation (or in addition to one), such as a military units, schools and hospitals. The Spanish word
Padre
Padre
("father") is often informally used to address military chaplains, also in English and
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
(
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
).


Elder

Elder An elder is someone with a degree of seniority or authority. Elder or elders may refer to: Positions Administrative * Elder (administrative title), a position of authority Cultural * American Indian elder, a person who has and transmits cul ...
s (in Greek, πρεσβυτερος resbuteros see Presbyter) in Christianity are involved in the collective leadership of a local church or of a denomination. *Some Reformed/non-mainline Presbyterian denominations, Anglican and some Methodists call their ministers teaching elders as well. In Reformed tradition, a Ruling elders are also ordained laymen who govern the church along with the teaching elders as the Session (Presbyterianism), Church session. *In the Assemblies of God and the Metropolitan Community Church Elders are the most senior leaders serving, leading, and supervising the worldwide denomination. In the Metropolitan Community Church an Elder can be a lay person or clergy.


Types of ministries in non-denominational church

* Such as men's ministry, women's ministry, youth ministry, kids ministry, singles and campus ministries, married couples ministry, because it gives each congregation member of different backgrounds and age groups to have a chance to fellowship with people in a closer life group to them.


Leaders and pastoral agents

Laity, Lay people, Volunteering, volunteers, pastoral agents, community leaders are responsible to bring teaching the gospel in the forefront helping the clergy to evangelize people. Agents ramify in many ways to act and be in touch with the people in daily life and developing religious projects, socio-political and infrastructural. *Jehovah's Witnesses consider every baptized Witness to be a "minister"; the religion permits any qualified baptized adult male to perform a baptism, funeral, or wedding. Typically, however, each such service is performed by an Organizational structure of Jehovah's Witnesses#Elders, elder or a "Organizational structure of Jehovah's Witnesses#Ministerial servants, ministerial servant" (that is, a Ministerial servant, deacon), one of the men appointed to "take the lead" in local congregations. Witnesses do not use "elder" or any other term as a title, and do not capitalize the term. They do not accept payment and are not salaried employees or considered "paid clergy". They support themselves financially. Appointments are made directly by Circuit Overseers under the authority of the local Branch, and Governing Body; appointment is said to be "by Holy spirit#Jehovah's Witnesses, holy spirit" because "the qualifications [are] recorded in God's Bible, spirit-inspired Word" and because appointing committees "pray for holy spirit". *In many evangelical churches a group (multiple elders as opposed to a single elder) of (non-staff) elders serve as the spiritual "shepherds" or caretakers of the congregation, usually giving spiritual direction to the pastoral staff, enforcing church discipline, etc. In some denominations these elders are called by other names, i.e.; traditionally "Deacons" in many Baptist churches function as spiritual leaders. In some cases these elders are elected and serve fixed terms. In other cases they are not elected but rather they are "recognized by the congregation as those appointed by the Holy Spirit (Acts 20:28) and meeting the qualifications of 1 Timothy 3:1-7."


Monsignor

Monsignor is an ecclesiastical title of honor bestowed on some priests.


Prelate

*A prelate is a member of the clergy having a special canonical jurisdiction over a territory or a group of people. *Usually, a prelate is a
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...

bishop
. Prelate sometimes refers to the clergy of a state church with a formal hierarchy, and suggests that the prelate enjoys legal privileges and power as a result of clerical status.


Father

*"Father" is a term of address for priests and deacons in some churches, especially the
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics Catholic Church by country, worldwide . As the wo ...

Catholic
and Eastern Orthodox Church, Orthodox churches; it is also popular in some parts of the
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia * ...

Anglican
tradition. *"
Padre
Padre
" (Spanish word for father, used in Brazil too) is frequently used in the military of English-speaking countries. *A priest of the regular clergy. *A pre-Scholastic Christian writer accepted by the church as an authoritative witness to its teaching and practice (see Fathers of the Church: those who were not completely orthodox but nonetheless had a major impact on Christianity, such as Origen and Tertullian, are called "ecclesiastical writers" instead). *"Mama" is the local native language term for English speaking Anglican priests in the Anglican Church of Melanesia. It means "father" in several local languages in Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands.


Archbishop

*In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...

bishop
, responsible for all churches belonging to a religious group of a particular district. *A bishop at the head of an Ecclesiastical Province, ecclesiastical province or one of equivalent honorary rank.


Issues

There are contrasting views on the level of compensation given to ministers relative to the religious community. There is often an expectation that they and their families will shun ostentation. However, there are situations where they are well rewarded for successfully attracting people to their religious community or enhancing the status or power of the community. The ordination of women has increasingly become accepted within many global religious faith groups, with some women now holding the most senior positions in these organizational hierarchies. There is disagreement between various global church denominations, and within membership of denominations, regarding whether women can be ministers. In 2021 excavations at the site of a Byzantine Empire, Byzantine-era Christian basilica revealed floor mosaics which provide evidence of women serving as ministers, including Deacon, deacons, in the church. There was notable contention over the issue of Ordination of LGBT Christian clergy, ordination of non-celibate gay people in the 1980s within the United Church of Canada, and in the 1990s and early 21st century within the PCUSA, Presbyterian Church USA. The Episcopal Church (United States), the American branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, was divided over the issue of ordination of non-celibate gay people. This conflict severely damaged relationships between Anglicans in North America and in the Third World, third world, especially Africa and southeast Asia, and has Continuing Anglican movement, caused a schism in the American Anglican church.


Styles and forms of address

In the majority of churches, ordained ministers are styled "
The Reverend The Reverend is an style (manner of address), honorific style most often placed before the names of Christian clergy and Minister of religion, ministers. There are sometimes differences in the way the style is used in different countries and ...
". However, as stated above, some are styled "Pastor" and others do not use any religious style or form of address, and are addressed as any other person, e.g. as Mr, Ms, Miss, Mrs or by name.


Anglican

In Anglican churches, the style for ordained ministers varies according to their office, as below. *Priests and deacons, from ordination onwards—''The Reverend'' *Priests and deacons appointed as Canon (priest), canons—''The Reverend Canon'' *Deans (or Provosts) of a cathedral church—''The Very Reverend'' *Archdeacons of a diocese or region—''The Venerable'' *Bishops (diocesan, suffragan, or coadjutor)—''The Right Reverend'' *Archbishops (and other Primate (bishop), primate bishops)—''The Most Reverend'' In all cases, the formal style should be followed by a Christian name or initial, e.g. the Reverend John Smith, or the Reverend J. Smith, but never just the Reverend Smith. These are formal styles. In normal speech (either addressing the clergy or referring to them) other forms of address are often used. For all clergy, this may include the titles "Father" (male) or "Mother" (female), particularly in the Anglo-Catholic tradition, or simply the appropriate secular title (Mister, Doctor, etc.) for that person, particularly in the Evangelical tradition; it is also increasingly common to dispense with formal addresses and titles in favour of verbal address simply by given name. Bishops may be addressed as "My Lord", and less formally as "Bishop". Similarly, archbishops may be addressed as "Your Grace", and less formally as "Archbishop". The titles "My Lord" and "Your Grace" refer to the places held by these prelates in the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
within the Order of precedence in England and Wales, order of precedence of the state; however, the same titles are also extended to bishops and archbishops of other Anglican churches, outside England. As Anglicanism represents a broad range of theological opinion, its presbyterate includes priests who consider themselves no different in any respect from those of the Catholic Church, some parishes and dioceses in "Low Church" or Evangelical circles prefer to use the title ''
presbyter In the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Biblical canon#Christian canons, Christian biblical canon. It discusses the te ...
'' or "minister" in order to distance themselves from the more sacrificial theological implications which they associate with the word "priest". While priest is the official term for a member of the presbyterate in every Anglican province worldwide, the ordination rite of certain provinces (including the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
) recognizes the breadth of opinion by adopting the title ''The Ordination of Priests (also called Presbyters)''.


Catholic

In the Catholic Church, the form of address depends on the office the person holds, and the country in which he is being addressed as they are usually identical to the titles used by their feudal or governmental equals. In most English-speaking countries, the forms of address are: *A priest is usually referred to as ''Father'', and sometimes as ''Your Reverence'' or ''Reverend Father''. *A monsignor is addressed as "Monsignor." * A Canon (priest), Canon is usually referred to as "Canon." *A bishop is addressed as ''Your Excellency'' or, less formally, ''Excellency''. In Britain and some other countries they are formally addressed as ''My Lord'' or ''My Lord Bishop''. *An archbishop is also addressed as ''Your Excellency'' or, less formally, ''Excellency''. In Britain and some other countries they are formally addressed as ''Your Grace''. *A cardinal is addressed as ''Your Eminence''. *The Pope of the Roman Catholic Church is often addressed as ''Holy Father'' or ''Your Holiness''. In France, secular priests (diocesan priests) are addressed "Monsieur l'Abbé" or, if a parish priest, as "Monsieur le Curé". In Germany and Austria priests are addressed as "Hochwürden" (meaning "very worthy") or with their title of office (Herr Pfarrer, i.e. Mr. Parson). in Italy as "Don" followed by his name (e.g. "Don Luigi Perrone"). Religious priests (members of religious orders) are addressed "Father" in all countries (Père, Pater, Padre etc.). Up until the 19th century, secular clergy in English-speaking countries were usually addressed as "Mister" (which was, in those days, a title reserved for gentleman, those outside the gentry being called by name and surname only), and only priests in religious orders were formally called "Father". In the early 19th century it became customary to call all priests "Father". In the Middle Ages, before the Reformation, secular priests were entitled as knights, with the prefix "Sir". See examples in Shakespeare's plays like Sir Christopher Urswick in Richard III. This is closer to the Italian and Spanish "Don" which derives from the Latin "Dominus" meaning "Lord;" in English, the prefix "Dom" is used for priests who are monks, a prefix which was spelled "Dan" in Middle English. The French "Monsieur" (like the German "Mein Herr", the Italian "Signor" and the Spanish "Señor") also signifies "My Lord", a title commonly used in times past for any person of rank, clerical or lay. The term "minister" is used by the Catholic Church in some cases, such as the head of the Franciscans being the Minister General. In the Greek-Catholic Church, all clergy are called "Father", including deacons, who are titled "Father Deacon", "Deacon Father", or simply "Father". Depending on the institution, seminarians may be titled "Brother", "Brother Seminarian", "Father Seminarian" or simply "Father". Their wives are usually addressed as "presvytera", "matushka" or "khourriyye" as in the Orthodox world and also by their first names. Greek-Catholic Patriarchs are addressed as ''Your Beatitude''. Eastern clergy are usually addressed by their Christian or ordination name, not their surname.


Orthodox


Greek and other Orthodox churches

The form of address for Orthodox clergy varies according to order, rank and level of education. The most common forms are the following:


Armenian Apostolic

The form of address to the clergy of the Armenian Apostolic Church (belongs to the family of Oriental Orthodox ChurchesSe
Orthodox Churches (Oriental)
an

) is almost the same. }) , The Right Reverend Father , Right Reverend Father , - , Doctor Monk (Vardapet; hy, վարդապետ) , The Right Reverend Father , Right Reverend Father , - , Celibate priest ( hy, աբեղայ) , The Very Reverend Father , Very Reverend Father , - , Archpriest ( hy, ավագ քահանայ) , Archpriest Father , Dear Father , - , Priest (Married; hy, քահանայ) , Reverend Father , Dear Father , - , Deacon , Reverend Father , Dear Father , - , Monk , Brother , Dear Brother , - , Nun , Sister , Dear Sister


See also

*Anglican ministry *Ecclesiastical titles and styles *Ministers and elders of the Church of Scotland *Quaker Recorded Minister


References

{{Authority control Christian clergy Christian religious occupations Christian terminology Church of Scotland