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Microbiology (from
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
, ''mīkros'', "small"; , ''bios'', "
life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities A bubble of exhaled gas in water In common usage and classical mechanics, a physical object or physical body (or simply an object or body) is a collection of matter within a ...

life
"; and , ''
-logia ''-logy'' is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in (''-logia''). The earliest English examples were anglicizations of the French ''wiktionary:-logie, -logie'', which was in turn inherit ...
'') is the
scientific study
scientific study
of
microorganism A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes ...
s, those being
unicellular A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemica ...
(single cell),
multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular ...

multicellular
(cell colony), or
acellular Non-cellular life, or acellular life is life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such func ...
(lacking cells). Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including
virology Virology is the Scientific method, scientific study of virusessubmicroscopic, parasitic organisms of genetic material contained in a protein coatand virus-like agents. It focuses on the following aspects of viruses: their structure, classificat ...
,
bacteriology Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactio ...
,
protistology Protistology is a scientific discipline devoted to the study of protists, a highly diverse group of eukaryotic organisms. All eukaryotes apart from animals, plants and fungi are considered protists. Its field of study therefore overlaps with the ...
,
mycology Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungus, fungi, including their genetics, genetic and biochemistry, biochemical properties, their Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy and ethnomycology, their use to humans as a source for t ...
,
immunology Immunology is a branch of biology and Medicine that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms. Immunology charts, measures, and contextualizes the Physiology, physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and ...
and
parasitology Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them. As a biological discipline, the scope of parasitology is not determined by the organism or environment in question but by their way of life. This means it f ...
.
Eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interact ...

Eukaryotic
microorganisms possess membrane-bound
organelles In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, ...
and include
fungi A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ...

fungi
and
protists A protist () is any eukaryotic organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, properties of life. It is a synonym f ...
, whereas
prokaryotic A prokaryote () is a single-celled organism A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual conti ...
organisms—all of which are microorganisms—are conventionally classified as lacking membrane-bound organelles and include
Bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one Cell (biology), biological cell. They constitute a large domain (biology), domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typ ...

Bacteria
and
Archaea Archaea ( ; singular archaeon ) constitute a domain Domain may refer to: Mathematics *Domain of a function, the set of input values for which the (total) function is defined **Domain of definition of a partial function **Natural domain of a pa ...

Archaea
.
Microbiologist A microbiologist (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ...

Microbiologist
s traditionally relied on culture, staining, and
microscopy Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye). There are three well-known branches of micr ...

microscopy
. However, less than 1% of the microorganisms present in common environments can be cultured in isolation using current means. Microbiologists often rely on
molecular biology Molecular biology is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, P ...
tools such as DNA sequence based identification, for example the
16S rRNA 16S rRNA may refer to: * 16S ribosomal RNA, the prokaryotic ribosomal subunit * Mitochondrially encoded 16S RNA, the eukaryotic ribosomal subunit {{Short pages monitor


See also

* Biosafety * ''Microbes and Man'' ;Professional organizations * American Society for Microbiology * Federation of European Microbiological Societies
Society for Applied Microbiology
* Society for General Microbiology ;Journals * Critical Reviews in Microbiology * International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology * Journal of Bacteriology * Nature Reviews Microbiology


References


Further reading

* Kreft, J.-U.; Plugge, C. M.; Grimm, V.; Prats, C.;  Leveau, J. H. J. 
Mighty small: Observing and modeling individual microbes becomes big science
  ''Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences'', 110, 45, 05-11-2013, pàg. 18027–18028. Digital object identifier, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1317472110. ISSN: 0027-8424. PubMed, PMC: PMC3831448. PubMed, PMID: 24194530. *Madigan M.T., Martinko J.M., Dunlap P-V., Clark D.P. 2009. Brock. Biología de los microorganismos. Pearson Educación, Madrid, pp. 1296


External links

* * nature.co
Latest Research, reviews and news on microbiologyMicrobes.info
is a microbiology information portal containing a vast collection of resources including articles, news, frequently asked questions, and links pertaining to the field of microbiology. *

*[http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/loi/micro/ Annual Review of Microbiology] {{Portal bar, Biology Microbiology, Branches of biology Microscopy