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Miami (), officially the City of Miami, is a
coastal The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the ocean The ocean (also the sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the worl ...

coastal
metropolis located in
Miami-Dade County Miami-Dade County is a County (United States), county located in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Florida. According to the 2020 United States census, 2020 census, the county had a population of 2,701,767 making it the most populous co ...
in southeastern
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
,
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. With a population of 467,963 as of the 2020 census, it is the 44th-largest city in the United States and the core of the nation's eighth-largest metropolitan area. The city has the third-largest skyline in the U.S. with over 300 high-rises, 58 of which exceed . Miami is a major center and leader in finance, commerce, culture, arts, and international trade. The metro area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States, with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. In 2020, Miami was classified as a Beta + level
global city A global city, also called a power city, world city, alpha city or world center, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1 ...
by the
GaWC The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for ...
. In 2019, Miami ranked seventh in the United States and 31st among global cities in business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, and political engagement. According to a 2018
UBS UBS Group AG is a Swiss multinational and company founded and based in . Co-headquartered in the cities of and , it maintains a presence in all major financial centres as the and the in the world. UBS client services are known for their ...

UBS
study of 77 world cities, the city was ranked as the third-richest in the world and the second-richest in the United States in
purchasing power Purchasing power is the amount of goods and services that can be purchased with a unit of currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Im ...
. Miami is one of the largest
majority-minority A majority-minority or minority-majority area is a term used to refer to a subdivision Subdivision may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Subdivision (metre), in music * Subdivision (film), ''Subdivision'' (film), 2009 * "Subdivision", an episode ...
cities in the United States. In fact, Miami is the fourth-largest majority-Hispanic city in the United States, with 70.2% of its population being Hispanic in 2020.
Greater Downtown Miami Downtown Miami is an urban City centre, city center, based around the Central Business District (Miami), Central Business District of Miami, Miami, Florida, United States. In addition to the central business district, the area also consists of th ...
has one of the largest concentrations of international banks in the United States, and is home to many large national and international companies. The Health District, home to
Jackson Memorial Hospital Jackson Memorial Hospital (also known as "Jackson" or abbreviated "JMH") is a non-profit, tertiary care teaching hospital and the major teaching hospital of the University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine in Miami, Florida. It currentl ...
and the Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine at the
University of Miami The University of Miami (informally referred to as UM, Miami, UMiami, U of M or The U) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdo ...
among others, is a major center for hospitals, clinics, and the
biotechnology Biotechnology is a broad area of biology, involving the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products. Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with related scientific fields. In the late 20th and early 21st c ...

biotechnology
and
medical research Medical research (or biomedical research), also known as experimental medicine, encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is a type of scientific r ...
industries.
PortMiami The Port of Miami, styled as "PortMiami" but formally the Dante B. Fascell Port of Miami, is a major seaport located in Biscayne Bay Biscayne Bay () is a lagoon that is approximately long and up to wide located on the Atlantic (ocean), Atla ...
is the busiest port in the world in both passenger traffic and cruise lines, and refers to itself as the "Cruise Capital of the World". Miami is also a major tourism hub for international visitors, ranking second in the country after
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. Miami has been called the Gateway to
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
.


Toponymy

Miami was named in 1896 after the Miami River, derived from
Mayaimi The Mayaimi (also Maymi, Maimi) were Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the Unite ...
, the historic name of
Lake Okeechobee Lake Okeechobee (), also known as Florida's Inland Sea, is the largest freshwater lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a Depression (geology), basin, surrounded by land, and set apart from any river or other outlet that s ...
and the
Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
that lived around it.


History

The
Tequesta The Tequesta (also Tekesta, Tegesta, Chequesta, Vizcaynos) were a tribe. At the time of they occupied an area along the southeastern coast of . They had infrequent contact with Europeans and had largely migrated by the middle of the 18th cent ...
tribe occupied the Miami area for around 2,000 years before contact with Europeans. A village of hundreds of people, dating to 500–600 B.C., was located at the mouth of the Miami River. It is believed that the entire tribe migrated to
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
by the mid-1700s. In 1566, admiral
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Pedro Menéndez de Avilés (; 15 February 1519 – 17 September 1574) was a Spanish admiral and explorer from Avilés Avilés () is a town in Asturias, Spain. Avilés is with Oviedo and Gijón, one of the main cities in the Principality of Asturi ...

Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
, Florida's first governor, claimed the area for
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
. A Spanish
mission Mission may refer to: Religion *Mission (station) A religious mission or mission station is a location for missionary work, in particular Christian missions. History Historically, missions have been religious communities used to spread ...
was constructed one year later. Spain and
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
successively ruled Florida until Spain ceded it to the United States in 1821. In 1836, the U.S. built Fort Dallas on the banks of the Miami River as part of their development of the
Florida Territory The Territory of Florida was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 30, 1822, until March 3, 1845, when it was admitted to the Union as the state of Florida. Originally the Spanish territory of '' La Flo ...
and their attempt to suppress and remove the
Seminole The Seminole are a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigeno ...
s. As a result, the Miami area became a site of fighting in the
Second Seminole War The Second Seminole War, also known as the Florida War, was a conflict from 1835 to 1842 in Florida between various groups of Native Americans in the United States, Native Americans and Black Indians in the United States, Black Indians collectiv ...
. Miami is noted as the only major city in the United States founded by a woman.
Julia Tuttle Julia DeForest Tuttle (née Sturtevant; January 22, 1849 – September 14, 1898) was an American businesswoman who owned the property upon which Miami Miami (), officially the City of Miami, is a Coast, coastal metropolis located in southeaster ...
, a local citrus grower and a wealthy
Cleveland Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a city in the U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North ...

Cleveland
native, was the original owner of the land upon which the city was built. In the late 19th century, the area was known as "Biscayne Bay Country", and reports described it as a promising wilderness and "one of the finest building sites in Florida". The
Great Freeze The Great Freeze is the back-to-back freezes of 1894–1895 in Florida Florida (, ) is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. With a population of over 21million, Florida is t ...

Great Freeze
of 1894–95 hastened Miami's growth, as the crops there were the only ones in Florida that survived. Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced
railroad tycoon ''Railroad Tycoon'' is a business simulation game series. There are five versions; the original ''Railroad Tycoon (video game), Railroad Tycoon'' (1990), ''Railroad Tycoon Deluxe'' (1993), ''Railroad Tycoon II'' (1998), ''Railroad Tycoon 3'' (20 ...
Henry Flagler Henry Morrison Flagler (January 2, 1830 – May 20, 1913) was an American industrialist A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term chara ...
to extend his
Florida East Coast Railway The Florida East Coast Railway is a operating in the state of , currently owned by . Built primarily in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, the FEC was a project of principal . He originally visite ...
to the region, for which she became known as "the mother of Miami". Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896, with a population of just over 300. African American labor played a crucial role in Miami's early development. During the early 20th century, migrants from the
Bahamas The Bahamas (), known officially as The Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is a sovereign country within the Lucayan Archipelago of the West Indies in the Atlantic. It takes up 97% of the Lucayan Archipelago's land area and is home to 88% of the a ...
and African-Americans constituted 40 percent of the city's population. Despite their role in the city's growth, their community was limited to a small space. When landlords began to rent homes to African-Americans around Avenue J (what would later become NW Fifth Avenue), a gang of white men with torches marched through the neighborhood and warned the residents to move or be bombed. Miami prospered during the 1920s with an increase in population and development in infrastructure as northerners moved to the city. The legacy of
Jim Crow Jim or JIM may refer to: * Jim, a diminutive form of the given name James (name), James * Jim, a short form of the given name Jimmy (given name), Jimmy * OPCW-UN Joint Investigative Mechanism * Jim (comics), ''Jim'' (comics), a series by Jim Woodri ...
was embedded in these developments. Miami's chief of police at the time, H. Leslie Quigg, did not hide the fact that he, like many other white Miami police officers, was a member of the
Ku Klux Klan The Ku Klux Klan (), commonly shortened to the KKK or the Klan, is an American white supremacist Right-wing terrorism, terrorist hate group whose primary targets are African Americans as well as Jews, Immigration to the United States, immigran ...
. Unsurprisingly, these officers enforced social codes far beyond the written law. Quigg, for example, "personally and publicly beat a colored bellboy to death for speaking directly to a white woman". The collapse of the
Florida land boom of the 1920s The Florida land boom of the 1920s was Florida Florida (, ) is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. With a population of over 21million, Florida is the List of states and te ...
, the 1926 Miami Hurricane, and the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
in the 1930s slowed development. When
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
began, Miami became a base for U.S. defense against due to its prime location on the southern coast of Florida. This brought an increase in Miami's population; 172,172 people lived in the city by 1940. The city's nickname, ''The Magic City'', came from its rapid growth, which was noticed by winter visitors who remarked that the city grew so much from one year to the next that it was like magic. After
Fidel Castro Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (; ; 13 August 1926 – 25 November 2016) was a Cuban revolutionary, lawyer, and politician who was the leader of Cuba from 1959 to 2008, serving as the prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and President of Cuba ...

Fidel Castro
rose to power in
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
following the
Revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, suc ...
in 1959, many wealthy Cubans sought refuge in Miami, further increasing the city's population. Miami developed new businesses and cultural amenities as part of the
New South New South, New South Democracy or New South Creed is a slogan in the history of the Southern United States, American South after the American Civil War. Reformers used it to call for a modernization of society and attitudes, to integrate more fu ...
in the 1980s and 1990s. At the same time, South Florida weathered social problems related to , immigration from
Haiti Haiti (; ht, Ayiti ; french: Haïti ), officially the Republic of Haiti (; ), and formerly known as Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea, to the east of Cuba and J ...

Haiti
and
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
, and the widespread destruction of
Hurricane Andrew Hurricane Andrew was a very powerful and destructive Category 5 Atlantic hurricane An Atlantic hurricane or tropical storm is a tropical cyclone A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm, storm system characterized by a Low-press ...

Hurricane Andrew
. Racial and cultural tensions sometimes sparked, but the city developed in the latter half of the 20th century as a major international, financial, and cultural center. It is the second-largest U.S. city with a Spanish-speaking majority (after
El Paso, Texas El Paso (; "the pass") is a city in and the county seat of El Paso County, Texas, El Paso County in the far southwestern part of the U.S. state of Texas. The 2020 population of the city from the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau w ...

El Paso, Texas
), and the largest city with a
Cuban-American Cuban Americans ( es, cubanoestadounidenses or es, cubanoamericanos) are Americans Americans are the citizens and nationals Nationals may refer to: * People of a given nationality * A tournament or convention of national scope * Washing ...
plurality.U.S. Census, 2010 (Ethnicity) and Census American Community Survey 2008 (language).


Geography

Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the
Everglades The Everglades is a natural region of tropical climate, tropical wetlands in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida, comprising the southern half of a large drainage basin within the Neotropical realm. The ecosystem it forms is not ...

Everglades
to the west and
Biscayne Bay Biscayne Bay () is a lagoon that is approximately long and up to wide located on the Atlantic (ocean), Atlantic coast of South Florida, United States. It is usually divided for purposes of discussion and analysis into three parts: North Bay, C ...
to the east, which extends from
Lake Okeechobee Lake Okeechobee (), also known as Florida's Inland Sea, is the largest freshwater lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a Depression (geology), basin, surrounded by land, and set apart from any river or other outlet that s ...
southward to
Florida Bay Florida Bay is the bay located between the southern end of the Florida Florida (, ) is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. With a population of over 21million, Florida is t ...
. The elevation of the area averages at around above sea level in most neighborhoods, especially near the coast. The highest points are found along the
Miami Rock Ridge The Miami Rock Ridge is a continuous limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate rock, carbonate sedimentary rock. It is composed mostly of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different Polymorphism (materials science), crysta ...
, which lies under most of the eastern Miami metro. The main portion of the city is on the shores of Biscayne Bay, which contains several hundred natural and artificial
barrier island Barrier islands are coastal landforms and a type of dune system that are exceptionally flat or lumpy areas of sand that form by wave and tidal action parallel to the mainland coast. They usually occur in chains, consisting of anything from a f ...
s, the largest of which contains
Miami Beach Miami Beach is a coastal in , , . It was incorporated on March 26, 1915. The is located on natural and s between the and , the latter of which separates the Beach from the mainland city of . The of , comprising the southernmost of Miami ...

Miami Beach
and
South Beach South Beach, also nicknamed SoBe, is a Neighborhoods of Miami Beach, Florida, neighborhood in the city of Miami Beach, Florida, Miami Beach, Florida, United States, located due east of Miami city proper between Biscayne Bay and the Atlantic Ocean ...

South Beach
. The
Gulf Stream The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift The North Atlantic Current (NAC), also known as North Atlantic Drift and North Atlantic Sea Movement, is a powerful warm western boundary current Boundary curren ...
, a warm
ocean current An ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of sea water generated by a number of forces acting upon the water, including wind Wind is the natural movement of air or other gases relative to a planet's surface. Wind occurs on a range ...
, runs northward just off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year.


Geology

The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than thick. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent
glacial period A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier A glacier ( or ) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly movi ...
s, or
ice age An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents an ...

ice age
s. Beginning some 130,000 years ago, the Sangamonian Stage raised sea levels to approximately above the current level. All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida
plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is composed, and the proces ...

plateau
, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the
Dry Tortugas The Dry Tortugas are a small group of islands, located in the Gulf of Mexico at the end of the Florida Keys The Florida Keys are a coral Corals are marine invertebrates within the class (biology), class Anthozoa of the phylum Cnidaria. They ...
. The area behind this reef line was, in fact, a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of
bryozoans Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals) are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a ''backbone'' or ''spine''), ...
. Starting about 100,000 years ago, the
Wisconsin glaciation The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, also called the Wisconsin glaciation, was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex. This advance included the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, which nucleated in the northern North American Cordil ...
began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. By 15,000 years ago, the sea level had dropped below the current level. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4,000 years ago, leaving the
mainland Mainland is defined as "relating to or forming the main part of a country or continent, not including the islands around it egardless of status under territorial jurisdiction by an entity" The term is often human geography, politically, econo ...
of South Florida just
above sea level Above may refer to: *Above (artist) Tavar Zawacki formerly known as 'ABOVE' (born 1981) is an American abstract art Abstract art uses visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of ind ...
. Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer, a natural underground source of fresh water that extends from southern
Palm Beach County Palm Beach County is located in the southeastern part of the State of Florida and lies directly north of Broward County Broward County is located in southeastern Florida, United States. According to the 2019 Census Bureau estimate, the count ...
to
Florida Bay Florida Bay is the bay located between the southern end of the Florida Florida (, ) is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. With a population of over 21million, Florida is t ...
. It comes closest to the surface around the cities of Miami Springs and
Hialeah Hialeah ( ) is a city in Miami-Dade County Miami-Dade County is located in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Florida Florida (, ) is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United ...
. Most of the
Miami metropolitan area The Miami metropolitan area is the seventh-largest metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative ...
obtains its drinking water from the Biscayne Aquifer. As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than beneath the city without hitting water, which impedes underground construction, though some underground parking garages exist. For this reason, the
mass transit File:201703118号线列车正在开出沈杜公路折返线.jpg, Shanghai Metro is the second largest rapid transit system in the world by route length, after the Beijing Subway. Public transport (also known as public transportation, publi ...
systems in and around Miami are elevated or
at-gradeAt-grade may refer to: *At-grade intersection, a crossing between roads on the same level * Road junction *Level crossing, where a road or path crosses a railway on the same level * Diamond crossing, where two railway tracks cross * At-grade railway, ...
. Most of the western fringes of the city border the
Everglades The Everglades is a natural region of tropical climate, tropical wetlands in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida, comprising the southern half of a large drainage basin within the Neotropical realm. The ecosystem it forms is not ...

Everglades
, a tropical marshland covering most of the southern portion of Florida.
Alligators An alligator is a crocodilia Crocodilia (or Crocodylia, both ) is an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic reptile Reptiles are tetrapod Tetrapods (; from Greek 'four' and 'foot') are four-limbed animals constituting th ...

Alligators
that live in the marshes have ventured into Miami communities and onto major highways. In terms of land area, Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. According to the
U.S. Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of th ...
, the city encompasses a total area of , of which is land and is water. That means Miami comprises over 470,000 people in about , making it one of the most in the United States, along with
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
,
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
,
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
,
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
, and
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...

Philadelphia
.


Cityscape


Neighborhoods

Miami is split roughly into north, south, west, and Downtown areas. The heart of the city is
Downtown Miami Downtown Miami is an urban city center A city centre is the commercial, cultural and often the historical, political, and geographic heart of a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geog ...

Downtown Miami
, which is on the eastern side and includes the neighborhoods of
Brickell Brickell ( ) is an urban neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English, Hiberno-English, Hibernian English, Australian English and Canadian English) or neighborhood (American English; American and British English spelling differences, see s ...
,
Virginia Key Virginia Key is an barrier island in Miami Miami (), officially the City of Miami, is a Coast, coastal metropolis located in southeastern Florida in the United States. It is the third most populous metropolitan area, metropolis on the East c ...
, , as well as
PortMiami The Port of Miami, styled as "PortMiami" but formally the Dante B. Fascell Port of Miami, is a major seaport located in Biscayne Bay Biscayne Bay () is a lagoon that is approximately long and up to wide located on the Atlantic (ocean), Atla ...
. Downtown Miami is Florida's largest and most influential central business district, with many major banks, courthouses, financial headquarters, cultural and tourist attractions, schools, parks, and a large residential population.
Brickell Avenue Brickell Avenue is a north–south road that is part of U.S. Route 1 (Florida), U.S. Route 1, in Miami, Florida, just south of the Miami River (Florida), Miami River. North of the Brickell Avenue Bridge, U.S. Route 1 is known as Biscayne Boulevar ...
has the largest concentration of international banks in the United States. Just northwest of Downtown is the Health District, which is Miami's center for hospitals,
research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research. Research institutes may specialize in basic research or may be oriented to applied research. Although the term often implies natural science ...
s and
biotechnology Biotechnology is a broad area of biology, involving the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products. Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with related scientific fields. In the late 20th and early 21st c ...

biotechnology
, with hospitals such as
Jackson Memorial Hospital Jackson Memorial Hospital (also known as "Jackson" or abbreviated "JMH") is a non-profit, tertiary care teaching hospital and the major teaching hospital of the University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine in Miami, Florida. It currentl ...
,
Bascom Palmer Eye Institute Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, of the University of Miami The University of Miami (informally referred to as UM, Miami, UMiami, U of M or The U) is a private research university in Coral Gables, Florida. , the university enrolled approximately ...
, and the
University of Miami The University of Miami (informally referred to as UM, Miami, UMiami, U of M or The U) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdo ...
's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine. The southern side of Miami includes the neighborhoods of
Coral Way Coral Way is a neighborhood within Miami, Florida that is defined by Coral Way (street), Coral Way, a road established by Coral Gables, Florida, Coral Gables founder George E. Merrick during the Florida land boom of the 1920s, 1920s. It is located i ...
,
The Roads The Roads is a neighborhood of Miami Miami (), officially the City of Miami, is a Coast, coastal metropolis located in southeastern Florida in the United States. It is the third most populous metropolitan area, metropolis on the East coast of ...
, and
Coconut Grove Coconut Grove, also known colloquially as The Grove, is the oldest continuously inhabited neighborhoods of Miami, neighborhood of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida, Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. The neighborhood is roughly bound ...
. Coral Way is a historic residential neighborhood built in 1922 between Downtown and
Coral Gables Coral Gables, officially the City of Coral Gables, is a city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States, located southwest of Greater Downtown Miami, Downtown Miami. The United States Census Bureau estimates conduct ...
, and is home to many old homes and tree-lined streets. Coconut Grove, established in 1825, is a historic neighborhood with narrow, winding roads and a heavy tree canopy. It is the location of Miami's City Hall at
Dinner Key Dinner Key is a marina A marina (from Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * ...
, the former
Coconut Grove Playhouse The Coconut Grove Playhouse was a theatre in the Coconut Grove neighborhood of Miami, Florida, United States. The building was originally constructed as a movie theater called the Player's State Theater. It opened on January 3, 1927, as a part of t ...
,
CocoWalk CocoWalk was an upscale lifestyle center in the Coconut Grove Coconut Grove, also known colloquially as The Grove, is the oldest continuously inhabited neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the sta ...

CocoWalk
, and the
Coconut Grove Convention Center The Coconut Grove Convention Center (formerly the Dinner Key Auditorium, also known as the Coconut Grove Expo Center), was an indoor arena An arena is a large enclosed platform, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theatr ...
. It is also home to many nightclubs, bars, restaurants, and Bohemianism, bohemian shops, which makes it very popular with local college students. Coconut Grove is known for its many parks and gardens, such as Vizcaya Museum and Gardens, Vizcaya Museum, The Kampong, The Barnacle Historic State Park, and numerous other historic homes and estates. The western side of Miami includes the neighborhoods of Little Havana, West Flagler, and Flagami. Although at one time a mostly Jewish neighborhood, today western Miami is home to immigrants from mostly Central America and
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
, while the west central neighborhood of Allapattah is a multicultural community of many ethnicities. The northern side of Miami includes Midtown Miami, Midtown, a district with a great mix of diversity ranging from West Indian Americans, West Indians to Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanics to European Americans. The Edgewater (Miami), Edgewater neighborhood of Midtown is mostly composed of high-rise residential towers and is home to the Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts. Wynwood Art District, Wynwood is an art district with ten galleries in former warehouses, as well as a large outdoor mural project. The wealthier residents of Miami usually live in the Miami Design District, Design District and the Upper Eastside, which has many 1920s homes as well as examples of Miami Modern architecture in the MiMo Historic District. The northern side of Miami also has notable African-American and Caribbean immigrant communities, including Little Haiti, Overtown (Miami), Overtown (home of the Lyric Theater (Miami), Lyric Theater), and Liberty City (Miami), Liberty City.


Climate

Miami has a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification ''Am'') with warm winters and very hot summers, and a marked drier season in the winter. Although it is relatively cooler than most other tropical places in the winter and does get occasional 40 degree Fahrenheit () lows, Miami nevertheless meets the minimum requirements to be in the tropical climate zone, making it one of the northernmost major cities on Earth within this classification. The city's sea-level elevation, coastal location, position just above the Tropic of Cancer, and proximity to the
Gulf Stream The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift The North Atlantic Current (NAC), also known as North Atlantic Drift and North Atlantic Sea Movement, is a powerful warm western boundary current Boundary curren ...
shape its climate. Average winter high temperatures, from December to March, range from . January is the coolest month with an average daily temperature of . Low temperatures fall below about 10–15 nights during the winter season, after the passage of cold fronts that produce much of the winter rainfall. Based on records from Miami International Airport, the National Weather Service defines two Season#Meteorological, meteorological seasons in Miami, summer and winter. Summer is warm and humid, and has frequent showers and thunderstorms. Winter is cooler and drier, with lower rain totals. Spring and autumn are treated as part of winter because they are also cooler and less rainy than summer. Summer in Miami is defined as the period during which the average daily dew point temperature is above . The rainy season typically begins on the first day that occurs, or within a few days later. Similarly, daily rainfall in Miami decreases sharply when the average daily dew point falls to or below, although in some years, a stalled front to the south of the Florida peninsula may cause rains to continue for a few more days. During the years 1956 to 1997, the date summer began ranged from April 16 to June 3, with a median date of May 21. During those same years, the date summer ended ranged from September 24 to November 1, with a median date of October 17. During the summer, temperatures range from the mid-80s to low 90s °F (29–35 °C) and are accompanied by high humidity, though the heat is often relieved in the afternoon by thunderstorms or a sea breeze that develops off the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the year's of rainfall occurs during this period. Dew points in the warm months range from in June to in August. Extremes range from on February 3, 1917 to on July 21, 1942. While Miami has never snow in Florida, recorded snowfall at any official weather station since records have been kept, Snow flurry, snow flurries fell in some parts of the city on January 19, 1977. Tropical cyclone, Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30, although hurricanes can develop beyond those dates. The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde hurricane, Cape Verde season, which is mid-August through the end of September. Although tornadoes are uncommon in the area, one struck in 1925 Miami tornado, 1925 and another in 1997 Miami tornado, 1997. Around 40% of homes in Miami are built upon floodplains and are considered as flood-risk zones. Miami falls under the United States Department of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture's 10b/11a plant hardiness zone. Miami is one of the major coastal cities and major cities in the United States that will be most affected by climate change. Global sea level rise, which in Miami will be until 2060, will lead to an increase in storm damage, more intense flooding and will threaten the city's water supply. Real estate prices in Miami already reflect the increase in prices for real estate at a higher elevation within the city compared to real estate at a lower elevation.


Demographics

The city proper is home to less than one-thirteenth of the population of South Florida. Miami is the 44th most populous city in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. The
Miami metropolitan area The Miami metropolitan area is the seventh-largest metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative ...
, which includes Miami-Dade County, Florida, Miami-Dade, Broward County, Florida, Broward, and Palm Beach County, Florida, Palm Beach counties, has a population of 6.1 million people, ranking eighth largest in the United States. In 1960, Hispanics made up about 5% of the population of Miami-Dade County. Between 1960 and 2000, 90% of the population growth in the county was made up of Hispanics, raising the Hispanic portion of the population to more than 57% by 2000. In 1970, the Census Bureau reported Miami's population as 45% Hispanic, 32.9% non-Hispanic White, and 22.7% Black. Miami's explosive population growth has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country, primarily up until the 1980s, as well as by Immigration to the United States, immigration, primarily from the 1960s to the 1990s. Today, immigration to Miami has continued and Miami's growth today is attributed greatly to its fast urbanization and high-rise construction, which has increased its inner city neighborhood population densities, such as in Downtown, Brickell, and Edgewater (Miami), Edgewater, where one area in Downtown alone saw a 2,069% increase in population in the 2010 Census. Miami is regarded as more of a multiculturalism, multicultural mosaic, than it is a melting pot, with residents still maintaining much of, or some of their Culture, cultural traits. The overall culture of Miami is heavily influenced by its large population of Hispanics from the Caribbean and South America and black people mainly from the Caribbean islands.


Race, ethnicity, religion, and languages

Miami has a minority-majority population, as non-Hispanic whites comprise less than half of the population, 11.9%, down from 41.7% in 1970. Hispanic (U.S. Census), Hispanic or Latino (of any race) make up 70% of Miami's population. As of the 2010 census, the racial makeup of the population of Miami was 72.6% White American (including White Hispanic), 19.2% Black or African American, 1% Asian American, and the remainder belonged to other groups or was of mixed ancestry. The 2010 US Census reported that the Hispanic population in Miami accounted for 70% of its total population, with 34.4% of city residents being of Cuban people, Cuban origin, 15.8% had a Central American background (7.2% Nicaraguan people, Nicaraguan, 5.8% Honduran people, Honduran, 1.2% Salvadoran people, Salvadoran, and 1.0% Guatemalan people, Guatemalan), 8.7% were of South American descent (3.2% Colombian people, Colombian, 1.4% Venezuelan people, Venezuelan, 1.2% Peruvian people, Peruvian, 1.2% Argentine people, Argentine, 1.0% Chilean people, Chilean and 0.7% Ecuadorian people, Ecuadorian), 4.0% had Hispanic people, other Hispanic or Latino origins (0.5% Spaniard), 3.2% descended from Puerto Rican people, Puerto Ricans, 2.4% were Dominican people (Dominican Republic), Dominican, and 1.5% had Mexican people, Mexican ancestry. , those of African ancestry accounted for 19.2% of Miami's population. Of the city's total population, 5.6% were West Indian or Afro-Caribbean American origin (4.4% Haitian people, Haitian, 0.4% Jamaican people, Jamaican, 0.4% Bahamian people, Bahamian, 0.1% British West Indian, and 0.1% Trinidadian and Tobagonian, 0.1% Afro-Caribbean, Other or Unspecified West Indian), 3.0% were Black Hispanics, and 0.4% were Sub-Saharan African, Subsaharan African origin. , those of (non-Hispanic white) European ancestry accounted for 11.9% of Miami's population. Of the city's total population, 1.7% were German, 1.6% Italian, 1.4% Irish, 1.0% English, 0.8% French, 0.6% Russian, and 0.5% were Polish. Since the 1960s, there has been massive white flight with many non-Hispanic whites moving outside Miami due to the influx of immigrants settling in most parts of Miami. , those of Asian ancestry accounted for 1.0% of Miami's population. Of the city's total population, 0.3% were Indian Americans, Indian/Indo-Caribbean American, Indo-Caribbean (1,206 people), 0.3% Chinese people, Chinese/Chinese Caribbeans, Chinese Caribbean (1,804 people), 0.2% Filipino people, Filipino (647 people), 0.1% were other Asian (433 people), 0.1% Japanese people, Japanese (245 people), 0.1% Korean people, Korean (213 people), and 0.0% were Vietnamese people, Vietnamese (125 people). In 2010, 1.9% of the population considered themselves to be of only American ancestry (regardless of race or ethnicity), while 0.5% were of Arab ancestry, . According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, Christianity is the most prevalently practiced religion in Miami (68%), with 39% professing attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered Protestant, and 27% professing Roman Catholic beliefs. followed by Judaism (9%); Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and a variety of other religions have smaller followings; atheism or no self-identifying organized religious affiliation was practiced by 21%. There has been a Norwegian Church Abroad, Norwegian Seamen's church in Miami since the early 1980s. In November 2011, Crown Princess Mette-Marit opened a new building for the church. The church was built as a center for the 10,000 Scandinavians that live in Florida. Around 4,000 of them are Norwegians, Norwegian. The church is also an important place for the 150 Norwegians that work at Disney World. , a total of 73% of Miami's population age five and over spoke a language other than English at home. Of this 73%, 64.5% of the population only spoke Spanish at home while 21.1% of the population spoke English at home. About 7% spoke other Indo-European languages at home, while about 0.9% spoke Languages of Asia, Asian languages or Languages of Oceania, Pacific Islander languages/Oceanic languages at home. The remaining 0.7% of the population spoke other languages at home. , 70.2% of Miami's population age five and over spoke only Spanish at home while 22.7% of the population spoke English at home. About 6.3% spoke other Indo-European languages at home. About 0.4% spoke Languages of Asia, Asian languages or Languages of Oceania, Pacific Islander languages/Oceanic languages at home. The remaining 0.3% of the population spoke other languages at home. In total, 77.3% spoke another language other than English.


Education, households, income, and poverty

, 80% of people over age 25 were a high school graduate or higher. 27.3% of people in Miami had a bachelor's degree or higher. , there were 158,317 households, of which 14% were vacant. 22.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.3% were married couples living together, 18.1% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 43.1% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older (4% male and 7.3% female.) The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.15. In 2010, the city population was spread out, with 18.8% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 33.1% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, and 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.1 males. In 2010, 58.1% of the county's population was foreign born, with 41.1% being Naturalized citizen of the United States, naturalized American citizens. Of foreign-born residents, 95.4% were born in Latin America, 2.4% were born in Europe, 1.4% born in Asia, 0.5% born in Africa, 0.2% in North America, and 0.1% were born in Oceania. In 2004, the United Nations, United Nations Development Program (UNDP) reported that Miami had the highest proportion of foreign-born residents of any major city worldwide (59%), followed by Toronto (50%). About 22.2% of families and 27.3% of the population were below the poverty line at the census, including 37.1% of those under age 18 and 32.8% of those aged 65 or over.


Economy

Miami is a major center of commerce and finance and boasts a strong international business community. According to the 2020 ranking of world cities undertaken by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) based on the level of presence of global corporate service organizations, Miami is considered a Beta + level Global city, world city, along with Atlanta, Dallas, and Houston, however according to the US census between the years 2015–2019, Miami lacks in terms of owner-occupied housing, computer and internet usage, education regarding bachelor's degree or higher, median household income, per capita income, while achieving higher percentage of persons in poverty. Miami has a Gross Metropolitan Product of $257 billion, ranking 11th in the United States and 20th worldwide in GMP. Several large companies are headquartered in Miami, including but not limited to Akerman LLP, Alienware, Arquitectonica, Brightstar Corporation, Celebrity Cruises, Carnival Corporation & plc, Carnival Corporation, Duany Plater-Zyberk, Greenberg Traurig, Inktel Direct, Lennar Corporation, Norwegian Cruise Line, Oceania Cruises, OPKO Health, Parkjockey, RCTV International, Royal Caribbean International, Sitel, Southern Wine & Spirits, Telemundo, Vector Group, Watsco and World Fuel Services. Over 1,400 multinational firms are located in Miami, with many major global organisations headquartering their Latin American operations (or regional offices) in the city including Walmart. Additionally, companies based in nearby cities or unincorporated areas of
Miami-Dade County Miami-Dade County is a County (United States), county located in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Florida. According to the 2020 United States census, 2020 census, the county had a population of 2,701,767 making it the most populous co ...
include, Benihana, Burger King, Carnival Cruise Line, Navarro Discount Pharmacies, Perry Ellis International, Ryder, Sedano's, UniMás, and U.S. Century Bank. Miami is a major television production center, and the most important city in the United States for Spanish language media. Telemundo and UniMás have their headquarters in the Miami area. Univision, Univisión Studios and Telemundo Studios produce much of the original programming for their respective parent networks, such as telenovelas, news, sports, and talk shows. In 2011, 85% of Telemundo's original programming was filmed in Miami. Miami is also a significant music recording center, with the Sony Music Latin headquarters in the city, along with many other smaller record labels. The city also attracts many artists for music video and film shoots. During the mid-2000s, the city witnessed its largest real estate boom since the
Florida land boom of the 1920s The Florida land boom of the 1920s was Florida Florida (, ) is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. With a population of over 21million, Florida is the List of states and te ...
, and the city had well over a hundred approved high-rise construction projects. However, only 50 were actually built. Rapid high-rise construction led to fast population growth in the Miami's inner neighborhoods, with Greater Downtown Miami, Downtown,
Brickell Brickell ( ) is an urban neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English, Hiberno-English, Hibernian English, Australian English and Canadian English) or neighborhood (American English; American and British English spelling differences, see s ...
and Edgewater (Miami), Edgewater becoming the fastest-growing areas of the city. The city currently has the seven tallest (as well as fifteen of top twenty) List of tallest buildings in Florida, skyscrapers in the state of Florida, with the tallest being the Panorama Tower. The United States housing bubble, housing market crash of 2007 caused a foreclosure crisis in the area. In 2012, ''Forbes'' magazine named Miami the most miserable city in the United States because of the crippling housing crisis that cost multitudes of residents their homes and jobs. In addition, the metro area has one of the highest violent crime rates in the country and workers face lengthy daily commutes. Like other metro areas in the United States, crime in Miami is localized to specific neighborhoods. In a 2016 study by the website ''24/7 Wall Street'', Miami was rated as the worst U.S. city in which to live, based on crime, poverty, income inequality in the United States, income inequality, education, and housing costs that far exceed the national median. Miami International Airport (MIA) and
PortMiami The Port of Miami, styled as "PortMiami" but formally the Dante B. Fascell Port of Miami, is a major seaport located in Biscayne Bay Biscayne Bay () is a lagoon that is approximately long and up to wide located on the Atlantic (ocean), Atla ...
are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. PortMiami is the world's busiest cruise port, and MIA is the busiest airport in Florida and the largest gateway between the United States and Latin America. Due to its strength in international business, finance and trade, the city has among the largest concentration of international banks in the country, primarily along
Brickell Avenue Brickell Avenue is a north–south road that is part of U.S. Route 1 (Florida), U.S. Route 1, in Miami, Florida, just south of the Miami River (Florida), Miami River. North of the Brickell Avenue Bridge, U.S. Route 1 is known as Biscayne Boulevar ...
in
Brickell Brickell ( ) is an urban neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English, Hiberno-English, Hibernian English, Australian English and Canadian English) or neighborhood (American English; American and British English spelling differences, see s ...
, Miami's financial district. Miami was the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations. Miami is the home to the National Hurricane Center and the headquarters of the United States Southern Command, responsible for military operations in Central America, Central and South America. Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing. These industries are centered largely on the western fringes of the city near Doral, Florida, Doral and
Hialeah Hialeah ( ) is a city in Miami-Dade County Miami-Dade County is located in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Florida Florida (, ) is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United ...
. According to the
U.S. Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of th ...
in 2012, Miami had the List of lowest-income places in the United States, fourth highest percentage of family incomes below the federal poverty line out of all large cities in the United States, behind Detroit, Detroit, Michigan, Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio, and Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, respectively. Miami is also one of the very few cities in the U.S. where the local government has gone bankrupt, in 2001. On the other hand, Miami has won accolades for its environmental policies: in 2008, it was ranked as "America's Cleanest City" according to ''Forbes'' for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets and citywide recycling programs.


PortMiami

Miami is home to one of the largest ports in the United States, the
PortMiami The Port of Miami, styled as "PortMiami" but formally the Dante B. Fascell Port of Miami, is a major seaport located in Biscayne Bay Biscayne Bay () is a lagoon that is approximately long and up to wide located on the Atlantic (ocean), Atla ...
. It is the largest cruise ship port in the world, and is often called the "Cruise Capital of the World" and the "Cargo Gateway of the Americas". It has retained its status as the number one cruise/passenger port in the world for well over a decade, accommodating the largest cruise ships and the major cruise lines. In 2017, the port served 5,340,559 cruise passengers. Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing 9,162,340 tons of cargo in 2017. Among North American ports, it ranks second to New Orleans' Port of South Louisiana in cargo tonnage imported from
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
. The port sits on and has seven passenger terminals. China is the port's number one import country and number one export country. Miami has the world's largest amount of cruise line headquarters, home to Carnival Cruise Line, Celebrity Cruises, Norwegian Cruise Line, Oceania Cruises, and Royal Caribbean International. In 2014, the Port of Miami Tunnel was opened, connecting the MacArthur Causeway to PortMiami.


Tourism and conventions

Tourism is one of the Miami's largest private-sector industries, accounting for more than 144,800 jobs in
Miami-Dade County Miami-Dade County is a County (United States), county located in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Florida. According to the 2020 United States census, 2020 census, the county had a population of 2,701,767 making it the most populous co ...
. The city's frequent portrayal in music, film, and popular culture has made the city and its landmarks recognizable worldwide. In 2016, it attracted the second-highest number of foreign tourists of any city in the United States, after
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
, and is among the top 20 cities worldwide by international visitor spending. More than 15.9 million visitors arrived in Miami in 2017, adding $26.1 billion to the economy. With a large hotel infrastructure and the newly renovated Miami Beach Convention Center, Miami is a popular destination for annual conventions and conferences. Some of the most popular tourist destinations in Miami include
South Beach South Beach, also nicknamed SoBe, is a Neighborhoods of Miami Beach, Florida, neighborhood in the city of Miami Beach, Florida, Miami Beach, Florida, United States, located due east of Miami city proper between Biscayne Bay and the Atlantic Ocean ...

South Beach
, Lincoln Road, Bayside Marketplace, Greater Downtown Miami, Downtown Miami, and Brickell City Centre. The Miami Beach Architectural District, Art Deco District in
Miami Beach Miami Beach is a coastal in , , . It was incorporated on March 26, 1915. The is located on natural and s between the and , the latter of which separates the Beach from the mainland city of . The of , comprising the southernmost of Miami ...

Miami Beach
is reputed as one of the most glamorous in the world for its nightclubs, beaches, historical buildings, and shopping. Annual events such as the Miami Open (tennis), Miami Open, Art Basel, the Winter Music Conference, the Food Network South Beach Wine and Food Festival, South Beach Wine and Food Festival, and Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Miami attract millions to the metropolis every year.


Culture

Miami enjoys a vibrant culture that is influenced by a diverse population from all around the world. Miami is known as the "Magic City" for seemingly popping up overnight due to its young age and massive growth. It is also nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America" because of its high population of Spanish-speakers. Miami has been the setting of numerous films and television shows, including ''Miami Vice'', ''Burn Notice'', ''Jane the Virgin'', Scarface (1983 film), ''Scarface'', ''The Birdcage'', ''Ace Ventura: Pet Detective'', ''The Golden Girls'', and ''Dexter (TV series), Dexter''. The fictional Vice City, featured in several video games across the ''Grand Theft Auto'' series, most notably ''Grand Theft Auto: Vice City'', is based on Miami.


Entertainment and performing arts

In addition to annual festivals like the Calle Ocho Festival, Miami is home to many entertainment venues, theaters, museums, parks and performing arts centers. The newest addition to the Miami arts scene is the Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts, home of the Florida Grand Opera and the second-largest performing arts center in the United States after Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, Lincoln Center in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. The center attracts many large-scale operas, ballets, concerts, and musicals from around the world. Other performing arts venues in Miami include the Olympia Theater (Miami), Olympia Theater, Wertheim Performing Arts Center, the Fair Expo Center, the Tower Theater (Miami, Florida), Tower Theater, and the Bayfront Park, Bayfront Park Amphitheater. Another celebrated event is the Miami International Film Festival, taking place every year for 10 days around the first week of March, during which independent international and American films are screened across the city. Miami has over a half dozen independent film theaters. Miami attracts a large number of musicians, singers, actors, dancers, and orchestral players. The city has numerous orchestras, symphonies and performing art conservatories. These include the Florida Grand Opera, Florida International University, FIU School of Music, Frost School of Music, and the New World School of the Arts. Miami is also a major fashion center, home to models and some of the top modeling agencies in the world. The city is host to many fashion shows and events, including the annual Miami Fashion Week and the Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Miami, held in the Wynwood Art District. Miami will be having their first boat-in movie theater on Saturday, July 25, 2020. This idea came about because of the social distancing efforts amid the COVID-19-Pandemic. The event is $50 per boat and there is no swimming allowed in the area. Guests are expected to bring their own boat and to remain inside of it for safety. Other cities implementing similar ideas are:
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
, Los Angeles, Cincinnati, NYC and Paris.


Museums and visual arts

Some of the museums in Miami include the Frost Art Museum, Phillip and Patricia Frost Museum of Science, Frost Museum of Science, HistoryMiami, Institute of Contemporary Art (Miami), Institute of Contemporary Art, Miami Children's Museum, Pérez Art Museum Miami, Pérez Art Museum, Lowe Art Museum, and the Vizcaya Museum and Gardens, a National Historic Landmark set on a 28-acre early 20th century estate in Coconut Grove, Florida, Coconut Grove.


Cuisine

The cuisine of Miami is a reflection of its diverse population, with a heavy influence from Caribbean cuisine, Caribbean and Latin American cuisine. By combining the two with American cuisine, it has spawned a unique South Florida style of cooking known as Floribbean cuisine. It is widely available throughout Miami and South Florida and can be found in restaurant chains such as Pollo Tropical. Cuban immigrants in the 1960s originated the Cuban sandwich and brought medianoche, Cuban espresso, and croquette, croquetas, all of which have grown in popularity among all Miamians and have become symbols of the city's varied cuisine. Today, these are part of the local culture and can be found throughout the city at window cafés, particularly outside of supermarkets and restaurants. Some of these locations, such as the Versailles restaurant in Little Havana, are landmark eateries of Miami. Located on the Atlantic Ocean, and with a long history as a Port, seaport, Miami is also known for its seafood, with many seafood restaurants located along the Miami River and in and around Biscayne Bay. The city is also the headquarters of restaurant chains such as Burger King and Benihana.


Dialect

The Miami area has a unique dialect, commonly called the "Miami accent", that is widely spoken. The accent developed among second- or third-generation Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanics, including Cuban Americans, whose first language was English (though some Non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic white, black people, black, and Race and ethnicity in the United States, other races who were born and raised in the Miami area tend to adopt it as well). It is based on a fairly General American, standard American accent but with some changes, very similar to dialects in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic (especially those in the New York City English, New York area and New Jersey English, Northern New Jersey, including New York Latino English). Unlike Piedmont region of Virginia, Virginia Piedmont, Coastal Southern American, Northeast American dialects and Florida Cracker dialect, "Miami accent" is Rhoticity in English, rhotic; it also incorporates a rhythm and pronunciation heavily influenced by Spanish (wherein rhythm is isochrony#syllable timing, syllable-timed). This is a native dialect of English, not learner English or interlanguage; it is possible to differentiate this variety from an interlanguage spoken by second-language speakers in that the "Miami accent" does ''not'' generally display the following features: there is no epenthesis, addition of before initial consonant clusters with , speakers do not confuse of with , (e.g., ''Yale'' with ''jail''), and /r/ and /rr/ are pronounced as Alveolar approximant, alveolar approximant [] instead of alveolar tap or alveolar trill [r] in Spanish.


Sports

Miami's main five sports teams are Inter Miami CF of Major League Soccer (MLS), the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League (NFL), the Miami Heat of the National Basketball Association (NBA), the Miami Marlins of Major League Baseball (MLB), and the Florida Panthers of the National Hockey League (NHL). The Miami Open (tennis), Miami Open, an annual tennis tournament, was previously held in Key Biscayne, Florida, Key Biscayne before moving to Hard Rock Stadium after the tournament was purchased by Miami Dolphins owner Stephen M. Ross, Stephen Ross in 2019. The city is home to numerous marinas, jai alai venues, and golf courses. The city streets have hosted professional auto races in the past, most notably the open-wheel Grand Prix of Miami (open wheel racing), Grand Prix of Miami and the sports car Grand Prix of Miami (sports car racing), Grand Prix of Miami. The Homestead–Miami Speedway, Homestead-Miami Speedway oval hosts NASCAR races. The Heat and the Marlins play within Miami's city limits, at the FTX Arena in Greater Downtown Miami, Downtown and LoanDepot Park in Little Havana, respectively. Marlins Park is built on the site of the old Miami Orange Bowl stadium. The Miami Dolphins play at Hard Rock Stadium in suburban Miami Gardens, Florida, Miami Gardens, while the Florida Panthers play in nearby Sunrise, Florida, Sunrise at the FLA Live Arena. Inter Miami CF plays at DRV PNK Stadium in nearby Fort Lauderdale, temporarily until a stadium is built in Miami. The Orange Bowl, one of the major bowl games in the College Football Playoff of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, NCAA, is played at Hard Rock Stadium every winter. The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the Miami metro area has hosted the game a total of ten times (five times at the current Hard Rock Stadium and five at the Miami Orange Bowl), tying New Orleans for the most games. Miami is also the home of many college sports teams. The two largest are the
University of Miami The University of Miami (informally referred to as UM, Miami, UMiami, U of M or The U) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdo ...
Miami Hurricanes, Hurricanes, whose Miami Hurricanes football, football team plays at Hard Rock Stadium and Florida International University FIU Panthers, Panthers, whose FIU Panthers football, football team plays at Riccardo Silva Stadium, Ricardo Silva Stadium. Miami is also home to Paso Fino horses, and competitions are held at Tropical Park Equestrian Center. The following table (below) shows the major professional in the Miami metro area:


Beaches and parks

The City of Miami has various lands operated by the National Park Service, the Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, and the City of Miami Department of Parks and Recreation. Miami's tropical weather allows for year-round outdoor activities. The city has numerous marinas, rivers, bays, canals, and the Atlantic Ocean, which make boating, sailing, and fishing popular outdoor activities. Biscayne Bay has numerous coral reefs that make snorkeling and scuba diving popular. There are over 80 parks and gardens in the city. The largest and most popular parks are Bayfront Park and Museum Park (Miami), Museum Park (located in the heart of Greater Downtown Miami, Downtown and the location of the American Airlines Arena and Bayside Marketplace), Tropical Park, Peacock Park,
Virginia Key Virginia Key is an barrier island in Miami Miami (), officially the City of Miami, is a Coast, coastal metropolis located in southeastern Florida in the United States. It is the third most populous metropolitan area, metropolis on the East c ...
, and . Other popular cultural destinations in or near Miami include Zoo Miami, Jungle Island, the Miami Seaquarium, Monkey Jungle, Coral Castle, Charles Deering Estate, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, and Key Biscayne. In its 2020 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that the park system in the City of Miami was the 64th best park system among the 100 most populous US cities, down slightly from 48th place in the 2017 ranking. The City of Miami was analyzed to have a median park size of 2.6 acres, park land as percent of city area of 6.5%, 87% of residents living within a 10-minute walk of a park, $48.39 spending per capita of park services, and 1.3 playgrounds per 10,000 residents.


Law and government

The government of the City of Miami uses the Mayor-council government, mayor-commissioner type of system. The city commission consists of five commissioners that are elected from single member districts. The city commission constitutes the governing body with powers to pass ordinances, adopt regulations, and exercise all powers conferred upon the city in the city charter. The mayor is elected at large and appoints a city manager. The City of Miami is governed by Mayor Francis X. Suarez and 5 city commissioners that oversee the five districts in the city. The commission's regular meetings are held at Miami City Hall, which is located at 3500 Pan American Drive on
Dinner Key Dinner Key is a marina A marina (from Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * ...
in the neighborhood of Coconut Grove, Miami, Florida, Coconut Grove. In the United States House of Representatives, Miami is represented by Republican Party (United States), Republican Maria Elvira Salazar and Democratic Party (United States), Democrat Frederica Wilson.


City Commission

* Francis X. Suarez – Mayor of the City of Miami * Alex Diaz de la Portilla – Miami Commissioner, District 1 ::Allapattah and Grapeland Heights * Ken Russell – Miami Commissioner, District 2 ::Arts & Entertainment District,
Brickell Brickell ( ) is an urban neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English, Hiberno-English, Hibernian English, Australian English and Canadian English) or neighborhood (American English; American and British English spelling differences, see s ...
,
Coconut Grove Coconut Grove, also known colloquially as The Grove, is the oldest continuously inhabited neighborhoods of Miami, neighborhood of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida, Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. The neighborhood is roughly bound ...
,
Coral Way Coral Way is a neighborhood within Miami, Florida that is defined by Coral Way (street), Coral Way, a road established by Coral Gables, Florida, Coral Gables founder George E. Merrick during the Florida land boom of the 1920s, 1920s. It is located i ...
,
Downtown Miami Downtown Miami is an urban city center A city centre is the commercial, cultural and often the historical, political, and geographic heart of a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geog ...

Downtown Miami
, Edgewater (Miami), Edgewater, Midtown Miami, Park West (Miami), Park West and the South part Upper Eastside * Joe Carollo – Miami Commissioner, District 3 ::
Coral Way Coral Way is a neighborhood within Miami, Florida that is defined by Coral Way (street), Coral Way, a road established by Coral Gables, Florida, Coral Gables founder George E. Merrick during the Florida land boom of the 1920s, 1920s. It is located i ...
, Little Havana and
The Roads The Roads is a neighborhood of Miami Miami (), officially the City of Miami, is a Coast, coastal metropolis located in southeastern Florida in the United States. It is the third most populous metropolitan area, metropolis on the East coast of ...
* Manolo Reyes – Miami Commissioner, District 4 ::
Coral Way Coral Way is a neighborhood within Miami, Florida that is defined by Coral Way (street), Coral Way, a road established by Coral Gables, Florida, Coral Gables founder George E. Merrick during the Florida land boom of the 1920s, 1920s. It is located i ...
, Flagami and West Flagler * Jeffrey Watson – Miami Commissioner, District 5 ::Buena Vista (Miami), Buena Vista, Miami Design District, Design District, Liberty City (Miami), Liberty City, Little Haiti, Little River (Miami), Little River, Lummus Park Historic District, Lummus Park, Overtown (Miami), Overtown, Spring Garden (Miami), Spring Garden and Wynwood and northern part of the Upper Eastside * Arthur Noriega – City Manager * Victoria Méndez – City Attorney * Todd B. Hannon – City Clerk


Education


Colleges and universities

Miami-Dade County has over 200,000 students enrolled in local colleges and universities, placing it seventh in the nation in per capita university enrollment. In 2010, the city's four largest colleges and universities (MDC, FIU, UM, and Barry) graduated 28,000 students. Miami is also home to both for-profit and nonprofit organizations that offer a range of professional training and other, related educational programs. Per Scholas, ''Per'' Scholas, for example is a nonprofit organization that offers free professional certification training directed towards successfully passing CompTIA A+ and Network+ certification exams as a route to securing jobs and building careers. Colleges and universities in and around Miami: * Barry University (private) * Broward College (public) * Carlos Albizu University (private) * Florida Atlantic University (public) * Florida International University (public) * Florida Memorial University (private) * Keiser University (private) * Manchester Business School (satellite location, UK public) * Miami Culinary Institute (public) * Miami Dade College (public) * Miami International University of Art & Design (private) * Nova Southeastern University (private) * Palm Beach State College (public) * St. Thomas University (Florida), St. Thomas University (private) * Southeastern College (private) * Talmudic University (private) *
University of Miami The University of Miami (informally referred to as UM, Miami, UMiami, U of M or The U) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdo ...
(private)


Primary and secondary schools

Public schools in Miami are governed by Miami-Dade County Public Schools, which is the largest school district in Florida and the fourth-largest in the United States. As of September 2008 it has a student enrollment of 385,655 and over 392 schools and centers. The district is also the largest minority public school system in the country, with 60% of its students being of Hispanic origin, 28% African American, Black or West Indian American, 10% White American, White (non-Hispanic) and 2% non-white of other minorities. Miami is home to some of the nation's best high schools, such as Design and Architecture High School, ranked the nation's best magnet school, MAST Academy, Coral Reef High School, ranked 20th-best public high school in the U.S., Miami Palmetto High School, and the New World School of the Arts. M-DCPS is also one of a few public school districts in the United States to offer optional bilingual education in Spanish, French, German, Haitian Creole, and Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese. Miami is home to several well-known Roman Catholic, Jewish and non-denominational private schools. The Archdiocese of Miami operates the city's Catholic private schools, which include St. Hugh Catholic School, St. Agatha Catholic School, St. Theresa School (Coral Gables, Florida), St. Theresa School, Immaculata-Lasalle High School, Monsignor Edward Pace High School, Archbishop Curley-Notre Dame High School, St. Brendan High School, among numerous other Catholic elementary and high schools. Catholic preparatory schools operated by religious orders are Belen Jesuit Preparatory School and Christopher Columbus High School (Miami, Florida), Christopher Columbus High School for boys and Carrollton School of the Sacred Heart and Our Lady of Lourdes Academy for girls. Non-denominational private schools in Miami are Ransom Everglades School, Ransom Everglades, Gulliver Preparatory School, and Miami Country Day School. Other schools in the area include Samuel Scheck Hillel Community Day School, Dade Christian School, Palmer Trinity School, Westminster Christian School (Florida), Westminster Christian School, and Riviera Schools.


Media

Miami has one of the largest television markets in the nation and the second largest in the state of Florida after Tampa Bay area, Tampa Bay. Miami has several major newspapers, the main and largest newspaper being ''The Miami Herald''. ''El Nuevo Herald'' is the major and largest Spanish-language newspaper. ''The Miami Herald'' and ''El Nuevo Herald'' are Miami's and South Florida's main, major and largest newspapers. The papers left their longtime home in downtown Miami in 2013. The newspapers are now headquartered at the former home of U.S. Southern Command in Doral, Florida, Doral. Other major newspapers include ''Miami Today'', headquartered in Brickell, ''Miami New Times'', headquartered in Midtown Miami, Midtown, ''Miami Sun Post'', ''South Florida Business Journal'', ''Miami Times'', and ''Biscayne Boulevard Times''. An additional Spanish-language newspapers, ''Diario Las Americas'' also serve Miami. ''The Miami Herald'' is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million readers and is headquartered in Downtown in Herald Plaza. Several other student newspapers from the local universities, such as the oldest, the
University of Miami The University of Miami (informally referred to as UM, Miami, UMiami, U of M or The U) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdo ...
's ''The Miami Hurricane'', Florida International University's ''The Beacon (Florida International University), The Beacon'', Miami-Dade College's ''The Metropolis'', Barry University's ''The Buccaneer'', amongst others. Many neighborhoods and neighboring areas also have their own local newspapers such as the ''Aventura News'', ''Coral Gables Tribune'', ''Biscayne Bay Tribune'', and the ''Palmetto Bay News''. A number of magazines circulate throughout the greater Miami area, including ''Miami Monthly'', Southeast Florida's only city/regional; ''Ocean Drive'', a hot-spot social scene glossy; and ''South Florida Business Leader.'' Miami is also the headquarters and main production city of many of the world's largest television networks, record label companies, broadcasting companies and production facilities, such as Telemundo, Univision, Univision Communications, Mega TV (American TV network), Mega TV, Universal Music Latin Entertainment, RCTV International and Sunbeam Television. In 2009, Univision announced plans to build a new production studio in Miami, dubbed Univision Studios. Univision Studios is currently headquartered in Miami, and will produce programming for all of Univision Communications' television networks. Miami is the twelfth largest radio market and the seventeenth largest television market in the United States. Television stations serving the Miami area include WAMI-TV, WAMI (UniMás), WBFS-TV, WBFS (MyNetworkTV), WSFL-TV, WSFL (The CW), WFOR-TV, WFOR (CBS Owned-and-operated station, O&O), WHFT (Trinity Broadcasting Network, TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (American Broadcasting Company, ABC), WPXM (i television network, Ion), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (Fox Broadcasting Company, Fox), WTVJ (NBC O&O), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN-TV, WLRN (also PBS).


Transportation

According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 72.3% of working city of Miami residents commuted by driving alone, 8.7% carpooled, 9% used public transportation, and 3.7% walked. About 1.8% used all other forms of transportation, including taxicab, motorcycle, and bicycle. About 4.5% of working city of Miami residents worked at home. In 2015, 19.9% of city of Miami households were without a car, which decreased to 18.6% in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Miami averaged 1.24 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8 per household.


Expressways and roads

Miami's road system is based along the numerical Miami grid where Flagler Street forms the east–west Baseline (surveying), baseline and Miami Avenue forms the north–south Meridian (geography), meridian. The corner of Flagler Street and Miami Avenue is in the middle of Downtown in front of the Downtown Macy's (formerly the Burdine's headquarters). The Miami grid is primarily numerical so that, for example, all street addresses north of Flagler Street and west of Miami Avenue have "NW" in their address. Because its point of origin is in Downtown, which is close to the coast, the "NW" and "SW" quadrants are much larger than the "SE" and "NE" quadrants. Many roads, especially major ones, are also named (e.g., Tamiami Trail, Tamiami Trail/SW 8th St), although, with exceptions, the number is in more common usage among locals. With few exceptions, within this grid north–south roads are designated as Courts, Roads, Avenues or Places (often remembered by their acronym), while east–west roads are Streets, Terraces, Drives or occasionally Ways. Major roads in each direction are located at one mile intervals. There are 16 City block, blocks to each mile on north–south avenues, and 10 blocks to each mile on east–west streets. Major north–south avenues generally end in "7" – e.g., 17th, 27th, 37th/Douglas Aves., 57th/Red Rd., 67th/Ludlam, 87th/Galloway, etc., all the way west beyond 177th/Krome Avenue. (One prominent exception is 42nd Avenue, LeJeune Road, located at the half-mile point instead.) Major east–west streets to the south of downtown are multiples of 16, though the beginning point of this system is at SW 8th St, one half mile south of Flagler ("zeroth") Street. Thus, major streets are at 8th St., 24th St./Coral Way, 40th St./Bird, 56th/Miller, 72nd/ Sunset, 88th/N. Kendall, 104th (originally S. Kendall), 120th/Montgomery, 136th/Howard, 152nd/Coral Reef, 168th/Richmond, 184th/Eureka, 200th/Quail Roost, 216th/Hainlin Mill, 232nd/Silver Palm, 248th/Coconut Palm, etc., well into the 300s. Within the grid, odd-numbered addresses are generally on the north or east side, and even-numbered addresses are on the south or west side. All streets and avenues in Miami-Dade County follow the Miami grid, with a few exceptions, most notably in Coral Gables, Hialeah, Coconut Grove and Miami Beach. One neighborhood,
The Roads The Roads is a neighborhood of Miami Miami (), officially the City of Miami, is a Coast, coastal metropolis located in southeastern Florida in the United States. It is the third most populous metropolitan area, metropolis on the East coast of ...
, is named as such because its streets run off the Miami grid at a 45-degree angle, and therefore are all named roads. Miami-Dade County is served by four Interstate Highways (Interstate 75 (Florida), I-75, Interstate 95 in Florida, I-95, Interstate 195 (Florida), I-195, Interstate 395 (Florida), I-395) and several U.S. Highways including U.S. Route 1 (Florida), U.S. Route 1, U.S. Route 27 (Florida), U.S. Route 27, U.S. Route 41 (Florida), U.S. Route 41, and U.S. Route 441 (Florida), U.S. Route 441. Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving Miami are: * State Road 112 (Florida), SR 112 (Airport Expressway): Interstate 95 in Florida, Interstate 95 to Miami International Airport, MIA * Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike (SR 821): Florida's Turnpike mainline (SR 91)/Miami Gardens, Florida, Miami Gardens to U.S. Route 1 (Florida), U.S. Route 1/Florida City, Florida, Florida City * State Road 826 (Florida), SR 826 (Palmetto Expressway): Golden Glades Interchange to U.S. Route 1/Pinecrest, Florida, Pinecrest * State Road 836 (Florida), SR 836 (Dolphin Expressway): Downtown to SW 137th Ave via Miami International Airport, MIA * State Road 874 (Florida), SR 874 (Don Shula Expressway): 826/Bird Road to Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike/Kendall, Florida, Kendall * State Road 878 (Florida), SR 878 (Snapper Creek Expressway): SR 874/Kendall, Florida, Kendall to U.S. Route 1/Pinecrest & South Miami, Florida, South Miami * State Road 924 (Florida), SR 924 (Gratigny Parkway) Miami Lakes, Florida, Miami Lakes to Opa-locka, Florida, Opa-locka
Miami has six major causeways that span over Biscayne Bay connecting the western mainland, with the eastern barrier islands along the Atlantic Ocean. The Rickenbacker Causeway is the southernmost causeway and connects Brickell to
Virginia Key Virginia Key is an barrier island in Miami Miami (), officially the City of Miami, is a Coast, coastal metropolis located in southeastern Florida in the United States. It is the third most populous metropolitan area, metropolis on the East c ...
and Key Biscayne, Florida, Key Biscayne. The Venetian Causeway and MacArthur Causeway connect Downtown Miami, Downtown with
South Beach South Beach, also nicknamed SoBe, is a Neighborhoods of Miami Beach, Florida, neighborhood in the city of Miami Beach, Florida, Miami Beach, Florida, United States, located due east of Miami city proper between Biscayne Bay and the Atlantic Ocean ...

South Beach
. The Julia Tuttle Causeway connects Midtown Miami, Midtown and Miami Beach. The Florida State Road 934, 79th Street Causeway connects the Upper Eastside, Miami, Florida, Upper East Side with North Beach (Miami Beach), North Beach. The northernmost causeway, the Broad Causeway, is the smallest of Miami's six causeways and connects North Miami, Florida, North Miami with Bal Harbour, Florida, Bal Harbour. In 2007, Miami was identified as having the rudest drivers in the United States, the second year in a row to have been cited, in a poll commissioned by automobile club AutoVantage. Miami is also consistently ranked as one of the most dangerous cities in the United States for pedestrians.


Public transportation

Public transportation in Miami is operated by Miami-Dade Transit and South Florida Regional Transportation Authority, SFRTA, and includes commuter rail (Tri-Rail), heavy-rail rapid transit (Metrorail (Miami-Dade County), Metrorail), an elevated people mover (Metromover), and buses (Miami-Dade Transit#Metrobus, Metrobus). Miami has Florida's highest transit ridership as about 17% of Miamians use transit on a daily basis. The average Miami public transit commute on weekdays is 90 minutes, while 39% of public transit riders commute for more than 2 hours a day. The average wait time at a public transit stop or station is 18 minutes, while 37% of riders wait for more than 20 minutes on average every day. The average single trip distance with public transit is , while 38% travel more than in each direction. Miami's heavy-rail rapid transit system, Metrorail (Miami-Dade County), Metrorail, is an elevated system comprising two lines and 23 stations on a -long line. Metrorail connects the urban western suburbs of
Hialeah Hialeah ( ) is a city in Miami-Dade County Miami-Dade County is located in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Florida Florida (, ) is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United ...
, Medley, Florida, Medley, and inner-city Miami with suburban
The Roads The Roads is a neighborhood of Miami Miami (), officially the City of Miami, is a Coast, coastal metropolis located in southeastern Florida in the United States. It is the third most populous metropolitan area, metropolis on the East coast of ...
,
Coconut Grove Coconut Grove, also known colloquially as The Grove, is the oldest continuously inhabited neighborhoods of Miami, neighborhood of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida, Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. The neighborhood is roughly bound ...
, Coral Gables, South Miami and urban Kendall, Florida, Kendall via the central business districts of Miami International Airport, the Civic Center (Miami), Civic Center, and Downtown. A free, elevated people mover, Metromover, operates 21 stations on three different lines in greater Downtown Miami, with a station at roughly every two blocks of Downtown and Brickell. Several expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County. Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system operated by the South Florida Regional Transportation Authority (SFRTA), runs from Miami International Airport northward to West Palm Beach, Florida, West Palm Beach, making eighteen stops throughout Miami-Dade County, Miami-Dade, Broward County, Broward, and Palm Beach County, Palm Beach counties. The Miami Intermodal Center is a massive transportation hub servicing Metrorail (Miami-Dade County), Metrorail, Amtrak, Tri-Rail, Miami-Dade Transit#Metrobus, Metrobus, Greyhound Lines, Taxicab, taxis, rental cars, MIA Mover, private automobiles, bicycles and pedestrians adjacent to Miami International Airport. Miami Intermodal Center was completed in 2010, and is serving about 150,000 commuters and travelers in the Miami area. Phase I of Virgin MiamiCentral, MiamiCentral Station was completed in 2012, and the Tri-Rail part of Phase II was completed in 2015, but the construction of the Amtrak part remains delayed. Two new light rail systems, Baylink and the Miami Streetcar, have been proposed and are currently in the planning stage. BayLink would connect Downtown with
South Beach South Beach, also nicknamed SoBe, is a Neighborhoods of Miami Beach, Florida, neighborhood in the city of Miami Beach, Florida, Miami Beach, Florida, United States, located due east of Miami city proper between Biscayne Bay and the Atlantic Ocean ...

South Beach
, and the Miami Streetcar would connect Downtown with Midtown Miami, Midtown. Miami is the southern terminus of Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services, running two lines, the Silver Meteor and the Silver Star (Amtrak train), Silver Star, both terminating in New York City. The Miami Amtrak Station is located in the suburb of Hialeah near the Tri-Rail and Metrorail transfer station, Tri-Rail/Metrorail Station on NW 79 St and NW 38 Ave. Current construction of the Miami Central Station will move all Amtrak operations from its current out-of-the-way location to a centralized location with Miami Metrorail, Metrorail, MIA Mover, Tri-Rail, Miami International Airport, and the Miami Intermodal Center all within the same station closer to Downtown. The station was expected to be completed by 2012, but experienced several delays and was later expected to be completed in late 2014, again pushed back to early 2015.


Airports

Miami International Airport serves as the primary international airport of the Greater Miami Area. One of the busiest international airports in the world, Miami International Airport caters to over 45 million passengers a year. The airport is a major hub and the largest international gateway for American Airlines. Miami International is the second busiest airport by passenger traffic in Florida, the United States' third-largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers behind New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport and Los Angeles International Airport. The airport's extensive international route network includes non-stop flights to over seventy international cities in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Alternatively, nearby Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport also serves commercial traffic in the Miami area. Miami-Opa Locka Executive Airport in Opa-locka, Florida, Opa-locka and Miami Executive Airport in an unincorporated area southwest of Miami serve general aviation traffic in the Miami area.


Cycling and walking

The city government under former mayor Manny Diaz (Florida politician), Manny Diaz took an ambitious stance in support of bicycling in Miami for both recreation and commuting. In 2010, Miami was ranked as the 44th-most bike-friendly city in the US according to ''Bicycling Magazine''. A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Miami the eighth-most walkable of the fifty largest cities in the United States.


International relations


Sister cities

* Barranquilla, Colombia (since 2015) * Bogotá, Colombia (since 1971) * Buenos Aires, Argentina (since 1979) * Kagoshima, Japan (since 1990) * Lima, Peru (since 1977) * Madrid, Spain (since 2014) * Palermo, Italy (since 1997) * San Salvador, El Salvador (since 1991) * Qingdao, China (since 2005) * Salvador, Bahia, Salvador da Bahia, Brazil (since 2006) * Santiago, Chile, Santiago, Chile (since 1986) * Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (since 1987) * Southampton, United Kingdom (since 2019)


Cooperation agreements

* Lisbon, Portugal * Yeruham, Israel


See also

* Architecture of Miami * List of people from Miami * Miami Fire-Rescue Department * Miami Police Department * National Register of Historic Places listings in Miami * Port Miami Tunnel


Notes


References


Further reading

* Elizabeth M. Aranda, Sallie Hughes, and Elena Sabogal, ''Making a Life in Multiethnic Miami: Immigration and the Rise of a Global City.'' Boulder, Colorado: Renner, 2014.


External links


City of Miami – Official Site

Greater Miami Convention and Visitors Bureau
{{Portal bar, Florida, Geography, United States, North America Miami, 1825 establishments in Florida Territory Bermuda Triangle Cities in Florida Cities in Miami-Dade County, Florida Cities in Miami metropolitan area County seats in Florida Populated coastal places in Florida on the Atlantic Ocean Populated places established in 1825 Port cities and towns of the Florida Atlantic coast Seaside resorts in Florida