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Medieval Latin was the form of
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...

Latin
used in
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...

Roman Catholic
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on context. Beginning with foreign exploration during the Age of Discovery, roughly from the 15th century, the concept of ''Europe'' as "the W ...

Western Europe
during the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical period of global history. It began with the fall of the Western Roma ...
. In this region it served as the primary written language, though local languages were also written to varying degrees. Latin functioned as the main medium of scholarly exchange, as the
liturgical language A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language ...
of the
Church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used to refer to the physical build ...

Church
, and as the working language of science, literature, law, and administration. Medieval Latin represented a continuation of
Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin, Latin language recognized as a Literary language, literary standard language, standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. It was used from 75 BC to the 3rd century AD, when it deve ...
and
Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ar ...
, with enhancements for new concepts as well as for the increasing integration of Christianity. Despite some meaningful differences from Classical Latin, Medieval writers did not regard it as a fundamentally different language. There is no real consensus on the exact boundary where
Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ar ...
ends and Medieval Latin begins. Some scholarly surveys begin with the rise of early
Ecclesiastical Latin Ecclesiastical Latin, also called Church Latin, Liturgical Latin or Italian Latin, is a form of Latin initially developed to discuss Christian theology, Christian thought and later used as a lingua franca by the Medieval Latin, Medieval and Early Mo ...
in the middle of the 4th century, others around 500, and still others with the replacement of written Late Latin by written
Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of informal sociolects of Latin Latin (, or , ) ...
s starting around the year 900. The terms ''Medieval Latin'' and ''Ecclesiastical Latin'' are sometimes used synonymously, though some scholars draw distinctions. ''Ecclesiastical Latin'' refers specifically to the form that has been used by the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide . As the world's old ...

Roman Catholic Church
(even before the Middle Ages in the Antiquity), whereas ''Medieval Latin'' refers to all of the (written) forms of Latin used in the Middle Ages. The
Romance languages The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of informal sociolects of Latin Latin (, or , ) ...

Romance languages
spoken in the Middle Ages were often referred to as ''Latin'', since the Romance languages were all descended from
Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of informal sociolects of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally ...
itself.


Influences


Christian Latin

Medieval Latin had an enlarged vocabulary, which freely borrowed from other sources. It was heavily influenced by the language of the
Vulgate The Vulgate (; , ) is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, ''tà biblía'', "the books") is a collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred to Christians, Jews, Samaritan ...
, which contained many peculiarities alien to Classical Latin that resulted from a more or less direct translation from
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is ...
and
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors. It is the o ...
; the peculiarities mirrored the original not only in its vocabulary but also in its grammar and syntax.
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is ...
provided much of the technical vocabulary of
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's la ...
. The various
Germanic languages The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed langu ...

Germanic languages
spoken by the Germanic tribes, who invaded southern Europe, were also major sources of new words. Germanic leaders became the rulers of parts of the Roman Empire that they conquered, and words from their languages were freely imported into the vocabulary of law. Other more ordinary words were replaced by coinages from
Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of informal sociolects of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally ...
or Germanic sources because the classical words had fallen into disuse. Latin was also spread to areas such as
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in ...

Ireland
and
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , government_ ...

Germany
, where
Romance languages The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of informal sociolects of Latin Latin (, or , ) ...

Romance languages
were not spoken, and which had never known
Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...

Roman
rule. Works written in those lands where Latin was a learned language, having no relation to the local vernacular, also influenced the vocabulary and syntax of medieval Latin. Since subjects like science and philosophy, including
Rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition ...
and
Ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, m ...

Ethics
, were communicated in Latin, the Latin vocabulary that developed for them became the source of a great many technical words in modern languages. English words like ''abstract'', ''subject'', ''communicate'', ''matter'', ''probable'' and their
cognates In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis includ ...
in other European languages generally have the meanings given to them in medieval Latin, often terms for abstract concepts not available in English.


Vulgar Latin

The influence of
Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of informal sociolects of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally ...
was also apparent in the
syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of Sentence (linguistics), sentences (sentence structure) in a given Natural language, language, usually including word order. The term ''syntax'' ...

syntax
of some medieval Latin writers, although Classical Latin continued to be held in high esteem and studied as models for literary compositions. The high point of the development of medieval Latin as a literary language came with the
Carolingian renaissance The Carolingian Renaissance was the first of three medieval renaissances, a period of cultural activity in the Carolingian Empire The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large Franks, Frankish-dominated empire in western and central Europe dur ...
, a rebirth of learning kindled under the patronage of
Charlemagne Charlemagne (; ) or Charles the Great or ''Carolus'', whence in English or in German (for this individual, specifically ''Karl der Große''). The French form and the Italian or () come from his nickname ("Charles the Great")., ''Karil' ...

Charlemagne
, king of the
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the Lower Rhine and the Ems River, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Later the term was ...

Franks
.
Alcuin Alcuin of York (; la, Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; 735 – 19 May 804) – also called Ealhwine, Alhwin, or Alchoin – was an English scholar, clergyman, poet, and teacher from York, Northumbria. He was born around 735 and became the ...
was Charlemagne's Latin secretary and an important writer in his own right; his influence led to a rebirth of Latin literature and learning after the depressed period following the final disintegration of the authority of the Western Roman Empire. Although it was simultaneously developing into the Romance languages, Latin itself remained very conservative, as it was no longer a native language and there were many ancient and medieval grammar books to give one standard form. On the other hand, strictly speaking there was no single form of "medieval Latin". Every Latin author in the medieval period spoke Latin as a second language, with varying degrees of fluency and syntax. Grammar and vocabulary, however, were often influenced by an author's native language. This was especially true beginning around the 12th century, after which the language became increasingly adulterated: late medieval Latin documents written by French speakers tend to show similarities to medieval French grammar and vocabulary; those written by Germans tend to show similarities to German, etc. For instance, rather than following the classical Latin practice of generally placing the verb at the end, medieval writers would often follow the conventions of their own native language instead. Whereas Latin had no definite or indefinite articles, medieval writers sometimes used forms of ''unus'' as an indefinite article, and forms of ''ille'' (reflecting usage in the Romance languages) as a definite article or even ''quidam'' (meaning "a certain one/thing" in Classical Latin) as something like an article. Unlike classical Latin, where ''esse'' ("to be") was the only auxiliary verb, medieval Latin writers might use ''habere'' ("to have") as an auxiliary, similar to constructions in Germanic and Romance languages. The accusative and infinitive construction in classical Latin was often replaced by a subordinate clause introduced by ''quod'' or ''quia''. This is almost identical, for example, to the use of ''que'' in similar constructions in French. In every age from the late 8th century onwards, there were learned writers (especially within the Church) who were familiar enough with classical
syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of Sentence (linguistics), sentences (sentence structure) in a given Natural language, language, usually including word order. The term ''syntax'' ...

syntax
to be aware that these forms and usages were "wrong" and resisted their use. Thus the Latin of a theologian like St
Thomas Aquinas Thomas Aquinas (; it, Tommaso d'Aquino, lit=Thomas of Aquino, Italy, Aquino; 1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican Order, Dominican friar, Philosophy, philosopher, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. An immensely influential ...

Thomas Aquinas
or of an erudite clerical historian such as
William of Tyre William of Tyre ( la, Willelmus Tyrensis; 113029 September 1186) was a Middle Ages, medieval prelate and chronicler. As Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tyre, archbishop of Tyre, he is sometimes known as William II to distinguish him from his pr ...
tends to avoid most of the characteristics described above, showing its period in vocabulary and spelling alone; the features listed are much more prominent in the language of lawyers (e.g. the 11th-century English
Domesday Book Domesday Book () – the Middle English spelling of "Doomsday Book" – is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of William I, known as William the Conqueror. Domesday has lon ...
), physicians, technical writers and secular chroniclers. However the use of ''quod'' to introduce subordinate clauses was especially pervasive and is found at all levels.


Changes in vocabulary, syntax, and grammar

Medieval Latin had ceased to be a living language and was instead a scholarly language of the minority of educated men (and a tiny number of women) in medieval Europe, used in official documents more than for everyday communication. This resulted in two major features of Medieval Latin compared with Classical Latin, though when it is compared to the other vernacular languages, Medieval Latin developed very few changes. There are many prose constructions written by authors of this period that can be considered "showing off" a knowledge of Classical or Old Latin by the use of rare or archaic forms and sequences. Though they had not existed together historically, it is common that an author would use grammatical ideas of the two periods Republican and archaic, placing them equally in the same sentence. Also, many undistinguished scholars had limited education in "proper" Latin, or had been influenced in their writings by Vulgar Latin. *Word order usually tended towards that of the vernacular language of the author, not the artificial and polished word order of Classical Latin. Conversely, an erudite scholar might attempt to "show off" by intentionally constructing a very complicated sentence. Because Latin is an inflected language, it is technically possible to place related words at opposite ends of a paragraph-long sentence, and owing to the complexity of doing so, it was seen by some as a sign of great skill. *Typically, prepositions are used much more frequently (as in modern Romance languages) for greater clarity, instead of using the ablative case alone. Furthermore, in Classical Latin the subject of a verb was often left implied, unless it was being stressed: ''videt'' = "he sees". For clarity, Medieval Latin more frequently includes an explicit subject: ''is videt'' = "he sees" without necessarily stressing the subject. *Various changes occurred in vocabulary, and certain words were mixed into different declensions or conjugations. Many new compound verbs were formed. Some words retained their original structure but drastically changed in meaning: ''animositas'' specifically means "wrath" in Medieval Latin while in Classical Latin, it generally referred to "high spirits, excited spirits" of any kind. *Owing to heavy use of biblical terms, there was a large influx of new words borrowed from Greek and Hebrew and even some grammatical influences. That obviously largely occurred among priests and scholars, not the laity. In general, it is difficult to express abstract concepts in Latin, as many scholars admitted. For example, Plato's abstract concept of "the Truth" had to be expressed in Latin as "what is always true". Medieval scholars and theologians, translating both the Bible and Greek philosophers into Latin out of the Koine and Classical Greek, cobbled together many new abstract concept words in Latin.


Syntax

*Indirect discourse, which in Classical Latin was achieved by using a subject accusative and infinitive, was now often simply replaced by new conjunctions serving the function of English "that" such as ''quod'', ''quia'', or ''quoniam''. There was a high level of overlap between the old and new constructions, even within the same author's work, and it was often a matter of preference. A particularly famous and often cited example is from the
Venerable Bede Bede ( ; ang, Bǣda , ; 672/326 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, The Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable ( la, Beda Venerabilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in ...
, using both constructions within the same sentence: "''Dico me scire et quod sum ignobilis''" = "I say that I know ccusative and infinitiveand that I am unknown ew construction. The resulting subordinate clause often used the subjunctive mood instead of the indicative. This new syntax for indirect discourse is among the most prominent features of Medieval Latin, the largest syntactical change. *Several substitutions were often used instead of subjunctive clause constructions. They did not break the rules of Classical Latin but were an alternative way to express the same meaning, avoiding the use of a subjunctive clause. **The present participle was frequently used adverbially in place of ''qui'' or ''cum'' clauses, such as clauses of time, cause, concession, and purpose. That was loosely similar to the use of the present participle in an ablative absolute phrase, but the participle did not need to be in the ablative case. **''Habeo'' (I have and "Debeo" (I must) would be used to express obligation more often than the gerundive. ***Given that obligation inherently carries a sense of futurity ("Carthage must be destroyed" at some point in the future), this parallels the Romance languages' use of "habeo" as the basis of their future tenses (abandoning the Latin forms of the future tense). While in Latin "amare habeo" is the indirect discourse "I have to love", in the French equivalent, "aimerai" (habeo > ayyo > ai, aimer+ai), it has become the future tense, "I shall love", losing the sense of obligation. In Medieval Latin, however, it was only indirect discourse and not used as simply a future tense. **Instead of a clause introduced by ''ut'' or ''ne'', an infinitive was often used with a verb of hoping, fearing, promising, etc. *Conversely, some authors might haphazardly switch between the subjunctive and indicative forms of verbs, with no intended difference in meaning. *The usage of ''sum'' changed significantly: it was frequently omitted or implied. Further, many medieval authors did not feel that it made sense for the perfect passive construction "''laudatus sum''" to use the present tense of ''esse'' in a past tense construction so they began using ''fui'', the past perfect of ''sum'', interchangeably with ''sum''. *Chaos in the usage of demonstrative pronouns. ''Hic'', ''ille'', ''iste'', and even the intensive ''ipse'' are often used virtually interchangeably. As in the Romance languages, ''hic'' and ''ille'' were also frequently used simply to express the definite article "the", which Classical Latin did not possess. ''Unus'' was also used for the indefinite article "a, an". *Use of reflexives became much looser. A reflexive pronoun in a subordinate clause might refer to the subject of the main clause. The reflexive possessive ''suus'' might be used in place of a possessive genitive such as ''eius''. *Comparison of adjectives changed somewhat. The comparative form was sometimes used with positive or superlative meaning. Also, the adverb "magis" was often used with a positive adjective to indicate a comparative meaning, and ''multum'' and ''nimis'' could be used with a positive form of adjective to give a superlative meaning. *Classical Latin used the ablative absolute, but as stated above, in Medieval Latin examples of nominative absolute or accusative absolute may be found. This was a point of difference between the ecclesiastical Latin of the clergy and the "Vulgar Latin" of the laity, which existed alongside it. The educated clergy mostly knew that traditional Latin did not use the nominative or accusative case in such constructions, but only the ablative case. These constructions are observed in the medieval era, but they are changes that developed among the uneducated commoners. *Classical Latin does not distinguish progressive action in the present tense, thus ''laudo'' can mean either "I praise" or "I am praising". In imitation of Greek, Medieval Latin could use a present participle with ''sum'' to form a
periphrastic In linguistics, periphrasis () is the usage of multiple separate words to carry the meaning of prefixes, suffixes or verbs, among other things, where either would be possible. It is a device where grammatical meaning is expressed by one or more f ...
tense equivalent to the English progressive. This "Greek Periphrastic Tense" formation could also be done in the past and future tenses: ''laudans sum'' ("I am praising"), ''laudans eram'' ("I was praising"), ''laudans ero'' ("I shall be praising"). *Classical Latin verbs had at most two voices, active and passive, but Greek (the original language of the New Testament) had an additional "middle voice" (or reflexive voice). One use was to express when the subject is acting upon itself: "Achilles put the armor onto himself" or "Jesus clothed himself in the robe" would use the middle voice. Because Latin had no middle voice, Medieval Latin expresses such sentences by putting the verb in the passive voice form, but the conceptual meaning is active (similar to Latin deponent verbs). For example, the Medieval Latin translation of Genesis states literally, "the Spirit of God was moved over the waters" ("spiritus Dei ferebatur super aquas", Genesis 1:2), but it is just expressing a Greek middle-voice verb: "God moved '' imself' over the waters". *Overlapping with orthography differences (see below), certain diphthongs were sometimes shortened: "oe" to "e", and "ae" to "e". Thus, "oecumenicus" becomes the more familiar "ecumenicus" (more familiar in this later form because religious terms such as "ecumenical" were more common in medieval Latin). The "oe" diphthong is not particularly frequent in Latin, but the shift from "ae" to "e" affects many common words, such as "caelum" (heaven) being shortened to "celum"; even "puellae" (girls) was shortened to "puelle". *Often, a town would lose its name to that of the tribe which was either accusative or ablative plural; two forms that were then used for all cases, or in other words, considered "indeclinable".


Orthography

Many striking differences between classical and medieval Latin are found in
orthography An orthography is a set of convention (norm), conventions for writing a language, including norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word, word breaks, Emphasis (typography), emphasis, and punctuation. Most transnational languages in the ...
. Perhaps the most striking difference is that medieval manuscripts used a wide range of abbreviations by means of superscripts, special characters etc.: for instance the letters "n" and "s" were often omitted and replaced by a diacritical mark above the preceding or following letter. Apart from this, some of the most frequently occurring differences are as follows. Clearly many of these would have been influenced by the spelling, and indeed pronunciation, of the vernacular language, and thus varied between different European countries. *Following the Carolingian reforms of the 9th century,
Carolingian minuscule Carolingian minuscule or Caroline minuscule is a script which developed as a calligraphic standard in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), conventio ...
was widely adopted, leading to a clear differentiation between capital and lowercase letters. *A partial or full differentiation between ''v'' and ''u'', and between ''j'' and ''i''. *The diphthong ''ae'' is usually collapsed and simply written as ''e'' (or ''
e caudata file:Sacrecon.png, 270px, Part of a Latin book published in Rome in 1632. ''E caudata'' is used in the words Sacrę, propagandę, prædictę, and grammaticę. The spelling grammaticæ, with ''æ'', is also used. The e caudata ("tailed e", from la, ...

e caudata
'', ''ę''); for example, ''puellae'' might be written ''puelle'' (or ''puellę''). The same happens with the diphthong ''oe'', for example in ''pena'', ''Edipus'', from ''poena'', ''Oedipus''. This feature is already found on coin inscriptions of the 4th century (e.g. ' for ''reipublicae''). Conversely, an original ''e'' in Classical Latin was often represented by ''ae'' or ''oe'' (e.g. ''aecclesia'' and ''coena''), also reflected in English spellings such as ''foetus''. *Because of a severe decline in the knowledge of Greek, in loanwords and foreign names from or transmitted through Greek, ''y'' and ''i'' might be used more or less interchangeably: ''Ysidorus'', ''Egiptus'', from ''Isidorus'', ''Aegyptus''. This is also found in pure Latin words: ''ocius'' ("more swiftly") appears as ' and ''silva'' as ''sylva'', this last being a form which survived into the 18th century and so became embedded in modern
botanical Latin Botanical Latin is a technical language based on New Latin, used for descriptions of botanical taxon, taxa. Until 2012, International Code of Botanical Nomenclature mandated Botanical Latin to be used for the descriptions of most new taxa. It is sti ...
(also cf. ''Pennsylvania''). *''h'' might be lost, so that ''habere'' becomes ''abere'', or ''mihi'' becomes ''mi'' (the latter also occurred in Classical Latin); or ''mihi'' may be written ''michi'', indicating that the ''h'' had come to be pronounced as or perhaps . This pronunciation is not found in Classical Latin. *The loss of ''h'' in pronunciation also led to the addition of ''h'' in writing where it did not previously belong, especially in the vicinity of ''r'', such as ''chorona'' for ''corona'', a tendency also sometimes seen in Classical Latin. *''-ti-'' before a vowel is often written as ''-ci-'' so that ''divitiae'' becomes ' (or '), ''tertius'' becomes ', ''vitium'' '. *The combination ''mn'' might have another plosive inserted, so that ''alumnus'' becomes ', ''somnus'' '. *Single consonants were often doubled, or vice versa, so that ''tranquillitas'' becomes ' and ''Africa'' becomes ''Affrica''. *Syncopation became more frequent: ''vi'', especially in verbs in the perfect tense, might be lost, so that ''novisse'' becomes ''nosse'' (this occurred in Classical Latin as well but was much more frequent in medieval Latin). These orthographical differences were often due to changes in pronunciation or, as in the previous example, morphology, which authors reflected in their writing. By the 16th century,
Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (; English: Erasmus of Rotterdam;''Erasmus'' was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae. ''Desiderius'' was a self-adopted additional name, which he used from 1496. The ''Roterodamus'' was a schol ...

Erasmus
complained that speakers from different countries were unable to understand each other's form of Latin.See Desiderius Erasmus, ''De recta Latini Graecique sermonis pronunciatione dialogus'', Basel (Frobenius), 1528. The gradual changes in Latin did not escape the notice of contemporaries.
Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to ...

Petrarch
, writing in the 14th century, complained about this linguistic "decline", which helped fuel his general dissatisfaction with his own era.


Medieval Latin literature

The corpus of medieval Latin literature encompasses a wide range of texts, including such diverse works as
sermons A sermon is an oration or lecture by a preacher (who is usually a member of clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established religions. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presiding ove ...
,
hymns A hymn is a type of song A song is a musical composition File:Chord chart.svg, 250px, Jazz and rock genre musicians may memorize the melodies for a new song, which means that they only need to provide a chord chart to guide improvising m ...
,
hagiographical A hagiography (; ) or vita (from Latin ''vita'', life, which begins the title of most medieval biographies) is a biography of a saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, holines ...
texts,
travel literature The genre of travel literature encompasses outdoor literature Outdoor literature is a literature genre about or involving the outdoors. Outdoor literature encompasses several different literature, subgenres including exploration literature, advent ...
,
histories Histories or, in Latin, Historiae may refer to: * the plural of history * Histories (Herodotus), ''Histories'' (Herodotus), by Herodotus * ''The Histories'', by Timaeus (historian), Timaeus * The Histories (Polybius), ''The Histories'' (Polybius), ...
,
epics The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a set of software tools and applications used to develop and implement Distributed control system, distributed control systems to operate devices such as Particle accelerator, parti ...
, and
lyric poetry Modern lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person. It is not equivalent to song lyrics, though song lyrics are often in the lyric mode, and it is also ''not'' equiv ...
. The first half of the 5th century saw the literary activities of the great Christian authors
Jerome Jerome (; la, Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; – 30 September 420), also known as Jerome of Stridon, was a Christian priest A priest is a religious leader authorize ...

Jerome
(c. 347–420) and (354–430), whose texts had an enormous influence on theological thought of the Middle Ages, and of the latter's disciple
Prosper of Aquitaine Prosper of Aquitaine ( la, Prosper Aquitanus; – AD), a Christianity, Christian writer and disciple of Augustine of Hippo, was the first continuator of Jerome's Chronicon (Jerome), Universal Chronicle. Life Prosper was a native of Aquitaine, ...
(c. 390–455). Of the later 5th century and early 6th century,
Sidonius Apollinaris Gaius Sollius Modestus Apollinaris Sidonius, better known as Sidonius Apollinaris (5 November of an unknown year, 430 – 481/490 AD), was a poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as ...

Sidonius Apollinaris
(c. 430 – after 489) and Ennodius (474–521), both from Gaul, are well known for their poems, as is
Venantius Fortunatus Venantius Honorius Clementianus Fortunatus ( 530 600/609 AD; french: Venance Fortunat) was a Latin poetry, poet and hymnographer in the Merovingian Court, and a Bishop of the Early Church. He has been venerated as Saint Venantius Fortunatus since ...
(c. 530–600). This was also a period of transmission: the
Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...
patrician
Boethius Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (; also Boetius ; 477 – 524 AD), was a Roman Roman Senate, senator, Roman consul, consul, ''magister officiorum'', and philosopher of the early 6th century. He was born about a ye ...
(c. 480–524) translated part of
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit ...

Aristotle
's
logical Logic (from Greek: grc, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical, argumentative, translit=logikḗ)Also related to (''logos''), "word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle." (Liddell an ...
corpus, thus preserving it for the
Latin West Greek East and Latin West are terms used to distinguish between the two parts of the Greco-Roman world Roman Theatre of Mérida, Spain. The term "Greco-Roman world" (also "Greco-Roman culture" or ; spelled Graeco-Roman in the Commonwealth), ...
, and wrote the influential literary and philosophical treatise ''
De consolatione Philosophiae ''The Consolation of Philosophy'' ( la, De consolatione philosophiae) is a philosophy, philosophical work by the Roman statesman Boethius, written around the year 524. It has been described as the single most important and influential work in th ...
'';
Cassiodorus Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (c. 485 – c. 585), commonly known as Cassiodorus (), was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Ro ...
(c. 485–585) founded an important library at the monastery of Vivarium near
Squillace Squillace ( grc, Σκυλλήτιον ''Skylletion''; grc-x-medieval, Σκυλάκιον ''Skylakion'') is an ancient town and '' comune'', in the Province of Catanzaro, part of Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , p ...
where many texts from Antiquity were to be preserved.
Isidore of Seville Isidore of Seville (; la, Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636) was a Spanish scholar and cleric. For over three decades, he was Archbishop of Seville. He is widely regarded, in the words of 19th-century historian Charles Forb ...
(c. 560–636) collected all scientific knowledge still available in his time into what might be called the first
encyclopedia An encyclopedia (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, Ameri ...
, the ''
Etymologiae ''Etymologiae'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Ro ...
''.
Gregory of Tours Gregory of Tours or Duallegori de Artorx (30 November 538 – 17 November 594 AD) was a Gallo-Roman The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanization (cultural), Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire. This was chara ...
(c. 538–594) wrote a lengthy history of the
Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman author ...

Frankish
kings. Gregory came from a Gallo-Roman aristocratic family, and his Latin, which shows many aberrations from the classical forms, testifies to the declining significance of classical education in Gaul. At the same time, good knowledge of Latin and even of
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is ...
was being preserved in
monastic Monasticism (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods ...
culture in
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in ...

Ireland
and was brought to
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. En ...

England
and the European mainland by
missionaries A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to promote their faith or provide services, such as education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), va ...

missionaries
in the course of the 6th and 7th centuries, such as
Columbanus Columbanus ( ga, Columbán, 540 – 21 November 615) was an Irish missionary notable for founding a number of monasteries after 590 in the Frankish and Lombard kingdoms, most notably Luxeuil Abbey in present-day France and Bobbio Abbey in ...
(543–615), who founded the monastery of
Bobbio Bobbio ( Bobbiese: ; lij, Bêubbi; la, Bobium) is a small town and commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the ...
in Northern Italy. Ireland was also the birthplace of a strange poetic style known as Hisperic Latin. Other important Insular authors include the historian
Gildas Gildas ( Breton: ''Gweltaz''; c. 500 – c. 570) — also known as Gildas the Wise or ''Gildas Sapiens'' — was a 6th-century Britons (historic), British monk best known for his scathing religious polemic ''De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae'', ...
(c. 500–570) and the poet
Aldhelm Aldhelm ( ang, Ealdhelm, la, Aldhelmus Malmesberiensis) (c. 63925 May 709), Abbot of Malmesbury Abbey, Bishop of Sherborne, and a writer and scholar of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Itali ...
(c. 640–709).
Benedict Biscop Benedict Biscop (pronounced "bishop";  – 690), also known as Biscop Baducing, was an Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of ...
(c. 628–690) founded the monastery of Wearmouth-Jarrow and furnished it with books which he had taken home from a journey to
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
and which were later used by
Bede Bede ( ; ang, Bǣda , ; 672/326 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, The Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable ( la, Beda Venerabilis), was an English Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sanc ...

Bede
(c. 672–735) to write his ''
Ecclesiastical History of the English People The ''Ecclesiastical History of the English People'' ( la, Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum), written by the Venerable Bede Bede ( ; ang, Bǣda , ; 672/326 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, The Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerabl ...
''. Many medieval Latin works have been published in the series
Patrologia Latina The ''Patrologia Latina'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...
,
Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum The ''Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum'' (CSEL) is an academic series that publishes critical editions of Latin works by late-antique Christian authors. Description The CSEL publishes Latin writings of Christian authors from the time ...
and
Corpus ChristianorumThe Corpus Christianorum (CC) is a major publishing undertaking of the Belgian publisher Brepols Publishers devoted to patristic and medieval Latin texts. The principal series are the ''Series Graeca'' (CCSG), ''Series Latina'' (CCSL), and the ' ...
.


Medieval Latin and everyday life

Medieval Latin was separated from
Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin, Latin language recognized as a Literary language, literary standard language, standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. It was used from 75 BC to the 3rd century AD, when it deve ...
around 800 and at this time was no longer considered part of the everyday language. Spoken Latin became a practice used mostly by the educated high class population. Even then it was not frequently used in casual conversation. An example of these men includes the churchmen who could read Latin, but could not effectively speak it. Latin's use in universities was structured in lectures and debates, however, it was highly recommended that students use it in conversation. This practice was kept up only due to rules. One of Latin's purposes, writing, was still in practice; the main uses being charters for property transactions and to keep track of the pleadings given in court. Even then, those of the church still used Latin more than the rest of the population. At this time, Latin served little purpose to the regular population but was still used regularly in ecclesiastical culture.


Important Medieval Latin authors


6th–8th centuries

* Boëthius (c. 480 – 525) *
Cassiodorus Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (c. 485 – c. 585), commonly known as Cassiodorus (), was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Ro ...
(c. 485 – c. 585) *
Gildas Gildas ( Breton: ''Gweltaz''; c. 500 – c. 570) — also known as Gildas the Wise or ''Gildas Sapiens'' — was a 6th-century Britons (historic), British monk best known for his scathing religious polemic ''De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae'', ...
(d. c. 570) *
Flavius Cresconius CorippusFlavius Cresconius Corippus was a late Roman epic poet of the 6th century, who flourished under East Roman Emperors Justinian I Justinian I (; la, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus; grc-gre, Ἰουστινιανός, Ioustinianós; 11 May ...
(d. c. 570) *
Venantius Fortunatus Venantius Honorius Clementianus Fortunatus ( 530 600/609 AD; french: Venance Fortunat) was a Latin poetry, poet and hymnographer in the Merovingian Court, and a Bishop of the Early Church. He has been venerated as Saint Venantius Fortunatus since ...
(c. 530 – c. 600) *
Gregory of Tours Gregory of Tours or Duallegori de Artorx (30 November 538 – 17 November 594 AD) was a Gallo-Roman The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanization (cultural), Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire. This was chara ...
(c. 538–594) *
Pope Gregory I Pope Gregory I ( la, Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally ent ...

Pope Gregory I
(c. 540 – 604) *
Isidore of Seville Isidore of Seville (; la, Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636) was a Spanish scholar and cleric. For over three decades, he was Archbishop of Seville. He is widely regarded, in the words of 19th-century historian Charles Forb ...
(c. 560–636) *
Bede Bede ( ; ang, Bǣda , ; 672/326 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, The Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable ( la, Beda Venerabilis), was an English Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sanc ...

Bede
(c. 672–735) * St. Boniface (c. 672 - 754) *
Chrodegang of Metz Saint Chrodegang ( la, Chrodogangus; german: Chrodegang, Hruotgang;Spellings of his name in (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spo ...
(d. 766) *
Paul the Deacon Paul may refer to: *Paul (name), a given name (includes a list of people with that name) *Paul (surname), a list of people People Christianity *Paul the Apostle (AD 5–67), also known as Saul of Tarsus or Saint Paul, early Christian missionar ...
(720s - c.799) *
Beatus of Liébana Saint Beatus of Liébana ( es, Beato; 730 – c. 800) was a monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of ...
(c. 730 - 800) * Peter of Pisa (d. 799) *
Paulinus of Aquileia Saint Paulinus II ( 726 – 11 January 802 or 804 AD) was a priest, theologian, poet, and one of the most eminent scholars of the Carolingian Renaissance. From 787 to his death, he was the Patriarch of Aquileia. He participated in a number of synod ...
(730s - 802) *
Alcuin Alcuin of York (; la, Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; 735 – 19 May 804) – also called Ealhwine, Alhwin, or Alchoin – was an English scholar, clergyman, poet, and teacher from York, Northumbria. He was born around 735 and became the ...
(c. 735–804)


9th century

*
Einhard Einhard (also Eginhard or Einhart; la, E(g)inhardus; 775 – March 14, 840) was a Franks, Frankish scholar and courtier. Einhard was a dedicated servant of Charlemagne and his son Louis the Pious; his main work is a biography of Charlemagne, the ...

Einhard
(775-840) *
Rabanus Maurus Rabanus Maurus Magnentius ( 780 – 4 February 856), also known as Hrabanus or Rhabanus, was a Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from ...
(780-856) *
Paschasius RadbertusSaint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, holiness, likeness, or closeness to God. However, the use of the term "saint" depends on the context and Christian denomination, denominat ...
(790-865) *
Rudolf of Fulda Rudolf of Fulda (died March 8, 865) was a Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a Christian monasticism, monastic Religious order (Catholic), religious order ...
(d. 865) *
Dhuoda Dhuoda (''fl.'' AD 824–844) was a Franks, Frankish writer, as well as Duchess consort of Septimania and Countess consort of Barcelona. She was the author of the ''Liber Manualis'', a handbook written for her son.Cherewatuk, Karen. "''Speculum Mat ...
*Lupus of Ferrieres (805-862) *Andreas Agnellus (Agnellus of Ravenna) (c. 805-846?) *Hincmar (806-882) *Walafrid Strabo (808-849) *Florus of Lyon (d. 860?) *Gottschalk (theologian) (808-867) *Sedulius Scottus (fl. 840–860) *Anastasius Bibliothecarius (810-878) *Johannes Scotus Eriugena (815-877) *Asser (d. 909) *Notker Balbulus (840-912)


10th century

*Ratherius (890–974) *Hrotsvitha of Gandersheim (935-973) *Thietmar of Merseburg (975–1018)


11th century

*Marianus Scotus (1028–1082) *Adam of Bremen (fl. 1060–1080) *Anselm of Canterbury (1033/4-1109) *Marbodius of Rennes (c. 1035–1123)


12th century

*Pierre Abélard (1079–1142) *Abbot Suger, Suger of St Denis (c. 1081–1151) *Geoffrey of Monmouth (c. 1100 – c. 1155) *Ailred of Rievaulx (1110–1167) *Otto of Freising (c. 1114–1158) *Archpoet (c. 1130 - c. 1165) *
William of Tyre William of Tyre ( la, Willelmus Tyrensis; 113029 September 1186) was a Middle Ages, medieval prelate and chronicler. As Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tyre, archbishop of Tyre, he is sometimes known as William II to distinguish him from his pr ...
(c. 1130–1185) *Peter of Blois (c. 1135 – c. 1203) *Walter of Châtillon (fl. c. 1200) *Adam of St. Victor


13th century

*Giraldus Cambrensis (c. 1146 – c. 1223) *Saxo Grammaticus (c. 1150 – c. 1220) *Anonymus (notary of Béla III), Anonymous ( late 12th century – early 13th century) *Thomas of Celano (c. 1200 – c. 1265) *Albertus Magnus (c. 1200–1280) *Roger Bacon (c. 1214–1294) *Thomas Aquinas, St Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274) *Ramon Llull (1232–1315) *Siger of Brabant (c. 1240–1280s) *Duns Scotus (c. 1266–1308)


14th century

*Ranulf Higdon (c. 1280 - c. 1363) *William of Ockham (c. 1288 - c. 1347) *Jean Buridan (1300 – 1358) *Henry Suso (c. 1295 - 1366)


Literary movements

* Goliards * Hiberno-Latin * Medieval Roman Law * Medieval Latin comedy * Anglo-Saxon riddles, Riddle Poems


Works

*''Carmina Burana'' (11th - 12th century) *''Pange Lingua Gloriosi Corporis Mysterium, Pange Lingua'' (ca.1250) *''Summa Theologica, Summa Theologiae'' (ca.1270) *''
Etymologiae ''Etymologiae'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Ro ...
'' (ca.600) *''Dies Irae'' (ca.1260) *''Decretum Gratiani'' (ca.1150) *''De Ortu Waluuanii, De Ortu Waluuanii Nepotis Arturi'' (ca.1180) *''Magna Carta'' (ca.1215)


References


Citations


Sources

* K.P. Harrington, J. Pucci, and A.G. Elliott, ''Medieval Latin'' (2nd ed.), (Univ. Chicago Press, 1997) * F.A.C. Mantello and A.G. Rigg, eds., ''Medieval Latin: An Introduction and Bibliographical Guide'' (CUA Press, 1996) ; Dictionaries * Charles du Fresne, sieur du Cange, Du Cange et al.
Glossarium ad scriptores mediæ et infimæ latinitatis
Niort : L. Favre, 1883–1887, Ecole des chartes. * ''Thesaurus Linguae Latinae''


Further reading

*Chavannes-Mazel, Claudine A., and Margaret M. Smith, eds. 1996. ''Medieval Manuscripts of the Latin Classics: Production and Use; Proceedings of the Seminar in the History of the Book to 1500, Leiden, 1993.'' Los Altos Hills, CA: Anderson-Lovelace. *Lapidge, Michael. 1993. ''Anglo-Latin Literature 900–1066.'' London and Rio Grande, OH: Hambledon. *--. 1996. ''Anglo-Latin Literature 600–899.'' London and Rio Grande, OH: Hambledon. *Mann, Nicholas, and Birger Munk Olsen, eds. 1997. ''Medieval and Renaissance Scholarship: Proceedings of the Second European Science Foundation Workshop on the Classical Tradition in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, London: Warburg Institute, 27–28 November 1992.'' New York: Brill. *Mantello, F. A. C., and George Rigg. 1996. ''Medieval Latin: An Introduction and Bibliographical Guide.'' Washington, DC: Catholic University of American Press. *Pecere, Oronzo, and Michael D. Reeve. 1995. ''Formative Stages of Classical Traditions: Latin Texts from Antiquity to the Renaissance; Proceedings of a Conference Held at Erice, 16–22 October 1993, as the 6th Course of International School for the Study of Written Records.'' Spoleto, Italy: Centro Italiano di Studi sull’alto Medioevo. *Raby, F. J. E. 1957. ''A History of Secular Latin Poetry in the Middle Ages.'' 2 vols. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon. *Rigg, A. G. 1992. ''A History of Anglo-Latin Literature A.D. 1066–1422.'' Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. *Walde, Christine, ed. 2012. ''Brill's New Pauly Supplement 5: The Reception of Classical Literature.'' Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill. *Ziolkowski, Jan M., 1993. ''Talking Animals: Medieval Latin Beast Poetry, 750-1150.'' Philadelphia, PA, University of Pennsylvania Press. *Raby, F.J.E., 1959. ''The Oxford Book of Medieval Latin Verse.'' Amen House, London, Oxford University Press. *Harrington, Karl Pomeroy, 1942. ''Mediaeval Latin.'' Norwood, MA, USA, Norwood Press. *Dronke, Peter, vol. 1, 1965. ''Medieval Latin and the Rise of European Love-Lyric.'' Oxford, UK, Clarendon Press. *Bacci, Antonii. ''Varia Latinitatis Scripta II, Inscriptiones Orationes Epistvlae.'' Rome, Italy, Societas Librania Stvdivm. *Beeson, Charles H., 1925. ''A Primer of Medieval Latin: An Anthology of Prose and Poetry''. Chicago, United States, Scott, Foresman and Company. *Curtius, Ernst Roberts, 1953. ''European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages.'' New York, New York, United States, Bollingen Foundation Inc. *Auerbach, Erich, 1965. ''Literary Language & Its Public: in Late Latin Antiquity and in the Middle Ages''. New York, NY, USA, Bollingen Foundation.


External links


In-depth Guides to Learning Latin
at the UK National Archives.
The Journal of Medieval Latin
* Corpus Corporum ([http://mlat.uzh.ch/MLS/index.php?lang=0 mlat.uzh.ch]) * Corpus Thomisticum ([https://web.archive.org/web/20131011213125/http://www.corpusthomisticum.org/iopera.html corpusthomisticum.org]) * LacusCurtius
penelope.uchicago.edu
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