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Marseille ( , , ; also spelled in English as Marseilles; oc, Marselha ) is the
prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
of the
Bouches-du-Rhône Bouches-du-Rhône (, , ; oc, Bocas de Ròse, ; literally "Mouths of the Rhône") is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military ...
department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative division within a country, for e ...
and
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (; oc, Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur, , or , ; commonly shortened to PACA; en, Provence-Alps-French Riviera, italic=yes; also known as Région Sud) is one of the eighteen administrative regions of France France ...
region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic re ...
, France. Situated in the
Provence Provence (, , , , ; oc, Provença or ''Prouvènço'' , ) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, R ...

Provence
historical province
historical province
, it is located on the coast of the
Gulf of Lion Map of the Gulf of Lion The Gulf of Lion (French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a co ...
, part of the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
, near the mouth of the
Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, Ròse ) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire The Loire (, also ; ; oc, Léger; la, Liger) is the longest r ...

Rhône
. Marseille is the second-largest city in France, covering an area of ; it had a population of 870,018 in 2016. Its
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...
, which extends over , is the third-largest in France after those of
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
and
Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, ...

Lyon
, with a population of 1,760,653 as of 2017, or 3,100,329 (2019) by the broader
Eurostat Eurostat (European Statistical Office) is a of the located in the quarter of , . Eurostat’s main responsibilities are to provide statistical information to the (EU) and to promote the harmonisation of statistical methods across its and a ...

Eurostat
definition of metropolitan region. Its inhabitants are called ''Marseillais''. Founded around 600 BC by Greek settlers from
Phocaea Phocaea or Phokaia (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). ...
, Marseille is the oldest city of France, as well as one of Europe's oldest continuously inhabited settlements. It was known to the
ancient Greeks Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era was ...
as
Massalia Massalia (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10 ...
() and to
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
as ''Massilia''. Marseille has been a trading port since ancient times. In particular, it experienced a considerable commercial boom during the colonial period and especially during the 19th century, becoming a prosperous industrial and trading city. Nowadays the
Old Port The distinctive glass awning of Bull Feeney's, at the corner of Fore and Exchange Street. Much of the Old Port keeps true to its 19th-century architecture and styling. The Old Port (sometimes known as the Old Port Exchange) is a district of Port ...
still lies at the heart of the city where the manufacturing of soap, its famous savon de Marseille, began some 6 centuries ago. Overlooking the port is the or "Bonne-mère" for the people of Marseille, a Romano-Byzantine church and the symbol of the city. Inherited from this past, the Grand Port Maritime de Marseille (GPMM) and the maritime economy are major poles of regional and national activity and Marseille remains the first French port, the second
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...
port and the fifth European port. Since its origins, Marseille's openness to the Mediterranean Sea has made it a
cosmopolitan Cosmopolitan may refer to: Food and drink * Cosmopolitan (cocktail), also known as a "Cosmo" History * Rootless cosmopolitan, a Soviet derogatory epithet during Joseph Stalin's anti-Semitic campaign of 1949–1953 Hotels and resorts * Cosmopo ...
city marked by cultural and economic exchanges with Southern Europe, the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
,
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
and
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...

Asia
. In
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered ...

Europe
, the city has the third largest Jewish community after
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
and
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
. In the 1990s, the Euroméditerranée project for economic development and urban renewal was launched. New infrastructures and renovations were carried out in the 2000s and 2010s: the tramway, the renovation of the Hôtel-Dieu into a luxury hotel, the expansion of the , the
CMA CGM Tower The CMA CGM Tower is a 147 m tall skyscraper in Euroméditerranée, the central business district of Marseille, France. Designed by Zaha Hadid, it is the headquarters for CMA CGM, a major shipping firm, hosting 2,200 employees previously sp ...
, as well as other quayside museums such as the Museum of Civilisations of Europe and the Mediterranean (MuCEM). As a result, Marseille now has the most museums in France after
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
. The city was named
European Capital of Culture A European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as p ...

European Capital of Culture
in 2013 and European Capital of Sport in 2017. Additionally, Marseille hosted matches at the 1998 World Cup and
Euro 2016 The 2016 UEFA European Football Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2016 or simply Euro 2016, was the 15th UEFA European Championship The UEFA European Football Championship, commonly known as the UEFA European Championship and i ...
. It is also home to several higher education institutions in the region, including the
University of Aix-Marseille Aix-Marseille University (AMU; french: Aix-Marseille Université; formally incorporated as ''Université d'Aix-Marseille'') is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a ...
.


Geography

Marseille is the second-largest metropolitan area in France after Paris. To the east, starting in the small fishing village of Callelongue on the outskirts of Marseille and stretching as far as
Cassis Cassis (; Occitan: ''Cassís'') is a commune situated east of Marseille in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region, whose coastline is known in English as the French Riviera, in Southe ...

Cassis
, are the
Calanque A calanque (, "inlet"; co, calanca, plural ''calanche''; oc, calanca, plural ''calancas'') is a narrow, steep-walled inlet that is developed in limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt ...

Calanque
s, a rugged coastal area interspersed with small
fjord In physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδ ...

fjord
-like inlets. Farther east still are the
Sainte-Baume Image:Massif Ste Baume.jpg, 300px, ''Massif de la Sainte-Baume'' The Sainte-Baume (en Provençal dialect, provençal: ''Massís de la Santa Bauma'' according to classical orthography and ''La Santo Baumo'' according to mistralian orthography) is a ...
(a mountain ridge rising from a forest of
deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agriculturists who grow flowers, fruits and nuts, ...
trees), the city of
Toulon Toulon (, , ; oc, label=Occitan language, Provençal, Tolon , , ) is a city on the French Riviera and a large port on the Mediterranean coast, with a major naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region, and ...

Toulon
and the
French Riviera The French Riviera (known in French as the ; oc, Còsta d'Azur ; literal translation " Azure Coast") is the Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost c ...

French Riviera
. To the north of Marseille, beyond the low
Garlaban Garlaban is a hill which looks out to Aubagne. The summit is 715 metres high although its highest point is the ''butte des pinsots'' (731 m). It can be seen from most of the southern part of Bouches-du-Rhône, from Marseille to the valley of Huveau ...

Garlaban
and Etoile
mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure, and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, us ...

mountain range
s, is the . To the west of Marseille is the former artists' colony of
l'Estaque L'Estaque, 2006 L'Estaque is a village in southern France, just west of Marseille Marseille ( , also spelled in English as ''Marseilles''; , ; oc, Marselha ) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the Departments of France, department of ...

l'Estaque
; farther west are the Côte Bleue, the
Gulf of Lion Map of the Gulf of Lion The Gulf of Lion (French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a co ...
and the
Camargue Camargue (, also , , ; oc, label=Provençal dialect, Provençal, Camarga) is a natural region located south of Arles, France, between the Mediterranean Sea and the two arms of the Rhône River delta, delta. The eastern arm is called the ''Grand ...

Camargue
region in the
Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, Ròse ) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire The Loire (, also ; ; oc, Léger; la, Liger) is the longest r ...

Rhône
delta Delta commonly refers to: * Delta (letter) (Δ or δ), a letter of the Greek alphabet * River delta, a landform at the mouth of a river * D (NATO phonetic alphabet: "Delta"), the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet * Delta Air Lines, an Ame ...

delta
. The
airport An airport is an aerodrome An aerodrome (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval En ...
lies to the north west of the city at
Marignane Marignane (; oc, Marinhana) is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southern France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a coun ...
on the
Étang de Berre The Étang de Berre (in Provençal Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance languages, Romance language (or branch of numerous of these) spoken in ...

Étang de Berre
.Michelin Guide to Provence, The city's main thoroughfare (the wide boulevard called the ) stretches eastward from the
Old Port The distinctive glass awning of Bull Feeney's, at the corner of Fore and Exchange Street. Much of the Old Port keeps true to its 19th-century architecture and styling. The Old Port (sometimes known as the Old Port Exchange) is a district of Port ...
to the Réformés quarter. Two large forts flank the entrance to the Old Port—Fort Saint-Nicolas on the south side and Fort Saint-Jean on the north. Farther out in the Bay of Marseille is the
Frioul archipelago The Frioul archipelago is a group of four islands located off the Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as ...
which comprises four islands, one of which, If, is the location of , made famous by the Dumas novel ''
The Count of Monte Cristo ''The Count of Monte Cristo'' (french: Le Comte de Monte-Cristo) is an adventure novel Adventure fiction is a genre of fiction that usually presents danger, or gives the reader a sense of excitement. History In the Introduction to the ''Enc ...
''. The main commercial centre of the city intersects with the Canebière at Rue St Ferréol and the Centre Bourse (one of the city's main shopping malls). The centre of Marseille has several pedestrianised zones, most notably Rue St Ferréol, Cours Julien near the Music Conservatory, the Cours Honoré-d'Estienne-d'Orves off the Old Port and the area around the Hôtel de Ville. To the south east of central Marseille in the
6th arrondissement The 6th arrondissement of Paris (''VIe arrondissement'') is one of the 20 Arrondissements of Paris, arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as ''sixième''. The arrondissement, called L ...
are the Prefecture and the monumental fountain of Place Castellane, an important bus and metro interchange. To the south west are the hills of the 7th and 8th arrondissements, dominated by the
basilica In Ancient Roman architecture, a basilica is a large public building with multiple functions, typically built alongside the town's Forum (Roman), forum. The basilica was in the Latin West equivalent to a stoa in the Greek East. The building ...

basilica
of
Notre-Dame de la Garde Notre-Dame de la Garde (literally: Titles of Mary, Our Lady of the Guard), known to local citizens as ''la Bonne Mère'' (French for 'the Good Mother'), is a Catholic Church, Catholic basilica in Marseille, France, and the city's best-known symb ...

Notre-Dame de la Garde
. Marseille's main railway station—
Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles Marseille-Saint-Charles (French: ''Gare de Marseille-Saint-Charles'') is the main railway station Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, veh ...
—is north of the Centre Bourse in the 1st arrondissement; it is linked by the Boulevard d'Athènes to the Canebière.


History

Marseille was founded as the
Greek colony Greek colonization was an organised Colonies in antiquity, colonial expansion by the Archaic Greece, Archaic Greeks into the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea in the period of the 8th–6th centuries BC (750 and 550 BC). This colonization differed ...
of
Massalia Massalia (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10 ...
circa 600 BC, and was populated by Greek settlers from
Phocaea Phocaea or Phokaia (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). ...
(modern
Foça Foça is a town and district in Turkey's İzmir Province, on the Aegean Sea, Aegean coast. The town of Foça is situated at about northwest of İzmir's city center. The district also has a township with its own municipality named Yenifoça (lit ...

Foça
,
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
). It became the preeminent Greek ''
polis ''Polis'' (, ; grc-gre, πόλις, ), plural ''poleis'' (, , ), literally means "city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (199 ...

polis
'' in the
Hellenized Hellenization (other British spelling Hellenisation) or Hellenism is the adoption of Greek culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as ...
region of southern Gaul. The city-state sided with the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
against
Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading hub of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of the most affluent cities of the . The city developed from a n colony ...

Carthage
during the
Second Punic War The Second Punic War, which lasted from 218 to 201BC, was the second of three wars fought between Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading ...

Second Punic War
(218–201 BC), retaining its independence and commercial empire throughout the
western Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands aroun ...
even as Rome expanded into
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical r ...

Western Europe
and
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
. However, the city lost its independence following the Roman
Siege of Massilia The Siege of Massilia, including a naval battle, was an episode of Caesar's civil war Caesar's Civil War (49–45 BC) was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. It beg ...
in 49 BC, during
Caesar's Civil War Caesar's Civil War (49–45 BC) was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public r ...

Caesar's Civil War
, in which Massalia sided with the exiled faction at war with
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
. Afterward the
Gallo-Roman culture The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanization (cultural), Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire. This was characterized by the Gaulish adoption or adaptation of Roman culture, Roman culture, language, morals and way of ...
was initiated. The city maintained its position as a premier maritime trading hub even after its capture by the
Visigoths The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe a ...
in the 5th century AD, although the city went into decline following the sack of 739 AD by the forces of
Charles Martel Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient ...

Charles Martel
. It became part of the
County of Provence A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...

County of Provence
during the 10th century, although its renewed prosperity was curtailed by the Black Death of the 14th century and a sack of the city by the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
in 1423. The city's fortunes rebounded with the ambitious building projects of
René of Anjou René of Anjou ( oc, Rainièr; ca, Renat; it, Renato; 1409–1480) was Duke of Anjou and Count of Provence from 1434 to 1480, who also reigned as King of Naples The following is a list of rulers of the Kingdom of Naples, from its first Sicilia ...

René of Anjou
, Count of Provence, who strengthened the city's fortifications during the mid-15th century. During the 16th century the city hosted a naval fleet with the combined forces of the
Franco-Ottoman alliance The Franco-Ottoman alliance, also Franco-Turkish alliance, was an alliance established in 1536 between the king of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located i ...
, which threatened the ports and navies of the Genoese Republic. Marseille lost a significant portion of its population during the Great Plague of Marseille in 1720, but the population had recovered by mid-century. In 1792, the city became a focal point of the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
and though France's
national anthem A national anthem is a patriotic Patriotism or national pride is the feeling of love, devotion, and sense of attachment to a homeland and alliance with other citizens who share the same sentiment. This attachment can be a combination of ...
was born in Strasbourg, it was first sung in Paris by volunteers from Marseille, hence the name the crowd gave it: ''
La Marseillaise "La Marseillaise" is the national anthem A national anthem is a Patriotism, patriotic musical composition symbolizing and evoking eulogies of the history and traditions of a country or nation. The majority of national anthems are March (mu ...

La Marseillaise
''. The
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
and establishment of the
French Empire#REDIRECT French Empire {{Redirect shell , {{R from ambiguous page {{R from other capitalisation ...
during the 19th century allowed for further expansion of the city, although it was occupied by the German
Wehrmacht The ''Wehrmacht'' (, ) was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the German Army (1935–1945), ''Heer'' (army), the ''Kriegsmarine'' (navy) and the ''Luftwaffe'' (air force). The designation "''Wehrmacht ...
in November 1942 and subsequently heavily damaged during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. The city has since become a major center for immigrant communities from former French colonies, such as
French Algeria French Algeria (french: Alger to 1839, then afterwards; unofficially , ar, الجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, refers to the France, French colonisation of Algeria. French rule in the region began in 1830 with t ...
.


Economy

Marseille is a major French centre for trade and industry, with excellent transportation infrastructure (roads, sea port and airport). Marseille Provence Airport is the fourth largest in France. In May 2005, the French financial magazine ''L'Expansion'' named Marseille the most dynamic of France's large cities, citing figures showing that 7,200 companies had been created in the city since 2000. Marseille is also France's second largest research centre with 3,000 research scientists within Aix Marseille University. , the Marseille metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to $60.3 billion, or $36,127 per capita (purchasing power parity).


Port

Historically, the economy of Marseille was dominated by its role as a port of the French Empire, linking the North African colonies of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia with
Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (french: France métropolitaine or ''la Métropole''), also known as European France, is the area of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcon ...

Metropolitan France
. The
Old Port The distinctive glass awning of Bull Feeney's, at the corner of Fore and Exchange Street. Much of the Old Port keeps true to its 19th-century architecture and styling. The Old Port (sometimes known as the Old Port Exchange) is a district of Port ...
was replaced as the main port for trade by the Port de la Joliette (now part of
Marseille-Fos Port Marseille Fos Port (French: Grand port maritime de Marseille, or Great Seaport of Marseille) is the main trade seaport of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily loc ...
) during the and now contains restaurants, offices, bars and hotels and functions mostly as a private marina. The majority of the port and , which experienced decline in the 1970s after the oil crisis, have been recently redeveloped with funds from the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
. Fishing remains important in Marseille and the food economy of Marseille is fed by the local catch; a daily fish market is still held on the Quai des Belges of the Old Port. The economy of Marseille and its region is still linked to its commercial port, the first French port and the fifth European port by cargo tonnage, which lies north of the Old Port and eastern in
Fos-sur-Mer Fos-sur-Mer ( Provençal: ''Fòs'') is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in southern France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Euro ...
. Some 45,000 jobs are linked to the port activities and it represents 4 billion euros added value to the regional economy. 100 million tons of
freight In economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the ...

freight
pass annually through the port, 60% of which is petroleum, making it number one in France and the Mediterranean and number three in Europe. However, in the early 2000s, the growth in container traffic was being stifled by the constant strikes and social upheaval. The port is among the 20th firsts in Europe for container traffic with 1,062,408 TEU and new infrastructures have already raised the capacity to 2M TEU. Petroleum refining and shipbuilding are the principal industries, but chemicals, soap, glass, sugar,
building material Building material is material used for construction. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-mad ...

building material
s, plastics, textiles, olive oil, and processed foods are also important products. Marseille is connected with the Rhône via a
canal Canals are waterways channels Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physical geography, a landform consisting of the outline (banks) of the path of a narrow body of water. Australia * ...

canal
and thus has access to the extensive waterway network of France. Petroleum is shipped northward to the Paris basin by pipeline. The city also serves as France's leading centre of oil refining.


Companies, services and high technologies

In recent years, the city has also experienced a large growth in
service sector The tertiary sector of the economy, generally known as the service sector, is the third of the three economic sector Image:Economic sectors and income.JPG, 250px, This figure illustrates the percentages of a country's economy made up by differen ...
employment and a switch from
light manufacturing Manufacturing is the creation or Production (economics), production of goods with the help of equipment, Work (human activity), labor, machines, tools, and chemical or biological processing or formulation. It is the essence of secondary sector ...
to a cultural,
high-tech High technology (high tech) or frontier technology (frontier tech) is technology Technology ("science of craft", from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the sum of Art techni ...
economy. The Marseille region is home to thousands of companies, 90% of which are
small and medium enterprises Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) or small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) are businesses whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits. The abbreviation "SME" is used by international organizations such as the World Bank, the Europe ...
with less than 500 employees. Among the most famous ones are
CMA CGM CMA CGM S.A. is a French container transportation and shipping company. It is a leading worldwide shipping group, using 257 shipping routes between 420 ports in 160 different countries. Its headquarters are in Marseille Marseille ( , also sp ...

CMA CGM
, container-shipping giant;
Compagnie maritime d'expertises COMEX (or Compagnie Maritime d'Expertises) is a company specializing in engineering and deep diving operations, created in November 1961 by Henri Germain Delauze and ran by him until his death in 2012. This company is known worldwide for its tech ...
(Comex), world leader in sub-sea engineering and hydraulic systems;
Airbus Helicopters Airbus Helicopters SAS (formerly Eurocopter Group) is the helicopter manufacturing division of Airbus. It is the largest in the industry in terms of revenues and turbine helicopter deliveries. Its head office is located at Marseille Provence Ai ...
, an
Airbus Airbus SE (; ; ; ) is a European multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational s ...
division; Azur Promotel, an active
real estate development Real estate development, or property development, is a business process, encompassing activities that range from the renovation and re-lease of existing buildings to the purchase of raw Real Estate, land and the sale of developed land or parcel ...
company; ''La Provence'', the local
daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of works in sequential segments ...

daily newspaper
; RTM, Marseille's public transport company; and Société Nationale Maritime Corse Méditerranée (SNCM), a major operator in passenger, vehicle and freight transportation in the Western Mediterranean. The urban operation Euroméditerranée has developed a large offer of offices and thus Marseille hosts one of the main business district in France. Marseille is the home of three main
technopole A technopole, commonly referred to as a high-technology cluster, refers to a center of high-tech manufacturing and information-based quaternary industry. The term was coined by Allen J. Scott in 1990 to describe regions in Southern California ...
s: Château-Gombert (technological innovations), Luminy (biotechnology) and La Belle de Mai (17,000 sq.m. of offices dedicated to multimedia activities).


Tourism and attractions

The port is also an important arrival base for millions of people each year, with 2.4 million including 890,100 from cruise ships. With its beaches, history, architecture and culture (24 museums and 42 theatres), Marseille is one of the most visited cities in France, with 4.1 million visitors in 2012. Marseille is ranked 86th in the world for business tourism and events, advancing from the 150th spot one year before. The number of congress days hosted on its territory increased from 109,000 in 1996 to almost 300,000 in 2011. They take place in three main sites, the Palais du Pharo, Palais des Congrès et des Expositions (Parc Chanot) and World Trade Center. In 2012 Marseille hosted the
World Water Forum The World Water Forum (WWF) is an event focusing on perceived issues surrounding water. It is hosted by the World Water Council and takes place every three years. Aim World Water Forum aims to: :* Raise awareness with decision makers and the publ ...
. Several urban projects have been developed to make Marseille attractive. Thus new parks, museums, public spaces and real estate projects aim to improve the city's quality of life ( Parc du 26e Centenaire,
Old Port of Marseille The Old Port of Marseille (French: ''Vieux-Port de Marseille'', ) is at the end of the Canebière, the major street of Marseille Marseille ( , also spelled in English as ''Marseilles''; , ; oc, Marselha ) is the Prefectures in France, prefec ...
, numerous places in Euroméditerranée) to attract firms and people. Marseille municipality acts to develop Marseille as a regional nexus for entertainment in the south of France with high concentration of museums, cinemas, theatres, clubs, bars, restaurants, fashion shops, hotels, and
art galleries An art gallery is a room or a building in which visual art is displayed. Among the reasons art may be displayed are aesthetic enjoyment, cultural enrichment, or for marketing purposes. While "gallery" continues to be used in the name of institution ...

art galleries
.


Employment

Unemployment in the economy fell from 20% in 1995 to 14% in 2004. However, Marseille unemployment rate remains higher than the national average. In some parts of Marseille, youth unemployment is reported to be as high as 40%.


Administration

The city of Marseille is divided into 16 municipal arrondissements, which are themselves informally divided into 111 neighbourhoods (French: ''quartiers''). The arrondissements are regrouped in pairs, into 8 sectors, each with a mayor and council (like the arrondissements in
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...
and
Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, ...
). Municipal elections are held every six years and are carried out by sector. There are 303 councilmembers in total, two-thirds sitting in the sector councils and one third in the city council. The 9th arrondissement of Marseille is the largest in terms of area because it comprises parts of
Calanques National Park Calanques National Park (French: ''Parc national des Calanques'') is a French national park located in Bouches-du-Rhône Bouches-du-Rhône (, , ; oc, Bocas de Ròse, ; literally "Mouths of the Rhône") is a department Department may refer to ...
. With a population of 89,316 (2007), the
13th arrondissement of Marseille The 13th arrondissement of Marseille is one of the 16 arrondissements of Marseille. It is governed locally together with the 14th arrondissement of Marseille, 14th arrondissement, with which it forms the 7th sector of Marseille. Population Refer ...
is the most populous one. From 1950 to the mid-1990s, Marseille was a Socialist Party (France), Socialist (PS) and French Communist Party, Communist (PCF) stronghold. Gaston Defferre (PS) was consecutively reelected six times as Mayor of Marseille from 1953 until his death in 1986. He was succeeded by Robert Vigouroux of the European Democratic and Social Rally (RDSE). Jean-Claude Gaudin of the conservative Union for a Popular Movement, UMP was elected Mayor of Marseille in 1995. Gaudin was reelected in 2001, 2008 and 2014. In recent years, the Communist Party has lost most of its strength in the northern boroughs of the city, whereas the National Front (France), National Front has received significant support. At the 2014 French municipal elections, last municipal election in 2014, Marseille was divided between the northern arrondissements dominated by the left (PS) and far-right (FN) and the southern part of town dominated by the conservative (UMP). Marseille is also divided in Cantons of Marseille, twelve cantons, each of them sending two members to the Departmental councils (France), Departmental Council of the
Bouches-du-Rhône Bouches-du-Rhône (, , ; oc, Bocas de Ròse, ; literally "Mouths of the Rhône") is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military ...
department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative division within a country, for e ...
.


Mayors of Marseille since the beginning of the 20th century


Population


Immigration

Because of its pre-eminence as a Mediterranean port, Marseille has always been one of the main gateways into France. This has attracted many immigrants and made Marseille a cosmopolitan melting pot. By the end of the 18th century about half the population originated from elsewhere in Provence mostly and also from southern France. Economic conditions and political unrest in Europe and the rest of the world brought several other waves of immigrants during the 20th century: Greeks and Italians started arriving at the end of the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th century, up to 40% of the city's population was of Italian origin; Russians in 1917; Armenians in 1915 and 1923; Vietnamese in the 1920s, 1954 and after 1975; Corsicans during the 1920s and 1930s; Spanish after 1936; Maghrebis (both Arab people, Arab and Berber people, Berber) in the interwar period, inter-war period; Sub-Saharan Africans after 1945; Maghrebi Jews in the 1950s and 1960s; the Pied-Noir, Pieds-Noirs from the former
French Algeria French Algeria (french: Alger to 1839, then afterwards; unofficially , ar, الجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, refers to the France, French colonisation of Algeria. French rule in the region began in 1830 with t ...
in 1962; and then from Comoros. In 2006, it was reported that 70,000 city residents were considered to be of Maghrebi origin, mostly from Algeria. The second largest group in Marseille in terms of single nationalities were from the Comoros, amounting to some 45,000 people. Currently, over one third of the population of Marseille can trace their roots back to Italy. Marseille also has the second-largest Corsican and Armenians, Armenian populations of France. Other significant communities include Maghrebis, Turkish people, Turks, Comorians in France, Comorians, Chinese, and Vietnamese people, Vietnamese. In 1999, in several arrondissements, about 40% of the young people under 18 were of Maghrebi origin (at least one immigrant parent). Since 2013 a significant number of Central- and Eastern European immigrants have settled in Marseille, attracted by better job opportunities and the good climate of this Mediterranean city. The main nationalities of the immigrants are Romanians and Poles.


Religion

According to data from 2010, major religious communities in Marseille include: *Roman Catholic Church, Roman Catholic (415,000 or 38.5%) *Islam, Muslim (264,000 or 25%) *Non-religious (156.000 or 14.5%) *Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Apostolic (80,000 or 7.5%) *Protestant (mostly Pentecostal) (75,000 or 7.1%) *Jewish (52,000 or 4.9%) *Eastern Orthodox (15,000 or 1.4%) *Hindu (4,000 or 0.4%) *Buddhist (3,000 or 0.3%).


Culture

Marseille is a city that has its own unique culture and is proud of its differences from the rest of France. Today it is a regional centre for culture and entertainment with an important Opéra de Marseille, opera house, historical and maritime museums, five art galleries and numerous cinemas, clubs, bars and restaurants. Marseille has a large number of theatres, including La Criée, Le Gymnase and the Théâtre Toursky. There is also an extensive arts centre in La Friche, a former match factory behind the Saint-Charles station. The Alcazar, until the 1960s a well known music hall and Variety show, variety theatre, has recently been completely remodelled behind its original façade and now houses the central municipal library. Other music venues in Marseille include Le Silo (also a theatre) and GRIM. Marseille has also been important in the arts. It has been the birthplace and home of many French writers and poets, including , Valère Bernard, Pierre Bertas, Edmond Rostand and André Roussin. The small port of
l'Estaque L'Estaque, 2006 L'Estaque is a village in southern France, just west of Marseille Marseille ( , also spelled in English as ''Marseilles''; , ; oc, Marselha ) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the Departments of France, department of ...

l'Estaque
on the far end of the Bay of Marseille became a favourite haunt for artists, including Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Auguste Renoir, Paul Cézanne (who frequently visited from his home in Aix-en-Provence, Aix), Georges Braque and Raoul Dufy.


Multi-cultural influences

Rich and poor neighborhoods exist side by side. Although the city is not without crime, Marseille has a larger degree of multicultural tolerance. Urban geographers say the city's geography, being surrounded by mountains, helps explain why Marseille does not have the same problems as Paris. In Paris, ethnic areas are segregated and concentrated in the periphery of the city. Residents of Marseille are of diverse origins, yet appear to share a similar particular identity. An example is how Marseille responded in 2005, when ethnic populations living in other French cities' suburbs rioted, but Marseille remained relatively calm. Marseille served as the
European Capital of Culture A European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as p ...

European Capital of Culture
for 2013 along with Košice. It was chosen to give a 'human face' to the European Union to celebrate cultural diversity and to increase understanding between Europeans. One of the intentions of highlighting culture is to help reposition Marseille internationally, stimulate the economy, and help to build better interconnection between groups. Marseille-Provence 2013 (MP2013) featured more than 900 cultural events held throughout Marseille and the surrounding communities. These cultural events generated more than 11 million visits. The European Capital of Culture was also the occasion to unveil more than 600 million euros in new cultural infrastructure in Marseille and its environs, including the MuCEM designed by Rudy Ricciotti. Early on, immigrants came to Marseille locally from the surrounding Provence region. By the 1890s immigrants came from other regions of France as well as Italy. Marseille became one of Europe's busiest port by 1900. Marseille has served as a major port where immigrants from around the Mediterranean arrive. Marseille continued to be multicultural. Armenians from the Ottoman Empire began arriving in 1913. In the 1930s, Italians settled in Marseille. After World War II, a wave of Jewish immigrants from North Africa arrived. In 1962, a number of French colonies gained their independence, and the French citizens from Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia arrived in Marseille. The city had an economic downturn and lost many jobs. Those who could afford to move left and the poorest remained. For a while, the mafia appeared to run the city, and for a period of time the communist party was prominent. Multi-cultural Marseille can be observed by a visitor at the market at Noailles, also called Marché des Capucins, in old town near the Old Port. There, Lebanese bakeries, an African spice market, Chinese and Vietnamese groceries, fresh vegetables and fruit, shops selling couscous, shops selling Caribbean food are side by side with stalls selling shoes and clothing from around the Mediterranean. Nearby, people sell fresh fish and men from Tunisia drink tea. Although most Armenians arrived after the Armenian Genocide, Armenians had a long presence even before the 20th and late 19th centuries. Armenians, having an extensive trade network worldwide, massively traded with Marseille and its port. Most notably, during the 16th century, and after the Armenians gained a monopoly over Iranian silk, which was granted to them by Shah Abbas of Iran, the trade flow of Armenians of Marseille increased tremendously. Merchants of Armenian origin received trade privileges in France by Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu (1585–1642) and later on Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619–1683) Marseille a free port in 1669. One notable Armenian-Iranian merchant gained a patent from Louis XIV (1638–1715) over Iranian silk. Armenians also became successful money-lenders and bankers in the city. Due to these policies and the multiculturalism of the city of Marseille, Armenians became very wealthy, and the legacy of the Armenians in the city still lives on.


Tarot de Marseille

The most commonly used tarot deck takes its name from the city; it has been called the ''Tarot of Marseille, Tarot de Marseille'' since the 1930s—a name coined for commercial use by the French cardmaker and cartomancer Paul Marteau, owner of B–P Grimaud. Previously this deck was called ''Tarot italien'' (Italian Tarot) and even earlier it was simply called Tarot. Before being ''de Marseille'', it was used to play the local variant of tarot, tarocchi before it became used in cartomancy at the end of the 18th century, following the trend set by Antoine Court de Gébelin. The name ''Tarot de Marseille'' (Marteau used the name ''ancien Tarot de Marseille'') was used by contrast to other types of Tarots such as ''Tarot de Besançon''; those names were simply associated with cities where there were many cardmakers in the 18th century (previously several cities in France were involved in cardmaking). Another local tradition is the making of santon (figurine), santons, small hand-crafted figurines for the traditional Provençal Christmas Nativity scene, creche. Since 1803, starting on the last Sunday of November, there has been a Santon Fair in Marseille; it is currently held in the Cours d'Estienne d'Orves, a large square off the Vieux-Port.


Opera

Marseille's main cultural attraction was, since its creation at the end of the 18th century and until the late 1970s, the Opéra de Marseille, Opéra. Located near the Old Port and the Canebière, at the very heart of the city, its architectural style was comparable to the classical trend found in other opera houses built at the same time in
Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, ...

Lyon
and Bordeaux. In 1919, a fire almost completely destroyed the house, leaving only the stone colonnade and peristyle from the original façade. The classical façade was restored and the opera house reconstructed in a predominantly Art Deco style, as the result of a major competition. Currently the Opéra de Marseille stages six or seven operas each year. Since 1972, the Ballet national de Marseille has performed at the opera house; its director from its foundation to 1998 was Roland Petit.


Popular events and festivals

There are several popular festivals in different neighborhoods, with concerts, animations, and outdoor bars, like the Fête du Panier in June. On 21 June, there are dozens of free concerts in the city as part of France's Fête de la Musique, featuring music from all over the world. Being free events, many Marseille residents attend. Marseille hosts a Gay Pride event in early July. In 2013, Marseille hosted Europride, an international LGBT event, 10 July20. At the beginning of July, there is the International Documentary Festival. At the end of September, the electronic music festival Marsatac takes place. In October, the ''Fiesta des Suds'' offers many concerts of world music.


Hip hop music

Marseille is also well known in France for its French hip hop, hip hop music. Bands like IAM (band), IAM originated from Marseille. Other known groups include Fonky Family, Psy 4 de la Rime (including rappers Soprano (rapper), Soprano and Alonzo (rapper), Alonzo), and Keny Arkana. In a slightly different way, ragga music is represented by Massilia Sound System.


Food

*Bouillabaisse is the most famous seafood dish of Marseille. It is a fish stew containing at least three varieties of very fresh local fish: typically red rascasse (Scorpaena scrofa); sea robin (fr: ''grondin''); and European conger (fr: ''congre''). It can include gilt-head bream (fr: ''dorade''); turbot; monkfish (fr: ''lotte'' or ''baudroie''); mullet (fish), mullet; or silver hake (fr: ''merlan''), and it usually includes shellfish and other seafood such as sea urchins (fr: ''oursins''), mussels (fr: ''moules''); velvet crabs (fr: ''étrilles''); spider crab (fr: ''araignées de mer''), plus potatoes and vegetables. In the traditional version, the fish is served on a platter separate from the broth. The broth is served with rouille, a mayonnaise made with egg yolk, olive oil, red bell pepper, saffron, and garlic, spread on pieces of toasted bread, or ''croûtons''. In Marseille, bouillabaisse is rarely made for fewer than ten people; the more people who share the meal, and the more different fish that are included, the better the bouillabaisse. *Aioli, Aïoli is a sauce made from raw garlic, lemon juice, eggs and olive oil, served with boiled fish, hard boiled eggs and cooked vegetables. * is a paste made from anchovies, garlic, and olive oil, spread on bread or served with raw vegetables. *Bourride is a soup made with white fish (monkfish, European sea bass, whiting, etc.) and aïoli. *Fougasse (bread), Fougasse is a flat Provençal bread, similar to the Italian focaccia. It is traditionally baked in a wood oven and sometimes filled with olives, cheese or anchovies. * are, in the words of food writer M. F. K. Fisher, "little boat-shaped cookies, tough dough tasting vaguely of orange peel, smelling better than they are." *Farinata#French variations is chickpea flour boiled into a thick mush, allowed to firm up, then cut into blocks and fried. *Pastis is an alcoholic beverage made with aniseed and spice. It is extremely popular in the region. *Pieds paquets is a dish prepared from sheep's feet and offal. *Pistou is a combination of crushed fresh basil and garlic with olive oil, similar to the Italian pesto. The "soupe au pistou" combines pistou in a broth with pasta and vegetables. *Tapenade is a paste made from chopped olives, capers, and olive oil (sometimes anchovies may be added).


Films set in Marseille

Marseille has been the setting for many films.


Main sights

Marseille is listed as a major centre of art and history. The city has many museums and galleries and there are many ancient buildings and churches of historical interest.


Central Marseille

Most of the attractions of Marseille (including shopping areas) are located in the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 7th arrondissements. These include: * The Old Port or Vieux-Port, the main harbour and marina of the city. It is guarded by two massive forts (Fort Saint-Nicolas and Fort Saint-Jean) and is one of the main places to eat in the city. Dozens of cafés line the waterfront. The Quai des Belges at the end of the harbour is the site of the daily fish market. Much of the northern quayside area was rebuilt by the architect Fernand Pouillon after its destruction by the Nazism, Nazis in 1943. * The City and town halls, Hôtel de Ville (City Hall), a baroque building dating from the 17th century. * The Centre Bourse and the adjacent Rue St Ferreol district (including Rue de Rome and Rue Paradis), the main shopping area in central Marseille. *The Porte d'Aix, a triumphal arch commemorating French victories in the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis, Spanish Expedition. * The Hôtel-Dieu, a former hospital in ''Le Panier'', transformed into an InterContinental hotel in 2013. *La Vieille Charité in ''Le Panier'', an architecturally significant building designed by the Puget brothers. The central baroque chapel is situated in a courtyard lined with arcaded galleries. Originally built as an Almshouse, alms house, it is now home to an archeological museum and a gallery of African and Asian art, as well as bookshops and a café. It also houses the Marseille International Poetry Centre. * The Marseille Cathedral, Cathedral of Sainte-Marie-Majeure or La Major, founded in the 4th century, enlarged in the 11th century and completely rebuilt in the second half of the 19th century by the architects Léon Vaudoyer and Henri-Jacques Espérandieu. The present day cathedral is a gigantic edifice in Romano-Byzantine style. A romanesque architecture, romanesque transept, choir and altar survive from the older medieval cathedral, spared from complete destruction only as a result of public protests at the time. * The 12th-century parish church of Lawrence of Rome, Saint-Laurent and adjoining 17th-century chapel of Sainte-Catherine, on the quayside near the cathedral. * The Abbey of St. Victor, Marseille, Abbey of Saint-Victor, one of the oldest places of Christian worship in Europe. Its 5th-century crypt and catacombs occupy the site of a Ancient Greece, Hellenic burial ground, later used for Early Christianity, Christian martyrs and venerated ever since. Continuing a Mary Magdalene#Speculations, medieval tradition, every year at Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, Candlemas a Black Madonna from the crypt is carried in procession along Rue Sainte for a blessing from the archbishop, followed by a mass and the distribution of "navettes" and green votive candles.


Museums

In addition to the two in the Centre de la Vieille Charité, described above, the main museums are: * The Musée des Civilisations de l'Europe et de la Méditerranée (MuCEM) and the Villa Méditerranée were inaugurated in 2013. The MuCEM is devoted to the history and culture of European and Mediterranean civilisations. The adjacent Villa Méditerranée, an international centre for cultural and artistic interchange, is partially constructed underwater. The site is linked by footbridges to the Fort Saint-Jean and to the Panier. * The Musée Regards de Provence, opened in 2013, is located between the Cathedral of Notre Dame de la Majeur and the Fort Saint-Jean. It occupies a converted port building constructed in 1945 to monitor and control potential sea-borne health hazards, in particular epidemics. It now houses a permanent collection of historical artworks from Provence as well as temporary exhibitions. * The Musée du Vieux Marseille, housed in the 16th-century Maison Diamantée, describing everyday life in Marseille from the 18th century onwards. * The Musée des Docks Romains preserves in situ the remains of Roman commercial warehouses, and has a small collection of objects, dating from the Greek period to the Middle Ages, that were uncovered on the site or retrieved from shipwrecks. * The Marseille History Museum (Musée d'Histoire de Marseille), devoted to the history of the town, located in the Centre Bourse. It contains remains of the Greek, and Roman history of Marseille as well as the best preserved hull of a 6th-century boat in the world. Ancient remains from the Ancient Greece, Hellenic port are displayed in the adjacent archeological gardens, the ''Jardin des Vestiges''. * The Musée Cantini, a museum of modern art near the Palais de Justice. It houses artworks associated with Marseille as well as several works by Pablo Picasso, Picasso. * The Musée Grobet-Labadié, opposite the Palais Longchamp, houses an exceptional collection of European Work of art, objets d'art and old musical instruments. * The 19th-century Palais Longchamp, designed by Esperandieu, is located in the Parc Longchamp. Built on a grand scale, this italianate architecture, italianate colonnaded building rises up behind a vast monumental fountain with cascading waterfalls. The jeux d'eau marks and masks the entry point of the Canal de Provence into Marseille. Its two wings house the Musée des beaux-arts de Marseille (a fine arts museum), and the Muséum d'histoire naturelle de Marseille, Natural History Museum (Muséum d'histoire naturelle de Marseille). * The Château Borély is located in the Parc Borély, a park off the Bay of Marseille with the Jardin botanique E.M. Heckel, a botanical garden. The Museum of the Decorative Arts, Fashion and Ceramics opened in the renovated château in June 2013. * The (MAC), a museum of contemporary art, opened in 1994. It is devoted to American and Western art history, European art from the 1960s to the present day. * The in Château-Gombert, devoted to Provençal crafts and traditions. File:Mucem-Villa-de-la-Mediterannee-Marseille.jpg, The MuCEM, Musée Regards de Provence and Villa Mediterannée, with Notre Dame de la Majeur on the right File:Maison Diamantée (3x2 crop).jpg, The sixteenth century Maison Diamantée which houses the Musée du Vieux Marseille File:Salon-de-musique-Grobet-Labadié.jpg, The music room in the Musée Grobet-Labadié, Grobet-Labadié museum File:Marseille Palais Longchamp a3x2.JPG, The Palais Longchamp with its monumental fountain


Outside central Marseille

The main attractions outside the city centre include: * The 19th-century Basilica of
Notre-Dame de la Garde Notre-Dame de la Garde (literally: Titles of Mary, Our Lady of the Guard), known to local citizens as ''la Bonne Mère'' (French for 'the Good Mother'), is a Catholic Church, Catholic basilica in Marseille, France, and the city's best-known symb ...

Notre-Dame de la Garde
, an enormous Romano-Byzantine basilica built by architect Espérandieu in the hills to the south of the Old Port. The terrace offers views of Marseille and its surroundings. * The Stade Vélodrome, the home stadium of the city's main Association football, football team, Olympique de Marseille. * The Unité d'Habitation, an influential and iconic modernist building designed by the Swiss architect Le Corbusier in 1952. On the third floor is the gastronomic restaurant, Le Ventre de l'Architecte. On the roof is the contemporary gallery MaMo opened in 2013. * The Docks (Marseille), Docks de Marseille, a 19th-century warehouse transformed into offices. * The Pharo Gardens, a park with views of the Mediterranean and the Old Port. * The Corniche, a waterfront road between the Old Port and the Bay of Marseille. * The beaches at the Prado, Pointe Rouge, Les Goudes, Callelongue and Le Prophète. * The Calanques, a mountainous coastal area, is home to
Calanques National Park Calanques National Park (French: ''Parc national des Calanques'') is a French national park located in Bouches-du-Rhône Bouches-du-Rhône (, , ; oc, Bocas de Ròse, ; literally "Mouths of the Rhône") is a department Department may refer to ...
which became France's tenth national park in 2012. * The islands of the
Frioul archipelago The Frioul archipelago is a group of four islands located off the Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as ...
in the Bay of Marseille, accessible by ferry from the Old Port. The prison of was one of the settings for
The Count of Monte Cristo ''The Count of Monte Cristo'' (french: Le Comte de Monte-Cristo) is an adventure novel Adventure fiction is a genre of fiction that usually presents danger, or gives the reader a sense of excitement. History In the Introduction to the ''Enc ...
, the novel by Alexandre Dumas, père, Alexandre Dumas. The neighbouring islands of Ratonneau and Pomègues are joined by a man-made breakwater (structure), breakwater. The site of a former garrison and quarantine hospital, these islands are also of interest for their marine wildlife.


Education

A number of the faculties of the three universities that comprise Aix-Marseille University are located in Marseille: *University of Provence, Université de Provence Aix-Marseille I *University of the Mediterranean, Université de la Méditerranée Aix-Marseille II *Paul Cézanne University, Université Paul Cézanne Aix-Marseille III In addition Marseille has four ''grandes écoles'': *École centrale de Marseille, Ecole Centrale de Marseille part of Centrale Graduate School *École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies *Institut polytechnique des sciences avancées *KEDGE Business School The main French research bodies including the CNRS, INSERM and Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, INRA are all well represented in Marseille. Scientific research is concentrated at several sites across the city, including Luminy, where there are institutes in developmental biology (the IBDML), immunology (CIML), marine sciences and neurobiology (INMED), at the CNRS Joseph Aiguier campus (a world-renowned institute of molecular and environmental microbiology) and at the Timone hospital site (known for work in medical microbiology). Marseille is also home to the headquarters of the Institut de recherche pour le développement, IRD, which promotes research into questions affecting developing countries.


Transport


International and regional transport

The city is served by an international airport, Marseille Provence Airport, located in Marignane. The airport is the fifth busiest French airport, and known the 4th most important European traffic growth in 2012. An extensive network of motorways connects Marseille to the north and west (A7 autoroute, A7), Aix-en-Provence in the north (A51 autoroute, A51), Toulon (A50 autoroute, A50) and the
French Riviera The French Riviera (known in French as the ; oc, Còsta d'Azur ; literal translation " Azure Coast") is the Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost c ...

French Riviera
(A8 autoroute, A8) to the east. Marseille-Saint-Charles station, Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles is Marseille's main railway station. It operates direct regional services to Aix-en-Provence, Briançon, Toulon, Avignon, Nice, Montpellier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Nantes, etc. Gare Saint-Charles is also one of the main terminal stations for the TGV in the south of France making Marseille reachable in three hours from Paris (a distance of over 750 km) and just over one and a half hours from Lyon. There are also direct TGV lines to Lille, Brussels, Nantes, Geneva, Strasbourg and Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt as well as Eurostar services to
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
(just in the summer) and Thello services to Milan (just one a day), via Nice and Genoa. There is a new long-distance bus station adjacent to new modern extension to the Gare Saint-Charles with destinations mostly to other
Bouches-du-Rhône Bouches-du-Rhône (, , ; oc, Bocas de Ròse, ; literally "Mouths of the Rhône") is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military ...
towns, including buses to Aix-en-Provence, Cassis, La Ciotat and Aubagne. The city is also served with 11 other regional trains stations in the east and the north of the city. Marseille has a large ferry slip, ferry terminal, the ''Gare Maritime'', with services to Corsica, Sardinia, Algeria and Tunisia.


Public transport

Marseille is connected by the Marseille Metro, Marseille Métro train system operated by the ''Régie des transports de Marseille'' (RTM). It consists of two lines: Line 1 (blue) between Castellane and La Rose opened in 1977 and Line 2 (red) between Sainte-Marguerite-Dromel and Bougainville opened between 1984 and 1987. An extension of the Line 1 from Castellane to La Timone was completed in 1992, another extension from La Timone to La Fourragère ( and 4 new stations) was opened in May 2010. The Métro system operates on a turnstile system, with tickets purchased at the nearby adjacent automated booths. Both lines of the Métro intersect at Gare Saint-Charles and Castellane. Three bus rapid transit lines are under construction to better connect the Métro to farther places (Castellane -> Luminy; Capitaine Gèze – La Cabucelle -> Vallon des Tuves; La Rose -> Château Gombert – Saint Jérome). An extensive Public transport bus service, bus network serves the city and suburbs of Marseille, with 104 lines and 633 buses. The three lines of the Tramway de Marseille, tramway, opened in 2007, go from the
CMA CGM Tower The CMA CGM Tower is a 147 m tall skyscraper in Euroméditerranée, the central business district of Marseille, France. Designed by Zaha Hadid, it is the headquarters for CMA CGM, a major shipping firm, hosting 2,200 employees previously sp ...
towards Les Caillols. As in many other French cities, a bike-sharing service nicknamed "Le vélo", free for trips of less than half an hour, was introduced by the city council in 2007. A free ferry service operates between the two opposite quays of the Old Port. From 2011 ferry shuttle services operate between the Old Port and Pointe Rouge; in spring 2013 it will also run to l'Estaque. There are also ferry services and boat trips available from the Old Port to Frioul archipelago, Frioul, the Calanques and Cassis.


Sport

The city boasts a wide variety of sports facilities and teams. The most popular team is the city's football team, football club, Olympique de Marseille, which was the finalist of the UEFA Champions League in 1991, before winning the competition in 1993. The club also became finalists of the UEFA Europa League in 1999, 2004 and 2018. The club had a history of success under then-owner Bernard Tapie. The club's home, the Stade Vélodrome, which can seat around 67,000 people, also functions for other local sports, as well as the France national rugby union team, national rugby team. Stade Velodrome hosted a number of games during the 1998 FIFA World Cup, 2007 Rugby World Cup, and UEFA Euro 2016. The local rugby teams are Marseille XIII and Marseille Vitrolles Rugby. Marseille is famous for its important pétanque activity, it is even renowned as the ''pétanque capitale''. In 2012 Marseille hosted the Pétanque World Championship and the city hosts every year the Mondial la Marseillaise de pétanque, the main pétanque competition. Sailing is a major sport in Marseille. The wind conditions allow regattas in the warm waters of the Mediterranean. Throughout most seasons of the year it can be windy while the sea remains smooth enough to allow sailing. Marseille has been the host of 8 (2010) Match Race France events which are part of the World Match Racing Tour. The event draws the world's best sailing teams to Marseille. The identical supplied boats (J Boats J-80 racing yachts) are raced two at a time in an on the water dogfight which tests the sailors and skippers to the limits of their physical abilities. Points accrued count towards the World Match Racing Tour and a place in the final event, with the overall winner taking the title ISAF World Match Racing Tour Champion. Match racing is an ideal sport for spectators in Marseille, as racing in close proximity to the shore provides excellent views. The city was also considered as a possible venue for 2007 America's Cup. Marseille is also a place for other List of water sports, water sports such as windsurfing and powerboating. Marseille has three golf courses. The city has dozens of gyms and several public swimming pools. Running is also popular in many of Marseille's parks such as Le Pharo and Le Jardin Pierre Puget. An annual footrace is held between the city and neighbouring Cassis: the Marseille-Cassis Classique Internationale.


Climate

The city has a Mediterranean climate, hot-summer mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen: ''Csa'') with cool-mild winters with moderate rainfall, because of the wet westerly winds, and hot, mostly dry summers, due to the dry winds blowing from the Sahara desert at that period. December, January, and February are the coldest months, averaging temperatures of around during the day and at night. July and August are the hottest months, averaging temperatures of around during the day and at night in the Marignane airport ( from Marseille) but in the city near the sea the average high temperature is in July. Marseille is officially the sunniest major city in France with over 2,800 hours of sunshine while the average sunshine in the country is around 1,950 hours. It is also the driest major city with only of precipitation annually, mainly due to the Mistral (wind), Mistral, a cold, dry wind originating in the
Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, Ròse ) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire The Loire (, also ; ; oc, Léger; la, Liger) is the longest r ...

Rhône
Valley that occurs mostly in winter and spring and which generally brings clear skies and sunny weather to the region. Less frequent is the Sirocco, a hot, sand-bearing wind, coming from the Sahara, Sahara Desert. Snowfalls are infrequent; over 50% of years do not experience a single snowfall. The hottest temperature was on 26 July 1983 during a great heat wave, the lowest temperature was on 13 February 1929 during a strong cold wave.


Notable people

Marseille was the birthplace of: *Pytheas (fl. 4th century BC), Greek merchant, geographer and explorer *Petronius (fl. 1st century AD), Roman novelist and satirist *Pierre Demours (17021795), physician *Jean-Henri Gourgaud, aka. "Dugazon" (17461809), actor *Jean-Baptiste Benoît Eyriès (17671846), geographer, author and translator *Désirée Clary (17771860), wife of King Charles XIV John of Sweden, Carl XIV Johan of Sweden, and therefore ''Queen Desirée'' or ''Queen Desideria of Kingdom of Sweden, Sweden'' *Sabin Berthelot (17941880), naturalist and ethnologist *Adolphe Thiers (17971877), first president of the French Third Republic, Third Republic *Étienne Joseph Louis Garnier-Pagès, Étienne Joseph Louis Garnier-Pages (18011841), politician *Honoré Daumier (18081879), List of caricaturists, caricaturist and painter *Joseph Autran (18131877), poet *Candice Clot (1981), vocalist *Charles-Joseph-Eugene de Mazenod (17821861), Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Marseille, bishop of Marseille and founder of the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate. *Lucien Petipa (18151898), ballet dancer *Joseph Mascarel (18161899), mayor of Los Angeles *Marius Petipa (18181910), ballet dancer and choreographer *Ernest Reyer (18231909), opera composer and music critic *Émile Ollivier, Olivier Émile Ollivier (18251913), statesman *Victor Maurel (18481923), operatic baritone * Joseph Pujol, aka. "Le Pétomane" (18571945), entertainer *Charles Fabry (18671945), physicist *Edmond Rostand (18681918), poet and dramatist *Pavlos Melas (18701904), Greek officer (armed forces), army officer *Louis Nattero, (18701915), painter *Vincent Scotto (18761952), guitarist, songwriter *Charles Camoin (18791965), fauvist painter *Henri Fabre (18821984), aviator and inventor of the first seaplane *Frédéric Mariotti (18831971), actor *Darius Milhaud (18921974), composer and teacher *Berty Albrecht (18931943), French Resistance, Croix de guerre 1939–1945, Croix de Guerre *Antonin Artaud (18971948), author *Henri Tomasi (19011971), composer and conductor *Zino Francescatti (19021991), violinist *Fernandel (19031971), actor *Marie-Madeleine Fourcade (19091989), French Resistance, Commander of the Légion d'honneur *Eliane Plewman, Éliane Browne-Bartroli (Eliane Plewman, 19171944), French Resistance, Croix de Guerre *César Baldaccini (19211998), sculptor *Louis Jourdan (19212015), actor *Jean-Pierre Rampal (19222000), flautist *Alice Colonieu, (19242010), ceramist *Paul Mauriat (19252006), orchestra leader, composer *Maurice Béjart (19272007), ballet choreographer *Régine Crespin (19272007), opera singer *Ginette Garcin (1928–2010), actor * André di Fusco (19322001), known as André Pascal, songwriter, composer *Henry de Lumley (born 1934), archaeologist *Sacha Sosno (19372013), sculptor *Jean-Pierre Ricard (born 1944), cardinal, archbishop of Bordeaux *Georges Chappe (born 1944), cyclist *Jean-Claude Izzo (19452000), author *Denis Ranque (born 1952), businessman *Ariane Ascaride (born 1954), actress *Myriam Fox-Jerusalmi (born 1961), world champion Slalom canoeing, slalom canoer *Eric Cantona (born 1966), Manchester United F.C., Manchester United and France national football team, French national team football player *Patrick Fiori (born 1969), singer *Marc Panther (born 1970), member of the popular Music of Japan, Japanese rock band globe (band), Globe *Zinedine Zidane (born 1972), professional football player and former captain of the France national football team *Romain Barnier (born 1976), freestyle swimmer *Sébastien Grosjean (born 1978), tennis player *Philippe Echaroux (born 1983), photographer *Mathieu Flamini (born 1984), football player *Rémy Di Gregorio (born 1985), cyclist *Jessica Fox (canoeist), Jessica Fox (born 1994), French-born Australian Whitewater slalom, slalom canoer


International relations


Twin towns – sister cities

Marseille is twin towns and sister cities, twinned with 14 cities, all of them being port cities, with the exception of Marrakech. * Abidjan, Ivory Coast * Antwerp, Belgium * Copenhagen, Denmark * Dakar, Senegal * Genoa, Italy * Glasgow, Scotland, UK * Haifa, Israel * Hamburg, Germany * Kobe, Japan * Marrakech, Morocco * Odessa, Ukraine * Piraeus, Greece * Tunis, Tunisia


Partner cities

In addition, Marseille has signed various types of formal agreements of cooperation with 27 cities all over the world: * Agadir, Morocco (2003) * Alexandria, Egypt (1990) * Algiers, Algeria (1980) * Bamako, Mali (1991) * Barcelona, Spain (1998) * Beirut, Lebanon (2003) * Casablanca, Morocco (1998) * Gdańsk, Poland (1992) * Istanbul, Turkey (2003) * Jerusalem, Israel (2006) * Limassol, Cyprus * Lomé, Togo (1995) *
Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, ...

Lyon
, France * Meknes, Morocco (1998) * Montevideo, Uruguay (1999) * Nice, France * Nîmes, France * Rabat, Morocco (1989) * Saint Petersburg, Russia (2013) * Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina (2003) * Thessaloniki, Greece * Tirana, Albania (1991) * Tripoli, Libya (1991) * Tunis, Tunisia (1998) * Valparaíso, Chile (2013) * Varna, Bulgaria (2007) * Yerevan, Armenia (1992)


See also

*List of films set in Marseille *Marcel Pagnol *Marseille Marine Fire Battalion *Marseille soap
Old maps of Marseiile
The National Library of Israel, Eran Laor Cartographich Collection


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * * * * *


Further reading

* * * * *, single book comprising 4 separate volumes: ''La préhistoire de la migration'' (1482–1830); ''L'expansion marseillaise et "l'invasion italienne"'' (1830–1918); ''Le cosomopolitisme de l'entre-deux-guerres'' (1919–1945); ''Le choc de la décolonisation'' (1945–1990).


External links

* {{Authority control Marseille, Communes of Bouches-du-Rhône Prefectures in France Cities in France Articles containing video clips Populated places established in the 1st millennium BC