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Marcus Furius Camillus (; c. 446 – 365 BC) was a Roman soldier and statesman of the
patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usage * Patrician (post-Roman Europe), the governing elites of cities in parts of medieval a ...
class. According to
Livy Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a historian. He wrote a monumental history of and the Roman people, titled , covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional founding in 753 BC th ...
and
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
, Camillus triumphed four times, was five times
dictator A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power. A dictatorship A dictatorship is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the c ...
, and was honoured with the title of ''Second Founder of
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
''.


Early life

Camillus belonged to the lineage of the Furii Camilli, whose origin had been in the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...
city of
Tusculum Tusculum is a ruined Classical Rome, Roman city in the Alban Hills, in the Latium region of Italy. Tusculum was most famous in Roman times for the many great and luxurious patrician country villas sited close to the city, yet a comfortable distanc ...
. Although this city had been a bitter enemy of the Romans in the 490s BC, after both the
Volsci The Volsci (, , ) were an tribe, well known in the history of the first century of the . At the time they inhabited the partly hilly, partly marshy district of the south of , bounded by the and on the south, the on the east, and stretching ro ...

Volsci
and
Aequi 300px, Location of the Aequi (Equi) in central Italy, 5th century BC. The Aequi ( grc, Αἴκουοι and Αἴκοι) were an Italic tribe The Italic peoples were an ethnolinguistic group identified by their use of Italic languages The Ital ...
later began to wage war against Rome, Tusculum joined Rome, unlike most Latin cities. Soon, the Furii integrated into Roman society, accumulating a long series of
magistrate The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In , a ' was one of the highest ranking government officers, and possessed both and powers. In other parts of t ...
offices. Thus the Furii had become an important Roman family by the 450s.
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
, ''Lives'': Wikisource Life of Camillus.
The father of Camillus was
Lucius Furius MedullinusLucius Furius Medullinus (c. 445 BC – c. 375 BC), of the Patrician (ancient Rome), patrician ''Furia (gens), gens Furia'', was a politician and general of the Roman Republic who was Roman consul, consul twice and Tribuni militum consulari potestate ...
, a patrician
tribune Tribune () was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the ...

tribune
of
consular A consul is an official representative of the government of one Sovereign state, state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between th ...
powers. Camillus had more than three brothers: the eldest one was
Lucius Lucius ( el, Λούκιος ''Loukios''; ett, Luvcie) is a male given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a quoted in that identifies a person, potentially with a as well, and differentiates that pe ...
junior, who was both consul and tribune of consular powers. The Latin noun ''camillus'' denoted a child
acolyte An acolyte is an assistant or follower assisting the celebrant in a religious service or procession. In many Christian denominations Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on t ...
at religious rituals. During Camillus's infancy, his relative
Quintus Furius Paculus Quintus is a male given name derived from ''Quintus Quintus is a male given name derived from ''Quintus (praenomen), Quintus'', a common Latin language, Latin forename (''praenomen'') found in the culture of ancient Rome. Quintus derives from ...
was the Roman
Pontifex Maximus The (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it becam ...
. The 'military tribunes with consular authority' or consular tribunes (in Latin
tribuni militum consulari potestate The ("military tribunes with consular power"), in English also called consular tribunes, were tribunes elected with consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin plural ''consules'') was the title of one of the two chief Roman magistrate, magistrates ...
), were tribunes elected with consular power during the so-called
Conflict of the Orders The Conflict or Struggle of the Orders was a political struggle between the plebeians The plebeians, also called plebs, were, in ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the It ...
in the Roman Republic. Consular tribunes served in 444 BC and then continuously from 408 BC to 394 BC and again from 391 BC to 367 BC. The office was created, along with the magistracy of the censor, in order to give the
plebeian In ancient Rome, the plebeians (also called plebs) were the general body of free Roman citizenship, Roman citizens who were not Patrician (ancient Rome), patricians, as determined by the capite censi, census, or in other words "commoners". Both ...
order access to higher levels of government without having to reform the office of consul. At that time in Rome's history, plebeians could not be elected to the highest magistracy of Consul, whereas they could be elected to the office of consular tribune.


Early career


Military campaigns

Camillus had been a noteworthy soldier in the wars with the
Aequi 300px, Location of the Aequi (Equi) in central Italy, 5th century BC. The Aequi ( grc, Αἴκουοι and Αἴκοι) were an Italic tribe The Italic peoples were an ethnolinguistic group identified by their use of Italic languages The Ital ...
and
Volsci The Volsci (, , ) were an tribe, well known in the history of the first century of the . At the time they inhabited the partly hilly, partly marshy district of the south of , bounded by the and on the south, the on the east, and stretching ro ...

Volsci
. Subsequently, Camillus was a military
tribune Tribune () was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the ...

tribune
. In 403 BC, he was appointed
censor Censor may refer to: People with the name *Cato the Elder Marcus Porcius Cato (; 234–149 BC), also known as Cato the Censor ( la, Censorius), the Elder and the Wise, was a Roman soldier, senator The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">R ...
with Marcus Postumius Albinus Regillensis and, by means of extensive taxation, took action to solve financial problems resulting from incessant military campaigns.


Against Veii

In 406 BC, Rome declared war against the rival
Etruria Etruria () was a region of Central Italy Central Italy ( it, Italia centrale or just ) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ) ...

Etruria
n city of
Veii Veii (also Veius; it, Veio) was an important ancient Etruscan civilization, Etruscan city situated on the southern limits of Etruria and only north-northwest of Rome, Italy. It now lies in Isola Farnese, in the Comuni of the Province of Rome, c ...

Veii
. The city of Veii was powerful and was located on a well-fortified and elevated site. This required the Romans to commence a siege lasting several years. In 401 BC, as the war started to grow increasingly unpopular in Rome, Camillus was appointed consular tribune. He assumed command of the Roman army, and within a short time he stormed two allies of Veii,
Falerii Falerii (now Fabrica di Roma) was a city in southern Etruria, 50 km (31 mi) northeast of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of R ...
and
Capena Capena (until 1933 called Leprignano) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides ...

Capena
, which resisted behind their walls. In 398 BC, Camillus received consular tribune powers and then looted
Capena Capena (until 1933 called Leprignano) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides ...

Capena
. When Rome suffered severe defeats in 396 BC, the tenth year of this war, the Romans resorted again to Camillus, who was named ''
dictator A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power. A dictatorship A dictatorship is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the c ...
'' for the first time. After defeating both Falerii and Capena at , Camillus commanded the final strike against Veii. He dug the soft ground below the walls and the Romans infiltrated through the city's sewage system effectively, defeating the enemy. Not interested in capitulation terms, but in Veii's complete destruction, the Romans slaughtered the entire adult male population and made slaves of all the women and children. The plunder was large. For the battle, Camillus had invoked the protection of
Mater Matuta Mater Matuta was an indigenous Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power ...

Mater Matuta
extensively, and he looted the statue of
Juno Juno commonly refers to: *Juno (mythology), the Roman goddess of marriage and queen of the gods *Juno (film), ''Juno'' (film), 2007 Juno may also refer to: Arts, entertainment and media Fictional characters *Juno, in the film ''Jenny, Juno'' *Jun ...
for Rome. Back in Rome, Camillus paraded on a
quadriga A () is a car or chariot A chariot is a type of carriage A carriage is a private four-wheeled vehicle for people and is most commonly horse-drawn A horse-drawn vehicle is a mechanized piece of equipment pulled by one horse or by a t ...

quadriga
, a four-horse chariot, and the popular celebrations lasted four days. Plutarch wrote of this: Camillus opposed the plebeian plan to populate Veii with half of the Romans. It would have resolved the poverty issues, but the patricians opposed it. Deliberately, Camillus protracted the project until its abandonment. Camillus rendered himself controversial in not fulfilling his promise to dedicate a tenth of the plunder to
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
for the
god In monotheistic Monotheism is the belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the ...
Apollo Apollo, grc, Ἀπόλλωνος, ''Apóllōnos'', label=genitive , ; , grc-dor, Ἀπέλλων, ''Apéllōn'', ; grc, Ἀπείλων, ''Apeílōn'', label=Arcadocypriot Greek, ; grc-aeo, Ἄπλουν, ''Áploun'', la, Apollō, ...

Apollo
. The Roman s announced that the gods were displeased by this, so the Senate charged the citizens and the sought amounts of gold were retrieved.


Aftermath

To finish Falerii, which was the last surviving enemy of this war, Camillus was made consular tribune again in 394 BC. He seized the opportunity to divert the bitter conflict between Roman social classes into a unifying external conflict. He besieged Falerii and, after he rejected as immoral the proposal of a local school teacher who had surrendered most of the local children to the Romans, the people of Falerii were moved to gratitude, and made peace with Rome. The entire
Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Reg ...
was impressed by the Roman victories of Camillus. Aequi, Volsci, and Capena proposed peace treaties. Rome increased its territory by seventy percent and some of the land was distributed to needy citizens. Rome had become the most powerful nation of the central peninsula.


Banishment

The Romans were restive because no plunder had been reaped out of Falerii. Furthermore, Camillus rejected both the land redistribution and the uncontrolled Roman population of Veii. Consequently, he was impeached by his political adversaries, by an accusation of
embezzlement Embezzlement is the act of withholding asset In financial accounting Financial accounting is the field of accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial and non financial informa ...
of the Etruscan plunder. To Camillus, his friends explained that, although the condemnation seemed unavoidable, they would help to pay the fine. Camillus spurned this, opting for exile. He abandoned Rome with his wife and Lucius, his surviving son, and went to Ardea. In his absence, Camillus was condemned to pay 1,500
denarii The denarius (, dēnāriī ) was the standard Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a ...
.


Return from Banishment and Further military campaigns


The Gauls and the Second Foundation of Rome

The
Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rat ...

Gaul
s, who had already invaded most of Etruria, reached
Clusium Clusium ( grc-gre, Κλύσιον, ''Klýsion'', or , ''Kloúsion''; Umbrian:''Camars'') was an ancient city in Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a ...
and its people turned to Rome for help. However, the Roman embassy provoked a skirmish and, then, the Gauls marched straight for Rome (July 390 BC). After the entire Roman army was defeated at the Allia brook (
Battle of the Allia The Battle of the Allia was a battle fought between the Senones – a Gauls, Gallic tribe led by Brennus (4th century BC), Brennus who had invaded northern Italy – and the Roman Republic. The battle was fought at the confluence of the Tiber a ...
), the defenceless Rome was seized by the invaders. The entire Roman army retreated into the deserted Veii whereas most civilians ended at the Etruscan
Caere : Caere (also Caisra and Cisra) is the Latin name given by the Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = ...
. Nonetheless, a surrounded Roman
garrison Garrison (from the French ''garnison'', itself from the verb ''garnir'', "to equip") is the collective term for any body of troop A troop is a military sub-subunit, originally a small formation of cavalry, subordinate to a Squadron (cav ...

garrison
continued to resist on the
Capitoline Hill The Capitolium or Capitoline Hill ( ; it, Campidoglio ; la, Mons Capitolinus ), between the Forum Forum (plural forums or fora) may refer to: Common uses * Forum (legal), designated space for public expression in the United States *For ...
. The Gauls dwelt within the city, getting their supplies by destroying all nearby towns for plunder. When the Gauls headed for Ardea, the exiled Camillus, who was now living as a private man, organized the local forces for the defence of the city. He told the city's inhabitants that the Gauls always exterminated their defeated enemies. Camillus found that the Gauls were distracted, celebrating their latest spoils leading to much drunkenness at their camp. So he attacked them during the night and defeated the enemy easily with great bloodshed. Camillus was hailed then by all other Roman exiles throughout the region. After he refused a makeshift generalship, a Roman messenger sneaked into the Capitol and, therein, the Senators appointed Camillus ''dictator'' for a year with the task of confronting the Gauls. At the Roman base of Veii, Camillus gathered a 12,000-man army with more men joining from throughout the region. The Gauls may have been ill-prepared for the siege, as an epidemic broke out among them as a result of not burying the dead.
Brennus Brennus or Brennos (Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Continental Europe Mainland or continental Europe is the contiguous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can also ...
and the Romans negotiated an end to the siege when the Romans agreed to pay one thousand pounds of gold. According to tradition, to add insult to injury, it was discovered that Brennus was using heavier weights than standard for weighing the gold. When the Romans complained, Brennus is said to have thrown his sword and belt on the scales and shouted in Latin, "
Vae victis Vae victis () is Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roma ...
!" ("woe to the conquered"). According to some Roman historians, it was at this very moment that Camillus arrived with a Roman army and, after putting his sword on the scale, replied,''"Non auro, sed ferro, recuperanda est patria"'' ("not with gold, but with iron, will the fatherland be regained"), and attacked the Gauls. A battle ensued in the streets of Rome, but neither army could fight effectively in the narrow streets and alleyways. The Gallic and Roman armies left the city and fought the next day. Camillus's army lived up to his hopes and the Gallic army was completely and mercilessly destroyed by the Romans. The Romans dubbed Camillus a "second
Romulus Romulus () was the legendary founder Founder or Founders may refer to: Places *Founders Park, a stadium in South Carolina, formerly known as Carolina Stadium * Founders Park, a waterside park in Islamorada, Florida#In popular culture, Islamora ...
," a second founder of Rome.Livy, ''History of Rome'', Book 5, Chapter 49. Camillus
sacrifice Sacrifice is the offering of material possessions or the lives of animals or humans to a deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as a God (male ...

sacrifice
d for the successful return and he ordered the construction of the temple of Aius Locutius. When plebeian orators again proposed moving to Veii, Camillus ordered a debate in the Senate and argued for staying. The Senate unanimously approved of Camillus's view and ordered the reconstruction of Rome. As the Senate feared sedition by plebeians, it refused Camillus's requests to resign his position as dictator before his term was finished. This made Camillus the longest-reigning of all Roman dictators until
Sulla Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (; 138–78 BC), commonly known as Sulla, was a Roman general A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infan ...

Sulla
and
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
.


Second regional war

Rome's reconstruction took an entire year. During that time, some Latin nations revolted, and the Etruscans besieged Satricum, which was a Roman ally. To confront such a crisis, in 389 BC, Camillus, who was military tribune at that time, was appointed Roman dictator yet again. When the enemy besieged Rome, Camillus slew most invaders on Mount Marcius, setting fire to their palisades during the windy hours of dawn. Subsequently, Camillus's army moved south-eastward to defeat the Volsci in the Battle of Maecium, not far from
Lanuvium Lanuvium, modern Lanuvio, is an ancient city of Latium vetus, some southeast of Rome, a little southwest of the Via Appia. Situated on an isolated hill projecting south from the main mass of the Alban Hills, Lanuvium commanded an extensive view o ...
(389 BC). Camillus proceeded then to capture Bola (Aequi's capital) thus subjugating the Aequi. However, the Romans lost
Satricum Satricum (modern Le Ferriere), an ancient town of Latium vetus, lay on the right bank of the Astura river some SE of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map ...
and Camillus failed to capture
Antium Anzio (, also , ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public se ...
, the capital of the Volsci. Finally, Camillus arrived at Satricum where the population had just been expelled by the Etruscans. Camillus estimated that the Etruscans would be given to boisterous celebrations in Satricum, so he rushed to the confrontation; the Etruscans were so intoxicated that Camillus recaptured Satricum with ease. After this campaign, the Roman dictator Camillus celebrated a Triumph in Rome. Through Camillus, the Romans had proven their military professional strength and offensive readiness.


Further life and Work


Consular tribune (384 BC and 381 BC)

In 384 BC, Camillus was consular tribune again. His office was troubled chiefly by the charismatic
Marcus Manlius Capitolinus Marcus Manlius Capitolinus (died 384 BC; sometimes spelled ''Manilius'') was Roman consul, consul of the Roman Republic in 392 BC. He was the brother of Aulus Manlius Capitolinus. The Manlia (gens), Manlii were a Patrician (ancient Rome), patrici ...

Marcus Manlius Capitolinus
, who became his greatest detractor and around whom all plebeians had aggregated. While Capitolinus was said to have kingly dreams, he attacked Camillus with precisely such a king-like accusation. Nonetheless, Capitolinus was formally judged and executed. The southern Latin tribes were contemptuous of the Romans after their latest expedition. Antium and several of the Volsci cities united, including the Latin cities of
Praeneste Palestrina (ancient ''Praeneste''; grc, Πραίνεστος, ''Prainestos'') is a modern Italian city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or mun ...

Praeneste
, and
Velitrae Velletri (; la, Velitrae; xvo, Velester) is an Italian ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of loca ...

Velitrae
. They liberated Satricum, slaying all the Roman inhabitants. Given this crisis, Camillus was appointed consular tribune for the sixth time. His health was poor but his desire for retirement was refused. Camillus decided then that he would command through his son Lucius. Thus, Camillus campaigned. On the battlefield, although Camillus tried to help with the military actions while located safely in a distant camp, Lucius could not cope with his duties so Camillus moved onto the battlefield and the Romans were able to defeat their enemy. Camillus headed then to Satricum with his youngest men and the city was relieved. Because many of the war prisoners were from Tusculum, Camillus led the Romans there and the city was bloodlessly annexed, and its citizens endowed with full Roman rights. This favorable treatment was due to the Furii coming originally from Tusculum. After these events, Camillus decided that he would definitely retire.


Roman dictator

Nevertheless, in 368 BC, Camillus was appointed Roman dictator once more, nominally to conduct the war of
Velletri Velletri (; la, Velitrae; xvo, Velester) is an Italian ''comune'' in the Metropolitan City of Rome, approximately 40km to the south-east of the city centre, located in the Alban Hills, in the region of Lazio, central Italy. Neighbouring communes a ...

Velletri
. However, in Rome, the patricians of the Senate were planning to use Camillus as leverage against the agitated plebeians because the
Conflict of the Orders The Conflict or Struggle of the Orders was a political struggle between the plebeians The plebeians, also called plebs, were, in ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the It ...
had worsened due to a severe economic downturn. For the Roman magistracy, the populists were demanding a dyad of Roman consuls, of whom one should always be a plebeian. Through a false military levy, Camillus attempted to trick the plebeian council so it might not meet to approve such plans. The enraged assemblymen were about to punish Camillus when he renounced his office of Dictator. With the Gauls marching once more toward Latium, all Romans reunited despite their severe differences. Camillus was named Roman dictator for the fifth time in 367 BC. He actively organized the defence of Rome. Through the commands of Camillus, the Roman soldiers were provided with protective armour against the Gallic main attack: the heavy blow of their swords. Both smooth
iron Iron () is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behav ...

iron
helmets and
brass Brass is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appea ...

brass
-rimmed shields were made. Also, long
pike Pike, Pikes or The Pike may refer to: Fish * Blue pike or blue walleye, an extinct freshwater fish * Ctenoluciidae, the "pike characins", some species of which are commonly known as pikes * ''Esox'', genus of pikes ** Northern pike, common north ...
s were distributed to keep the enemy's swords at a distance. The Gauls camped at the
Anio The Aniene (; la, Anio), formerly known as the Teverone, is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and bec ...
river, carrying loads of recently captured plunder. Near them, at the
Alban Hills The Alban Hills are the caldera A caldera is a large cauldron A cauldron (or caldron) is a large cast iron Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content more than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its relatively low ...
, Camillus discovered their disorganization, which was due to unruly celebrations. Therefore, before the dawn, the Roman light infantry disrupted the Gallic defences and, subsequently, the Roman heavy infantry and pikemen finished off their enemy. After the battle, Velitrae surrendered voluntarily to Rome. Back in Rome, Camillus celebrated with another Triumph.


Issue of the social classes

In Rome, the plebeians were insistent about the dyad of consuls. The patricians refused to compromise and again sought protection behind Camillus's figure. The populists attempted to arrest Camillus but he timely convoked a Senate session and convinced the Senate to yield to the popular demand, enacted by the plebs as the
Lex Licinia Sextia The Sextian-Licinian Rogations were a series of laws proposed by tribunes of the plebs Tribune of the plebs, tribune of the people or plebeian tribune ( la, tribunus plebis) was the first office of the Roman state that was open to the plebeians ...
(367 BC). A new magistracy open to patricians and plebeians, the praetorship, was also created. The creation of the new magistracy was followed by general celebration. Camillus ordered the construction of the
Temple of Concord The Temple of Concord ( la, Aedes Concordiae) in the ancient city of Rome Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsRoman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a delibera ...

Temple of Concord
, which would be built beside the
Roman Forum The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum ( it, Foro Romano), is a rectangular Forum (Roman), forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. Citize ...

Roman Forum
.


Death

A deadly pestilence struck Rome, and claimed many Roman notables, including Camillus, who died in 365 BC. His death was deeply mourned, as the "second founder of Rome."


See also

*
Furia gens The gens Furia, originally written Fusia, and sometimes found as Fouria on coins, was one of the most ancient and noble patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synony ...


References


Citations


Primary sources

*
Livy Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a historian. He wrote a monumental history of and the Roman people, titled , covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional founding in 753 BC th ...
v.10, vi.4 *
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
, ''Camillus'' * Plutarch, ''The Parallel Lives: The Life of Camillus'': *
Chicago University
*
Gutenberg Project
** * For the Gallic retreat, see
Polybius Polybius (; grc-gre, Πολύβιος, ; ) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the ...

Polybius
ii. 18; T.


Secondary sources

*
Georges Dumézil Georges Edmond Raoul Dumézil (4 March 189811 October 1986) was a French philologist Philology is the study of language in oral and writing, written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, literary criticism, history, ...
, ''Camillus: A Study of Indo-European Religion as Roman History'', ed. Udo Strutynski, University of California Press, 1980 (reprinted from 1973, 1975)
Livius.org: "Marcus Furius Camillus"
*
Theodor Mommsen Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (; 30 November 1817 – 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity, and in the Western world The Western world, also known a ...

Theodor Mommsen
, ''Römische Forschungen'', ii. pp. 113–152 (1879). * {{DEFAULTSORT:Furius Camillus, Marcus 440s BC births 365 BC deaths
Year of birth uncertain This category contains individuals whose year of birth is uncertain or disputed. {{CatAutoTOC Articles missing birth or death information Uncertain ...
Year of death uncertain Category, plural categories, may refer to: Philosophy and general uses *Categorization, categories in cognitive science, information science and generally *Category of being *Categories (Aristotle), ''Categories'' (Aristotle) *Category (Kant) * ...
4th-century BC Romans 4th-century BC rulers 5th-century BC Romans Ancient Roman dictators Ancient Roman generals Characters in Book VI of the Aeneid Deaths from infectious disease Camillus, Marcus Roman censors