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Malaysia Airlines Berhad (MAB) ( ms, Penerbangan Malaysia Berhad), formerly known as Malaysian Airline System (MAS) (), branded as Malaysia Airlines is the
flag carrier A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations. H ...
airline of
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of thirteen states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two regions, Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo's East Malaysia. Pe ...

Malaysia
and a member of the
oneworld Oneworld (stylized as oneworld; CRS: *O) is an airline alliance founded on 1 February 1999. The alliance's stated objective is to be the first choice airline alliance for the world's frequent international travellers. Its central alliance offic ...
airline alliance An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements, in which t ...
. (The MAS initials are still being kept by subsidiaries MAS Kargo and MAS Wings.) The company headquarters are located at Kuala Lumpur International Airport. In August 2014, the Malaysian government's sovereign wealth fund
Khazanah Nasional Khazanah Nasional Berhad is the sovereign wealth fund of the Government of Malaysia, entrusted with growing the nation's long-term wealth via distinct commercial and strategic objectives. Khazanah's commercial objective is to grow financial asse ...
—which then owned 69.37% of the airline—announced its intention to purchase remaining ownership from minority shareholders and de-list the airline from Malaysia's stock exchange, thereby renationalising the airline. It operates primarily from
Kuala Lumpur International Airport Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) (Bahasa Malaysia: ''Lapangan Terbang Antarabangsa Kuala Lumpur''), is Malaysia's main international airport and one of the biggest airports in Southeast Asia and worldwide. It is located in Sepang Dist ...
and from secondary hubs in
Kota Kinabalu ) , image_skyline = Kota kinabalu compilation.png , imagesize = 275px , image_caption = From top right clockwise: Tun Mustapha Tower, Swordfish and I❤KK Statue, Wawasan intersection, Wism ...
and
Kuching Kuching (), officially the City of Kuching, is the capital and the most populous city in the state of Sarawak in Malaysia. It is also the capital of Kuching Division. The city is on the Sarawak River at the southwest tip of the state of Sarawak ...
to destinations throughout Asia, Oceania, and Europe. Malaysia Airlines owns two subsidiary airlines:
Firefly The Lampyridae are a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera with more than 2,000 described species. They are soft-bodied beetles that are commonly called fireflies, glowworms, or lightning bugs for their conspicuous use of bioluminesce ...
and
MASwings MASwings Sdn Bhd (doing business as MASwings) is a regional airline operating the Rural Air Services (RAS) in East Malaysia. It took over the RAS previously operated by FlyAsianXpress. The first flight was on 1 October 2007, which is also the ann ...
. Firefly operates scheduled flights from its two home bases
Penang International Airport Penang International Airport is one of the busiest airports in Malaysia. The airport is located near Bayan Lepas at the southeastern tip of Penang Island, south of the city centre.Subang International Airport Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport ( ms, Lapangan Terbang Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah), (formerly Subang International Airport/Kuala Lumpur International Airport), often called Subang Airport or Subang Skypark, is an airport located in Subang, Petaling Di ...
. The airline focuses on tertiary cities. MASwings focuses on inter-
Borneo Borneo (; id, Kalimantan) is the third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia. At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java, west of Sulawesi, and east o ...
flights. Malaysia Airlines has a freighter fleet operated by sister company
MASkargo MAB Kargo (''Malaysia Airlines Berhad Cargo'') operating as MASkargo is a cargo airline with its head office in the Advanced Cargo Centre (ACC) on the grounds of Kuala Lumpur International Airport (WMKK/KUL) in Sepang, Selangor, Malaysia. It is a ...
, which manages freighter flights and aircraft cargo-hold capacity for all Malaysia Airlines' passenger flights. Malaysia Airlines traces its history to Malayan Airways Limited, which was founded in Singapore in the 1930s and flew its first commercial flight in 1947. It was then renamed as Malaysian Airways after the formation of the
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of thirteen states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two regions, Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo's East Malaysia. Pe ...

Malaysia
in 1963. In 1966, after the separation of Singapore, the airline was renamed Malaysia–Singapore Airlines (MSA), before its assets were divided in 1972 to form two separate national airlines—Malaysian Airline System (MAS, since renamed as Malaysia Airlines) and
Singapore Airlines Singapore Airlines (SIA) is the flag carrier airline of Singapore with its hub at Singapore Changi Airport. The airline is notable for using the Singapore Girl as its central figure in corporate branding. It has been ranked as the world's best a ...
. Despite numerous awards from the aviation industry, being crowned 'The World's 5-Star Airline' by
Skytrax Skytrax (originally known as Inflight Research Services) is a United Kingdom-based consultancy which runs an airline and airport review and ranking site. In 2012, the online investigations company KwikChex filed five complaints with the UK Adve ...
multiple times (2009, 2012 and 2013) and recognition from the World Travel Awards as 'Asia's Leading Airline' (2010, 2011 and 2013), the airline struggled to cut costs to cope with the rise of
low-cost carrier A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline (occasionally referred to as ''no-frills'', ''budget'' or ''discount carrier'' or ''airline'', and abbreviated as ''LCC'') is an airline that is operated with an especially high emphasis on minimizing operat ...
s in the region since the early 2000s. In 2013, the airline initiated a turnaround plan after large losses beginning in 2011 and cut routes to prominent, but unprofitable, long-haul destinations, such as the Americas (Los Angeles and Buenos Aires) and South Africa. Malaysia Airlines also began an internal restructuring and intended to sell units such as engineering and pilot training.


History


1937–1941: Wearne's Air Service

There were operating services between
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bordering the Straits ...
,
Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southeast Asia#Asia , pushpin_map_caption = , coordinates = , subdivision_type ...
and
Penang Penang is a Malaysian state located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Malacca Strait. It has two parts: Penang Island, where the capital city, George Town, is located, and Seberang Perai on the Malay Peninsula. They are con ...

Penang
. Wearne's Air Service was started by two Australian brothers, Theodore and Charles Wearne. The service commenced as a thrice weekly flight between Singapore and Penang. The first flight, using an 8-seater de Havilland DH.89A Dragon Rapide took place on 28 June 1937 This inaugural flight departed Singapore from the then brand-new
Kallang Airport Kallang Airport (also known as the Kallang Aerodrome, Kallang Airfield and RAF Kallang) was the first purpose-built civil international airport in Singapore, opened officially on 12 June 1937 and ceased operations in 1955. Situated on the easte ...
, which had just opened earlier in the same month on 12 June. Later, a second DH.89A enabled the expansion to daily services as well as the addition of
Ipoh ) , image_map = , map_caption = Location of Ipoh in Perak , pushpin_map = #Malaysia#Asia#Earth , pushpin_mapsize = 275px , pushpin_map_caption = Ipoh in ...

Ipoh
as a destination. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—forming two opposing milit ...
, WAS services ceased after the Japanese occupation of Malaya and Singapore in 1941.


1947–1960: Malayan Airways

An initiative by the Alfred Holt's Liverpool-based Ocean Steamship Company, in partnership with the Straits Steamship Company and
Imperial Airways Imperial Airways was the early British commercial long-range airline, operating from 1924 to 1939 and principally serving the British Empire routes to South Africa, India and the Far East, including Australia, Malaya and Hong Kong. The airpla ...
, resulted in the incorporation of "Malayan Airways Limited" (MAL) in Singapore on 12 October 1937, but the first paying passengers could be welcomed on board only in 1947, some 10 years later. After the war, MAL was restructured to include just the partnership of Straits Steamship and Ocean Steamship. The airline's first flight was a charter flight from the British
Straits Settlement The Straits Settlements were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia. Originally established in 1826 as part of the territories controlled by the British East India Company, the Straits Settlements came under British Raj control ...
of
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bordering the Straits ...
to
Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southeast Asia#Asia , pushpin_map_caption = , coordinates = , subdivision_type ...
, on 2 April 1947, using an
Airspeed Consul The Airspeed Consul is a twin-engined light transport aircraft and affordable airliner designed and produced by the British aircraft manufacturer Airspeed Limited. Introduced during the immediate post-war period, it was a straightforward conversi ...
twin-engined aircraft. This inaugural flight on the "Raja Udang", with only five passengers, departed Singapore's Kallang Airport and was bound for Kuala Lumpur's Sungai Besi Airport. Weekly scheduled flights quickly followed from Singapore to Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh and Penang from 1 May 1947 with the same aircraft type. The airline continued to expand during the rest of the 1940s and 1950s, as other British
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good. Historically it has sometimes been synonymous with "republic". The noun "commonwealth", meaning "public welfare, general good or advantage", dates ...

Commonwealth
airlines, such as BOAC and
Qantas Empire Airways Qantas Airways Limited () is the flag carrier of Australia and its largest airline by fleet size, international flights and international destinations. It is the world's third-oldest airline still in operation, having been founded in November 1 ...
, provided technical assistance, as well as assistance in joining the
IATA The International Air Transport Association (IATA ) is a trade association of the world's airlines founded in 1945. IATA has been described as a cartel since, in addition to setting technical standards for airlines, IATA also organized tariff c ...
. By 1955, Malayan Airways' fleet had grown to include a large number of
Douglas DC-3 The Douglas DC-3 is a propeller-driven airliner which had a lasting effect on the airline industry in the 1930s/1940s and World War II. It was developed as a larger, improved 14-bed sleeper version of the Douglas DC-2. It is a low-wing metal ...
s, and finally went
public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different concept to the sociological concept of the ''Öffentlichke ...
in 1957. Other aircraft operated in the first two decades included the Douglas DC-4 Skymaster, the
Vickers Viscount The Vickers Viscount is a British medium-range turboprop airliner first flown in 1948 by Vickers-Armstrongs. A design requirement from the Brabazon Committee, it entered service in 1953 and was the first turboprop-powered airliner. The Viscou ...

Vickers Viscount
, the
Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation The Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation is an American aircraft, a member of the Lockheed Constellation aircraft line. The L-1049 was Lockheed's response to the successful Douglas DC-6 airliner, first flying in 1950. The aircraft was also produced ...
, the
Bristol Britannia The Bristol Type 175 Britannia was a British medium-to-long-range airliner built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company in 1952 to fly across the Commonwealth. During development two prototypes were lost and the turboprop engines proved susceptible ...
, the
de Havilland Comet 4#Redirect DE {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{Redirect from other capitalisation {{Redirect from ambiguous term ...
and the
Fokker F27 The Fokker F27 Friendship is a turboprop airliner developed and manufactured by the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker. It is the most numerous post-war aircraft manufactured in the Netherlands; the F27 was also one of the most successful Europea ...
.


1960–1972: Rapid expansion, Malaysian Airways and Malaysia-Singapore Airlines

Over the next few years, the airline expanded rapidly, boosted by post-war air travel demand when flying became more than a privilege for the rich and famous. By April 1960, the airline was operating
Douglas DC-3 The Douglas DC-3 is a propeller-driven airliner which had a lasting effect on the airline industry in the 1930s/1940s and World War II. It was developed as a larger, improved 14-bed sleeper version of the Douglas DC-2. It is a low-wing metal ...
s,
Super Constellation The Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation is an American aircraft, a member of the Lockheed Constellation aircraft line. The L-1049 was Lockheed's response to the successful Douglas DC-6 airliner, first flying in 1950. The aircraft was also produced ...
s and Viscounts on new routes from
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bordering the Straits ...
to
Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and special administrative region of the People's Republic of China on the eastern Pearl River Delta o ...
, and from
Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southeast Asia#Asia , pushpin_map_caption = , coordinates = , subdivision_type ...
to
Bangkok Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep. The city occupies in the Chao Phraya River delta in central Thailand and has an estimated population of 10.539 mi ...
via
Penang Penang is a Malaysian state located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Malacca Strait. It has two parts: Penang Island, where the capital city, George Town, is located, and Seberang Perai on the Malay Peninsula. They are con ...

Penang
. Flights were also introduced from Singapore to cities on the island of Borneo, including
Brunei Brunei ( ; ), officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace ( ms, Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi: ), is a country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coastline with the South China Sea, t ...

Brunei
,
Jesselton ) , image_skyline = Kota kinabalu compilation.png , imagesize = 275px , image_caption = From top right clockwise: Tun Mustapha Tower, Swordfish and I❤KK Statue, Wawasan intersection, Wism ...
(now
Kota Kinabalu ) , image_skyline = Kota kinabalu compilation.png , imagesize = 275px , image_caption = From top right clockwise: Tun Mustapha Tower, Swordfish and I❤KK Statue, Wawasan intersection, Wism ...
),
Kuching Kuching (), officially the City of Kuching, is the capital and the most populous city in the state of Sarawak in Malaysia. It is also the capital of Kuching Division. The city is on the Sarawak River at the southwest tip of the state of Sarawak ...
,
Sandakan Sandakan (, Jawi: , ) formerly known at various times as Elopura, is the capital of the Sandakan District in Sabah, Malaysia. It is the second largest city in Sabah after Kota Kinabalu. It is located on the Sandakan Peninsula and east coast of t ...
and
Sibu Sibu () is an inland city in the central region of Sarawak. It is the capital of Sibu District in Sibu Division, Sarawak, Malaysia. The city is located on the island of Borneo and covers an area of . It is located at the confluence of the Raj ...
. With the delivery of an 84-seat
Bristol Britannia The Bristol Type 175 Britannia was a British medium-to-long-range airliner built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company in 1952 to fly across the Commonwealth. During development two prototypes were lost and the turboprop engines proved susceptible ...
in 1960, the airline launched its first long-haul international flight, to Hong Kong. When
Malaya Malaya refers to a number of historical and current political entities related to the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Political entities * British Malaya (18th century – 1957), a loose collection of the British colony of the Straits Settlemen ...
, Singapore,
Sabah Sabah () is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo, in the region of East Malaysia. Sabah has land borders with the Malaysian state of Sarawak to the southwest and Indonesia's Kalimantan region to the south. The Federal T ...
and
Sarawak Sarawak (; ) is a state of Malaysia. The largest among the 13 states, with an area almost equal to that of Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak is located in northwest Borneo Island, and is bordered by the Malaysian state of Sabah to the northeast, Kal ...
formed
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of thirteen states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two regions, Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo's East Malaysia. Pe ...

Malaysia
in September 1963, the airline's name was officially from "Malayan Airways" to "Malaysian Airways" concurrent with the arrival of five Fokker F27 in November 1963 (though still abbreviated to MAL). MAL also incorporated Borneo Airways, with the brand effectively merged under its parent company by 1 April 1965. In 1966, following Singapore's separation from the federation, the airline's name was changed again, to Malaysia-Singapore Airlines (MSA). The next year saw a rapid expansion in the airline's fleet and routes, including the purchase of MSA's first
Boeing The Boeing Company () is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, telecommunications equipment, and missiles worldwide. The company also provides leasing and product ...
aircraft: the
Boeing 707 The Boeing 707 is an American long-range narrow-body airliner produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes, its first jetliner. Developed from the Boeing 367-80, a prototype first flown in 1954, the initial first flew on December 20, 1957. Pan Amer ...
s, as well as completion of a new high-rise headquarters in Singapore.
Boeing 737 The Boeing 737 is a narrow-body aircraft produced by Boeing at its Renton Factory in Washington. Developed to supplement the Boeing 727 on short and thin routes, the twinjet retains the 707 fuselage cross-section and nose with two underwing tu ...
s were added to the fleet soon afterwards. File:Borneo Airways Tawau.png, A Borneo Airways Douglas DC-3 (9M-AND) aircraft in , 1964 File:Malaysian Airways Comet.jpg, A Malaysian Airways
de Havilland Comet#Redirect DE {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{Redirect from other capitalisation {{Redirect from ambiguous term ...
4 in London Airport (now known as Heathrow Airport), 1965 File:Sharikat Penerbangan Malaysia.jpg, ''Sharikat Penerbangan Malaysia'' (Malaysian Airways, with the aircraft wordmark written in
Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language from the 4th to the 14th century ** ...
)
Fokker F27 The Fokker F27 Friendship is a turboprop airliner developed and manufactured by the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker. It is the most numerous post-war aircraft manufactured in the Netherlands; the F27 was also one of the most successful Europea ...
, 1970 File:Malaysia-Singapore Airlines B707 at Zurich 1972.jpg, Malaysia-Singapore Airlines
Boeing 707 The Boeing 707 is an American long-range narrow-body airliner produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes, its first jetliner. Developed from the Boeing 367-80, a prototype first flown in 1954, the initial first flew on December 20, 1957. Pan Amer ...
at
Zürich-Kloten Airport Zurich Airport (german: Flughafen Zürich, ) is the largest international airport of Switzerland and the principal hub of Swiss International Air Lines. It serves Zürich, Switzerland's largest city, and, with its surface transport links, much of ...
in 1972


1972–1997: Incorporation and international expansion

The differing needs of the two shareholders, however, led to the break-up of the airline just six years later. The
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bordering the Straits ...
government preferred to develop the airline's international routes, while the Malaysian government had no choice but to develop the domestic network first before going regional and eventually international. MSA ceased operations in 1972, with its assets split between two new airlines; Malaysian Airline System (MAS), and
Singapore Airlines Singapore Airlines (SIA) is the flag carrier airline of Singapore with its hub at Singapore Changi Airport. The airline is notable for using the Singapore Girl as its central figure in corporate branding. It has been ranked as the world's best a ...
. With the Singapore government determined to develop its airlines' international routes, it took the entire fleet of seven
Boeing 707 The Boeing 707 is an American long-range narrow-body airliner produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes, its first jetliner. Developed from the Boeing 367-80, a prototype first flown in 1954, the initial first flew on December 20, 1957. Pan Amer ...
s and five
Boeing 737 The Boeing 737 is a narrow-body aircraft produced by Boeing at its Renton Factory in Washington. Developed to supplement the Boeing 727 on short and thin routes, the twinjet retains the 707 fuselage cross-section and nose with two underwing tu ...
s, which would allow it to continue servicing its regional and long-haul international routes. Since most of MSA's international routes were flown out of Singapore, the majority of international routes were in the hands of Singapore Airlines. In addition, MSA's headquarters, which was located in Singapore, became the headquarters of that airline. The initials MSA were well regarded as an airline icon, and both carriers tried to use them. Malaysian went for MAS by just transposing the last two letters and choosing the name Malaysian Airline System, while Singapore originally proposed the name Mercury Singapore Airlines to keep the MSA initials, but changed its mind and went for SIA instead. Acronyms for airline names later became less fashionable, and both carriers then moved on to their descriptive names. MAS took all domestic routes within Malaysia and international routes out of that country, as well as the remaining fleet of
Fokker F27 The Fokker F27 Friendship is a turboprop airliner developed and manufactured by the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker. It is the most numerous post-war aircraft manufactured in the Netherlands; the F27 was also one of the most successful Europea ...
's. It began flights on 1 October 1972 with 19 aircraft and soon expanded, including introducing flights from Kuala Lumpur to London. In that year, MAS operated flights to more than 34 regional destinations and six international services. In 1976, after receiving its DC-10-30 aircraft, MAS scheduled flights to Europe, with initial flights from Kuala Lumpur to
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the capital and most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the urban area and 2,480,394 in the metropolitan area. Found within the province of North Holland, Ams ...
,
Paris Paris () is the capital and most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018, in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, co ...
and
Frankfurt Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main (; Hessian: ''Frangford am Maa'', "Frank ford on the Main"), is the most populous city in the German state of Hesse. Its 763,380 inhabitants as of 31 December 2019 make it the fifth-most populous city i ...
. An economic boom in Malaysia during the 1980s spurred the growth of MAS. By the end of the decade, MAS was flying to 47 overseas destinations, including eight European destinations, seven Oceanian destinations, and United States destinations of
Los Angeles Los Angeles (; es, Los Ángeles; "The Angels"), officially the City of Los Angeles and often abbreviated as L.A., is the largest city in California. With an estimated population of nearly four million people, it is the second most populous ...
and
Honolulu Honolulu (; ) is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Hawaii, which is located in the Pacific Ocean. It is an unincorporated county seat of the consolidated City and County of Honolulu, situated along the southeast coast of the isla ...
. In 1993, MAS reached
South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It can also be described as a southern subcontinent of the Americas. The ref ...
when the airline received its
Boeing 747 The Boeing 747 is a large, long–range wide-body airliner and cargo aircraft manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes in the United States. After introducing the 707 in October 1958, Pan Am wanted a jet times its size, to reduce its seat ...
aircraft. MAS became the first airline in Southeast Asia to serve South America via its flights to
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the Río de la Plata, on South America's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be trans ...

Buenos Aires
,
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by ...
. Malaysia Airlines also flew to Mexico City between 1994 and 1998 with fifth-freedom rights to carry passengers between
Mexico City ) , blank1_name_sec1 = HDI , blank1_info_sec1 = 0.897 Very High , blank_name_sec2 = GDP (Nominal) , blank_info_sec2 = $266 billion , footnotes = b. Area of ...
and
Los Angeles Los Angeles (; es, Los Ángeles; "The Angels"), officially the City of Los Angeles and often abbreviated as L.A., is the largest city in California. With an estimated population of nearly four million people, it is the second most populous ...
, en route to Kuala Lumpur.


1997–2005: Financial struggles

Prior to the
Asian Financial Crisis The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia and Southeast Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion. The crisis started in Thailand (kno ...
in 1997, the airline suffered losses of as much as RM 260 million after earning a record-breaking RM333 million profit in the financial year 1996/1997. The airline then introduced measures to bring its P&L back into the black. For the financial year 1999/2000, the airline cut its losses from RM700 million in the year 1998/1999 to RM259 million. The airline plunged into further losses in the following year, however, amounting to RM417 million for the financial year 2000/2001 and RM836 million for the financial year 2001/2002. With these losses, the airline cut many unprofitable routes, such as
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brussels Ho ...
, Darwin,
Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of approximately 6.7 million. It is the second-largest city in the European Union (EU), surpass ...
,
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, and thus the lar ...
and
Vancouver Vancouver ( ) is a major city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011. The Greater Vanc ...
. The airline recovered from its losses the following year, achieving its then-highest profit, totalling RM461 million. In 2005, MAS suffered yet another period of unprofitability, reporting a loss of RM1.3 billion. Revenue for the financial period was up by 10.3% or RM826.9 million, compared to the same period for 2004, driven by a 10.2% growth in passenger traffic. International passenger revenue increased by RM457.6 million or 8.4%, to RM5.9 billion, while cargo revenue decreased by RM64.1 million or 4.2%, to RM1.5 billion. Costs increased by 28.8% or RM2.3 billion, amounting to a total of RM 10.3 billion, primarily due to escalating fuel prices. Other cost increases included staff costs, handling and
landing fees A landing fee is a charge paid by an aircraft to an airport company for landing at a particular airport. Landing fees can vary greatly between airports, with congested airports, ones where most of the landing slots are held by airlines being able ...
, aircraft maintenance and overhaul charges, Widespread Assets Unbundling (WAU) charges and leases. The Malaysian government then appointed
Idris Jala Dato' Sri Idris Jala (born 21 August 1958) is a Malaysian politician. He served as the Minister in the Prime Minister's Department and as the chief executive officer of the Performance Management and Delivery Unit (Pemandu) from 2009 till 2015, t ...
as the new CEO of MAS on 1 December 2005, to execute changes in operations and corporate culture. Several weaknesses in airline operations were identified as the causes of the RM1.3 billion loss. The most substantial factor in the losses was
fuel A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work. The concept was originally applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has ...
costs. For the period, the total fuel cost was RM3.5 billion, representing a 40.4% increase compared to the same period in 2004. Total fuel cost increases comprised RM977.8 million due to higher fuel prices and another RM157.6 million due to additional consumption. In the third quarter, fuel costs were RM1.26 billion, compared to the RM1.01 billion in the corresponding period in 2004, resulting in a 24.6% increase or RM249.3 million. Another factor for the losses was poor revenue management. MAS substantially lagged its peers on yield. Some of this gap was due to differences in traffic mix, with less business traffic to and from Malaysia than to and from Singapore, but much of it was due to weaknesses in pricing and revenue management, sales and distribution, brand presence in foreign markets, and alliance base. Moreover, MAS had one of the lowest labour costs per available seat kilometres (ASK) at US$0.41, compared to other airlines such as
Cathay Pacific Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd. (CPA), more widely known as Cathay Pacific (), is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport. The airline's operations and subsidiaries have scheduled ...
and
Singapore Airlines Singapore Airlines (SIA) is the flag carrier airline of Singapore with its hub at Singapore Changi Airport. The airline is notable for using the Singapore Girl as its central figure in corporate branding. It has been ranked as the world's best a ...
at US$0.59 and US$0.60 respectively. Despite low labour costs, however, the ratio of ASK revenue to this cost was, at 2.8, much lower than Singapore Airlines, where the ratio is 5.0, and slightly higher than
Thai Airways Thai Airways International Public Co., ltd., trading as THAI (, th, บริษัท การบินไทย จำกัด (มหาชน)) is the flag carrier airline of Thailand. Formed in 1988, the airline has its corporate headquart ...
There are other factors listed in the later-revealed Business Turnaround Plan of Malaysia Airlines, all leading to the net loss of RM1.3 billion in the year 2005.


2006–2010: Recovery from unprofitability

Under the leadership of Idris Jala, MAS launched its Business Turnaround Plan in 2006, developed using the Government-linked Company (GLC) Transformation Manual as a guide. Under the various initiatives, launched together with the Business Turnaround Plan, Malaysia Airlines switched from losses to profitability between 2006 and 2007. When the Business Turnaround Plan came to an end, the airline posted a record profit of RM853 million (US$265 million) in 2007, ending a series of losses since 2005. The result exceeded the target of RM300 Million by 184%. Route rationalising was one of the major contributors to the airline's return to profitability. MAS pared its domestic routes from 114 to 23, and also cancelled virtually all unprofitable international routes. It also rescheduled all of its flight timings and changed its operations model from point-to-point services to
hub and spoke Hub, The Hub, or hubs may refer to: Wheel components * A hub is the central part of a wheel that connects the axle to the wheel itself. ** Bicycle hub, the central part of a bicycle wheel ** Locking hubs, accessory on four-wheel drive vehicles * ...
services. Additionally, the airline started Project Omega and Project Alpha to improve the company's network and revenue management. Emphasis has been placed on six areas: pricing, revenue management, network scheduling, opening storefronts, low season strategy and distribution management. MAS then pushed for new aircraft purchases, using its cash surplus of RM5.3 billion to eventually purchase new
narrow-body aircraft A narrow-body aircraft or single-aisle aircraft is an airliner arranged along a single aisle, permitting up to 6-abreast seating in a cabin below of width. In contrast, a wide-body aircraft is a larger airliner usually configured with multiple ai ...
and
wide-body aircraft A wide-body aircraft, also known as a twin-aisle aircraft, is an airliner with a fuselage wide enough to accommodate two passenger aisles with seven or more seats abreast. The typical fuselage diameter is . In the typical wide-body economy cabi ...
. Due to Idris Jala's appointment to the cabinet in August 2009, Tengku Azmil Zahruddin took over as the airline's new CEO. In December that year, MAS announced the purchase of 15 new
Airbus A330 The Airbus A330 is a wide-body aircraft designed and produced by Airbus. Airbus conceived several derivatives of the A300, its first airliner in the mid-1970s. Then the company began development on the A330 twinjet in parallel with the A340 qu ...
aircraft, with options for another 10. Expected to be delivered between 2011 and 2016, they are intended to operate on medium-haul routes to eastern Asia, Australia, and the Middle East. The airline's plans are to run the
Airbus A380 The Airbus A380 is a wide-body aircraft manufactured by Airbus. It is the world's largest passenger airliner. Airbus studies started in 1988 and the project was announced in 1990 to challenge the dominance of the Boeing 747 in the long hau ...

Airbus A380
planes, which were then introduced into service in 2012, on long-haul routes, the A330s on medium-haul routes, and
Boeing 737 The Boeing 737 is a narrow-body aircraft produced by Boeing at its Renton Factory in Washington. Developed to supplement the Boeing 727 on short and thin routes, the twinjet retains the 707 fuselage cross-section and nose with two underwing tu ...
aircraft on short-haul routes.


2011–2014: Third unprofitability, 2014 aircraft losses

MAS recorded a net loss of RM2.52 billion in 2011, which was the largest in its company history, due to rising fuel costs. A major restructuring saw the appointment of a new CEO, Ahmad Jauhari Yahya, in September 2011. One of the first initiatives to stop the losses was a rationalisation of the network. The company suspended services to
Surabaya Surabaya (; older spelling: Soerabaja) is the capital of the Indonesian province of East Java and the second-largest city in Indonesia after Jakarta. Located on northeastern border of Java island, on the Madura Strait, it is one of the earliest ...
,
Karachi Karachi ( ur, ; Sindhi: ڪراچي; ALA-LC: , ) is the largest city in Pakistan and the twelfth largest city in the world. It is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh. Ranked as a beta-global city, the city is Pakistan's premier indust ...
,
Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the capital of the Emirate of Dubai.The Government and Politics of the Middle East and North Africa. D Long, B Reich. p.157 Established in th ...
,
Dammam Dammam ( ar, الدمّام ') is the sixth-most populous city in Saudi Arabia after Riyadh, Jeddah, Mecca, Medina and Khamis Mushait. It is the capital of the Eastern Province. With a total population of 1,252,523 as of 2020. The judicial and admin ...
and
Johannesburg Johannesburg ( , also ; ; Zulu and xh, eGoli), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a megacity, and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world. It is the provinci ...

Johannesburg
. In February 2013, MAS reported a net profit of RM51.4mil for the fourth quarter. The airline's improved financial performance last year was mainly attributable to its route rationalisation programme, which saw an overall 8% reduction in ASK. This was matched by a marginal 1% reduction in revenue to RM13.76bil in 2012 and seat factor holding at 74.5%. The reduced ASK also helped MAS register a corresponding 14% decrease in expenditure. The airline struggled to cut costs in order to compete with a wave of new, low-cost carriers in the region. The airline lost RM443.4 million (US$137.4 million) in the first quarter of 2014. The second quarter—the first in the aftermath of Flight 370's disappearance – saw a loss of RM307.04 million (US$97.6 million), which represented a 75% increase over losses from the second-quarter of 2013. As a result, MAS has not made a profit since 2010. In the previous three years, the airline had booked losses of: RM1.17 billion (US$356 million) in 2013, RM433 million in 2012, and RM2.5 billion in 2011. Industry analysts expect MAS to lose further market share and face a challenging environment to stand out from competitors while addressing their financial plight. The company's stock, down as much as 20% following the disappearance of Flight 370, had fallen 80% over the previous five years, which contrasts with a rise in the Malaysian stock market of about 80% over the same period. A month after the disappearance, CEO Ahmad Jauhari Yahya acknowledged that ticket sales had declined but did not provide details. This may have partially resulted from the suspension of the airline's advertisement campaigns following the disappearance. In China, where the majority of Flight 370 victims were from, bookings on Malaysia Airlines were down 60% in March. He said he was not sure when the airline could start repairing its image, but that the airline was adequately insured to cover the financial loss stemming from the incident. In August, the airline warned of poor second-half earnings, citing a 33% decline in average weekly bookings following the loss of Flight 17. Media reported that some flights were largely empty and that the airline had slashed prices well below competitors on several key routes. Even before the crash of Flight 17, many analysts and the media suggested that Malaysia Airlines would need to rebrand and repair its image and/or require government assistance to return to profitability. On 8 August, trading in the company's stock was temporarily suspended when
Khazanah Nasional Khazanah Nasional Berhad is the sovereign wealth fund of the Government of Malaysia, entrusted with growing the nation's long-term wealth via distinct commercial and strategic objectives. Khazanah's commercial objective is to grow financial asse ...
—the majority shareholder (69.37%) and a Malaysian state-run investment arm—requested that MAS' Board of Directors undertake a selective
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter, an upper-case letter in any type of writing * Capital city, the area of a country, province, region, or state, regarded as enjoying primary status, usually but not always the seat of the governm ...
reduction exercise (e.g. buyback or cancel stock of other shareholders); Khazanah announced it will spend 1.38 billion ringgit (US$431 million; 27 sen per share) to compensate minority shareholders (a 12.5% premium of 7 August closing price). At the time, Khazanah Nasional did not announce much about its plans for the airline except that the airline had "substantial funding requirements" and that a "comprehensive review and restructuring" was needed. On 29 August, Khazanah released a report, Rebuilding a National Icon: The MAS Recovery Plan, which outlines their plan for the restructuring of MAS and the process of completing the takeover. About 6,000 jobs (about 30% of MAS's workforce) will be eliminated and the carrier's route network will be shrunk to focus on regional destinations rather than unprofitable long-haul routes. Khazanah plans to de-list the airline from Malaysia's stock exchange by the end of 2014 and plans to return it to profitability by late 2017, re-listing the airline by 2018 or 2019. On the business/legal side, Khazanah intends to transfer the relevant operations, assets, and liabilities of ''Malaysian Airline System Berhad'' into a new company (no name given in documents) by July 2015.


2015–present: Renationalisation, restructuring, and rebranding

In May 2015, it was announced that the airline will be transferred to a newly founded "Malaysia Airlines Berhad" (MAB) by 1 September 2015, with the rebranding of the airline also commencing that day. The new company will see a heavily reduced workforce and adjusted route network with a focus on Asia according to its newly appointed CEO,
Christoph Mueller Christoph R. Mueller (born 17 December 1961) is a German businessman. From 2016 to 2019, he was chief digital and innovation officer of Emirates Group. He is the former chief executive officer of Malaysia Airlines. With over 25 years' experienc ...
. He also announced that Malaysia Airlines put some of its
Airbus A380 The Airbus A380 is a wide-body aircraft manufactured by Airbus. It is the world's largest passenger airliner. Airbus studies started in 1988 and the project was announced in 1990 to challenge the dominance of the Boeing 747 in the long hau ...

Airbus A380
s up for sale. Four months later, MAB announced that they will add four new Airbus A350-900 aircraft to their fleet by the end of 2017 till the middle of 2018. The aircraft will be leased from
Air Lease Corporation Air Lease Corporation (ALC) is an American aircraft leasing company founded in 2010 and headed by Steven F. Udvar-Házy. Air Lease purchases new commercial aircraft through direct orders from Boeing, Airbus, Embraer and ATR, and leases them to its ...
. The airline also expects to add two more A350-900s as well as two Airbus A330-900 aircraft in the upcoming future. MAB then announced that it is set to undergo a brand overhaul involving a new name, logo and livery for its aircraft, with the changes to be unveiled on a date unknown. In January 2016, the airline introduced a policy to stop serving alcohol on short-haul flights of less than three hours. While the move was unpopular in many travellers eyes, the airlines stated that its actions were in response to the preference of the majority of customers. In April 2016, CEO Christoph Mueller resigned from his post after less than a year of leading the carrier's reorganising efforts, citing changing personal circumstances. Mueller initially planned to continue to serve as CEO until September 2016 and stay on the airline's board as a non-executive director to oversee the transition to a new CEO. It was subsequently announced that Peter Bellew has taken over Mueller as the new chief with effect from 1 July 2016, effectively cutting Mueller's tenure by a further two months. In April 2017, Malaysia Airlines announced that the airline's entire fleet will be tracked with the satellite flight tracking system. In October 2017, an unexpected announcement was made that Malaysia Airlines CEO Peter Bellew will return to
Ryanair Ryanair is an Irish ultra low-cost airline founded in 1984. It is headquartered in Swords, Dublin, with its primary operational bases at Dublin and London Stansted airports. It forms the largest part of the Ryanair Holdings family of airlines, ...
as Chief Operations Officer to help fix pilot problems. Bellew worked as a flight operations director at Ryanair until 2014. Bellew's decision to leave Malaysia Airlines comes just over a year after former chief executive Christoph Mueller left the airline citing personal circumstances a year after being hired on a three-year mission to revive the state-controlled firm. The appointment of Mueller's replacement, Capt Izham Ismail, who served as the airline's chief operating officer prior to the appointment, was announced a few days later. On 6 April 2020, it was reported that Malaysian private equity firm Golden Skies Ventures had made an offer of US$2.5 billion to take over Malaysia Airlines during the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was first identified in Dec ...
. In October 2020, with the Covid-19 pandemic, Malaysia Airlines needs about RM1 billion of capital per year if the government intends to sustain its operations under the current structure.


Corporate affairs


Head office

Malaysia Airlines has its headquarters and registered office on the first floor of Administration Building, South Support Zone at
Kuala Lumpur International Airport Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) (Bahasa Malaysia: ''Lapangan Terbang Antarabangsa Kuala Lumpur''), is Malaysia's main international airport and one of the biggest airports in Southeast Asia and worldwide. It is located in Sepang Dist ...
(KLIA),
Sepang Pekan Sepang is a small border town and also a mukim in Sepang District, Selangor, Malaysia. The Sepang International Circuit in the western part of the town, where the Malaysian F1 Grand Prix was and Malaysian MotoGP Grand Prix is held. Malaysia ...

Sepang
, in the
Klang Valley Klang Valley ( ms, Lembah Klang) is an urban conglomeration in Malaysia that is centered in Kuala Lumpur, and includes its adjoining cities and towns in the state of Selangor. It is conterminous with Greater Kuala Lumpur, although there are variatio ...
region. Previously the airline headquarters were on the third floor of the MAS Administrative Complex at Subang Airport, in Subang.Krishnamoorthy, M.
MAS-sive move
" ''
The Star A star is a luminous astronomical object. Star, Stars, The Star or STAR may also refer to: Shapes and symbols * Star (classification), a rating system for hotels, movies, or other products * Star (football badge), a symbol of awards worn on an ...
''. Saturday 7 January 2006. Retrieved on 31 October 2012.
Prior to the construction of the Kuala Lumpur MAS headquarters, the airline rented space in the UMBC headquarters.MAS promised not to sell headquarters
" ''
The Star A star is a luminous astronomical object. Star, Stars, The Star or STAR may also refer to: Shapes and symbols * Star (classification), a rating system for hotels, movies, or other products * Star (football badge), a symbol of awards worn on an ...
''. Sunday 25 December 2005.
The airline had a permanent corporate headquarters in the Bangunan MAS, a 34-story building it owned along
Jalan Sultan Ismail Like all other historical urban centres, the capital city of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, contains a number of current and old roads and streets across the city. This article contains an alphabetical list of notable roads within Kuala Lumpur. ...
. In 2005 ''
The Star A star is a luminous astronomical object. Star, Stars, The Star or STAR may also refer to: Shapes and symbols * Star (classification), a rating system for hotels, movies, or other products * Star (football badge), a symbol of awards worn on an ...
'' said that the building was "reported to be worth between RM300mil and RM350mil." In 2006, the airline moved its head office from the Kuala Lumpur building to the former headquarters in Subang. ''
Channel News Asia CNA (an initialism of its former name, Channel NewsAsia) is an English-language news channel based in Singapore. It broadcasts free-to-air domestically and as a subscription network to 29 territories across Asia and Australia. CNA has the six ...
'' stated that the airline had been "forced" to sell the former headquarters. In 2010,
Permodalan Nasional Berhad Permodalan Nasional Berhad (PNB) was established on 17 March 1978 as one of the instruments of the Government's New Economic Policy (NEP). It is one of the largest fund management companies in Malaysia. People List of Chairpersons # Ismai ...
purchased Bangunan MAS from the airline. The new owners planned to remodel the building, by installing a five-star hotel apartment block and upgrade the offices to Grade A++.


Subsidiaries

The airline has diversified into related industries and sectors, including
aircraft ground handling In aviation, aircraft ground handling defines the servicing of an aircraft while it is on the ground and (usually) parked at a terminal gate of an airport. Overview Many airlines subcontract ground handling to airports, handling agents or even ...
, aircraft leasing, aviation engineering, air
catering Catering is the business of providing food service at a remote site or a site such as a hotel, hospital, pub, aircraft, cruise ship, park, filming site or studio, entertainment site, or event venue. History of catering The earliest account of maj ...
, and tour operator operations. It has also restructured itself by spinning-off operational units as fully owned subsidiaries to maintain its core business as a passenger airline. In 2013, Malaysia Airlines has 28 subsidiaries, with 25 of them fully owned by Malaysia Airlines. Some of the subsidiaries include:


Financial highlights

Malaysia Airlines experienced a RM1.25 billion loss in 2005. In 2006, the Business Turnaround Plan was introduced to revive the airline. At the end of the airline's turnaround program, in financial year 2007, Malaysia Airlines gained RM851 million net profit: a swing of RM987 million compared to RM134 million in losses in 2006, marking the national carrier's highest-ever profit in its 60-year history. The achievement was recognised as the world's best airline-turnaround story in 2007, with Malaysia Airlines being awarded the Phoenix award by Penton Media's
Air Transport World ''Air Transport World'' (''ATW'') is an online and print trade publication covering the global air transportation industry. It is owned by Informa and is a sister publication to ''Aviation Week'', the ''Aviation Daily'' and ''MRO Digest'', which ar ...
.


Branding

From the late 1990s until 2007, Malaysia Airlines used the slogan "Going Beyond Expectations" to brand itself internationally. In 2008, the new branding strategy slogan became "More than just an airline code. MH is Malaysian Hospitality", to emphasise the hospitality of its cabin crew instead of the airline's network and cabin classes. Since 2013, the airline has been using the slogan "Journeys are made by people you travel with". However, with the onset of Flight 370 and Flight 17, the airline has used a number of slogans including "#keepflying" and "#flyinghigh". A new slogan, "Malaysian Hospitality Begins With Us", was unveiled in 2018.


Corporate image

Malaysia Airlines introduced the
Sarong A sarong or sarung (); is a large tube or length of fabric, often wrapped around the waist, worn in Southeast Asia, Southern Asia, Western Asia, Northern Africa, East Africa, West Africa and on many Pacific islands. The fabric often has woven plaid ...
Kebaya A kebaya is an upper garment traditionally worn by women in Southeast Asia, notably in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Outside of Southeast Asia, it is worn by Javanese, Malays and Portuguese Eurasians in Australian Cocos Islands and C ...
design on 1 March 1986 for female
flight attendant A flight attendant, also known as steward/stewardess or air host/air hostess, is a member of the aircrew aboard commercial flights, many business jets and some government aircraft. Collectively called cabin crew, flight attendants are primaril ...
s. It was designed by the School of Fashion at Mara Institute of Technology ( ms, Institut Teknologi Mara) and later known as Mara University of Technology ( ms, Universiti Teknologi Mara). The
batik Batik is an Indonesian technique of wax-resist dyeing applied to the whole cloth. This technique originated from the island of Java, Indonesia. Batik is made either by drawing dots and lines of the resist with a spouted tool called a ''cantin ...
material depicts the "kelarai" motif, which is a
bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family ''Poaceae''. The origin of the word "bamboo" is uncertain, but it probably comes from the Dutch or Portuguese language, which ...
weave pattern. It appears in the background in subdued hues of the basic uniform colour. Superimposed on the "kelarai" motif is a mixture of Malaysian flora, such as the cempaka,
jasmine Jasmine (taxonomic name ''Jasminum'' ) is a genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family (Oleaceae). It contains around 200 species native to tropical and warm temperate regions of Eurasia and Oceania. Jasmines are widely cultivated for the ch ...
and the leaves of the
hibiscus ''Hibiscus'' is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. The genus is quite large, comprising several hundred species that are native to warm temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world. Member species are ...
. The geometric Sarawakian motif is used for the lapels of the ''baju'', edges of sleeves and the "sarong". In January 1993, the colours of the batik were enhanced to complement the colour of the new uniform. The male flight attendants wear grey colour jackets.


Corporate logo

The history of the airline started in 1937, when Malayan Airways Limited was registered as a company. Flying operations started in 1947, with the aircraft bearing the symbol of a winged tiger. A new logo was introduced with the formation of Malaysia-Singapore Airlines in 1966 , featuring the initials of the airline's name, MSA. In 1971, MSA split into two airlines, each with its own policies and objectives, leading to the birth of Malaysia's flag carrier, Malaysian Airline System (MAS). The name was chosen because, in abbreviated form, ''MAS'' (as in EMAS) in Malay means gold, to symbolise quality service. A corporate logo based on the wau bulan (moon kite) was eventually adopted in the following years. A new corporate logo designed by Dato' Johan Ariff of Johan Design Associates was introduced on 15 October 1987, retaining the essence of the moon kite, now with a sheared swept-back look painted in red (top) and blue (bottom). Along with the new corporate logo, a new type style – MALAYSIA, was created. It is italicised to slant parallel with the logo to accentuate speed as well as direction. Within this corporate typestyle, the letters M, A and S bear red clippings to denote the initials of the statutory name of the airline, Malaysian Airline System (MAS). They were added after the original design was rejected by former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad. The introduction of blue to the original red logo has national significance. The red and blue divides equally in the middle to denote equilibrium. Beginning 2010, all of Malaysia Airlines' new Airbus A330 and Boeing 737 aircraft sport the new standard airline livery featuring two strips of red and blue emerging from the bottom of the fuselage. The wau bulan on the tail was also refreshed. Although still featuring a sheared swept-back look with its colours in red and blue, its tails have been extended to appear twinned. Moreover, the airline's name on the fuselage is presented in full unlike before and it is entirely blue. In 2012, the corporate logo of red and blue wau bulan was refreshed. The new wau bulan faces from left to right, as it did in the original 1971 logo, and its tails have been extended. Initially, the airline settled for an all blue wau bulan but it has since reverted it to its red and blue form. The wordmark has also been modernised with a new typeface and the word "airlines" is now presented in lowercase. That same year, the airline also unveiled a new and exclusive livery for its Airbus A380 fleet to highlight the flagship carrier of the airline. It features an all-blue wau bulan on the tail and strip of blue ribbon on the fuselage and engines, the airline's name is entirely in blue as well.


Alliance

In August 2011, Malaysia Airlines agreed to collaborate with AirAsia through a Stock swap, share swap. The share swap between Malaysia Airlines' major shareholder and that of AirAsia was later undone in May 2012 due to resistance from certain quarters of its staff. On 1 February 2013, Malaysia Airlines became a member of the Oneworld alliance, thus adding 16 new destinations into the alliance's map. Malaysia Airlines would now be able to fly its passengers to over 842 destinations across 156 countries. As on December 2020, Malaysia airlines now flies to a total of 59 destinations which consist of Domestic Malaysia, South East Asia, China, North Asia, South Asia, Australia, New Zealand and United Kingdom.


Destinations

Before the introduction of the Business Turnaround Plan in 2006, Malaysia Airlines operated 118 domestic routes within Malaysia and 114 international routes across six continents. Under the Business Turnaround Plan, numerous routes were axed and frequencies reduced. Among these routes are Manchester, Vienna, Fukuoka, Chengdu, Nagoya, Xi'an, Cairo, Kolkata, Ahmedabad and Zürich. Malaysia Airlines became the first airline in Southeast Asia to fly to South Africa, following the demise of apartheid, and was the only airline in Southeast Asia that served
South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It can also be described as a southern subcontinent of the Americas. The ref ...
via South Africa until 2012. Prior the MH17 and MH370's crashes, it had further suspended services to Cape Town, Rome, Dammam, Karachi, Surabaya, Johannesburg and Los Angeles. After the removal of the destinations such as Istanbul, Male,
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the capital and most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the urban area and 2,480,394 in the metropolitan area. Found within the province of North Holland, Ams ...
,
Paris Paris () is the capital and most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018, in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, co ...
, Brisbane (resumed June 2018),
Frankfurt Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main (; Hessian: ''Frangford am Maa'', "Frank ford on the Main"), is the most populous city in the German state of Hesse. Its 763,380 inhabitants as of 31 December 2019 make it the fifth-most populous city i ...
, Kunming, Krabi and Kochi (resumed March 2019), London is the only one left for the European destination, particularly with the strong presence of the Airbus A350 and the Heathrow Terminal 4. As of March 2017, Malaysia Airlines flies to 57 destinations across Southeast Asia, North and South Asia, the Middle East, Australia and Europe. Its primary hub is
Kuala Lumpur International Airport Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) (Bahasa Malaysia: ''Lapangan Terbang Antarabangsa Kuala Lumpur''), is Malaysia's main international airport and one of the biggest airports in Southeast Asia and worldwide. It is located in Sepang Dist ...
. It has a particularly strong presence in the Southeast Asia region, which, together with its subsidiaries MASwings, MASWings and
Firefly The Lampyridae are a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera with more than 2,000 described species. They are soft-bodied beetles that are commonly called fireflies, glowworms, or lightning bugs for their conspicuous use of bioluminesce ...
, connects Kuala Lumpur to the most destinations in
Borneo Borneo (; id, Kalimantan) is the third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia. At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java, west of Sulawesi, and east o ...
. Apart from that, the airline has a key role in the Kangaroo Route, on which the airline provides onward connecting flights from main European gateways to major Australian and New Zealand gateways via Kuala Lumpur, within 5 hours. Malaysia Airlines also owns its own charter flight division. Malaysia Airlines' charter flights have flown to destinations around the world, such as Guilin, which was previously one of Malaysia Airlines' scheduled destinations, and Christmas Island. Malaysia Airlines has also been the official airline for the Manchester United Asian Tour It also has a substantial Hajj operation.


Codeshare agreements

Malaysia Airlines Codeshare agreement, codeshares with the following airlines: * Air Mauritius * American Airlines * Bangkok Airways * British Airways *
Cathay Pacific Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd. (CPA), more widely known as Cathay Pacific (), is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport. The airline's operations and subsidiaries have scheduled ...
* China Airlines * Emirates (airline), Emirates * Ethiopian Airlines * Etihad Airways * Finnair *
Firefly The Lampyridae are a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera with more than 2,000 described species. They are soft-bodied beetles that are commonly called fireflies, glowworms, or lightning bugs for their conspicuous use of bioluminesce ...
(subsidiary) * Garuda Indonesia * Japan Airlines * KLM * Korean Air * LATAM Chile * MASwings, MASWings (subsidiary) * Myanmar Airways International * Oman Air * Philippine Airlines * Qatar Airways * Qantas * Royal Brunei Airlines * Royal Jordanian *
Singapore Airlines Singapore Airlines (SIA) is the flag carrier airline of Singapore with its hub at Singapore Changi Airport. The airline is notable for using the Singapore Girl as its central figure in corporate branding. It has been ranked as the world's best a ...
* SriLankan Airlines *
Thai Airways Thai Airways International Public Co., ltd., trading as THAI (, th, บริษัท การบินไทย จำกัด (มหาชน)) is the flag carrier airline of Thailand. Formed in 1988, the airline has its corporate headquart ...
* Turkish Airlines * Uzbekistan Airways * XiamenAir


Interline agreements

Malaysia Airlines has an Interlining, Interline agreement with Pakistan International Airlines.


Fleet

As of November 2020, Malaysia Airlines has a total of 81 active aircraft in its fleet, consisting of an all-Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Boeing fleet of Narrow-body aircraft, narrow-body jets (48 planes) and an all-Airbus fleet of Wide-body aircraft, wide-body jets (33).


Services

The Golden Lounge is the airport lounge for Malaysia Airlines ''Business Suite Class'', ''Business Class'' passengers and ''Enrich Platinum'' and ''Enrich Gold'', eligible oneworld and code-share partner members. The Golden Lounges have open bars and food catering. There are Golden Lounges throughout the world, and qualified passengers have reciprocal privileges at lounges operated by selected partners. The lounge offers services such as business centres, food catering, slumber rooms and childcare, child-care centres. Lounges are maintained at the following airports: * Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Kuala Lumpur–International *
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*
Kuching Kuching (), officially the City of Kuching, is the capital and the most populous city in the state of Sarawak in Malaysia. It is also the capital of Kuching Division. The city is on the Sarawak River at the southwest tip of the state of Sarawak ...
* Heathrow Airport, London–Heathrow In April 2008, the airline launched its new Regional Golden Lounge at Kuala Lumpur International Airport for regional-bound front-end passengers. With this new lounge, Malaysia Airlines at Kuala Lumpur International Airport now has three lounges: the Satellite International Terminal Lounge, Domestic Lounge and Regional Lounge. Between May 2017 and February 2018, Malaysia Airlines conducted an extensive renovation that saw all three lounges at Kuala Lumpur International Airport progressively refurnished and remodelled. The renovation saw completion with the re-opening of the Satellite International Lounge in March 2018.


Cabin

The airline received the "World's Best Cabin Crew" award by
Skytrax Skytrax (originally known as Inflight Research Services) is a United Kingdom-based consultancy which runs an airline and airport review and ranking site. In 2012, the online investigations company KwikChex filed five complaints with the UK Adve ...
in 2012, bringing home the international accolade eight times since 2001. All of Malaysia Airlines' aircraft have an economy and a business class section, whilst Business Suite class is only present on Airbus A380 and A350 aircraft.


Business Suite Class

Business Suite Class (previously known as First Class) is offered only on the Airbus A350 and the Airbus A380. Malaysia Airlines offers the widest fully flat Business Suite class seats in the world on its A380 aircraft. The A380s feature eight semi-enclosed suites with a 23-inch flat-screen television. On the Airbus A350, the airline offers four fully enclosed suites with doors, and storage cabinets along the sides of the seats.


Business Class

Business Class (previously known as Golden Club Class) is available on all of Malaysia Airlines' fleet. In 2011, Malaysia Airlines introduced the new Business Class seats on their brand new Airbus A330-300. Newer regional business class seats were also introduced on the Boeing 737-800 to be used on short-medium haul routes such as Kota Kinabalu, Taipei and Manila. Seats made by Recaro within the business class cabin of new Airbus A380-800 are configured in pairs (2-2-2) layout, fitted with in-seat power and USB port, as well as new Select 3000i on a 15.4 inches touch screen panel, while the Boeing 737-800 are fitted in pairs (2–2) inclusive of the new Select 3000i and have recline ability. In April 2016, Malaysia Airlines introduced a new Business Class seat provided by Thompson Aero Seating equipped with fully lie-flat seats with configured in (1-2-1/1-2-2), for their A330-300. The same seat is subsequently used on the Airbus A350 fleet. In March 2018, following the delivery of the Airbus A330-200 fleet, Malaysia Airlines introduced another Business Class seat configuration retained from the previous operator of the aircraft, Air Berlin. Business Class are configured in a 1-2-1 lay-out with seats from manufacturer, Stelia Aerospace, Stelia. These planes are usually flown to high demand regional destinations and Auckland International Airport, Auckland.


Economy Class

Economy Class is available on all of Malaysia Airlines' fleet. Most of the fleet, including the Airbus A380, Airbus A350-900, Airbus A330-300 and Boeing 737-800 features a seat pitch of 30–32 inches and width of 17–18 inches. Some of the Boeing 737-800, of which are leased, have no personal TV but overhead TV's located in the aisles of the plane and feature a seat pitch of 29–30 inches. All A380s, A350-900s, A330-300s and newer Boeing 737-800 have the Select 3000i personal in-flight entertainment systems. In 2010, the Malaysia Airlines' Economy Class was awarded the "World's Best Economy Class" award by
Skytrax Skytrax (originally known as Inflight Research Services) is a United Kingdom-based consultancy which runs an airline and airport review and ranking site. In 2012, the online investigations company KwikChex filed five complaints with the UK Adve ...
.


'Baby ban' and 'child-free zone'

Malaysia Airlines has attracted both criticism and praise for its controversial decision to prohibit children from travelling in certain classes or cabins of its aircraft. Infants are not permitted in First Class on Malaysia Airlines' Airbus A380s due to the non-availability of baby bassinets in the cabin. Then-CEO Tengku Azmil Zahruddin explained the policy, saying the airline received complaints from First Class passengers that they "spend money on first class and can't sleep due to crying infants". Malaysia Airlines subsequently claimed that an upgrade of the First Class cabin to fit new seats and an ottoman (which doubles as a visitor seat) meant "there was no facility for positioning bassinets in the First Class of the 747s". Malaysia Airlines has also stated that children under the age of 12 may not travel in the 70-seat upper deck economy section of the A380. "The economy seats on upper level will be allocated for business travellers. Passengers accompanying children under 12 years old age will be excluded from booking these seats." Malaysia Airlines says the decision "is to showcase the Economy Class zone in the main deck, enhanced and designated as a family and children friendly inflight zone. From the perspective of customers travelling with their families, the economy class family-friendly convenience would be a warm welcome. The main deck has more facilities such as toilets (8 for economy configuration of 350 seats) and the dual Jet bridge, aerobridge airport facility supporting this deck will also mean a speedier/faster embarkation and disembarkation for this group of passengers."


In-flight entertainment

''Select'' is the in-flight entertainment system of Malaysia Airlines. There are three types of ''Select'': ''Select 3000i'', ''Select 3000i Portable Media Player'', and ''Select Mainscreen''.


Select 3000i

::All Malaysia Airlines Airbus A380, Airbus A350-900, Airbus A330-300 and newer Boeing 737-800 aircraft are equipped with an In-flight entertainment, Inflight entertainment system, Select 3000i, with audio and video available in 14 languages. A touch-screen personal TV is available on board these aircraft. ::New deliveries of the Boeing 737-800 (9M-MX* and -MS*) aircraft would carry touch-screen based Select 3000i. :Select 3000i Portable Media Player :: The ''Select 3000i'' Portable Media Player is provided to Malaysia Airlines' Business Class passengers on selected regional and medium-haul routes when operated by Boeing 737-800 (ML*) aircraft. It allows passengers a choice of movies, TV shows, sports and video games.


Select Mainscreen

::Used in Economy Class on Boeing 737-800 (9M-ML*) regional and medium-haul aircraft, which features 15-inch drop-down retractable LCD screens are installed at every fourth seat row.


Sponsorships

Malaysia Airlines signed a 3-year sponsorship deal with Premier League club Liverpool F.C., Liverpool FC in October 2016, which gives them the right to be its Official Global Airline Partner. In addition, a six-minute advertisement video of Malaysia Airlines will be broadcast during home games at Anfield until the 2018–19 Premier League, 2018-2019 season.


Frequent-flyer programs

Malaysia Airlines' frequent flyer program is called Enrich by Malaysia Airlines. Enrich comprises airlines, banks, credit-card issuers, hotels and retailers around the world.


''Esteemed Traveller''

On 30 September 1987, the airline introduced the ''Esteemed Traveller'' frequent-flyer program. In the early 1990s, Malaysia Airlines,
Cathay Pacific Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd. (CPA), more widely known as Cathay Pacific (), is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport. The airline's operations and subsidiaries have scheduled ...
, Thai Airways International and
Singapore Airlines Singapore Airlines (SIA) is the flag carrier airline of Singapore with its hub at Singapore Changi Airport. The airline is notable for using the Singapore Girl as its central figure in corporate branding. It has been ranked as the world's best a ...
launched their joint Asian frequent-flyer program: Passages. The joint program was officially dissolved in 1999, and the Enrich frequent-flyer program made its debut after the split from Passages.


''Enrich'' by Malaysia Airlines

On 12 July 2006, Malaysia Airlines introduced its enhanced frequent-flyer program. The program is now known as Enrich by Malaysia Airlines (Enrich). Members of Enrich are able to accrue miles on qualifying flights through Malaysia Airlines and Enrich airline partners: * Oneworld alliance airline partners (effective 1 February 2013) * Air France, Alitalia, Etihad Airways, Emirates Airline, KLM, Virgin Atlantic,
Firefly The Lampyridae are a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera with more than 2,000 described species. They are soft-bodied beetles that are commonly called fireflies, glowworms, or lightning bugs for their conspicuous use of bioluminesce ...
,
MASwings MASwings Sdn Bhd (doing business as MASwings) is a regional airline operating the Rural Air Services (RAS) in East Malaysia. It took over the RAS previously operated by FlyAsianXpress. The first flight was on 1 October 2007, which is also the ann ...


Incidents and accidents

* 4 December 1977 – Malaysian Airline System Flight 653, a Boeing 737, Boeing 737-200 – registered ''9M-MBD'' – was hijacked and crashed in Tanjung Kupang, Johor, killing all 100 people on board. * 18 December 1983 – Malaysian Airline System Flight 684, an Airbus A300B2 – registered ''OY-KAA'' – crashed 2 km short of the runway at Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport, Subang Airport, with no fatalities among the 247 passengers and crew. * 15 September 1995 – Malaysia Airlines Flight 2133, a Fokker 50 – registered ''9M-MGH'' – touched down too far along the runway at Tawau Airport, Sabah and crashed in a shantytown during the subsequent go-around. Of the 49 passengers and 4 crew on board, 32 passengers and 2 crew were killed. The probable cause was poor handling of the aircraft by the pilot. * 8 March 2014 – Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, a Boeing 777-200ER – registered ''9M-MRO'' – carrying 227 passengers and 12 crew, went Search for Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, missing on a flight from
Kuala Lumpur International Airport Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) (Bahasa Malaysia: ''Lapangan Terbang Antarabangsa Kuala Lumpur''), is Malaysia's main international airport and one of the biggest airports in Southeast Asia and worldwide. It is located in Sepang Dist ...
to Beijing Capital International Airport. Although the whereabouts of the plane remain unknown, satellite data indicates that the plane was lost in the Southern Indian Ocean and all 239 people on board perished. On 5 August 2015 the Malaysian government confirmed a flaperon from a 777 found washed up on Réunion, Réunion Island belonged to Flight 370. A piece of aircraft wreckage (an outboard flap) found on Pemba Island off the Tanzanian coast in June 2016 was also confirmed by the Malaysian Transport Ministry to belong to MH370. * 17 July 2014 – Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, a Boeing 777-200ER – registered ''9M-MRD'' – en route to Kuala Lumpur International Airport from Amsterdam Schiphol Airport was shot down over Ukraine by a Buk missile system, Buk surface-to-air missile. All 283 passengers and 15 crew members aboard were killed.


See also

* List of companies of Malaysia * List of airports in Malaysia * Transport in Malaysia


References


External links

* *
Official website
(Archive)
Route Map
*
Penerbangan Malaysia Berhad – Parent Companyarchive

Malaysian Airline System Berhad

Malaysian Airline System Bhd
bloomberg.com

bursamalaysia.com Malaysia Airlines, {{Authority control Airlines established in 1947, Malayan Airways Airlines of Malaysia Association of Asia Pacific Airlines Government-owned airlines Government-owned companies of Malaysia IATA members Kuala Lumpur International Airport Malaysian brands 1947 establishments in Malaya Companies formerly listed on Bursa Malaysia Privately held companies of Malaysia Khazanah Nasional