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A major appliance, also known as a large domestic appliance or large electric appliance or simply a large appliance, large domestic, or large electric, is a non-portable or semi-portable
machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine A molecular machine, nanite, or nanomachine is a molecular component that produce ...

machine
used for routine housekeeping tasks such as
cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynamic work or transfer of matter. The va ...

cooking
, washing
laundry Laundry refers to the washing of clothing and other textiles, and, more broadly, their drying and ironing as well. Laundry has been part of history since humans began to wear clothes, so the methods by which different cultures have dealt with th ...

laundry
, or
food preservation Food preservation includes food processing Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal ...

food preservation
. Such appliances are sometimes collectively known as white goods, as the products were traditionally white in colour, although a variety of colours are now available. An appliance is different from a
plumbing fixture A plumbing fixture is an exchangeable device which can be connected to a plumbing system to deliver and drain water. Common fixtures Supply The most common plumbing fixtures are: * Bathtubs * Bidets * Channel drains * Drinking fountains * Hose b ...
because it uses
electricity Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, motion is the phenomenon in which an object changes its positio ...

electricity
or
fuel A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as thermal energy Thermal radiation in visible light can be seen on this hot metalwork. Thermal energy refers to several distinct physical conc ...

fuel
. Major appliances differ from
small appliance A small domestic appliance, also known as a small electric appliance or minor appliance or simply a small appliance, small domestic or small electric, is a portable or semi-portable machine, generally used on table-tops, counter-tops or other ...

small appliance
s because they are bigger and not portable. They are often considered fixtures and part of
real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resource , Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and feder ...

real estate
and as such they are often supplied to tenants as part of otherwise unfurnished rental properties. Major appliances may have special electrical connections, connections to gas supplies, or special plumbing and ventilation arrangements that may be permanently connected to the appliance. This limits where they can be placed in a home. Since major appliances in a home consume a significant amount of energy, they have become the objectives of programs to improve their
energy efficiency Energy efficiency may refer to: * Energy efficiency (physics), the ratio between the useful output and input of an energy conversion process ** Electrical efficiency, useful power output per electrical power consumed ** Mechanical efficiency, a rat ...
in many countries Increasing energy efficiency is often described as an important element of
climate change mitigation Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit global warming and Effects of global warming, its related effects. This involves reductions in human emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) as well as activities that reduce their concentration ...
alongside other improvements like retrofitting buildings to increase
building performanceBuilding performance is an attribute of a building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functio ...
. Energy efficiency improvements may require changes in construction of the appliances, or improved control systems.


Brands

In the early days of
electrification Electrification is the process of powering by electricity Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, mo ...

electrification
, many major consumer appliances were made by the same companies that made the generation and distribution equipment. While some of these brand names persist to the present day, even if only as licensed use of old popular brand names, today many major appliances are manufactured by companies or divisions of companies that specialize in particular appliances.


Types

Major appliances may be roughly divided as follows: *
Refrigeration The term refrigeration means cooling Cooling is removal of heat, usually resulting in a lower temperature and/or phase change. Temperature lowering achieved by any other means may also be called cooling.ASHRAE Terminology, https://www.ashrae.org/t ...

Refrigeration
equipment **
Freezer A refrigerator (colloquially fridge) is a home appliance consisting of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from its inside to its external environment so that its inside ...

Freezer
**
Refrigerator A refrigerator (colloquially fridge) is a home appliance consisting of a thermal insulation, thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from its inside to its external environment s ...

Refrigerator
**
Water cooler A water dispenser, known as water cooler (if used for cooling only), is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by animals and people ...

Water cooler
**
Ice maker An icemaker, ice generator, or ice machine may refer to either a consumer device for making ice, found inside a home freezer; a stand-alone appliance for making ice, or an industrial machine for making ice on a large scale. The term "ice machine" ...
*
Cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynamic work or transfer of matter. The va ...

Cooking
**
Kitchen stove A kitchen stove, often called simply a stove A stove is a device that burns fuel or uses electricity to generate heat inside or on top of the apparatus. It has seen many developments over time and serves the main purpose of cooking food. Ther ...
, also known as a range, cooker, oven, cooking plate, or cooktop ** Wall oven ** Steamer oven **
Microwave oven A microwave oven (commonly referred to as a microwave) is an electric oven upA double oven A ceramic oven An oven is a tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. ...

Microwave oven
*
Washing Washing is a method of cleaning Cleaning is the process of removing unwanted substances, such as dirt, infectious agents, and other impurities, from an object or environment. Cleaning occurs in many different contexts, and uses many different m ...

Washing
and
drying Drying is a mass transfer process consisting of the removal of water or another solvent by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid. This process is often used as a final production step before selling or packaging products. To be considered " ...

drying
equipment **
Washing machine A washing machine (laundry machine, clothes washer, or washer) is a home appliance A home appliance, also referred to as a domestic appliance, an electric appliance or a household appliance, is a machine which assists in household A househ ...

Washing machine
**
Clothes dryer A clothes dryer, also known as tumble dryer or simply dryer, is a powered household appliance that is used to remove moisture from a load of clothing, bedding and other textiles, usually shortly after they are washed in a washing machine. Many dr ...

Clothes dryer
**
Drying cabinetImage:Drying cupboard 002.JPG, A drying cabinet A drying cabinet is today usually an electrical machine designed to expedite the drying of items - usually clothing - that are unsuitable for a mechanical clothes dryer. Such items may include delica ...
**
Dishwasher A dishwasher is a machine for cleaning dishware and cutlery automatically. Unlike dishwashing, manual dishwashing, which relies largely on physical scrubbing to remove soiling, the mechanical dishwasher cleans by spraying hot water, typically b ...

Dishwasher
*Heating and cooling **
Air conditioner Air conditioning (also A/C, air conditioner) is the process of removing heat and controlling the humidity Humidity is the concentration of water vapour (99.9839 °C) , - , Boiling point , , - , specific gas constant , 461.5 ...

Air conditioner
**
Furnace A furnace is a structure in which heat is produced with the help of combustion. Furnace may also refer to: Appliances Buildings * Furnace (house heating): a furnace , or a heater or boiler , used to generate heat for buildings * Boiler Poland ...
** Water heater *Whole house ventilator ** Mechanical Air Ventilator


Efficiency


See also

*
Small appliance A small domestic appliance, also known as a small electric appliance or minor appliance or simply a small appliance, small domestic or small electric, is a portable or semi-portable machine, generally used on table-tops, counter-tops or other ...

Small appliance
s *
Domestic technology Domestic technology is the incorporation of applied science into the home. There are multiple aspects of domestic technology. On one level, there are home appliance A home appliance, also referred to as a domestic appliance, an electric appli ...
*
Home automation Home automation or domotics is building automation for a home, called a smart home or smart house. A home automation system will monitor and/or control home attributes such as lighting, climate, entertainment systems, and appliances. It ma ...
(Domotics) *
E-waste Electronic waste or e-waste describes discarded electrical or electronic devices. Used electronics which are destined for refurbishment, reuse, resale, salvage recycling through material recovery, or disposal are also considered e-waste. Informal ...

E-waste
* Household chore *
List of cooking appliances This is a list of cooking appliances that are used for cooking foods. Cooking appliances with a wire basket Image:Popcorn Pumper 1.JPG, A hot-air style home popcorn maker * Air fryer * Bachelor griller * Barbecue grill * Beehive oven * Br ...
*
List of home appliances This is a list of home appliances. A home appliance A home appliance, also referred to as a domestic appliance, an electric appliance or a household appliance, is a machine which assists in household A household consists of one or several ...
*
List of stoves This is a list of stoves. A stove 200px, 18th-century Neoclassical cocklestove in the Palais Rohan ( Strasbourg, France) A stove is a device that burns fuel or uses electricity to generate heat inside or on top of the apparatus. It has see ...
* Yellow goods (retail classification) * Black goods


References


External links

*
APPLiA (Home Appliance Europe)Energy Star Appliances
{{Authority control Electromechanical engineering Consumer goods Hardlines (retail) nn:Kvitvarer