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Magdalen College ( ) is a
constituent college A collegiate university is a university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academi ...
of the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
. It was founded in 1458 by
William of Waynflete William Waynflete (circa, c. 139811 August 1486), born William Patten, was Provost of Eton (1442–1447), Bishop of Winchester (1447–1486) and Lord Chancellor of England (1456–1460). He is best remembered as the founder of Magdalen College, ...
. Today, it is the fourth wealthiest college, with a
financial endowment A financial endowment is a legal structure for managing, and in many cases indefinitely perpetuating, a pool of financial Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is ...
of £332.1 million as of 2019 and one of the strongest academically, setting the record for the highest
Norrington Score
Norrington Score
in 2010 and topping the table twice since then. It is home to several of the university's distinguished
chairs One of the basic pieces of furniture Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (table (furniture), tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds). Furn ...
, including the Agnelli-Serena Professorship, the Sherardian Professorship, and the four
Waynflete Professorship The Waynflete Professorships are four professorial fellowships at the University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, mak ...
s. The large, square
Magdalen Tower Magdalen Tower, completed in 1509, is a bell tower that forms part of Magdalen College, Oxford. It is a central focus for the celebrations in Oxford on May Morning. History Magdalen Tower is one of the oldest parts of Magdalen College, Oxford, ...
is an
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
landmark, and it is a tradition, dating to the days of
Henry VIIHenry VII may refer to: * Henry VII of England (1457–1509), King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1485 until his death in 1509; the founder of the House of Tudor * Henry VII, Duke of Bavaria (died 1047), count of Luxembourg (as Henry II) from 1 ...
, that the college choir sings from the top of it at 6 a.m. on
May Morning May Morning is an annual event in Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London London is the capital city, capit ...

May Morning
. The college stands next to the
River Cherwell The River Cherwell ( or ) is a tributary of the River Thames in central England. It rises near Hellidon, Northamptonshire and flows southwards for to meet the Thames at Oxford in Oxfordshire. The river gives its name to the Cherwell District, ...
and the
University of Oxford Botanic Garden The University of Oxford Botanic Garden is the oldest botanic garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botan ...

University of Oxford Botanic Garden
. Within its grounds are a deer park and
Addison's Walk Addison's Walk (originally called Water Walk) is a picturesque Trail, footpath around a small island in the River Cherwell in the grounds of Magdalen College, Oxford, England. There are good views of Magdalen Tower, Oxford, Magdalen Tower and ...
.


History


Foundation

Magdalen College was founded in 1458 by
William of Waynflete William Waynflete (circa, c. 139811 August 1486), born William Patten, was Provost of Eton (1442–1447), Bishop of Winchester (1447–1486) and Lord Chancellor of England (1456–1460). He is best remembered as the founder of Magdalen College, ...
,
Bishop of Winchester The Bishop of Winchester is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Winchester The Diocese of Winchester forms part of the Province of Canterbury The Province of Canterbury, or less formally the Southern Province, is one of two ecclesiastical ...
and
Lord Chancellor of England The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest-ranking among the Great Officers of State In the United Kingdom, the Great Officers of State are traditional ministers of The Crown who either inheri ...
and named after
St Mary Magdalene Mary Magdalene, sometimes called Mary of Magdala, or simply the Magdalene or the Madeleine, was a woman who, according to the four canonical gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message, but in the 2nd century it came to be used also ...
. The college succeeded a university hall called Magdalen Hall, founded by Waynflete in 1448, and from which the college drew most of its earliest scholars. Magdalen Hall was suppressed when the college was founded. The name was revived for a second Magdalen Hall, established in the college's grounds around 1490, which in the 19th century was moved to Catte Street and became
Hertford College ''As the hart panteth after the water brooks'' , university = Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the ...

Hertford College
. Waynflete also established a school, now Magdalen College School, an
independent school An independent school is independent in its finances and governance. Also known as private schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, they are not administered by local, state or national governments. In British Engli ...
located nearby on the other side of the Cherwell. Waynflete was assisted by a large bequest from Sir
John Fastolf Sir John Fastolf (6 November 1380 – 5 November 1459) was a late medieval English landowner and knight A knight is a person granted an honorary title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain cont ...
, who wished to fund a religious college. Magdalen College took over the site of St John the Baptist Hospital, alongside the Cherwell, initially using the hospital's buildings until new construction was completed between 1470 and 1480. At incorporation in 1458, the college consisted of a president and six scholars. In 1487 when the Founder's Statutes were written, the foundation consisted of a President, 40 fellows, 30 demies, four chaplain priests, eight clerks, 16 choristers, and appointed to the Grammar School, a Master and an usher. The founder's statutes included provision for a choral foundation of men and boys (a tradition that has continued to the present day) and made reference to the pronunciation of the name of the college in English. The college's name is pronounced like the adjective maudlin because the late medieval English name of Mary Magdalene was Maudelen, derived from the Old French Madelaine.


English Civil War

Oxford and Magdalen College were supporters of the
Royalist A royalist supports a particular monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. ...

Royalist
cause during the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
. In 1642, Magdalen College donated over 296 lbs of plate to fund the war effort – the largest donation by weight of any Oxford college. Magdalen College, commanding a position on the banks of the Cherwell that overlooked
Magdalen Bridge Magdalen Bridge spans the divided stream of the River Cherwell just to the east of the City of Oxford, England, and next to Magdalen College, Oxford, Magdalen College, whence it gets its name and pronunciation. It connects the High Street, Oxf ...

Magdalen Bridge
and the road from London, had tactical significance for the King's forces. From 1643 to 1645, Magdalen's Grove was occupied by the Royalist ordnance, and
Prince Rupert Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland, (17 December 1619 (O.S.) / 27 December (N.S.) – 29 November 1682) was a German-English army officer An officer is a member of an armed forces A military, also known collectively as ...
is thought to have quartered in the college. The city built fortifications in preparation for siege through Magdalen's grounds, including Dover's Speare (or Pier), a bastion that would have allowed observation to the north and east of the city. The earthworks where it was located, in the Water Meadow where the Cherwell forks, are still apparent today. Further fortifications and earthworks were built to protect the Holywell Ford site to the north. During the first
Siege of Oxford The siege of Oxford comprised the English Civil War military campaigns waged to besiege the Royalist controlled city of Oxford, involving three short engagements over twenty-five months, which ended with a Parliamentarian victory in ...
,
Charles I Charles is a masculine given name predominantly found in English language, English and French language, French speaking countries. It is from the French form ''Charles'' of the Proto-Germanic, Proto-Germanic name ᚲᚨᚱᛁᛚᚨᛉ (in r ...

Charles I
surveyed the battle from
Magdalen Tower Magdalen Tower, completed in 1509, is a bell tower that forms part of Magdalen College, Oxford. It is a central focus for the celebrations in Oxford on May Morning. History Magdalen Tower is one of the oldest parts of Magdalen College, Oxford, ...

Magdalen Tower
. Following the capitulation of Oxford to
Thomas Fairfax Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron (17 January 161212 November 1671), also known as Sir Thomas Fairfax, was an English politician, general and Roundhead, Parliamentary commander-in-chief during the English Civil War. An adept and talent ...

Thomas Fairfax
at the end of the First English Civil War, Parliament ordered a Visitation to Oxford to purge Fellows for political and religious reasons. In 1647, the Visitors removed the then-president of Magdalen
John Oliver John William Oliver (born 23 April 1977) is a British-American comedian, writer, producer, political commentator, actor, and television host. Oliver started his career as a stand-up comedian in the United Kingdom. He came to wider attention ...
and appointed instead one of their number, John Wilkinson, a former Principal of Magdalen Hall who had previously run unsuccessfully for the position of President at the college. When they refused to submit to the authority of Parliament, around 28 of the fellows, 21 of the demies (scholars), and all but one of the servants were also expelled. With the Royalists finally removed, the college would host Fairfax and
Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English general and statesman who, first as a subordinate and later as Commander-in-Chief, led armies An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" e ...

Oliver Cromwell
in 1649. After the
Restoration of the monarchy Restoration is the act of restoring something to its original state and may refer to: * Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage * Restoration style Film and television * The Restoration (1909 film), ''The Restoration'' (1909 film), a f ...
in 1660 John Oliver was reappointed to the college, followed by 17 fellows and eight demies.


Expulsion of the Fellows

During the 1680s,
King James II James II and VII (14 October 1633 O.S.16 September 1701) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, who initially ruled Kingdom of Wessex, Wessex, one of the heptarchy, seven ...

King James II
made several moves to reintroduce
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...
into the then
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...

Anglican
university. In 1687, he attempted to install
Anthony Farmer Anthony Farmer (born 1657Jerome Bertram‘Farmer, Anthony (b. 1657)’ ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography The ''Dictionary of National Biography'' (''DNB'') is a standard work of reference on notable figures from History of the British I ...
as
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a chief executive officer ...
of Magdalen. The
fellow A fellow is a broad concept whose exact meaning depends on context. In learned Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and preferences. The abil ...
s rejected this, not just because Farmer was reputedly a Catholic and had a tarnished reputation, but also as he was not a fellow of the college, and therefore ineligible under the statutes. The fellows elected instead one of their own,
John HoughJohn Hough may refer to: * John Hough (director) (born 1941), British film and television director *John Simpson Hough (1833-1919), American entrepreneur on the Santa Fe Trail, builder of the Baca House and Outbuilding, Baca House in Trinidad, Colora ...
. James eventually offered a compromise candidate in the form of the moderate Bishop of Oxford, Samuel Parker, but he too was rejected by the fellows as they considered the role filled. Parker was admitted by force and the fellows and demies who had defied the king were expelled, replaced by the king's choice of Catholics or moderate Anglicans. Parker died in 1688 and was replaced by
Bonaventure Giffard Bonaventure Giffard (1642–1734) was a Roman Catholic bishop who served as the Vicar Apostolic of the Midland District of England from 1687 to 1703 and Vicar Apostolic of the London District of England from 1703 to 1734. Life He was the seco ...
, a Catholic under whose tenure the Chapel converted to Catholicism. The expulsion of the fellows marked a turning point in the university's relationship with the Crown: Brockliss writes, "the royalist and Anglican University established at the Restoration had had to make a choice and it had chosen Anglicanism." James' interference with the college fed resentment in Anglicans who used it as evidence that his rule was autocratic. On 25 October 1688, shortly before the
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga, An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus), the invasion also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch, was the deposition of ...
and overthrow of James II by , James' appointments were reversed and Hough and the expelled fellows were restored to the college. This event is marked every year at a special banquet, the Restoration Dinner, for Magdalen fellows, demies, and academic clerks.


20th–21st centuries

Magdalen's prominence since the mid-20th century owes much to such famous fellows as C. S. Lewis and
A. J. P. Taylor Alan John Percivale Taylor (25 March 1906 – 7 September 1990) was a British historian A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, ...
, and its academic success to the work of such dons as Thomas Dewar Weldon. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
,
RAF Maintenance Command RAF Maintenance Command was the Royal Air Force Command (military formation), command which was responsible for controlling maintenance for all the United Kingdom-based units from formation on 1 April 1938 until being renamed RAF Support Command ...
was headquartered at Magdalen. Magdalen College owns and manages the
Oxford Science Park The Oxford Science Park (OSP) is a science and technology park located on the southern edge of the city of Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain ...
to the south of Oxford, a science and technology park home to over 100 companies. The Oxford Science Park opened in 1991, with Magdalen as part owner. The college acquired total ownership in 2016, before selling 40% of its stake in 2021 for £160 million. It was reported that this sale will more than double the size of Magdalen's endowment fund, and make it "probably the richest of Oxford's 39 colleges". Like many of Oxford's colleges, Magdalen admitted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, after more than half a millennium as a men-only institution. Between 2015 and 2017, 47.2% of UK undergraduates admitted to Magdalen were from state schools; 12.2% were of BME ("black and ethnic minority") heritage and 0.7% were black. Of the 300 undergraduate offers made by Magdalen between 2017 and 2019, 25 (one in twelve) went to pupils from Eton College or Westminster School. In 2015, Magdalen topped Oxford's
Norrington Table The Norrington Table is an annual ranking of the college A college (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from ...

Norrington Table
of college undergraduate examination results, and its average score over the 2006–2016 period is the best among the colleges.


Buildings

The college grounds stretch north and east from the college, and include most of the area bounded by
Longwall Street FIle:Longwall Street - geograph.org.uk - 721653.jpg, View north along Longwall Street Longwall Street is a street in central Oxford, England. It runs for about 300 metres along the western flank of Magdalen College, Oxford, Magdalen College. A hi ...
, the
High Street #REDIRECT High Street High Street is a common street name for the primary business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services) ...
(where the
porter's lodge A porters' lodge or porter's lodge (colloquially, plodge) is a place near the entrance of a building where one or more porters Porters, is a commercial ski area, ski resort just over an hour's drive (98km) west from Christchurch, in the South ...
is located), and St Clement's. The college features a variety of architectural styles, and has been described as "a medieval nucleus with two incomplete additions, one from the eighteenth and one from the nineteenth century". The college is organised around five quads. The irregularly shaped St John's Quad is the first on entering the college, and includes the Outdoor Pulpit and old Grammar Hall. It connects to the Great Quad (the Cloister) via the Perpendicular Gothic , which is richly decorated with carvings and pinnacles and has carved bosses in its vault. The Chaplain's Quad runs along the side of the Chapel and Hall, to the foot of the . St Swithun's Quad and Longwall Quad (which contains the Library) date from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and make up the southwest corner of the college.


Original buildings

The college is built on the site of St John the Baptist Hospital, which was dissolved in 1457 and its property granted to William of Waynflete.'Hospitals: St John the Baptist, Oxford', in A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 2, ed. William Page (London, 1907), pp. 158–159. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/oxon/vol2/pp158-159 ccessed 5 February 2020 Some of the hospital buildings were reused by the college, and the kitchens survive today as the college bar, the Old Kitchen Bar."Magdalen College", in ''A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 3'', the University of Oxford, ed. H. E. Salter and Mary D. Lobel (London, 1954), pp. 193–207. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/oxon/vol3/pp193-207 ccessed 5 February 2020 New construction began in 1470 with the erection of a wall around the site by mason William Orchard. Following this, Orchard also worked on the chapel, hall, and the cloister, including the Muniment and s, with work completed around 1480.


Cloister

The Cloister or Great Quad is the "medieval nucleus" of the college. It was constructed between 1474 and 1480, also by Orchard, although several modifications were made later. Access to the Cloister from St John's Quad is via the or Muniment Tower. The chapel and the hall make up the southern side of the quad. It is also home to the junior, middle, and senior common rooms, and the old library. In 1508,
grotesques Since at least the 18th century (in French and German as well as English), grotesque has come to be used as a general adjective for the strange, mysterious, magnificent, fantastic, hideous, ugly, incongruous, unpleasant, or disgusting, and thus ...

grotesques
known as hieroglyphics were added to the Cloister. These are thought to be allegorical, and include four hieroglyphics in front of the old library that represent scholarly subjects: science, medicine, law, and theology. The other hieroglyphics have been assigned symbolism relating to virtues that should be encouraged by the college (e.g. the lion and pelican grotesques in front of the Senior Common Room representing courage and parental affection) or vices that should be avoided (the
manticore The manticore or mantichore (Latin language, Latin: ''mantichōra''; Middle Persian, Early Middle Persian: ; fa, مردخوار ) is a Achaemenid Empire, Persian legendary creature similar to the Egyptian sphinx that proliferated in western Eur ...

manticore
, boxers, and
lamia Lamia (; grc-gre, Λάμια), in ancient Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradit ...

lamia
in front of the Junior Common Room, representing pride, contention, and lust). In 2017, repair work was undertaken to restore the severely damaged boxers statue. In 1822, the north side of the Cloister was knocked down, ostensibly due to disrepair. This decision was controversial, provoking protests from the fellows and in the contemporary press, and it was rebuilt shortly afterwards. In the early 1900s, renovations were performed, and it was returned to a more medieval character. Student rooms were installed in the (very large) roof space in the 1980s.


Chapel

The chapel is a
place of worship A place of worship is a specially designed structure or space where individuals or a group of people such as a congregation A congregation is a large gathering of people, often for the purpose of worship. Congregation may also refer to: *Churc ...

place of worship
for members of the college and others in the University of Oxford community and beyond. As a High Anglican chapel, its tradition is influenced by the
Catholic Revival The Counter-Reformation (), also called the Catholic Reformation () or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic Church, Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revo ...
in the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
. Said and sung services are held daily during term. The choir sings Choral
Evensong Evensong is a church service traditionally held near sunset focused on singing psalms and other biblical canticles. In origin, it is identical to the canonical hour of vespers. Old English speakers translated the Latin word as , which became ' ...
or Evening Prayer every day at 6:00 pm except on Mondays. On Sundays, a Sung Eucharist is offered in the morning at 11:00 am, whilst
Compline Compline ( ), also known as Complin, Night Prayer, or the Prayers at the End of the Day, is the final church service (or office An office is a space where an Organization, organization's employees perform Business administration, adminis ...
(Night Prayer) is sung several times per term. Mass is also sung on major holy days. The chapel itself is a grade I
listed building A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England Historic England (officially the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England) is an executive ...
built between 1474 and 1480. The roof, giving the impression of a stone vaulted ceiling, is in fact a facsimile made from plaster added in 1790 by
James Wyatt James Wyatt (3 August 1746 – 4 September 1813) was an English architect, a rival of Robert Adam in the Neoclassicism, neoclassical and Gothic revival, neo-Gothic styles. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1785 and was its president from ...

James Wyatt
. Wyatt's redevelopment of the chapel included a number of modifications to make it more Gothic in character, but other than the ceiling, Wyatt's contributions were removed during a later redesign in 1828. The
stained glass The term stained glass refers to coloured glass as a material and to works created from it. Throughout its thousand-year history, the term has been applied almost exclusively to the windows of churches and other significant religious buildings ...

stained glass
windows facing St John's Quad feature a ''
grisaille Grisaille ( or ; french: grisaille, lit=greyed , from ''gris'' 'grey') is a painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a s ...

grisaille
'' depiction of the
Last Judgement The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Reckoning, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday or The Day of the Lord ( he, יום הדין, Yom ha-din, ar, یوم القيامة, Yawm al-qiyāmah, Day of Resurrection or ar, یوم الدین, ...

Last Judgement
. These windows, dating from 1792, are a reconstruction by
Francis Eginton Francis Eginton (1737–1805), sometimes spelled Egginton, was an England, English glass painter. He painted windows for cathedrals, churches, chapels and stately homes, etc., around the country, leaving 50 large works altogether; his work was al ...
of an earlier 17th-century window that was destroyed in a storm. It had been uninstalled during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
to protect it from damage, and was only restored in the 1990s. Much of the glass had been thought lost, until it was rediscovered in the ventilation tunnels under the New Building.


Magdalen Tower

Construction of Magdalen's Great Tower began in 1492 by another mason, William Raynold. It might have been intended to replace an existing belfry remaining from the hospital, and probably was originally envisioned to stand alone. By the time it was completed in 1509, additional buildings had been built either side, creating the roughly triangular Chaplain's quad between the chapel and the High. The tower contains a peal of ten bells hung for English change ringing. They were cast at a number of different
foundries A foundry is a factory A factory, manufacturing plant or a production plant is an Industry (manufacturing), industrial site, often a complex consisting of several buildings filled with Outline of industrial machinery, machinery, where worke ...

foundries
and the heaviest, weighing 17 cwt, was cast in 1623. The tower is 144 feet tall and an imposing landmark on the eastern approaches to the city centre. It has been the model for other towers, including Mitchell Tower of the
University of Chicago The University of Chicago (UChicago) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an abse ...
,
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
's First Presbyterian Church, and All Saints' Church in
Churchill, Oxfordshire Churchill is a village and Civil parishes in England, civil parish about southwest of Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire in the Cotswolds Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Since 2012 it has been part of the Churchill and Sarsden joint parish counci ...
. It forms the centre of the
May Morning May Morning is an annual event in Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London London is the capital city, capit ...

May Morning
celebrations in Oxford.


The New Building

During the 18th and 19th centuries, there were numerous attempts made to redesign the site to better suit the college's needs. The New Building began construction in 1733 as a part of
Edward Holdsworth Edward Holdsworth (1684–1746) was an English classical scholar, known as a New Latin language, neo-Latin poet. Early life The son of Thomas Holdsworth, rector of North Stoneham, Hampshire, he was born there on 6 August 1684, and baptised on 3 Se ...
's designs from 1731. It is built in a
Palladian style '', in an English translation published in London, 1736. Palladian architecture is a European architectural style derived from and inspired by the designs of the Republic of Venice, Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580). What is recogn ...
, and features a
colonnade In classical architecture Classical architecture usually denotes architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (a ...

colonnade
. It was conceived as one side of a new "Great Quadrangle", and in anticipation of this the building's ends had been left unfinished. However, Holdsworth's full vision was never completed. The idea was revisited several times by later architects, including by architects
James Wyatt James Wyatt (3 August 1746 – 4 September 1813) was an English architect, a rival of Robert Adam in the Neoclassicism, neoclassical and Gothic revival, neo-Gothic styles. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1785 and was its president from ...

James Wyatt
—whose plans (never realised) included partially demolishing the existing, Medieval quad (the Cloister) and refinishing the neoclassical New Building in a Georgian Gothic style—and
John Buckler John Buckler, Snr (30 November 1770 – 6 December 1851) was a British artist An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens ...
. In the 19th century,
John NashJohn Nash may refer to: Arts and entertainment *John Nash (architect) (1752–1835), Anglo-Welsh architect *John Nash Round, English architect active in the mid-19th-century Kent *"Jolly" John Nash (1828–1901), English music hall entertainer *Joh ...
and
Humphrey Repton Humphry Repton (21 April 1752 – 24 March 1818) was the last great English landscape designer Landscape design is an independent profession and a design and art tradition, practiced by landscape designers, combining nature Nature, i ...
both submitted designs for new, open quadrangles that incorporated the New Building. Ultimately, the idea of integrating the New Building into a new quad was abandoned, and the ends of the building were finally completed in 1824 with two returns designed by Thomas Harrison. Today, it stands apart from the Cloister, overlooking four
croquet Croquet (french: croquet; ( UK) or ( US)) is a sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and Skill, skills while providing enjoyment ...

croquet
lawns on one side and the Grove deer park on the other. It is used for accommodation for undergraduates and fellows, including historically
Edward Gibbon Edward Gibbon (; 8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval En ...

Edward Gibbon
and C. S. Lewis, and also houses the wine cellar.


Daubeny laboratory

Opposite the main college site and overlooking the
Botanic Garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is ...

Botanic Garden
is the 19th century Daubeny Laboratory. The Garden had been established between 1622 and 1633 as a
physic garden A physic garden is a type of herb garden with medicinal plants. Botanical garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the ...
(that is, a garden to study the medicinal value of plants) on land inherited by Magdalen from St. John's Hospital. The Daubeny Laboratory, and neighbouring Professor's House, were founded by the
polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a substantial number of subjects, known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific pro ...

polymath
and Magdalen fellow
Charles Daubeny Charles Giles Bridle Daubeny (11 February 179512 December 1867) was an English chemist, botanist and geologist A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes the Earth and other terrestrial pl ...

Charles Daubeny
after he was appointed to the Sherardian Chair of Botany in 1834. Daubeny set about a number of additions to the location, erecting new glasshouses and in 1836 creating an on-site residence for the Professor of Botany. This replaced an earlier residence that had been demolished in 1795 when the road was widened. The new residence was an extension of the library, which had been created out of a glasshouse by an earlier Sherardian professor,
John Sibthorp John Sibthorp FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resour ...
, to house the Sherard
herbarium A herbarium (plural: herbaria) is a collection of preserved plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical ener ...
. After Daubeny's death, this was assimilated to house the growing collection. Later, it became accommodation for graduate students, the Professor's House, while the Sherard Herbarium is now part of the Fielding-Druce Herbarium held in the . Daubeny, who was also the Aldrichian Professor of Chemistry, had found the chemistry laboratory in the basement of the old
Ashmolean Museum The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology () on Beaumont Street, Oxford, England, is the world's second university museum (after the establishment of the Kunstmuseum Basel by the University of Basel in 1661) and Britain's first public museum. I ...
, what is now the History of Science Museum, to be "notoriously unworthy of a great University" and desired a better science facility. He petitioned the college to be allowed to build one, and the Daubeny laboratory was completed in 1848. The Daubeny Laboratory was preceded by the anatomy school and laboratory at
Christ Church Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, ''Yeshua, Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jews, Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figu ...

Christ Church
which opened in 1767, and would be followed later in the century by other college laboratories including the
Balliol-Trinity Laboratories The Balliol-Trinity Laboratories in Oxford, England, was an early chemistry laboratory at the University of Oxford. The laboratory was located between Balliol College, Oxford, Balliol College and Trinity College, Oxford, Trinity College, hence the ...
. Daubeny's laboratory was a two-storey room with benches and cupboards encircled by a gallery, and became the principal chemistry lab for the university. In 1902, due to growing student numbers and poor ventilation, the laboratory trappings were removed and it was refitted as a lecture hall. In 1973, most of the Daubeny Laboratory building was reconfigured into graduate student accommodation. The Daubeny lab itself is now a conference space.


St Swithun's quad

In 1880–1884, the college extended westwards onto the former site of
Magdalen Hall Hertford College ( ) is a colleges of the University of Oxford, constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. It is located on Catte Street in the centre of Oxford, directly opposite the main gate to the Bodleian Library. The college ...
. The hall was an independent
academic hall Academic Hall was the original main building of the University of Missouri. It was dedicated in 1843 and destroyed by fire in 1892. Academic Hall's six Ionic order, Ionic columns, today known as The Columns (Columbia, Missouri), The Columns, stan ...
that developed from Magdalen College School, not the earlier Magdalen Hall founded by William Waynflete. Most of Magdalen Hall's buildings were destroyed by fire in 1820, though the Grammar Hall survived and was restored by Joseph Parkinson. The hall moved to Catte Street in 1822 and was incorporated as
Hertford College ''As the hart panteth after the water brooks'' , university = Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the ...

Hertford College
in 1874. The new construction,
St Swithun Swithun (or Swithin; ang, Swīþhūn; la, Swithunus; died 863 AD) was an Anglo-Saxon bishop of Winchester and subsequently patron saint of Winchester Cathedral. His historical importance as bishop is overshadowed by his reputation for posth ...
's quad (sometimes given as St. Swithin's quad), was designed by
George Frederick Bodley George Frederick Bodley (14 March 182721 October 1907) was an English Gothic Revival Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. The mo ...
and
Thomas Garner Thomas Garner (1839–1906) was one of the leading English Gothic revival architects Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi) were ...
in keeping with the Gothic style. They had originally designed three sides of a square, though only the south and west sides were built. In 1928,
Giles Gilbert Scott Sir Giles Gilbert Scott (9 November 1880 – 8 February 1960) was a British architect known for his work on the New Bodleian Library, Cambridge University Library, Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford, Battersea Power Station, Liverpool Cathedral, and d ...
extended the building north and westwards, forming the adjacent Longwall quad.


Modern buildings and acquisitions

Several new additions to the college were made in the late 20th century. The Waynflete Building, which is located across Magdalen Bridge from the main college site, was designed by
Booth, Ledeboer, and Pinckheard Judith Geertruid Ledeboer OBE (8 September 1901 – 24 December 1990) was a Dutch-born English architect. She was most active in London and Oxford, where she designed a variety of schools, university buildings and public housing projects. Earl ...
and completed in 1964. Magdalen has a number of additional annexes near to the main site for accommodation, including in Cowley Place and
Longwall Street FIle:Longwall Street - geograph.org.uk - 721653.jpg, View north along Longwall Street Longwall Street is a street in central Oxford, England. It runs for about 300 metres along the western flank of Magdalen College, Oxford, Magdalen College. A hi ...
. The Grove Buildings, located north of Longwall quad between Longwall Street and the Grove, were built in 1994–1999 by
Porphyrios Associates Demetri Porphyrios ( el, Δημήτρης Πορφύριος; born 1949) is a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a ...
. They are home to accommodation, Magdalen's 160-seat auditorium, and the Denning Law Library. During term time, the auditorium hosts film screenings organised by the Magdalen Film Society. Along Addison's Walk is the Holywell Ford site, where most of the graduate accommodation is located. Holywell Ford house was built by
Clapton Crabb Rolfe Clapton Crabb Rolfe (5 March 1845 – 18 December 1907) was an English Gothic Revival architecture, Gothic Revival architect whose practice was based in Oxford. Family Rolfe was the second of nine children. His father was Rev. George Crabb Rolfe ...
in 1888 on the location of an older mill, and was acquired by Magdalen in the 1970s. Additional blocks of accommodation were built in 1994-5 by RH Partnership Ltd.


Libraries

In addition to the university's central and departmental libraries, Oxford's colleges maintain their own libraries. The original college library, the Old Library, is located in the Cloister and accessed via Founder's Tower or the President's Lodgings. It contains a large collection of manuscripts from before the 19th century. Consultation of material is typically by appointment, although the Old Library itself may be visited by the public during certain exhibitions. In 1931, the New Library, now called the Longwall Library, was established in the former Magdalen College School building in Longwall Quad and became the college's main library for students. It was opened by
Edward VIII Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, and Emperor of India from 20 January 1936 until Abdication of Edward VIII, h ...
when he was a student at Magdalen. It was renovated between 2014 and 2016 by Wright & Wright Architects and reopened by
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982) is a member of the British royal family The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or ...

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
. In addition, the college maintains the Denning Law Library in the Grove building, a reference library for Magdalen's law students, and the specialist Daubeny and McFarlane collections of 19th century scientific works and medieval history works respectively. Items from the Daubeny and McFarlane libraries may be brought to the Longwall Library for consultation on request.


Grounds


The Grove

The Grove or deer park is a large meadow which occupies most of the north west of the college's grounds, from the New Building and the Grove Buildings to Holywell Ford. During the winter and spring, it is the home of a herd of
fallow deer ''Dama'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscrib ...

fallow deer
. It is possible to view the meadow and the deer from the path between New Buildings and Grove Quad, and also from the archway in New Buildings. In the 16th Century, as recorded in a map from 1578, the Grove consisted of formal enclosed gardens, tree-lined avenues, an orchard, and a fish pond. By 1630, a bowling green had replaced the orchard. During the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
, between 1642 and 1645, the Grove became home to the workshops, forges, and foundries of Royal Ordinance. Following this, the landscaping began to transition from formal gardens to more natural parkland, and the water walks were landscaped. Deer began being cultivated in the college by at least the 1720s, and by the early 19th century the formal gardens had completely disappeared and college Fellow Dr Bloxham noted that the entire Grove had been given over to the deer. At one point in the 19th century it was home to three traction engines belonging to the works department of the college. By the 20th century it had become well-wooded with many large trees, but most of them were lost to
Dutch elm disease Dutch elm disease (DED) is caused by a member of the sac fungi Ascomycota is a phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, forms the subkingdom Dikarya. Its members are commonly known as the sac fungi or ascomycetes. It ...

Dutch elm disease
in the 1970s.


Water meadow and Addison's Walk

The water meadow is a
flood-meadow A flood-meadow (or floodmeadow) is an area of grassland Grasslands are areas where the vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of species and the they provide. It is a general term, without specific reference to particular , life for ...
to the eastern side of the college, bounded on all sides by the Cherwell. In wet winters, some or all of the meadow may flood, as the meadow is lower lying than the surrounding path. All around the edge of the meadow is a tree-lined path,
Addison's Walk Addison's Walk (originally called Water Walk) is a picturesque Trail, footpath around a small island in the River Cherwell in the grounds of Magdalen College, Oxford, England. There are good views of Magdalen Tower, Oxford, Magdalen Tower and ...
, named for the fellow
Joseph Addison Joseph Addison (1 May 1672 – 17 June 1719) was an English essayist, poet, playwright and politician. He was the eldest son of The Reverend Lancelot Addison. His name is usually remembered alongside that of his long-standing friend Richard S ...

Joseph Addison
(1672–1719), which connects to Holywell Ford and the Fellows' Garden. Addison's Walk is popular with College members and visitors. C. S. Lewis wrote a poem about the walk, ''Chanson d'Aventure'' or ''What the Bird Said Early in the Year'', which is commemorated on a plaque near the gate to Holywell Ford. Thanks to the frequent flooding, the meadow is one of the few places in the that the snake's head fritillary, ''
Fritillaria meleagris ''Fritillaria meleagris'' is a Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geograph ...

Fritillaria meleagris
'', may be seen growing wild. These flowers grow in very few places, and have been recorded growing in the meadow since around 1785. Once the flowering has finished, the deer herd is moved in for the summer and autumn.


Bat Willow meadow and the Fellows' Garden

Further east of the water meadow are Bat Willow meadow and the Fellows' Garden. They are separated from the water meadow and each other by other branches of the Cherwell, and may be accessed from Addison's Walk. Bat Willow meadow features ''Y'', a 10 metre high sculpture of a branching tree by
Mark Wallinger Mark Wallinger (born May 25, 1959) is a British artist. He is part of the generation of Young British Artists who emerged during the 1990s. Having previously been nominated for the Turner Prize in 1995, he won in 2007 for his installation ''Sta ...
, commissioned for the college's 550th anniversary in 2008. Due to their age and infection with
honey fungus ''Armillaria'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), cir ...
, the
willow Willows, also called sallows and osiers, from the genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining ( ...

willow
trees were cut down in 2018 and replanted, and the wood used to make cricket bats. The Fellows' Garden is located further north along the bank of the Cherwell than Bat Willow meadow, directly behind the
Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies The Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies (OCIS) was founded in 1985. It is a centre for the advanced study of Islam and Muslim societies located in Oxford, England, and a registered educational charity. Its Patron is The Prince of Wales. In 2012 it w ...
. This long and narrow garden follows the Cherwell to the edge of the
University Parks The Oxford University Parks, commonly referred to locally as the University Parks, or just The Parks, is a large parkland area slightly northeast of the city centre in Oxford, England. The park is bounded to the east by the River Cherwell, though ...
. Further north is Magdalen's sports ground.


Choir

Magdalen is one of the three choral foundations in Oxford, meaning that the formation of the choir was part of the statutes of the college, the other choral foundations being and
Christ Church Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, ''Yeshua, Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jews, Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figu ...

Christ Church
. It performs during chapel services, college gaudies and at other special events throughout the year. As part of Oxford's annual
May Morning May Morning is an annual event in Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London London is the capital city, capit ...

May Morning
in a tradition that dates back 500 years, at 6 a.m. on 1 May, the choir perform
Hymnus Eucharisticus The Hymnus Eucharisticus is a traditional hymn A hymn is a type of song A song is a musical composition Musical composition can refer to an piece or work of , either or , the of a musical piece or to the process of creating o ...
from the top of Magdalen's Tower to crowds below on Madgalen Bridge and the High Street. The choir consists of twelve academical clerks, or choral scholars, and two organ scholars, who are all students at the college, and sixteen choristers, all of whom have scholarships at Magdalen College School, and is led by a director of music known as an Informator Choristarum, currently Mark Williams. Mark Williams succeeded Daniel Hyde in 2017, following Hyde's appointment as Organist and Director of Music of Saint Thomas Church, New York. Among the other former directors of the choir are John Sheppard (1543–c.1552), John Varley Roberts, Sir William McKie,
Haldane Campbell Stewart Haldane Campbell Stewart (28 February 1868 – 14 June 1942) was an English musician, composer and cricketer. He was organist and choirmaster of Magdalen College, Oxford,West, John E. (1921)''Cathedral organists past and present'' Preface, p. x ...
and the composer Bill Ives (1991–2009). Past academical clerks include
John Mark Ainsley John Mark Ainsley (born 9 July 1963) is an English lyric tenor A tenor is a type of classical male singing Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice. A person who sings is called a singer or vocalist (in jaz ...
,
Harry Christophers Richard Henry Tudor "Harry" Christophers Commander of the Order of the British Empire, CBE FRSCM (born 26 December 1953) is an English conductor. Education and early career Richard Henry Tudor Christophers was born in Goudhurst, Kent. He was a ...
(founder and director of
The Sixteen The Sixteen are a United Kingdom-based choir and period instrument orchestra; founded by Harry Christophers, they started as an unnamed group of sixteen friends in 1977, giving their first billed concert in 1979. The group performs early Engl ...
),
James Whitbourn James Whitbourn (born 1963) is a British composer and conductor. Biography James Whitbourn was born in Kent and educated at Skinners' School The Skinners' School (formally The Skinners' Company's Middle School for Boys and commonly known ...
,
Peter Harvey Peter Michael St Clair Harvey (16 September 19442 March 2013) was an Australian journalist and broadcaster. Harvey was a long-serving correspondent and contributor with the Nine Network The Nine Network (stylized 9Network, commonly known as ...

Peter Harvey
,
Robin Blaze Robin Blaze (born 1971 in Manchester) is an English countertenor. Spouse: Lisa Beckley Children: Daniel Blaze, Jessica Blaze. Early life The son of Peter Blaze, a professional golfer, and Christine, Blaze and his brother Mark grew up in Sha ...
,
Paul Agnew Paul Agnew (born 1964 in Glasgow) is a Scottish operatic tenor and Conducting, conductor. Biography Agnew read music as a Choral scholar, Choral Scholar at Magdalen College, Oxford. He became associated with various groups specializing in ea ...
,
Roderick Williams Roderick Gregory Coleman Williams OBE The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry An order of chivalry, order of knighthood, chivalric order, or equestrian order is an order of knights typically founded ...
and conductor/composer Gregory Rose. The choir has had many well-known organists, such as
Daniel Purcell Daniel Purcell (c. 1664 – buried 26 November 1717) was an England, English Baroque music, Baroque composer, the younger brother or cousin of Henry Purcell. Biography Like Henry Purcell before him, Daniel Purcell joined the choir of the Chapel Ro ...
, Sir
John Stainer Sir John Stainer (6 June 1840 – 31 March 1901) was an English composer and organist whose music, though seldom performed today (with the possible exception of ''The Crucifixion (Stainer), The Crucifixion'', still heard at Passiontide in s ...
(1860–1872) and Bernard Rose (1957–1981). Past organ scholars include
Dudley Moore Dudley Stuart John Moore CBE The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry An order of chivalry, order of knighthood, chivalric order, or equestrian order is an order of knights typically founded during ...

Dudley Moore
and Paul Brough. As well as performing during chapel services, the choir tours and records music. In 2005, the choir was nominated for a
Grammy Award The Grammy Award (stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or just Grammy, is an award presented by the Recording Academy, the US Recording Academy to recognize "Outstanding Achievement in the music industry" of the United State ...
for its , ''With a Merrie Noyse'', of music by
Orlando Gibbons Orlando Gibbons (baptism, bapt. 25 December 1583 – 5 June 1625) was an English composer and keyboard player who was one of the last masters of the English Virginalist School and English Madrigal School. The best known member of a musica ...

Orlando Gibbons
. Other recent works include the BBC's ''
The Blue Planet ''The Blue Planet'' is a British nature documentary A nature documentary or wildlife documentary is a genre of documentary film A documentary film or documentary is a non-fictional film, motion-picture intended to "document reality, pri ...
'' and Paul McCartney's classical piece ''
Ecce Cor Meum ''Ecce Cor Meum'' (Latin for ''Behold My Heart'') is the fourth classical album by Paul McCartney. The album was released on 25 September 2006 by EMI Classics. An oratorio in four movements, it is produced by John Fraser, written in Latin languag ...
''.


Student life


Accommodation

Undergraduate students of the college are guaranteed accommodation during term for their entire degree, typically in the Waynflete building in their first year and "inside-walls" in the Cloister, St Swithun's Quad, the New Building and so on in subsequent years. Graduate students are guaranteed at least two years of accommodation. Unlike undergraduates, graduates are not required to move out between terms and typically live "outside walls", including in Holywell Ford, the Daubeny Laboratory, and Professor's House. Accommodation charges are inclusive of heating, power, and internet access, and weekly cleaning by the college Bedder, scouts (housekeepers), but do not include catering. Three cafeteria style meals a day are served in the hall, and other food is available in the Old Kitchen Bar. In addition to a dinner cafeteria service served in the hall, three Formal (university), Formal Halls are held a week during term time. These are three course sit-down dinners and require college members to wear their academic gown, gowns. Additional banquets commemorate special occasions, including the Restoration Dinner.


Events and societies

The body of undergraduate and graduate students are known as the junior and middle common rooms (JCR and MCR) respectively. They each elect committees of students annually to organise welfare events, socials, and banquets. In addition to clubs and societies associated with the Oxford University Student Union operated at the university level, Magdalen members may also participate in several college societies. The Atkin Society and the Sherrington Society are two subject-specific societies, for law students and medicine students respectively. They organise talks and social events. The Atkin society is named for lawyer James Atkin, Baron Atkin, a former demy at Magdalen, and also organises an annual moot court. The Sherrington Society is named after Nobel laureate Sir Charles Scott Sherrington, former Waynflete Professor of Physiology. The college also has a poetry discussion forum called the Florio Society, named for 16th century college alumnus John Florio. A number of other societies put on events throughout the year. These include the Magdalen Players, a drama society; the Magdalen Music Society; and the Magdalen Film Society, which screens films during term time in the Grove Auditorium. The Magdalen College Music Society is a chapter of the Oxford University Music Society and incorporates a non-auditioned mixed choir, a chamber orchestra, and a saxophone ensemble. The society performs recitals in college on Thursdays during term time. The Magdalen College Trust is an independent charity that is funded by annual subscriptions from students and fellows. It encourages college members to engage in charity work, and funds charitable causes.


Academia

In the
Norrington Table The Norrington Table is an annual ranking of the college A college (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from ...

Norrington Table
's history Magdalen has been top three times, in 2010, 2012 and 2015. When over half its finalists achieved firsts in 2010, it claimed the record for the highest ever Norrington Score. Magdalen College students have a successful record in the ''University Challenge'' television competition, winning on four occasions (1997, 1998, 2004, and 2011). This is the joint highest number of series wins, tied with Manchester University, and at the time of Magdalen's third win no other institution had won more than twice.


Sports

Magdalen members have access to a variety of sports facilities. The sports grounds, accessible from the main college via Addison's Walk, include pitches for cricket, soccer, hockey, and rugby; also available on site are tennis courts and squash courts. In addition, the college buys gym membership at the Iffley Road sports complex on behalf of all its students. The college keeps a boathouse on The Isis (the length of the Thames as it passes through Oxford) for the Magdalen College Boat Club (MCBC). The Magdalen College Boat Club (MCBC), a rowing (sport), rowing club, was founded in 1859. It participates in the two annual Oxford bumps races, Eights Week and Torpids. In recent history, the MCBC men's rowers won Eights Week between 2004 and 2007, and the Torpids most recently in 2008 (for the men's rowers) and 2016 (women's). As well as the MCBC, Magdalen College is represented by teams in football, hockey, rugby, netball, cricket, lacrosse, squash and pool, amongst others.


College stamp

A college stamp was issued in the 1960s and the 1970s to prepay local delivery of mail by the college porters. It was short-lived and only a few stamps exist. One on cover is known and is detailed in the ''Great Britain Philatelic Society Journal''.


Notable members


Politics

Magdalen College has taught members of several royal families. These include Edward VIII, King Edward VIII, who attended while Prince of Wales from 1912 to 1914, after which he left without graduating; Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, the king of Bhutan, who read for an MPhil in politics in 2000; and Al-Muhtadee Billah, Crown Prince Haji Al-Muhtadee Billah, first in line to the throne of Brunei, who enrolled in the Foreign Service Programme (now known as the Diplomatic Studies Programme) in 1995 under an assumed name. Among the political figures taught at Magdalen was Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, who studied theology. He graduated at 15, uncommonly early even for the time, but remained in Oxford for further study and eventually became a Fellow of Magdalen. Wolsey rose from humble origins to become Lord Chancellor and the Archbishop of York, obtaining great political power and becoming adviser to Henry VIII of England, King Henry VIII. Wolsey left a lasting legacy in Oxford by founding Cardinal College, which Henry VIII would complete and refound as
Christ Church Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, ''Yeshua, Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jews, Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figu ...

Christ Church
after Wolsey's fall from power.'Christ Church', in A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 3, the University of Oxford, ed. H E Salter and Mary D Lobel (London, 1954), pp. 228–238. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/oxon/vol3/pp228-238 [accessed 16 February 2020]. More recent Magdalen alumni to become politicians include Malcolm Fraser, former Prime Minister of Australia, and John Turner, former Prime Minister of Canada. Many Parliament of the United Kingdom, members of the UK Parliament have been alumni of Magdalen. In the current House of Commons sit alumni Jeremy Hunt (politician), Jeremy Hunt MP and John Redwood MP. In the House of Lords sit alumni William Hague, William Hague, Baron Hague of Richmond, former Leader of the Conservative Party (UK), Leader of the Conservative Party; David Lipsey, Baron Lipsey; Dido Harding, Dido Harding, Baroness Harding of Winscombe; John Hutton, Baron Hutton of Furness; Michael Jay, Baron Jay of Ewelme; Matt Ridley, Matt Ridley, 5th Viscount Ridley; and Stewart Wood, Baron Wood of Anfield, former Tutorial Fellow. The political success of Magdalen alumni was notable in 2010, when 5 out of the 22 ministers in the cabinet had attended Magdalen.


Arts


Literature

Joseph Addison Joseph Addison (1 May 1672 – 17 June 1719) was an English essayist, poet, playwright and politician. He was the eldest son of The Reverend Lancelot Addison. His name is usually remembered alongside that of his long-standing friend Richard S ...

Joseph Addison
, for whom Addison's walk is named, was a Fellow of Magdalen during the 17th century. He is known for his play ''Cato, a Tragedy'' based on the life of Cato the Younger at the end of the Roman Republic. Popular with the American Founding Fathers, the play may have served as a literary inspiration for the American Revolution. The 19th-century poet, playwright, and Aestheticism, aesthete Oscar Wilde read Greats at Magdalen from 1874 to 1878. During this time, he won the university's Newdigate Prize and graduated with a British undergraduate degree classification#Variations of first-class honours, double first. After his time at Magdalen, he became famous for his works including the novel ''The Picture of Dorian Gray'' and the play ''The Importance of Being Earnest''. Wilde began an affair in 1891 with Lord Alfred Douglas, Alfred Douglas, who was then himself a student at Magdalen. The disapproval of Douglas's father over Wilde's relationship with his son led to Wilde's prosecution and conviction in 1895 for Labouchere Amendment, "gross indecency", that is to say, homosexual behaviour, and a sentence to two years' hard labour. Wilde described "the two great turning-points in my life were when my father sent me to Oxford, and when society sent me to prison". After his release from prison, Wilde moved to France and spent the last three years of his life in poverty. He was posthumously pardoned in 2017 under Alan Turing law, Turing's Law. The prolific author Sir Compton Mackenzie OBE, who wrote over one hundred novels, plays, and biographies, read modern history at Magdalen. He is known for his fiction, including ''Sinister Street''—which features List of fictional Oxford colleges, St. Mary's College, Oxford as a stand-in for Magdalen—and ''The Monarch of the Glen (novel), Monarch of the Glen''. Compton Mackenzie co-founded the Scottish National Party and was knighted in 1952. C. S. Lewis, writer and alumnus of University College, Oxford, University College, was a Fellow and English tutor at Magdalen for 29 years, from 1925 to 1954. Lewis was one of the Inklings, an informal writing society that also included J. R. R. Tolkien and would meet in Lewis's rooms at Magdalen. Under Lewis's tutelage was the future Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom, Poet Laureate Sir John Betjeman. Though Betjeman failed the maths portion of the entrance exams, he was offered a place to read English on the strength of his poetry, which had impressed the President of Magdalen and former Oxford Professor of Poetry, Professor of Poetry Sir Thomas Herbert Warren. Lewis and Betjeman had a difficult relationship and Betjeman struggled academically. Betjeman left having failed to obtain a degree in 1928, but was made a doctor of letters by the university in 1974. Seamus Heaney, who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1995, was a Fellow of Magdalen from 1989 to 1994.


Theatre

The director Peter Brook CBE is both an alumnus and honorary Fellow of Magdalen. He was described in 2008 as "our greatest living theatre director". Fellow director Katie Mitchell OBE read English at Magdalen, and is known for her collaborations with Martin Crimp. In 2017, she received the President's Medal (British Academy), President's Medal of the British Academy for her work in contemporary theatre and opera, and she has been described as British theatre's "king in exile".


Music

In 1957, the organ (music), organist and composer Bernard Rose OBE was appointed Magdalen's Informator Choristarum, choir master. Among his students were
Harry Christophers Richard Henry Tudor "Harry" Christophers Commander of the Order of the British Empire, CBE FRSCM (born 26 December 1953) is an English conductor. Education and early career Richard Henry Tudor Christophers was born in Goudhurst, Kent. He was a ...
CBE, a composer and an artistic director for the Handel and Haydn Society who was an Choral scholar, academical clerk and later honorary Fellow at Magdalen; and
Dudley Moore Dudley Stuart John Moore CBE The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry An order of chivalry, order of knighthood, chivalric order, or equestrian order is an order of knights typically founded during ...

Dudley Moore
CBE, comedic actor and jazz musician, who studied at Magdalen on an organ scholarship. Andrew Lloyd Webber, Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber, composer of musicals including ''Evita (musical), Evita'' and ''The Phantom of the Opera'', studied history at Magdalen for a term in 1965, before dropping out to pursue music at the Royal Academy of Music. Andrew Lloyd Webber has received a number of awards for his work, including a lifetime achievement Tony Award.


Humanities

Hormuzd Rassam, the native Assyriologist, studied at Magdalen for 18 months between accompanying archaeologist Sir Austen Henry Layard on his first and second expeditions. When Layard retired from archaeology, the British Museum appointed Rassam to continue on his own. Rassam made several important discoveries: in 1853 at Nineveh, Rassam discovered the clay tablets that contained the ''Epic of Gilgamesh''; in 1879 he discovered the Cyrus Cylinder in the ruins of Babylon; and in 1880–1881 he uncovered the city of Sippar. He was the first Middle Eastern archaeologist, but his contributions were dismissed by some of his contemporaries and by the end of his life, his name had been removed from plaques and visitor guides at the British Museum. Layard would describe him as "one whose services have never been acknowledged". The economist Michael Spence, A. Michael Spence attended Magdalen on a Rhodes Scholarship, and graduated with a BA in mathematics in 1968. In 2001, he shared the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his work on "analyses of markets with Information asymmetry, asymmetric information". He is an honorary fellow at Magdalen. Novelist and Spanish anti-fascist Ralph Winston Fox studied modern languages at Magdalen College, where he graduated from in 1922 with a first class honours. Clive was most well known for being the biographer of both Genghis Khan and Vladimir Lenin, and for being killed while fighting against Hitler backed fascists during the Spanish Civil War. Philosopher A. C. Grayling CBE read for his DPhil at Magdalen, completing his studies in 1981. In 2011, he founded the New College of the Humanities at Northeastern, New College of the Humanities. An analytic philosophy, analytic philosopher, Grayling is known for his criticism of religion, including in his 2013 book ''The God Argument'', and his arguments for voting reform, as in his 2017 book ''Democracy and Its Crises''. Niall Ferguson, a well-known historian, also studied at Magdalen.


Sciences

Magdalen counts among its alumni several recipients of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Sir Howard Florey was an Australian pharmacologist who studied at Magdalen on a Rhodes Scholarship, graduating in 1924. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 for the development of penicillin. Sir Peter Medawar CBE read for a BA in zoology at Magdalen, receiving a first, and later for a DPhil, supervised by Florey. His research into tissue grafting and immune rejection led to the discover of acquired immune tolerance and became the basis of organ transplantation. For this work, he shared the 1960 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Like Florey before him, Australian neurophysiologist Sir John Eccles (neurophysiologist), John Eccles also came to Magdalen on a Rhodes Scholarship, where he read for his DPhil. He was taught by an earlier neurophysiologist who received the Nobel in 1932, Sir Charles Scott Sherrington, who held the
Waynflete Professorship The Waynflete Professorships are four professorial fellowships at the University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, mak ...
in Physiology at Magdalen. In 1963 Eccles received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his research into synapses. Eccles was also known for his contributions to philosophy, writing on the mind-body problem and becoming an honorary member of the American Philosophical Society. Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe held the Nuffield Professor of Clinical Medicine, Nuffield Professorship of Clinical Medicine between 2003 and 2006, and is still a supernumerary fellow at Magdalen. He shared the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the oxygen sensing of cells. Other former Nuffield Professors of Clinical Medicine include Sir David Weatherall, who founded the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine in 1989, and Sir John Bell (physician), John Bell GBE, who is also an alumnus of the college. The current holder of the chair is Richard Cornall, who was appointed in 2019. Two Fellows of Magdalen have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics: Erwin Schrödinger in 1933, while he was a Fellow; and Anthony James Leggett KBE in 2003, who had been a Fellow from 1963 to 1967. Due to Magdalen's close relationship with Oxford's Botanic Garden and as the home of the Sherardian Chair of Botany, Magdalen has been associated with many accomplished botanists. Historic Sherardian Professors include
John Sibthorp John Sibthorp FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resour ...
, in whose name the Sibthorpian Professor of Plant Sciences, Sibthorpian Professorship of Rural Economy, later known as the Sibthorpian Professorship of Plant Sciences, was founded; and
Charles Daubeny Charles Giles Bridle Daubeny (11 February 179512 December 1867) was an English chemist, botanist and geologist A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes the Earth and other terrestrial pl ...

Charles Daubeny
, who also held the Aldrichian Chairs, Aldrichian Chair of Chemistry and founded the Daubeny laboratory. The Sherardian Chair has been held since 2009 by Liam Dolan, who studies the emergence of land plants. Likewise, many distinguished scientists have held Waynflete Professorships at Magdalen. These include the mathematician J. H. C. Whitehead, who held the Waynflete Professorship of Pure Mathematics between 1947 and 1960. During this time, he was also the president of the London Mathematical Society, which established the Whitehead Prize, Whitehead and Senior Whitehead Prize, Senior Whitehead prizes in his honour. He is remembered for his fundamental contributions to topology. The chair was held from 1984 until he retired in 2006 by Daniel Quillen, who received the Fields Medal for his work in algebraic K-theory. It is currently held by Ben Green (mathematician), Ben Green.


Gallery

File:Magdalen College - statues in the cloister.jpg, Two of the Cloister's hieroglyphics, the lion and the pelican, in front of the Senior Common Room. File:Magdalen College cloister.jpg, Panorama across the Cloister. On the left is the Founder's Tower. File:Magdalen College, view from the cloister.jpg, View of Founder's Tower from the Cloister. File:Magdalen College, Oxford-15320233952.jpg, View of Founder's Tower from St. John's Quad. File:Magdalen College, Oxford.jpg, The Cloister File:Oxford - panoramio (38).jpg, View of the Great Tower from the Daubeny Laboratory, across High Street, Oxford, the High. File:Magdalen Cloisters and New Buildings.jpg, Position of the New Building and lawns behind the Cloister File:Oxford magdalen college lodgings.jpg, View of the Cloister and Great Tower from the New Building File:Magdalen_College,_view_of_cloisters_from_Addison's_Walk,_Oct_2016.jpg, The Great Tower and cloister, viewed from Addison's Walk File:Oxford magdalen college cour.jpg, St. John's Quad, showing (left to right) the gate to St. Swithun's quad, the Grammar Hall, and the President's Lodgings. File:UK-2014-Oxford-Magdalen College 02.jpg, Gateway to St. Swithun's Quad (St. Swithun's Tower). File:Magdalen College Oxford Old Grammar Hall.jpg, The old Grammar Hall File:UK-2014-Oxford-Magdalen College 01.jpg, The President's Lodgings and Pride of India tree. File:Magdalen College Muniment Tower.JPG, Muniment Tower. File:Magdalen College - view on the tower and the chapel.jpg, St. John's Quad, showing (left to right) the President's Lodgings, Founder's Tower, Muniment Tower, the chapel, and the Great Tower behind. File:Ancient Door, Magdalen College, Oxford by Henry Fox Talbot.jpg, ''Ancient Door, Magdalen College, Oxford'' by Henry Fox Talbot, circa 1843, showing the western door to the chapel beneath the window depicting the Last Judgment. File:Oxford magdalen college chapelle int.JPG, Interior of the chapel. File:Arthur Foxton Ferguson - Academic Clerkship Magdalen College Oxford ca. 1898 (fourth from left in back row).jpg, The choir of Magdalen College ca. 1898 File:Oxford MagdalenCollege Gate&Ranges.jpg, Gate between the High and St. John's Quad. The Porter's Lodge is on the right. File:Longwall Street, Oxford, looking south.jpg, Boundary wall along Longwall Street. File:Magdalen college oxford waynflete building.jpg, The Waynflete Building, on the east side of Magdalen Bridge. File:Y sculpture.jpg, ''Y'' by Mark Wallinger in Bat Willow Meadow File:Y, Mark Wallinger (2008).jpg, ''Y'' by Mark Wallinger.


References


External links


Official site

Virtual Tour of Magdalen College

Website of Magdalen College Choir





Website of Magdalen Middle Common Room
{{Authority control Magdalen College, Oxford, 1458 establishments in England Educational institutions established in the 15th century Colleges of the University of Oxford Grade I listed buildings in Oxford Grade I listed educational buildings Organisations based in Oxford with royal patronage Buildings and structures of the University of Oxford Mary Magdalene