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The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St. George, also known as Madras Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of
British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcontinent. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one ...

British India
. At its greatest extent, the presidency included most of
southern India South India is a region consisting of the southern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

southern India
, including the whole of the Indian state of
Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspape ...

Tamil Nadu
, and parts of
Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh (English: Telugu: ) is a States and union territories of India, state in the south-eastern Coastal India, coastal region of India. It is the List of states and union territories of India by area, seventh-largest state by area c ...

Andhra Pradesh
,
Kerala Kerala ( ; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Kerala
,
Karnataka Karnataka (; ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in f ...

Karnataka
,
Telangana Telangana (, , ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspape ...

Telangana
,
Odisha Odisha (English: , ), formerly Orissa (), is an States and union territories of India, Indian state located in East India, Eastern India. It is the List of states and union territories of India by area, 8th largest state by area, and the Li ...

Odisha
and the union territory of
Lakshadweep Lakshadweep (), also known as Laccadives (), is a union territory #REDIRECT Union territory#REDIRECT Union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative d ...

Lakshadweep
. The city of
Madras Chennai (, ), also known as Madras (List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996), is the capital city of the states and territories of India, Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The state's largest city in area ...
was the winter capital of the Presidency and
Ootacamund Ooty (), officially known as Udagamandalam (also known as Ootacamund ; abbreviated as Udhagai), is a town and a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and pow ...

Ootacamund
or Ooty, the summer capital. The coastal regions and northern part of Island of Ceylon at that time was a part of Madras Presidency from 1793 to 1798 when it was created a
Crown colony A Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original coun ...
. Madras Presidency was neighboured by the
Kingdom of Mysore The Kingdom of Mysore was a realm in southern India South India is a region consisting of the southern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of count ...
on the northwest,
Kingdom of Cochin Kingdom of Cochin (also known as ''Perumpadappu Swaroopam'', ''Mada-rajyam'', or ''Kuru Swaroopam''; ''Kochi'' or ''Perumpaṭappu''), named after its capital city of Kochi , settlement_type = Metropolis in the background ...

Kingdom of Cochin
on the southwest, and the
Kingdom of Hyderabad Hyderabad State (), also known as Hyderabad Deccan, was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad. It is now divided into the state of Telangana, the Hyderabad-Karnataka r ...
on the north. Some parts of the presidency were also flanked by
Bombay Presidency The Bombay Presidency, also known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still e ...
(
Konkan Konkan is the rugged section of the mid-western coast of India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the ...

Konkan
) and
Central Provinces and Berar The Central Provinces and Berar was a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit o ...
(
Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh (, ; meaning ''Central Province'') is a state in central India. Its capital city, capital is Bhopal, and the largest city is Indore, with Jabalpur, Ujjain, Gwalior, Satna being the other major cities. Madhya Pradesh is the List o ...

Madhya Pradesh
). In 1639, the English
East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known as John Company, Com ...
purchased the village of Madraspatnam and one year later it established the Agency of
Fort St George A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, w ...
, precursor of the Madras Presidency, although there had been Company factories at
Machilipatnam Machilipatnam (), also known as Bandar, is a city in Krishna district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a municipal corporation and the administrative headquarters of Krishna district. It is also the Tehsil, mandal headquarters of Mach ...
and
Armagon Armagaon or Armagon'' was the second colony of the English East India Company in Southern India South India is a region located in the southern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country ...
since the very early 1600s. The agency was upgraded to a Presidency in 1652 before once more reverting to its previous status in 1655. In 1684, it was re-elevated to a Presidency and
Elihu Yale Elihu Yale (5 April 1649 – 8 July 1721) was a British Americans, British-American colonial administrator and philanthropist. He served as President of the East India Company settlement in Fort St. George, at Chennai, Madras. He is best remembe ...

Elihu Yale
was appointed as president. In 1785, under the provisions of
Pitt's India Act The East India Company Act (EIC Act 1784), also known as Pitt's India Act, was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain intended to address the shortcomings of the Regulating Act of 1773 by bringing the East India Company's rule in India und ...
, Madras became one of three provinces established by the East India Company. Thereafter, the head of the area was styled "Governor" rather than "President" and became subordinate to the Governor-General in
Calcutta Kolkata ( or , ; also known as Calcutta , the official name until 2001) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upperca ...

Calcutta
, a title that would persist until 1947. Judicial, legislative and executive powers rested with the Governor who was assisted by a Council whose constitution was modified by reforms enacted in 1861, 1909, 1919 and 1935. Regular elections were conducted in Madras up to the outbreak of the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
in 1939. By 1908, the province comprised twenty-two districts, each under a
District Collector A District Magistrate and Collector, is an officer who is in-charge of a district, the basic unit of administration, in India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of co ...
, and it was further sub-divided into ''taluks'' and ''firqas'' with villages making up the smallest unit of administration. Following the
Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms or more briefly known as Mont-Ford Reforms were reforms introduced by the colonial government in British India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually in India. The reforms take their name from Edwin M ...
of 1919, Madras was the first province of
British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcontinent. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one ...

British India
to implement a system of
dyarchy A diarchy (from Greek , ''di-'', "double", and , ''-arkhía'', "ruled"). or duumvirate (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originall ...
, and thereafter its Governor ruled alongside a prime minister. In the early decades of the 20th century, many significant contributors to the
Indian independence movement The Indian independence movement was a series of historic events with the ultimate aim of ending British rule in India The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', ...
came from Madras. With the advent of
Indian independence
Indian independence
on 15 August 1947, the Presidency became the Madras Province. Madras was later admitted as
Madras State Madras State was a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...
, a state of the Indian Union at the inauguration of the Republic of India on 26 January 1950.


Origins


Before the arrival of the English

The discovery of
dolmen A dolmen () is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb A megalith is a large pre-historic stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. There are over 35,000 in Europe alone, l ...

dolmen
s from this portion of the subcontinent shows inhabitation as early as the
Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology ...

Stone Age
. The first prominent rulers of the northern part of the future Presidency were the
Tamil Tamil may refer to: * Tamils, an ethnic group native to India, Sri Lanka and some other parts of Asia **Sri Lankan Tamils, Tamil people native to Sri Lanka **Tamil Malaysians, Tamil people native to Malaysia * Tamil language, a Dravidian languages, ...

Tamil
Pandya dynasty The Pandya dynasty, also known as the Pandyas of Madurai, was a dynasty of south India South India is a region located in the southern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in Sou ...
(230 BCAD 102). Following the decline of the Pandyas and the Cholas, the country was conquered by a little known race of people called the
Kalabhras The Kalabhra dynasty, also called ''Kaḷabrar'', ''Kaḷappirar'', ''Kallupura'' or ''Kalvar'', were rulers of all or parts of Tamil region sometime between the 3rd century and 6th century CE, after the ancient dynasties of the early Cholas ...
. Iyengar 1929, p. 535 The country recovered under the subsequent
Pallava dynasty The Pallava dynasty was an Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India South India is a region located in the southern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hin ...
and its civilisation attained a peak when the later Telugu kings started acquiring vast places in Tamil Nadu. Following the conquest of Madurai by
Malik Kafur Malik Kafur (died 1316), also known as Taj al-Din Izz al-Dawla, was a prominent slave-general of the Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether th ...
in 1311, there was a brief lull when both culture and civilisation began to deteriorate. The Tamil and Telugu territories recovered under the
Vijayanagar Empire The Vijayanagara Empire (also called Karnata Empire, and the Kingdom of Bisnegar by the Portuguese) was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India South India is a region located in the southern part of India India (Hindi: ...

Vijayanagar Empire
, founded in 1336. Following the empire's demise, the country was split amongst numerous sultans,
polygars Polygar (also spelled Palegara, Palaiyakkarar, Poligar, Palegaadu, Palegar or Polegar) was the feudal title for a class of territorial administrative and military governors appointed by the Nayaka rulers of South India India (Hindi: ), off ...
and European trading companies. Between 1685 and 1947, a number of kings ruled the areas that became part of the Madras Presidency. Thurston 1913, pp. 138–142. The southwestern portions of the Presidency, which together constitute
Tulu Nadu Tulu Nadu, also called "Bermere sristi" or "Parashurama Srishti", is a region on the southwestern coast of India. The Tulu people, known as 'Tuluva' (plural 'Tuluver'), speakers of Tulu language, Tulu, a Dravidian language, are the preponderan ...
and
Kerala Kerala ( ; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Kerala
, has a distinct history, language, and culture from its eastern counterparts.


Early English trading posts

On 31 December 1600,
Queen Elizabeth I of England Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to i ...

Queen Elizabeth I of England
(1533–1603) granted a group of English merchants a charter to establish a
joint-stock company A joint-stock company is a business entity In law, a legal person is any person or 'thing' (less ambiguously, any legal entity) that can do the things a human person is usually able to do in law – such as enter into contracts, lawsuit, sue ...
which became known as the
East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known as John Company, Com ...
. Hunter, 1908, p. 6 Wheeler 1996, p. 5 Wheeler 1996, p. 6 Wheeler 1996, p. 7 Subsequently, during the reign of
King James I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of gover ...

King James I
(1567–1625), Sir William Hawkins and
Sir Thomas Roe Sir Thomas Roe ( 1581 – 6 November 1644) was an English diplomat of the Elizabethan era, Elizabethan and James I of England, Jacobean periods. Roe's voyages ranged from Central America to India; as ambassador, he represented England in th ...
were sent to negotiate with the
Mughal Emperor The Mughal (or Moghul) emperors built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. The Mughals began to rule parts of India from 1526, and b ...

Mughal Emperor
Jahangir Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim (Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iran ...

Jahangir
(1569–1627) to permit the establishment of trading factories in India on behalf of the company. The first of these were built at
Surat Surat is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. ...

Surat
on the west coast Wheeler 1996, p. 19 and at
Masulipatam Machilipatnam (), also known as Masulipatnam, Masulipatam, Masula, and Bandar, is a city in Krishna district Krishna district is one of the nine districts in the Coastal Andhra region of the States and union territories of India, Indian stat ...
on the country's eastern seaboard. Wheeler 1996, p. 26 Masulipatam is thus the oldest English trading post on India's east coast, dating back to 1611. In 1625, another factory was established at Armagon, a few miles to the south, whereupon both the factories came under the supervision of an
agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanisms which govern the behavior Behavior (Am ...
based at Machilipatam. The English authorities decided to relocate these factories further south, due to a shortage of cotton cloth, the main trade item of the east coast at the time. The problem was compounded when the Sultan of
Golconda Golconda Fort, also known as Golkonda (Telugu language, Telugu: "shepherds' hill"), is a fortified citadel and an early capital city of the Qutb Shahi dynasty (c. 1512–1687), located in Hyderabad district, India, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. ...

Golconda
started harassing the local officers. The East India Company's administrator
Francis Day Francis Day (2 March 1829 – 10 July 1889) was an army surgeon and naturalist in the Madras Presidency The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St. George, and also known as Madras Province, was an Presidencies and provinces of Bri ...
(1605–73) was sent south, and after negotiations with the Raja of Chandragiri he obtained a land grant to set up a factory in the village of Madraspatnam, where the new Fort St George was built. An agency was created to govern the new settlement, and the factor
Andrew Cogan Andrew Cogan also known as Andrew Coggan (born circa 1600, Greenwich Greenwich ( , , , or ) is a town in South London, south-east London, England, centred east-southeast of Charing Cross and located in the Historic county of England, histori ...
of Masulipatnam was appointed as its first Agent. All the agencies along India's east coast were subordinated to the East India Company presidency of Bantam in
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 147.7 million people, Java is the world's List of ...

Java
. By 1641, Fort St George became the company's headquarters on the Coromandel Coast.


Agency of Fort St George

Andrew Cogan was succeeded by Francis Day (1643–1644),
Thomas Ivie Thomas Ivie was an English colonial empire, English colonial administrator, the third agent of Madras after Andrew Cogan and Francis Day of Madras, Francis Day. He served in his post from 1644 to 1648. During Ivie's period, the Kingdom of England ...
(1644–1648) and (1648–52 and 1655–58). At the end of Greenhill's term in 1652, Fort St George was elevated to a Presidency, independent of Bantam and under the leadership of the first president,
Aaron Baker File:AaronBaker Died1683 DunchideockChurch Devon.PNG, 200px, Mural monument to Aaron Baker in Dunchideock Church, Devon Aaron Eli Baker (1610–1683) of Bowhay in the parish of Exminster, near Exeter, Devon, was an English colonial empire, English ...
(1652–1655). However, in 1655 the status of the fort was downgraded to an Agency and made subject to the factory at Surat, Newell 1919, p. 18 until 1684. In 1658, control of all the factories in Bengal was given to Madras, when the English occupied the nearby village of
Triplicane Triplicane, known in the vernacular as Thiruvallikeni, is one of the oldest neighbourhoods of Chennai, India. It is situated on the Bay of Bengal coast and about from Fort St George. The average elevation of the neighbourhood is 14 metres ab ...
. Wheeler 1996, p. 281 Wheeler 1996, p. 282


History


Expansion

In 1684, Fort St George was again elevated in rank to become the Madras Presidency, with
William Gyfford William Gyfford was an English colonial empire, English factor and Agent of Madras from 3 July 1681 to 8 August 1684 and the President of Madras from 26 January 1685 to 25 July 1687. William Gyfford was associated with the East India Company, Ho ...
as its first president. India Office List 1905, p. 121 The city came to be divided into two parts: the European inhabited White Town and the Black Town where the 'natives' lived. The White Town was confined inside the walls of Fort St. George and the Black Town outside of it. The Black Town later came to be known as George Town. During this period, the Presidency was significantly expanded and reached an extent which continued into the early 19th century. During the early years of the Madras Presidency, the English were repeatedly attacked by the Mughals, the
Maratha The Marathi people, also rendered as Marathis or Maharashtrian, are an ethnolinguistic group An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is a group that is unified by both a common ethnicity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grou ...

Maratha
s and the
Nawab Nawab ( ar, نواب; bn, নবাব/নওয়াব; hi, नवाब; Punjabi language, Punjabi : ਨਵਾਬ; Persian language, Persian, Punjabi language, Punjabi , Sindhi language, Sindhi, Urdu: نواب), also spelt Nawaab, Nava ...

Nawab
s of
Golkonda Golconda Fort, also known as Golkonda (Telugu language, Telugu: "shepherds' hill"), is a fortified citadel and an early capital city of the Qutb Shahi dynasty (c. 1512–1687), located in Hyderabad district, India, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. ...

Golkonda
and the
Carnatic region The Carnatic region is the peninsular South India South India is a region consisting of the southern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countr ...
. Hunter 1908, p. 251 In September 1774, by Pitt's India Act, passed by the
Parliament of Great Britain The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in May 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of UnionAct of Union may refer to: In Great Britain and Ireland * Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, passed during the reign of King Henry VIII to m ...
to unify and regulate the administration of the territories of the East India Company, the President of Madras was made subordinate to the
Governor-General of India The Governor-General of India (1773–1950, from 1858 to 1947 the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was the representative of the Monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kin ...
based in Calcutta. Kulke 2004, p. 245 In September 1746, Fort St George was captured by the French, who ruled Madras as a part of
French India French India, formally the ( en, French Settlements in India), was a French colony comprising five geographically separated enclaves on the Indian Subcontinent that had initially been factories of the French East India Company. Beginning in ...
until 1749, when Madras was handed back to the British under the terms of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle of the previous year. Hunter 1908, p. 252


During the Company Rule

From 1774 until 1858, Madras was a part of British India and was ruled by the British East India Company. The last quarter of the 18th century was a period of rapid expansion. Successful wars against
Tipu Sultan Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 01 December 1751 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tiger of Mysore, was the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore The Kingdom of Mysore was a realm in southern India South India is a re ...

Tipu Sultan
(1782–99), Maruthu Pandyar, Velu Thampi,
Polygars Polygar (also spelled Palegara, Palaiyakkarar, Poligar, Palegaadu, Palegar or Polegar) was the feudal title for a class of territorial administrative and military governors appointed by the Nayaka rulers of South India India (Hindi: ), off ...
and the coastal regions of the island
Ceylon Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island ...

Ceylon
added vast areas of land and contributed to the exponential growth of the Presidency. Newly conquered regions in Ceylon formed part of the Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798. Codrington 1926, Chapter X:Transition to British administration The system of subsidiary alliances originated by
Lord Wellesley Richard Colley Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley of Norragh, (20 June 1760 – 26 September 1842) was an Anglo-Irish politician and colonial administrator Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other peo ...

Lord Wellesley
as
Governor-General of India The Governor-General of India (1773–1950, from 1858 to 1947 the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was the representative of the Monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kin ...
(1798–1805) also brought many
princely states A princely state, also called a native state, feudatory state or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state A vassal state is any state that has a mutual obligation to a superior state or empire, in a status simi ...
into the area militarily subordinate to the Governor of Fort St George. Hunter 1908, p. 254 The largest kingdom of the hill-tract region of Visakhapatanam was Jeypore and in 1777 it was conquered by Captain Matthews. The hill tracts of
Ganjam Ganjam is a town and a notified area council in Ganjam district Ganjam district is a district in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the Li ...

Ganjam
and
Visakhapatnam Visakhapatnam , List of renamed places in India, formerly known as Vizagapatam (also known as Vizag, Viśākha or Wāltair) is the largest and most populous city in the States and union territories of India, Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, an ...

Visakhapatnam
were the last places to be annexed by the British. Hunter 1908, p. 255 The period also witnessed a number of rebellions starting with the 1806 Vellore Mutiny. Read 1997, pp. 34–37 The rebellion of Velu Thambi and
Paliath Achan Paliath Achan or Paliyath Achan is the name given to the oldest male member of the Paliam family, a Nair chieftain family from the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the Lis ...
and the Poligar Wars were other notable insurrections against the British rule, but the Madras Presidency remained relatively undisturbed by the
Sepoy Mutiny The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against Company rule in India, the rule of the East India Company, British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on beha ...
of 1857. Dodd 1859, p. 288 The Madras Presidency annexed the kingdom of
Mysore Mysore (), officially Mysuru (; Kannada: ಮೈಸೂರು), is a city in the southern part of the state of Karnataka, India. Mysore city is geographically located between 12° 18′ 26″ north latitude and 76° 38′ 59″ east longitude. I ...

Mysore
in 1831 on allegations of maladministration Kamath 1980, p. 250 and restored it to (1881–94), the grandson and heir of the deposed
Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar III (Sriman Rajadhiraja Raja Parameshvara Praudha-pratapa Apratima-vira Narapati Birud-antembara-ganda Maharaja Sir Krishnaraja Wadiyar III Bahadur; kn, ಮುಮ್ಮಡಿ ಕೃಷ್ಣರಾಜ ಒಡೆಯರ ...
(1799–1868) in 1881.
Thanjavur Thanjavur (), formerly Tanjore,PletcherPletcher is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: * David M. Pletcher (1920–2004), American historian * Todd Pletcher (born 1967), American thoroughbred trainer {{Short pages monitor
Thanjavur
was annexed in 1855, following the death of
Shivaji II Shivaji II of Maratha Empire, later Shivaji I of Kolhapur State, Kolhapur (9 June 1696 – 14 March 1726) was the son of the Maratha Chhatrapati, Rajaram I, and his wife Tarabai. Biography He was born in Bhonsle family. Upon the death of ...
(1832–1855) who left no male heir. Kamath 1980, pp. 250–253


The Victorian era

In 1858, under the terms of Queen's Proclamation issued by Queen Victoria, the Madras Presidency, along with the rest of British India, came under the direct rule of the British crown. Hibbert 2000, p. 221 During the period of governor
Lord Harris Colonel Colonel (; abbreviated as Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank used in many countries. It is also used in some police forces and paramilitary organizations. Historically, in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, a colone ...
(1854–1859), measures were taken to improve education and increase representation of Indians in the administration. Legislative powers were given to the Governor's council under the
Indian Councils Act 1861 The Indian Councils Act 1861 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Cr ...
. Sadasivan 1974, p. 22 The council was reformed and expanded under the
Indian Councils Act 1892 The Indian Councils Act 1892 was an Act of British Parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies ...
, Sadasivan 1974, p. 40 the
Indian Councils Act 1909 The Indian Councils Act 1909 (9 Edw. 7 Ch. 4), commonly known as the Morley-Minto or Minto-Morley Reforms, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the Unit ...
, Sadasivan 1974, p. 54 Sadasivan 1974, p. 55 the
Government of India Act 1919 The Government of India Act 1919 (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 101) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body ...
, and the
Government of India Act 1935 The Government of India Act, 1935 was an Act of Parliament, Act adapted from the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It originally received royal assent in August 1935. It was the longest Act of (British) Parliament ever enacted until Greater Lond ...
. V. Sadagopacharlu (1861–63) was the first Indian to be appointed to the council. Muthiah 2004, p. 418 The legal profession was specially prized by the newly emerging corpus of educated Indians. In 1877, T. Muthuswamy Iyer became the first Indian judge of the
Madras High Court The Madras High Court is the second oldest High Court of India after the Calcutta High Court in Kolkata. It is located in Chennai Chennai (, ; also known as Madras, List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name ...

Madras High Court
despite strong opposition from the
Anglo-Indian The term Anglo-Indian can refer to at least two groups of people: those with multiracial people, mixed Indian people, Indian and British people, British ancestry and people of British descent born or residing in India. The latter sense is now ...
media. S.A. 1969, p. 14 Tercentenary Madras Staff 1939, p. 223 He also acted as the
Chief Justice The chief justice is the presiding member of a supreme court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes betwee ...

Chief Justice
of the Madras High Court for a few months in 1893, thereby becoming the first Indian to hold the post. Pramanand 1985 In 1906, C. Sankaran Nair became the first Indian to be appointed Advocate-General of the Madras Presidency. A number of roads, railways, dams and canals were constructed during this period. Two large famines occurred in Madras during this period, the
Great Famine of 1876–78 Great may refer to: Descriptions or measurements * Great, a relative measurement in physical space, see Size Size in general is the or s of a thing. More specifically, ''geometrical size'' (or ''spatial size'') can refer to linear dimen ...
and the
Indian famine of 1896–97 File:ChicagoTribuneIndiaFamine1897withDateHeader.jpg, 250px, Map from ''Chicago Sunday Tribune'', January 31, 1897, showing the areas in India affected by the famine. The Indian famine of 1896–1897 was a famine that began in Bundelkhand, Briti ...
. Dutt 1999, p. 10 As a result, the population of the Presidency fell for the first time from 31.2 million in 1871 to 30.8 million in 1881. These famines and alleged partiality shown by the government in handling the Chingleput Ryots' Case and the Salem riots trial caused discontent among the population.


Indian Independence Movement

A strong sense of national awakening emerged in the Madras Presidency in the later half of the 19th century. The first political organisation in the province, the Madras Native Association, was established by Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty on 26 February 1852. Sadasivan 1974, p. 18 However, the organisation did not last long. Sadasivan 1974, p. 28 The Madras Native Association was followed by the Madras Mahajana Sabha which was started on 16 May 1884. Of the 72 delegates who participated in the first session of the
Indian National Congress The Indian National Congress (often called the Congress Party or simply Congress, INC) is a political party in India with widespread roots. Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire ...
at Bombay in December 1885, 22 hailed from the Madras Presidency. Mazumdar 1917, p. 58 Mazumdar 1917, p. 59 Most of the delegates were members of the Madras Mahajana Sabha. The third session of the Indian National Congress was held in Madras in December 1887 Besant 1915, p. 35 and was a huge success attended by 362 delegates from the province. Besant 1915, p. 36 Subsequent sessions of the Indian National Congress took place in Madras in 1894, 1898, 1903 1908, 1914 and 1927. and moved the headquarters of the
Theosophical Society The Theosophical Society, founded in 1875, is a worldwide body with the aim to advance the ideas of Theosophy in continuation of previous Theosophists, especially the Greek and Alexandrian Neo-Platonic philosophers dating back to 3rd century AD. ...

Theosophical Society
to Adyar in 1882. The society's most prominent figure was
Annie Besant Annie Besant (''née'' Wood; 1 October 1847 – 20 September 1933) was a British socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, ...

Annie Besant
, who founded the
Home Rule League The Home Rule League (1873–1882), sometimes called the Home Rule Party, was an Irish political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a pol ...
in 1916. The Home Rule Movement was organised from Madras and found extensive support in the Province. Nationalistic newspapers such as ''
The Hindu ''The Hindu'' is an English-language, India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and ...

The Hindu
'', the '' Swadesamitran'' and the ''
Mathrubhumi ''Mathrubhumi'' is a Malayalam Malayalam (; , ) is a Dravidian languages, Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry (union territory), Puducherry (Mahé district) by th ...
'' actively endorsed the campaign for independence. India's first trade union was established in Madras in 1918 by V. Kalyanasundaram and B. P. Wadia. Slater 1918, p. 168


Dyarchy (1920–37)

A
dyarchy A diarchy (from Greek , ''di-'', "double", and , ''-arkhía'', "ruled"). or duumvirate (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originall ...
was created in Madras Presidency in 1920 as per the
Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms or more briefly known as Mont-Ford Reforms were reforms introduced by the colonial government in British India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually in India. The reforms take their name from Edwin M ...
with provisions made for elections in the presidency. Ralhan 2002, p. 179 Democratically elected governments would henceforth share power with the Governor's autocratic establishment. Following the first elections held in November 1920, the
Justice PartyJustice Party is the name of several different political parties around the world: *Justicialist Party, Argentina *Henry George Justice Party, Australia *Derryn Hinch's Justice Party, Australia *Justice Party (Azerbaijan) *Justice Party (Burma) *Jus ...
, an organisation established in 1916 to campaign for increased representation of non-Brahmins in the administration, came to power. Ralhan 2002, p. 180 A. Subbarayalu Reddiar became the first Chief Minister of the Madras Presidency but resigned soon after due to declining health and was replaced by P. Ramarayaningar, Minister of Local Self-Government and Public Health, popularly known as the Raja of Panagal. Ralhan 2002, p. 182 The party split in late 1923 when C. R. Reddy resigned from primary membership and formed a splinter group allied with the opposition Swarajists. A motion of no-confidence was proposed against Ramarayaningar's government on 27 November 1923, but was defeated 65–44. Ramarayaningar remained in power until November 1926. The enactment in August 1921 of the first communal Government Order (G.O. No. 613), which introduced caste-based communal reservations in government jobs, remains one of the high points of his rule. In the following elections of 1926 the Justice Party lost. However, as no party was able to obtain a clear majority, the Governor, Lord Goschen, set up a cross-party government under the leadership of P. Subbarayan and nominated its supporting members. Ralhan 2002, p. 190 In the election of 1930, the Justice Party was victorious, and P. Munuswamy Naidu became Chief Minister. Ralhan 2002, p. 196 The exclusion of ''
Zamindars A Zamindar (also known as zomindar, zomidar, or jomidar) in the Indian subcontinent was an autonomous or semiautonomous ruler of a state who accepted the suzerainty Suzerainty () is a relationship in which one state or other polity controls ...
'' from the Ministry split the Justice Party once again. Fearing a no-confidence motion against him, Munuswamy Naidu resigned in November 1932 and the Raja of Bobbili was appointed Chief Minister in his place. Ralhan 2002, p. 197 The Justice Party eventually lost the 1937 elections to the Indian National Congress, and
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (10 December 1878 – 25 December 1972), informally called Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian statesman, writer, lawyer, and independence activist. Rajagopalachari was the last Governor-General of India The Gove ...
became Chief Minister of Madras Presidency. Ralhan 2002, p. 199 During the 1920s and 1930s, an Anti-Brahmin movement emerged in the Madras Presidency. It was launched by E. V. Ramaswamy who, unhappy with the principles and policies of the Brahmin leadership of the provincial Congress, left the party to form the Self-Respect Movement. Periyar, as he was alternatively known, criticised
Brahmins Brahmin (; sa, ब्राह्मण, brāhmaṇa) are a varna Varna may refer to: Places Europe * Varna, Bulgaria, a large city in Bulgaria. ** Varna Province **Varna Municipality **Gulf of Varna **Lake Varna *Vahrn, or Varna, a munic ...

Brahmins
,
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
, and Hindu superstitions in periodicals and newspapers such as ''Viduthalai'' and ''Justice''. He also participated in the
Vaikom Satyagraha Vaikom Satyagraha (1924–25) was a '' satyagraha'' (social protest) in erstwhile Travancore (now part of Kerala, India) against untouchability and caste discrimination in Hindu society of Kerala. The movement was centered around the Sri Maha ...
, which campaigned for the right of untouchables in
Travancore The Kingdom of Travancore (Help:IPA/English, /ˈtrævənkɔːr/), also known as the Kingdom of Thiruvithamkoor, was an Indian kingdom from c. 1729 until 1949. It was ruled by the Travancore Royal Family from Padmanabhapuram, and later Thiruva ...
to enter temples. W.B. 2005, pp. 3–8


Last days of British rule

In 1937, the Indian National Congress was elected to power in the Presidency of Madras for the first time.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (10 December 1878 – 25 December 1972), informally called Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian statesman, writer, lawyer, and independence activist. Rajagopalachari was the last Governor-General of India The Gove ...
was the first Chief Minister of the Presidency to come from the Congress party. He successfully enacted the Temple Entry Authorization and Indemnity Act Thurston 1909, p. 116 and introduced both prohibition Bhakshi 1991, p. 149 and sales taxes in the Madras Presidency. His rule is largely remembered for the use of Hindi being made compulsory in educational institutions, a measure which made him highly unpopular as a politician and sparked widespread Anti-Hindi agitations, which led to violence in some places. Over 1,200 men, women, and children were jailed for their participation in such Anti-Hindi agitations Ramaswamy 1997, Chapter 4 while Thalamuthu and Natarasan died during the protests. In 1940, Congressional ministers resigned in protest over the Government of India's declaration of war on Germany without their consent. The Governor of Madras, Sir Arthur Hope, took over the administration and the unpopular law was eventually repealed by him on 21 February 1940. Most Congressional leadership and erstwhile ministers were arrested in 1942, as a result of their participation in the Quit India movement. In 1944, Periyar renamed the Justice Party as
Dravidar Kazhagam Dravidar Kazhagam is a social movement founded by Periyar E. V. Ramasamy, also called Thanthai Periyar. Its original goals were to eradicate the ills of the existing caste system including untouchability and on a grander scale to obtain a "D ...
and withdrew it from electoral politics. After the end of the Second World War, the Indian National Congress re-entered politics, and in the absence of any serious opposition it easily won the 1946 election.
Tanguturi Prakasam* Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu (23 August 1872 – 20 May 1957) was an Indian politician and freedom fighter, chief minister of the Madras Presidency The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St. George, and also known as Madras P ...

Tanguturi Prakasam
was then elected as Chief Minister with the support of Kamaraj and served for eleven months. He was succeeded by O. P. Ramaswamy Reddiyar, who became the first Chief Minister of
Madras state Madras State was a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...
when India gained independence on 15 August 1947. Walch 1976, pp. 157–160 The Madras Presidency became the
Madras State Madras State was a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...
in independent India.


Geography

At its greatest extent, the Madras Presidency included much of
southern India South India is a region consisting of the southern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

southern India
. Present-day territories that were once part of the presidency are the whole Indian
State State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
of
Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh (English: Telugu: ) is a States and union territories of India, state in the south-eastern Coastal India, coastal region of India. It is the List of states and union territories of India by area, seventh-largest state by area c ...

Andhra Pradesh
excluding the region of Banaganapalle Princely State, the
Tondai Nadu Tondaimandalam, also known as Tondai Nadu, is a historical region located in the southern part of Andhra Pradesh and northernmost part of Tamil Nadu. The region comprises the districts which formed a part of the legendary kingdom of Athondai Cha ...
,
Kongu Nadu Kongu Nadu, also known by various names as Kongu Mandalam and Kongu belt, is a geographical region comprising present day parts of western Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Lite ...
,
Chola Nadu Chola Nadu was a region of Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu () is a States and union territories of India, state in southern India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is borde ...
and part of
Pandya Nadu Pandya Nadu or Pandi Nadu is a geographical region comprising the southern part of the present day state of Tamil Nadu. The region is bounded on its West by the Venad Venad (Malayalam Malayalam (; , ) is a Dravidian languages, Dravidian ...
regions of
Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspape ...

Tamil Nadu
, the Malabar region of North Kerala, the
Lakshadweep Islands Lakshadweep (), also known as Laccadives (), is a union territory#REDIRECT Union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative division Administrative ...
, the
Ganjam Ganjam is a town and a notified area council in Ganjam district Ganjam district is a district in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the Li ...
, Gajapati,
Rayagada Rayagada is a municipality in Rayagada district in the Indian States and territories of India, state of Odisha. It is the administrative headquarters of Rayagada district. History The city of Rayagada was founded by King Vishwanath Dev Gajapat ...
,
Koraput Koraput is a town and a Municipality in Koraput district in the Indian States and territories of India, state of Odisha. Koraput town is the district headquarter of Koraput district. History The district of Koraput derives its name from its he ...
,
Nabarangapur Nabarangpur is a town and a municipality in Nabarangapur district in the Indian States and territories of India, state of Odisha. It is the headquarters of Nabarangpur district. Geography and Climate Nabarangpur is situated at 19.23 Degree nor ...
and
Malkangiri Malkangiri historically known as 'Malikamardhangiri' is a town and a Municipality in Malkangiri district in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries an ...
districts of southern
Odisha Odisha (English: , ), formerly Orissa (), is an States and union territories of India, Indian state located in East India, Eastern India. It is the List of states and union territories of India by area, 8th largest state by area, and the Li ...

Odisha
and the
Bellary Bellary, officially Ballari, in the eponymous Ballari district, Bellary district, is a major city in the state of Karnataka, India. It is from the state capital of Bangalore and from Hyderabad. Bellary has an urban population of 410,445 and ...

Bellary
,
Dakshina Kannada Dakshina Kannada (formerly South Canara South Canara was a district of the Madras Presidency of British India, located at . It covered the areas of the present-day Dakshina Kannada and Udupi District, Udupi districts of Karnataka, and the Kasa ...
, and
Udupi Udupi, otherwise spelt ''Udipi'' and also known as Odipu, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science E ...

Udupi
districts of
Karnataka Karnataka (; ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in f ...

Karnataka
and the parts of Jayashankar Bhupalapalli, Bhadradri Kothagudem districts of
Telangana Telangana (, , ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspape ...

Telangana
. The presidency had its winter capital at
Madras Chennai (, ), also known as Madras (List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996), is the capital city of the states and territories of India, Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The state's largest city in area ...
and summer capital at
Ootacamund Ooty (), officially known as Udagamandalam (also known as Ootacamund ; abbreviated as Udhagai), is a town and a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and pow ...

Ootacamund
.


Demographics

In 1822, the Madras Presidency underwent its first census, which returned a population of 13,476,923. A second census conducted between 1836 and 1837 recorded a population of 13,967,395, an increase of only 490,472 over 15 years. The first quinquennial population enumeration took place from 1851 until 1852. It returned a population of 22,031,697. Subsequent enumerations were made in 1851–52, 1856–57, 1861–62, and 1866–67. The population of Madras Presidency was tallied at 22,857,855, 24,656,509 in 1861–62 and 26,539,052 in 1866–67. MaClean 1877, p. 327 The first organised census of India was conducted in 1871 and returned a population of 31,220,973 for the Madras Presidency.
Hunter Hunting is the practice of seeking, pursuing and capturing or killing wildlife File:Manis temminckii (29645803646).jpg, A ground pangolin, alt=A ground pangolin Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species (biology), s ...
, Volume 16, p. 256
Since then, a census has been conducted once every ten years. The last census of British India held in 1941 counted a population of 49,341,810 for the Madras Presidency. Steinberg 1950, p. 137


Languages

The
Tamil Tamil may refer to: * Tamils, an ethnic group native to India, Sri Lanka and some other parts of Asia **Sri Lankan Tamils, Tamil people native to Sri Lanka **Tamil Malaysians, Tamil people native to Malaysia * Tamil language, a Dravidian languages, ...

Tamil
,
Telugu Telugu may refer to: * Telugu language, a major Dravidian language of India *Telugu people, an ethno-linguistic group of India * Telugu script, used to write the Telugu language ** Telugu (Unicode block), a block of Telugu characters in Unicode ...
,
Malayalam Malayalam (; , ) is a Dravidian language Dravidian languages (or sometimes Dravidic languages) are a family of languages In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recogni ...

Malayalam
,
Kannada Kannada (; ಕನ್ನಡ, ; less commonly known as Kanarese) is a Dravidian language Dravidian languages (or sometimes Dravidic languages) are a family of languages In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of peop ...

Kannada
,
Odia Odia, also spelled Oriya or Odiya, may refer to: * Odia people in Odisha, India * Odia language, an Indian language, belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family * Odia alphabet, a writing system used for the Odia language ...
, Tulu and English languages were all spoken in the Madras Presidency. Tamil was spoken in the southern districts of the Presidency from a few miles north of Madras city as far west as the Nilgiri hills and Western Ghats. Thurston 1913, p. 120 Telugu was spoken in the districts to the north of Madras city and to the east of Bellary and Anantapur districts. In the district of South Kanara, the western part of Bellary and Anantapur districts and parts of Malabar, Kannada was spoken. Thurston 1913, p. 121 Malayalam was spoken in the districts of Malabar and South Kanara and the princely states of Travancore and Cochin, while Tulu was spoken in South Canara. Oriya was spoken in the parts of the districts of then Ganjam and Vizagapatam. English was spoken by Anglo-Indians and Eurasians. It was also the link language for the Presidency and the official language of British India in which all government proceedings and court hearings were conducted. According to the 1871 census, there were 14,715,000 people who spoke Tamil, 11,610,000 people who spoke Telugu, 2,324,000 people who spoke Malayalam, 1,699,000 spoke Canarese or Kannada, 640,000 people spoke Oriya and 29,400 people spoke Tulu. MaClean 1877, p. 6 The 1901 census returned 15,182,957 speakers of Tamil, 14,276,509 Telugu-speakers, 2,861,297 speakers of Malayalam, 1,518,579 were speakers of Kannada, 1,809,314 spoke Oriya, 880,145 spoke Hindusthani/Urdu and 1,680,635 spoke other languages. Hunter 1908, p. 260 At the time of Indian independence, Tamil and Telugu speakers made up over 78% of the total population of the presidency, with Kannada, Malayalam and Tulu speakers making up the rest. Steinberg 1950, p. 174


Religion

In 1901, the population breakdown was:
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...

Hindu
s (37,026,471), Muslims (2,732,931), and Christians (1,934,480). By the time of India's independence in 1947, Madras had an estimated population of 49,799,822 Hindus, 3,896,452 Muslims and 2,047,478 Christians Steinberg 1950, p. 141 Hinduism was the predominant religion in the presidency and practised by around 88% of the population. The main Hindu denominations were
Saivite Shaivism (; Sanskrit language, Sanskrit: शैवसम्प्रदायः, Śhaivasampradāyaḥ ; Tamil language, Tamil: சைவம்) is one of the major Hindu denominations, Hindu traditions that worships Shiva, also called Rudra, ...
,
Vaishnavite Vaishnavism (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languag ...
and
Lingayat Lingayatism is a Shaivite Shaivism (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan bran ...
. MaClean 1877, p. 337 Among the Brahmins, the
Smartha ''Smarta'' Tradition (Sanskrit language, Sanskrit: स्मार्त) is a major Hindu denominations, Hindu Denomination. It reflects a Hindu synthesis of four philosophical strands: Mimamsa, Advaita Vedanta, Advaita, Yoga (philosophy), Yo ...
doctrine was quite popular. T. 1765, p. 110 Worship of village gods was strong in the southern districts of the presidency while the
matha An Sringeri_Sharada_Peetham">Sringeri_''Sharada_Peetham'',_Sringeri,_Karnataka..html" ;"title="Sringeri.html" ;"title="Sringeri Sharada Peetham">Sringeri ''Sharada Peetham'', Sringeri">Sringeri Sharada Peetham">Sringeri ''Sharada Peetham'', Srin ...
s at
Kanchi Kanchipuram ('; ) is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu (; ) is a States and union territories of India, state in South India, southern India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Lying in the southern-most part of ...

Kanchi
,
Sringeri Sringeri (IAST: Śṛngēri) also called Sri Kshetra Shringeri is a hill town and Taluk A tehsil also known as tahsil, taluka, or taluk) is a local unit of administrative division in some countries of the South Asia that is usually translated ...

Sringeri
and
Ahobilam Ahobilam is a town and holy site in the Allagadda mandal of Kurnool district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh (English: Telugu: ) is a States and union territories of India, state in the south-eastern Coastal India, c ...
were regarded as the centres of the Hindu faith. Of the Hindu temples, the largest and most important were the Venkateswara temple at Thirupathi, the
Brihadeeswarar temple Brihadishvara temple, also called Rajarajeswaram or Peruvudaiyār Kōvil, is a Hindu temple A Mandir or Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of divinity for Hindus Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as cultura ...

Brihadeeswarar temple
at
Tanjore Thanjavur (), formerly Tanjore,PletcherPletcher is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: * David M. Pletcher (1920–2004), American historian * Todd Pletcher (born 1967), American thoroughbred trainer {{Short pages monitor
Tanjore
, the
Meenakshi Amman temple Arulmigu Meenakshi Sundareshwarar Temple is a historic Hindu temple located on the southern bank of the Vaigai River in the temple city of Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India. It is dedicated to Thirukamakottam udaya aaludaiynachiyar(Meenakshi), a form of ...

Meenakshi Amman temple
at
Madurai Madurai ( , also ) is a major city in the Indian state India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populo ...

Madurai
, the Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangam, the Krishna temple at Udupi and the
Padmanabhaswamy temple The Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple is a Hindu temple A Mandir or Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of divinity for Hindus Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adherin ...

Padmanabhaswamy temple
in the princely state of Travancore. Islam was brought to the southern part of India by Arab traders although most converts were made from the 14th century onwards, when
Malik Kafur Malik Kafur (died 1316), also known as Taj al-Din Izz al-Dawla, was a prominent slave-general of the Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether th ...
conquered
Madurai Madurai ( , also ) is a major city in the Indian state India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populo ...

Madurai
.
Nagore Nagore is a town in the Nagapattinam District, Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu () is a States and union territories of India, state in southern India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian sub ...
was the holiest city for the Muslims of the Madras Presidency. The presidency also had one of the oldest Christian populations in India. Branches of the Syrian church, contrary to historical evidence, are popularly believed to have been instituted by
St. ThomasSaint Thomas or St Thomas may refer to: People * Thomas the Apostle (died AD 72), Jewish-Christian Apostle and Saint of the 1st century * Thomas the Hermit, Coptic Desert Father and Saint of the 4th century * Thomas of Maurienne or Thomas of Farf ...
, an apostle of
Jesus Christ Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it i ...

Jesus Christ
who visited the Malabar coast in 52 AD Thurston 1913, p. 137 Christians were mainly concentrated in the Tinnevely and districts of Madras Presidency with native Christians forming over one–quarter of the total population of the princely state of Travancore. Pirie 1883, p. 110 Hill tribes of the Nilgiris, Palani and Ganjam regions such as the ,
Badagas The Badagas are an ethno-linguistic community living in the Nilgiri district in Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu () is a States and union territories of India, state in southern India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the so ...

Badagas
, Kotas, Yerukalas and the
Khonds Khonds (also spelt Kondha, Kandha etc.) are a tribal community in India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most popul ...

Khonds
, worshipped tribal gods and were often classified as Hindus. Until the early years of the 20th century, the
Pallar The Pallar, who prefer to be called Mallar, are an agricultural community from the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The Pallars traditionally inhabited the fertile wetland area referred to as ''Marutham'' in the literary devices of the Sangam landsc ...
,
Paraiyar Paraiyar, or Parayar or Maraiyar (formerly anglicised as Pariah and Paree), is a caste Caste is a form of social stratification Social stratification refers to a society's categorization of its people into groups based on Socioeconomic ...
,
Sakkiliar Arunthathiyar is a community from Tamil Nadu currently classified under Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, Scheduled Caste category. The community mainly speaks Tamil language, Tamil-Chakkiliyar, Telugu language, Telugu-Madari and Kannada-M ...
,
Pulayar The Pulayar, , (also Pulaya, Pulayas, Cherumar, Cheramar and Cheraman) is a Dalit Dalit (from sa, दलित, dalita meaning "broken/scattered", hi, दलित, dalit, same meaning) is a name for people belonging to the lowest stratum ...
,
Madiga Madiga, also known as Maadiga, Maatangi, Makkalu and Mahadiga, are an artisan community from southern India. They mainly live in the states of Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh (English: Telugu: ) is a States and union territories of India, st ...
,
Izhava The Ezhavas () are a community with origins in the region of India presently known as Kerala Kerala ( ; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by t ...
and Holeya Hindu communities were regarded as untouchable and were not allowed inside Hindu temples. However, along with the emancipation of Indian women and removal of social evils, untouchability was slowly eradicated through legislation and social reform. The Raja of Bobbili who served the Premier from 1932 to 1936, appointed untouchables to temple administration boards all over the presidency. In 1939, the Congress government of C. Rajagopalachari introduced the Temple Entry Authorization and Indemnity Act which removed all restrictions on untouchables entering Hindu temples.
Chithira Thirunal Sree Padmanabhadasa Sree Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma (7 November 1912 – 20 July 1991), popularly known as Sree Chithira Thirunal, was the last ruling Maharaja Mahārāja ; (also spelled Maharajah, Maharaj) is a Sanskrit title fo ...
of Travancore had issued a similar had earlier introduced similar legislation, the
Temple Entry Proclamation The Temple Entry Proclamation was issued by Maharaja Mahārāja ; (also spelled Maharajah, Maharaj) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great Monarch, king" or "high king". A few ruled mighty states informally called empires, includi ...
at the advice of his Diwan, Sir C. P. Ramaswamy Ayyar, in 1937. Smith 1976, p. 42 In 1921 the
Raja of Panagal Raja Sir Panaganti Ramarayaningar KCIE (9 July 1866 – 16 December 1928), also known as the Raja of Panagal, was a ''zamindar A Zamindar (also known as zomindar, zomidar, or jomidar) in the Indian subcontinent was an autonomous or sem ...
's government passed the Hindu Religious Endowments Bill Ralhan 2002, p. 73 that established government-controlled trusts in the Madras Presidency to manage
Hindu temple A Mandir or Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of divinity for Hindus Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Ind ...

Hindu temple
s and prevent potential misuse of their funds. The Raja of Bobbili also introduced reforms in the administration of the Tirumala Tirupathi Devasthanams, the trust which manages the Hindu temple at Tirupathi.


Administration

The
Pitt's India Act The East India Company Act (EIC Act 1784), also known as Pitt's India Act, was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain intended to address the shortcomings of the Regulating Act of 1773 by bringing the East India Company's rule in India und ...
of 1784 created an executive council with legislative powers to assist the Governor. The council initially consisted of four members, two of whom were from the Indian civil service or covenanted civil service and the third, an Indian of distinction. Thurston 1913, p. 181 The fourth was the
Commander-in-chief A commander-in-chief or supreme commander is the person who exercises supreme command and control Command and control is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes ... hat A collection of 18th and 19th century men' ...
of the
Madras Army The Madras Army was the army of the Presidency of Madras The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St. George, and also known as Madras Province, was an Presidencies and provinces of British India, administrative subdivision (presiden ...

Madras Army
. Thurston 1913, p. 182 The council was reduced to three members when the Madras Army was abolished in 1895. The legislative powers of this council were withdrawn as per the Government of India Act 1833 and it was reduced to the status of a mere advisory body. Sadasivan 1974, p. 17 However, these powers were restored as per Indian Councils Act 1861. The council was expanded from time to time through the inclusion of official and non-official members and served as the main legislative body till 1935, when a legislative assembly of a more representative nature was created and legislative powers were transferred to the assembly. On India's independence on 15 August 1947, the three-member Governor's executive council was abolished. The origins of Madras Presidency lay in the village of Madraspatnam which was obtained in 1640. MaClean 1877, p. 21 This was followed by
Fort St David Fort St David, now in ruins, was a British fort near the town of Cuddalore, a hundred miles south of Chennai on the Coromandel Coast of India. It is located near silver beach without any maintenance. It was named for the patron saint of Wales be ...
which was acquired in 1690.
Chingleput district Chengalpattu, previously known as Chinglepet, is a town and the headquarters of Chengalpattu district Chengalpattu District is one of the 38 districts of Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu () is a States and union territories of India, state in sou ...
, known as the "jaghire" of Chingleput, obtained in 1763, was the first district in the Madras Presidency. Salem and districts were obtained from Tipu Sultan in 1792 as per the
Treaty of Seringapatam The Treaty of Seringapatam (also called Srirangapatinam or Srirangapatna), signed 18 March 1792, ended the lodar. Its signatories included Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, Lord Cornwallis on behalf of the British East India Company, ...
and
Coimbatore Coimbatore ( ta, கோயம்புத்தூர், translit=kōyampuththūr, ), also known as Kovai or Covai (), is one of the major metropolitan cities in the Indian state India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic o ...
and
Kanara Canara (also known as Kanara, Karavali, and Coastal Karnataka or Karnataka Coast) is a stretch of land alongside the Arabian Sea in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is ...
districts after the Fourth Mysore War in 1799. MaClean 1877, p. 22 The territories of the
Thanjavur Maratha kingdom The Thanjavur Maratha kingdom of bhonsle dynasty was a principality of Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu () is a States and union territories of India, state in southern India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost ...
were constituted as a separate district in 1799. In 1800, the districts of Bellary and Cuddapah were created out of the territory ceded by the
Nizam The Nizams were the rulers of Hyderabad from 18th-through-20th-century. Nizam of Hyderabad (Niẓām ul-Mulk, also known as Asaf Jah) was the title of the monarch of the Hyderabad State Hyderabad State (), also known as Hyderabad De ...

Nizam
of Hyderabad. In 1801, the districts of North Arcot, South Arcot, Nellore, Trichinopoly, Madura and Tinnevely were created out of the territories of the erstwhile Carnatic kingdom. Trichinopoly district was made a sub-division of Tanjore district in June 1805 and remained so till August 1808 when its status as a separate district was restored. The districts of Rajahmundry (Rajamahendravaram), Masulipatnam and Guntur were created in 1823. MaClean 1877, p. 20 These three districts were reorganised in 1859 into two – the Godavari and Krishna districts. Godavari district was further bifurcated into East and West Godavari districts in 1925. The Kurnool kingdom was annexed in 1839 and was constituted as a separate district of the Madras Presidency. For administrative convenience, the district of Kanara was split into North and South Kanara in 1859. North Kanara was transferred to
Bombay Presidency The Bombay Presidency, also known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still e ...
in 1862. Between 1859–60 and 1870, the districts of Madras and Chingleput were put together into a single district. A separate Nilgiris district was carved out of Coimbatore district in 1868. As of 1908, Madras Presidency was made up of 24 districts each administered by a District Collector who was from the Indian Civil Service. The districts were sometimes sub-divided into divisions each under a Deputy Collector. The divisions were further sub-divided into taluks and union panchayats or village committees. Agencies were sometimes created in British India out of volatile, rebellion-prone areas of the Presidency. The two important agencies in the Madras Presidency were the Vizagapatam Hill Tracts Agency which was subject to the District Collector of Vizagapatam and the Ganjam Hill Tracts Agency subject to the District Collector of Ganjam. In 1936, the districts of Ganjam and Vizagapatam (including the Vizagapatam and the Ganjam agencies) were partitioned between Madras and the newly created province of Orissa. There were five princely states subordinate to the Madras government. They were
Banganapalle Banganapalle or Banagana Palli is a town in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. It lies in Kurnool district, 70 km south of the town of Kurnool. Banganapalle is famous for its mangoes and has a cultivar, ''Banganapalle'', named after it. Be ...
,
Cochin , settlement_type = Metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or int ...

Cochin
,
Pudukkottai Pudukkottai is the administrative headquarters of Pudukkottai district, Pudukkottai District in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is a large town located on the banks the Vellar River (Southern Tamil Nadu), Vellar River, it has been ruled, at d ...
, Sandur, and
Travancore The Kingdom of Travancore (Help:IPA/English, /ˈtrævənkɔːr/), also known as the Kingdom of Thiruvithamkoor, was an Indian kingdom from c. 1729 until 1949. It was ruled by the Travancore Royal Family from Padmanabhapuram, and later Thiruva ...
. Thurston 1913, p. 1 All these states had a considerable degree of internal autonomy. However, their foreign policy was completely controlled by a Resident who represented the Governor of Fort St George. Thurston 1913, p. 183 In case of Banganapalle, the Resident was the District Collector of Kurnool, while the District Collector of Bellary MaClean 1877, p. 63 was the Resident of Sandur. MaClean 1877, p. 65 The Resident of Pudukkottai from 1800 to 1840 and 1865 to 1873, was the District Collector of Tanjore, from 1840 to 1865, the District Collector of Madura and from 1873 to 1947, the District Collector of Trichinopoly. Hunter 1908, p. 232


Army

The English East India Company was first permitted to set up its own garrison in 1665 to guard its settlements. Notable amongst the early operations of the company's forces were the defence of the city from Mughal and Maratha invaders and from the incursions of the Nawab of Carnatic. In 1713, the Madras forces under Lieutenant John de Morgan distinguished themselves in the siege of Fort St David and in putting down Richard Raworth's Rebellion. Wheeler 1996, p. 198 When
Joseph François Dupleix Joseph Marquis Dupleix (23 January 1697 – 10 November 1763) was Governor-General of French India and rival of Robert Clive. Biography Dupleix was born in Landrecies, on January 23, 1697. His father, François Dupleix, a wealthy ''fermier gén ...

Joseph François Dupleix
, the Governor of French India, began to raise native battalions in 1748, the British of Madras followed suit and established the Madras Regiment. Major MacMunn 1911, p. 4 Though native regiments were subsequently established by the British in other parts of India, the distances that separated the three presidencies resulted in each force developing divergent principles and organisations. The first reorganisation of the army took place in 1795 when the Madras army was reconstituted into the following units: * European Infantry – Two battalions of ten companies * Artillery – Two European battalions of five companies each, with fifteen companies of
lascar A lascar was a sailor or militiaman from the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Arab world, British Somaliland, or other land east of the Cape of Good Hope, who were employed on European ships from the 16th century until the middle of the 2 ...

lascar
s * Native Cavalry – Four regiments * Native Infantry – Eleven regiments of two battalions Major MacMunn 1911, p. 7 In 1824, a second reorganisation took place, whereupon the double battalions were abolished and the existing battalions were renumbered. The
Madras Army The Madras Army was the army of the Presidency of Madras The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St. George, and also known as Madras Province, was an Presidencies and provinces of British India, administrative subdivision (presiden ...

Madras Army
at the time consisted of one European and one native brigade of horse artillery, three battalions of foot artillery of four companies each, with four companies of lascars attached, three regiments of light cavalry, two corps of pioneers, two battalions of European infantry, 52 battalions of native infantry and three local battalions. Major MacMunn 1911, p. 20 Major MacMunn 1911, p. 21 Between 1748 and 1895, as with the Bengal and Bombay armies, the Madras Army had its own Commander-in-Chief who was subordinate to the president, and later to the
Governor of Madras This is a list of the governors, agents, and presidents of colonial Madras Presidency, Madras, initially of the Kingdom of England, English East India Company, up to the end of British colonial rule in 1947. English Agents In 1639, the grant of ...
. By custom, the Commander-in-chief of the Madras Army was a member of the Governor's Executive Council. The army's troops participated in the conquest of Manila in 1762, Major MacMunn 1911, p. 14 the 1795 expeditions against Ceylon and the Dutch as well as the conquest of the Spice Islands in the same year. They also took part in expeditions against
Mauritius Mauritius ( ; french: Maurice, link=no ; mfe, label=Mauritian Creole Mauritian Creole or Morisien or formerly Morisyen ( mfe, kreol morisien, links=no ) is a French-based creole language spoken in Mauritius Mauritius ( ; french: ...

Mauritius
(1810),
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 147.7 million people, Java is the world's List of ...
(1811), Major MacMunn 1911, p. 15 the wars against Tipu Sultan and the
Carnatic Wars The Carnatic Wars were a series of military conflicts in the middle of the 18th century in India's coastal Carnatic region, a dependency of Hyderabad State Hyderabad State (), also known as Hyderabad Deccan, was an Indian princely state ...
of the 18th century, the British attack on
Cuttack Cuttack (, , ) is the former capital and the second largest city in the Indian state of Odisha Odisha (English: , ), formerly Orissa (), is an Indian state India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ) ...
during the
Second Anglo-Maratha War The Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805) was the second conflict between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the ...
, Major MacMunn 1911, p. 57 the
Siege of Lucknow The Siege of Lucknow was the prolonged defence of the The Residency, Lucknow, Residency within the city of Lucknow during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. After two successive relief attempts had reached the city, the defenders and civilians were ...
during the
Indian Mutiny The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against Company rule in India, the rule of the East India Company, British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on beha ...
, and the invasion of Upper Burma during the
Third Anglo-Burmese War The Third Anglo-Burmese War ( my, တတိယ အင်္ဂလိပ် – မြန်မာစစ်, Tatiya Anggalip–Mran cac), also known as the Third Burma War, was a conflict that took place during 7–29 November 1885, with sporad ...
. Major MacMunn 1911, p. 123 The 1857 Mutiny, which quickly led to drastic changes in the Bengal and Bombay armies, had no effect on the Madras Army. In 1895, the presidency armies were finally merged and the Madras regiments came under the direct control of the Commander-in-chief of British India. Major MacMunn 1911, p. 126 in 1890 three madras infantry battalions were accordingly reconstituted, at least for a time, by tapping two south Indian communities which had not yet provided many recruits to the Indian army-the Mappilas and the coorgs, the government of madras was sceptical, and agreed to the formation of two Mappila battalions only on condition they were deployed outside Malabar. Raised in 1900, the new regiments were complete failure, they soon dwindled to 600 men 'quite useless for service'. ref:The Sepoy and the Raj: The Indian Army, 1860-1940


Land tenure

Revenue from land rental as well as an income tax based on the tenant's net profits from their land was the presidency's main source of income. In ancient times, land appears to have been held in common with an individual unable to sell it without the consent of the other owners, who in most cases were members of the same community. MaClean 1877, p. 82 Prior to the arrival of the British, the concept of individual proprietorship of land had already emerged along India's west coast MaClean 1877, p. 85 such that the new administration's land revenue system was not markedly different from that of its predecessor. MaClean 1877, p. 83 Nevertheless, landlords never sold land without the consent of other members of the community. This communistic property rights system was known as ' among the Vellalars, ' among the
Brahmins Brahmin (; sa, ब्राह्मण, brāhmaṇa) are a varna Varna may refer to: Places Europe * Varna, Bulgaria, a large city in Bulgaria. ** Varna Province **Varna Municipality **Gulf of Varna **Lake Varna *Vahrn, or Varna, a munic ...

Brahmins
and ''mirasi'' among Muslims and Christians. In the
Tanjore district Thanjavur District is one of the Districts of Tamil Nadu, 38 districts of the States and territories of India, state of Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India. Its headquarters is Thanjavur. The district is located in the delta of the Cauvery River a ...
, all ''mirasi'' in the village were vested in a single individual who was called the ''Ekabhogam''. The ''mirasidar''s were required to donate a certain amount of money known as ''mirei'' to the village administration. They also paid a specified sum to the Government. In return, the ''mirasidar''s demanded non-interference by the government in the internal affairs of the villages. MaClean 1877, p. 86 The proprietary system was entirely different in the district of Malabar and the states of
Cochin , settlement_type = Metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or int ...

Cochin
and
Travancore The Kingdom of Travancore (Help:IPA/English, /ˈtrævənkɔːr/), also known as the Kingdom of Thiruvithamkoor, was an Indian kingdom from c. 1729 until 1949. It was ruled by the Travancore Royal Family from Padmanabhapuram, and later Thiruva ...
where communal ownership of land did not exist. MaClean 1877, p. 88 Instead, land was individual property mostly owned by the landowning gentry, to wit the
Namboodiri The Nambudiri (), also transliterated as Nampoothiri, Nambūdiri, Namboodiri, Nampoothiri, and Nampūtiri, NampiThiru, are a Malayali Brahmin caste, native to what is now the state of Kerala, India. As the traditional feudal elite, Nambudir ...
and
Nair The Nair , also known as Nayar, are a group of Indian Hindu castes, described by anthropologist Kathleen Gough as "not a unitary group but a named category of castes". The Nair include several castes and many subdivisions, not all of whom histori ...

Nair
people, who did not have to pay land-tax and held extensive freeholds of land rented to tenants for agricultural purposes. In return, the Nairs supplied the king with fighting men in times of war while the Namboodhiris managed the upkeep of Hindu temples. These landlords were somewhat self-sufficient and had their own police and judicial systems such that the personal expenses of the Raja were minimal. However, landlords lost their exemption from the taxes on land if they disposed of it MaClean 1877, p. 89 meaning that mortgage of land was more common than sale. Individual proprietorship of land was also common in the Telugu-speaking areas of the Presidency. MaClean 1877, p. 90 The chieftains of the Telugu-speaking districts had more or less maintained an independent existence for a long time, furnishing the sovereign with armies and equipment in times of war. In return, their right to revenues from land remained unmolested. During the time of the British, most of land in the northern districts of the Presidency were parcelled out among these petty "Rajahs". Islamic invasions caused minor changes in the land proprietorship system when taxes on Hindu land owners were raised and private ownership of property came down. MaClean 1877, p. 91 When the British took over administration, the centuries-old system of land proprietorship was left intact. MaClean 1877, p. 92 The new rulers appointed middlemen to collect revenue for lands which were not under the control of local ''
zamindar A zamindar (also known as zomindar, zomidar, or jomidar) in the Indian subcontinent was an autonomous or semiautonomous ruler of a state who were originally Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnica ...

zamindar
''s. In most cases, these go-betweens ignored the welfare of the farmers and exploited them to the full. A Board of Revenue was established in 1786 to solve the issue but to no avail. MaClean 1877, p. 93 At the same time, the ''zamindari'' settlement established in Bengal by
Lord Cornwallis Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, (31 December 1738 – 5 October 1805), styled Viscount Brome between 1753 and 1762 and known as the Earl Cornwallis between 1762 and 1792, was a British Army The British Army is the princip ...
proved highly successful and was later implemented in the Madras Presidency from 1799 onwards. MaClean 1877, p. 94 However, the Permanent Settlement was not as successful as it had been in Bengal. When the Company did not reach the expected profit levels, a new system known as the "Village Settlement" was implemented between 1804 and 1814 in the districts of Tinnevely, Trichinopoly, Coimbatore, North Arcot and South Arcot. This involved the leasing of land to the principal cultivators, who in turn leased the land to ''
ryot Ryot (alternatives: raiyat, rait or ravat) was a general economic term used throughout India for peasant cultivators but with variations in different provinces. While zamindar A zamindar (also known as zomindar, zomidar, or jomidar) in the I ...

ryot
s'', or peasant farmers. However, as a village settlement had few differences compared to a permanent settlement, it was eventually discarded. In its place came the "Ryotwari Settlement" implemented by
Sir Thomas Munro Major-General (United Kingdom), Major-General Sir Thomas Munro Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, KCB (27 May 17616 July 1827) was a Scottish British Army, soldier and colonial administrator. He served as an East India Company, East In ...
between 1820 and 1827. According to the new system, land was handed over directly to the ''ryots'' who paid their rent directly to the government. The land was assessed and paid revenue fixed by the Government This system had a number of advantages as well as disadvantages for the ''ryots''. In 1833, Lord William Bentinck implemented a new system called the "Mahalwari" or village system under which landlords as well as ''ryots'' entered into a contract with the Government. By the early 20th century, the greater part of the land was held by ''ryots'' who paid rent directly to the Government. Zamindari estates occupied about , more than one-quarter of the whole presidency. The ''peshkash'', or tribute, payable to the government in perpetuity was about £330,000 a year. ''Inams'', revenue-free or quit-rent grants of lands made for religious endowments or for services rendered to the state, occupied an aggregate area of nearly . In 1945–46, there were of Zamindari estates yielding revenues of and of ''ryotwari'' lands which produced . Steinberg 1950, p. 154 Madras had forest coverage of . Steinberg 1950, p. 155 The Land Estates Act of 1908 was passed by the Madras Government in order to protect cultivators in Zamindaris from exploitation. Under the act, ''ryot''s were made permanent occupants of the land. Thangaraj 2003, p. 287 However, far from protecting the ''ryot''s, the legislation proved to be detrimental to the interests of the cultivators in the Oriya-speaking northern districts of the presidency
PatnaikPatnaik/ Pattnaik/ Pattanayak/ Pattanaik is a native Odia surname native to Odisha Odisha (English: , The 'sha' spelling comes about from the historical or Sanskritic letter śa (ଶ), however all Odia sibilants today are realised as sa (ସ). ), ...
1997, p. 330
who were the intended beneficiaries, as it tied the cultivator to his land and landlord with the chains of eternal serfdom. In 1933, an amendment to the Act was introduced by the Raja of Bobbili to curb the rights of Zamindars and safeguard the cultivators from exploitation. This act was passed in the legislative council despite strong opposition from the Zamindars.


Agriculture and irrigation

Almost 71% of the population of Madras Presidency was engaged in agriculture Thurston 1913, p. 193 Hunter 1908, p. 276 with the agricultural year usually commencing on 1 July. Thurston 1913, p. 194 Crops cultivated in the Madras Presidency included cereals such as rice, corn, kambhu ( Indian millet) and as well as Thurston 1913, p. 195 vegetables including
brinjal Eggplant (American English, US, Australian English, Australia, New Zealand English, New Zealand, Canadian English, anglophone Canada), aubergine (British English, UK, Hiberno English, Ireland, Quebec, and most of mainland Western Europe) or ...

brinjal
,
sweet potato The sweet potato or sweetpotato (''Ipomoea batatas'') is a dicotyledon The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angio ...

sweet potato
, , beans, onions, garlic Thurston 1913, p. 196 and spices such as ,
pepper Pepper or peppers may refer to: Food and spice * Piperaceae or the pepper family, a large family of flowering plant ** Black pepper * ''Capsicum'' or pepper, a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae ** Bell pepper ** Chili p ...

pepper
and
ginger Ginger (''Zingiber officinale'') is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: ...

ginger
along with vegetable oils made from
castor bean ''Ricinus communis'', the castor bean or castor oil plant, is a species of perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years. The term ('' per-'' + '' -ennial'', "through the years") is often used ...
s and peanuts. Thurston 1913, p. 197 Fruits cultivated included
lime Lime refers to: * Lime (fruit), a green citrus fruit * Lime (material), inorganic materials containing calcium, usually calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide * Lime (color), a color between yellow and green Lime may also refer to: Botany * Austra ...
, banana
jackfruit The jackfruit (''Artocarpus heterophyllus''), also known as jack tree, is a species of tree in the fig The fig is the edible fruit of ''Ficus carica'', a species of small tree in the flowering plant family Moraceae. Native plant, Native to t ...

jackfruit
, cashew nuts, mangos, s and
papaya The papaya (, ) (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, () or pawpaw () is the plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy ...

papaya
s. Thurston 1913, p. 199 In addition, cabbages, cauliflowers,
pomelo The pomelo (), pummelo (), or in scientific terms ''Citrus maxima'' or ''Citrus grandis'', is the largest citrus fruit from the family Rutaceae and the principal ancestor An ancestor, also known as a forefather, fore-elder or a forebear, ...

pomelo
s, peaches, betel pepper,
niger seed ''Guizotia abyssinica'' is an erect, stout, branched annual herb, grown for its edible oil and seed. Its cultivation originated in the Eritrean and Ethiopian highlands The Ethiopian Highlands is a rugged mass of mountain A mountain is ...

niger seed
and
millet Millets () are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food. Millets are important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa (especially in Indi ...

millet
were introduced from Asia, Africa or Europe, while grapes were introduced from Australia. Thurston 1913, p. 200 The total cultivated area used for food crops was 80% and for cash crops, 15%. Hunter 1908, p. 274 Of the gross area, rice occupied 26.4 percent; ''kambhu'', 10 percent; ragi, 5.4 percent and ''Cholam'', 13.8 percent. Cotton occupied , oilseeds, 2.08 million, spices,0.4 million and indigo, 0.2 million. In 1898, Madras produced 7.47 million tons of food grains from of crops grown on of ''ryotwari'' and ''inam'' lands, which supported a population of 28 million. The rice yield was 7 to 10 cwt. per acre, the ''cholam'' yields were 3.5 to 6.25 cwt. per acre, ''khambu'', 3.25 to 5 cwt. per acre and ragi, 4.25 to 5 cwt. per acre. The average gross turnout for food crops was 6.93 cwt. per acre. Irrigation along the east coast is carried out mostly by means of dams across rivers, lakes and irrigation tanks. The main source of water for agriculture in the
Coimbatore Coimbatore ( ta, கோயம்புத்தூர், translit=kōyampuththūr, ), also known as Kovai or Covai (), is one of the major metropolitan cities in the Indian state India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic o ...

Coimbatore
district were tanks. The Land Improvement and Agriculturists Loan Act passed in 1884 provided funds for the construction of wells and their utilisation in reclamation projects. Hunter 1908, p. 278 In the early part of the 20th century, the Madras government established the Pumping and Boring Department to drill boreholes with electric pumps. The
Mettur Dam The Mettur Dam is one of the largest dams in India and also the largest in Tamil Nadu, located across the river Kaveri, Cauvery where it enters the plains. Built in 1934, it took 9 years to complete. Maximum height and width of the dam are 214 ...

Mettur Dam
, Gough 2008, p. 130 the Periyar Project, the Cudappah-Kurnool canal and the Rushikulya Project were the biggest irrigation projects launched by the Madras Government. Constructed below the
Hogenakkal Falls Hogenakkal Falls is a waterfall in South India on the Kaveri river on the border between Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu and Chamarajanagar district, Chamrajnagar district of Karnataka.
on the Madras-Mysore border in 1934, the Mettur Dam supplied water to the western districts of the Presidency. The Periyar Dam (now known as the Mullaperiyar Dam) was constructed across the Periyar river in Travancore, near the border. Thurston 1913, p. 203
This project diverted the waters of the Periyar river to the Vaigai River basin in order to irrigate the arid lands to the east of the Western Ghats. Similarly, the Rushikulya Project was launched to utilise the waters of the Rushikulya river in Ganjam. Thurston 1913, p. 205 Under the scheme over of land were brought under irrigation. The British also constructed a number of dams and canals for irrigation. An upper dam was constructed across the Kollidam river near Srirangam island. Thurston 1913, p. 206 The Dowlaishwaram dam across the Godavari river, the Gunnavaram aqueduct across the Vaineteyam Godavari, the Kurnool-Cuddapah canal and the Krishna dam are examples of major irrigation works carried out by the British. In 1946–47, the total area under irrigation was acres which yielded a return of 6.94% on capital outlay. Steinberg 1950, p. 175


Trade, industry and commerce

The trade of the Madras Presidency comprised that of both the Presidency with other Provinces and its overseas trade. External trade made up 93 percent of the total with internal trade making up the remainder. Hunter 1908, p. 297 Foreign trade accounted for 70 percent of the total while 23 percent was inter-provincial. In 1900–01, imports from other provinces of British India amounted to 13.43 crores while exports to other provinces amounted to 11.52 crores. During the same year, exports to other countries reached 11.74 crores while imports were valued at 66.2 million. Hunter 1908, p. 354 At the time of India's independence, imports of the Presidency amounted to 71.32 crores a year while exports were valued at 645.1 million. Trade with the United Kingdom made up 31.54% of the total trade of the Presidency with Madras the chief port accounting for 49% of the total trade. Cotton piece-goods, cotton twist and yarn, metals and kerosene oil were the main items of import while animal hides and skins, raw cotton, coffee and piece-goods were the chief exports. Raw cotton, animal hides, oil seeds, grains, pulses, coffee, tea and cotton manufactures were the main items of sea trade. Thurston 1913, p. 43 Most of the sea trade was carried through the presidency's principal port of Madras. Other important ports were Gopalpur, Kalingapatnam, Bimlipatnam, Visakhapatnam, Masulipatnam, Cocanada, Madras, Cuddalore, Negapatam, Pamban and Tuticorin on the east coast along with Mangalore, Cannanore, Calicut, Cochin, Alleppey, Quilon (Coulão) and Colachel on the western seaboard. Thurston 1913, p. 36 The port of Cochin was taken over by the Government of India on 1 August 1936, and that of Madras on 1 April 1937. There were Chambers of Commerce in Madras, Cochin and Cocanada. Hunter 1908, p. 298 These chambers each nominated a member to the Madras Legislative Council. Cotton-ginning and weaving were two of the main industries in the Madras Presidency. Cotton was produced in large quantities in the Bellary district and was pressed in
GeorgetownGeorgetown or George Town may refer to: Places Africa *George, Western Cape, South Africa, formerly known as Georgetown *Janjanbureh, Gambia, formerly known as Georgetown *Georgetown, Ascension Island, main settlement of the British territory of A ...
, Madras. Thurston 1913, p. 208 The scarcity of cotton in Lancashire caused by a decline in trade due to the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
gave an impetus to cotton and textile production and led to cotton presses being established all over the Presidency. In the early years of the 20th century, Coimbatore emerged as an important centre for cotton textiles and earned the epithet "Manchester of South India". The northern districts of Godavari, Vizagapatam and Kistna were well-known cotton-weaving centres. There was a sugar factory at Aska in Ganjam run by F. J. V. Minchin and another at Nellikuppam in South Arcot district run by the East India Distilleries and Sugar Factories Company. Thurston 1913, p. 210 In the Telugu-speaking northern districts of the presidency large quantities of tobacco were cultivated to be subsequently rolled into
cheroot The cheroot is a filterless cylindrical cigar A cigar is a rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco leaves made to be Tobacco smoking, smoked. Cigars are produced in a variety of sizes and shapes. Since the 20th century, almost all ciga ...
s. Thurston 1913, p. 211 Trichinopoly, Madras and Dindigul were the main cheroot-producing areas. Until the discovery of artificial
aniline Aniline is an organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The study of the properties, reactions, and sy ...

aniline
and dyes, Madras possessed a thriving vegetable dye manufacturing industry. The city also imported large quantities of aluminium for the manufacture of aluminium utensils. Thurston 1913, p. 212 In the early 20th century, the government established the Chrome Tanning Factory which manufactured high-quality leather. Thurston 1913, p. 213 The first brewery in the Presidency was founded in the Nilgiri Hills in 1826. Coffee was cultivated in the region of Wynad and the kingdoms of
Coorg Kodagu (also known by its former name Coorg) is an administrative List of districts of Karnataka, district in the Karnataka state of India. Before 1956, it was an administratively separate Coorg State, at which point it was merged into an enlar ...

Coorg
and
Mysore Mysore (), officially Mysuru (; Kannada: ಮೈಸೂರು), is a city in the southern part of the state of Karnataka, India. Mysore city is geographically located between 12° 18′ 26″ north latitude and 76° 38′ 59″ east longitude. I ...

Mysore
Thurston 1913, p. 214 while tea was grown on the slopes of the Nilgiri Hills. Thurston 1913, p. 216 Coffee plantations were also established in Travancore but a severe blight at the end of the 19th century destroyed coffee cultivation in the kingdom and almost wiped out coffee plantations in neighbouring Wynad. Coffee-curing works were located at
Calicut Kozhikode (), also known as Calicut, is an Indian city, second-largest urban agglomeration in the State of Kerala in India and 19th largest in the country with a population of two million according to 2011 census. Kozhikode is classified as ...

Calicut
,
Mangalore Mangalore (), officially known as Mangaluru, is a major port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats about west of Bangalore, the state capital, 20 km north of Karnataka–Ker ...

Mangalore
and
Coimbatore Coimbatore ( ta, கோயம்புத்தூர், translit=kōyampuththūr, ), also known as Kovai or Covai (), is one of the major metropolitan cities in the Indian state India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic o ...

Coimbatore
. In 1947, Madras had 3,761 factories with 276,586 operatives. The presidency's fishing industry thrived, with Shark's fins, Thurston 1913, p. 219 fish maws and fish curing-operations Thurston 1913, p. 220 the main sources of income for fishermen. The southern port of Tuticorin was a centre of conch-fishing Thurston 1913, p. 223 but Madras, along with Ceylon, was mainly known for its pearl fisheries. Thurston 1913, p. 222 Pearl fisheries were harvested by the
Paravas Paravar (also known as Bharathar or Bharathakula) is a Tamil caste Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a style of life which often includes an occupation, ritual status in a hierarch ...
and was a lucrative profession. The total revenue of the Presidency was 57 crores in 1946–47 made as follows: Land revenue, 8.53 crores; Excise, 14.68 crores; Income tax, 4.48 crores; Stamp revenue, 4.38 crores; forests, 1.61 crores; other taxes, 8.45 crores; Extraordinary receipts, 2.36 crores and revenue fund, Rs.5.02 crores. Total expenditure for 1946–47 was 569.9 million. 208,675 k.v.a of electricity was generated at the end of 1948 of which 98% was under government ownership. The total amount of power generated was 467 million units. The
Madras Stock Exchange The Madras Stock Exchange (MSE) was a stock exchange in Chennai Chennai (, ; also known as Madras, List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996) is the Capital city, capital of the states and territorie ...
was established in Madras city in 1920 with a strength of 100 members but gradually faded away and membership had reduced to three by 1923 when it had to be closed down. Muthiah 2004, p. 264 Nevertheless, the Madras Stock Exchange was successfully revived in September 1937 and was incorporated as the Madras Stock Exchange Association Limited. EID Parry, Binny and Co. and Arbuthnot Bank were the largest private-owned business corporations at the turn of the 20th century. Muthiah 2004, p. 261 EID Parry manufactured and sold chemical fertilizers and sugar while the Binnys marketed cotton garments and uniforms manufactured at its spinning and weaving facility, the
Buckingham and Carnatic Mills Buckingham and Carnatic Mills, popularly known as B & C Mills, were textile mills run by Binny and Co. in the city of Chennai, India. The mills were closed down in 1996 and the site is now used as a container freight station and is a popular venue ...
in
Otteri Otteri, is a developed residential area in Central Chennai Chennai (, ; also known as Madras, List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996) is the Capital city, capital of the states and territories of ...
. Muthiah 2004, p. 262 Muthiah 2004, p. 263 Arbuthnot, owned by the
Arbuthnot family Clan Arbuthnott is a Scottish Lowlands, Lowland Scottish clan. History Origin of name The name Arbuthnott is of territorial origin from the lands of the same name in the county of Kincardineshire. Early documents refer to these lands as ''Aber ...
, was the largest bank in the Presidency until its crash in 1906. Muthiah 2004, p. 410 Reduced to penury, disillusioned former Indian investors established the
Indian Bank Indian Bank is an Indian government owned financial services and banking company under the ownership of Ministry of Finance , Government of India established in 1907 and headquartered in Chennai Chennai (, ; also known as Madras, List ...
with funds donated by Nattukottai Chetties. Muthiah 2004, p. 338 Muthiah 2004, p. 339 Between 1913 and 1914, Madras had 247 companies. Sinha 2005, p. 44 In 1947, the city led in the establishment of registered factories but employed only 62% of the total productive capital. The first Western-style banking institution in India was the Madras Bank which was established on 21 June 1683, with a capital of one hundred thousand pounds sterling. Kumar 2003, p. 70 This was followed by the opening of the Carnatic Bank in 1788, the Bank of Madras in 1795 and the Asiatic Bank in 1804. In 1843, all the banks were merged to form the Bank of Madras. The Bank of Madras had branches in all the presidency's major cities and princely states including Coimbatore, Mangalore, Calicut, , Cocanada,
Guntur Guntur () is a city and the administrative headquarters of Guntur district Guntur district is one of the nine districts in the Coastal Andhra Coastal Andhra (') is a region in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. It was part of Madra ...

Guntur
, Masulipatnam,
Ootacamund Ooty (), officially known as Udagamandalam (also known as Ootacamund ; abbreviated as Udhagai), is a town and a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and pow ...

Ootacamund
, Negapataam,
Tuticorin Thoothukudi (formerly Tuticorin) is a port city, a municipal corporation and an industrial city in Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The city lies in the Coromandel Coast of Bay of Bengal. Thoothukudi is the capital and hea ...
, Bangalore, Cochin and
Colombo Colombo ( si, කොළඹ, translit=Koḷam̆ba, ; ta, கொழும்பு, translit=Koḻumpu, ) is the commercial capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction betwe ...

Colombo
in Ceylon. In 1921, the Bank of Madras merged with the Bank of Bombay and the Bank of Bengal to form the Imperial Bank of India. Kumar 2003, p. 71 In the 19th century, the Arbuthnot Bank was one of the largest privately owned banks in the Presidency. The City Union Bank, the
Indian Bank Indian Bank is an Indian government owned financial services and banking company under the ownership of Ministry of Finance , Government of India established in 1907 and headquartered in Chennai Chennai (, ; also known as Madras, List ...
,
Canara Bank Canara Bank is one of the largest Indian government owned banks under the ownership of Ministry of Finance , Government of India . It is headquartered in Bengaluru. It was established at Mangalore Mangalore , officially Mangaluru (), ...
,
Corporation Bank Corporation Bank was a public-sector banking company headquartered in Mangalore, India. The bank had a pan-Indian presence. Presently, the bank has a network of 2,432 fully automated Core banking, CBS branches, 3,040 Automated teller machine, AT ...
, Nadar Bank, Tercentenary Madras Staff 1939, p. 261 , Eur 2002, p. 498
Catholic Syrian Bank CSB Bank Limited, formerly Catholic Syrian Bank Limited, is an Indian private sector bank with its headquarters at Thrissur Thrissur (), Renaming of cities in India, formerly Trichur, also known by its historical name Thrissivaperur, is a cit ...

Catholic Syrian Bank
,
Karnataka Bank Karnataka Bank Limited is India's twelfth largest private sector bank. It is an 'A' Class Scheduled Commercial Bank based in Mangalore, Mangaluru in Karnataka, India. Karnataka Bank Limited has a network of 857 branches, 1 Extension Counter, 95 ...
, Bank of Chettinad, W.S. 1973, p. 43
Andhra Bank Andhra Bank (, ) was a medium-sized public sector bank (PSB) of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most popul ...
, B. 1998, p. 37 Vysya Bank,
Vijaya Bank Vijaya Bank is a fully owned subsidiary A subsidiary, subsidiary company or daughter company is a company (law), company owned or controlled by another company, which is called the parent company, parent, or holding company. The subsidiary can ...
,
Indian Overseas Bank Indian Overseas Bank (IOB) is a major Indian government owned bank under the ownership Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract ...

Indian Overseas Bank
and the Bank of Madura were some of the leading banks headquartered in the Presidency.


Transport and communication

In the early days of the agency, the only means of transportation were bullock-carts known as ''jhatkas'' along with
palanquin The litter is a class of wheelless vehicles, a type of human-powered transport, for the transport of persons. Smaller litters may take the form of open chairs or beds carried by two or more carriers, some being enclosed for protection from the ...
s. Thurston 1913, p. 185 The roads connecting Madras to Calcutta in the north and the kingdom of Travancore in the south served as lines of communication during wars. From the early 20th century onwards, bullock-carts and horses were gradually replaced by bicycles and motor vehicles, while motor buses were the main means of private road transportation. Muthiah 2004, p. 323 Presidency Transport and the City Motor Service were pioneers, operating buses manufactured by Simpson and Co. as early as 1910. The first organised bus system in Madras city was operated by Madras Tramways Corporation between 1925 and 1928. The 1939 Motor Vehicles Act imposed restrictions on public-owned bus and motor services. Most of the early bus services were operated by private agencies. The first organised initiative for the construction of new roads and maintenance of existing roads in the Presidency was initiated in 1845 with the appointment of a special officer for the maintenance of main roads. Mill 1996, p. 134 The principal roads under the aegis of the officer were the Madras-Bangalore road, Madras-Trichinopoly road, Madras-Calcutta road, Madras-Cuddapah road and the Sumpajee Ghaut road. A Public Works Department was initiated by Lord Dalhousie in 1852 and subsequently in 1855 an East coast canal was constructed for the purpose of easy navigation. Roadways were handled by the Public Works Secretariat which was under the control of the member of the Governor's Executive Council. The principal highways of the Presidency were the Madras-Calcutta road, the Madras-Travancore road and the Madras-Calicut road. Hunter 1908, p. 303 By 1946–47, the Madras Presidency had of metalled roads and of unmetalled roads, and of navigable canals. The first railway line in South India was laid between Madras and Arcot, which was opened for traffic on 1 July 1856. Muthiah 2004, p. 321 The line was constructed by the Madras Railway Company formed in 1845. The railway station at
Royapuram Royapuram is a locality in the northern part of the city of Chennai Chennai (, ; also known as Madras, List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996) is the Capital city, capital of the states and terr ...
, the first in South India, was built in 1853 and served as the headquarters of the Madras Railway Company. The Great Southern Indian Railway Company was set up in the United Kingdom in 1853. and had its headquarters at Trichinopoly where it constructed its first railway line between Trichinopoly and Negapatam in 1859. The Madras Railway Company operated standard or broad-gauge railway lines while the Great South Indian Railway Company operated metre-gauge railway lines. Hunter 1908, p. 301 In 1874, The Great Southern Indian Railway Company merged with the Carnatic Railway Company (established in 1864) and was renamed the Southern Indian Railway Company. Muthiah 2004, p. 322 The Southern Indian Railway Company merged with the Pondicherry Railway Company in 1891 while the Madras Railway Company merged with the Southern Mahratta Railway Company in 1908 to form the Madras and South Mahratta Railway Company. A new terminus was built at
Egmore Egmore is a neighbourhood of Chennai, India. Situated on the northern banks of the Coovum River, Egmore is an important residential area as well as a commercial and transportation hub. The Egmore Railway Station was the main terminus of the Madr ...

Egmore
for the Madras and South Mahratta Railway Company. In 1927, the South Indian Railway Company shifted its headquarters from Madurai to
Chennai Central Puratchi Thalaivar Dr. M.G. Ramachandran Central Railway Station, commonly known as Chennai Central (station code: MAS), is the main railway terminus A train station, railway station, railroad station or depot is a railway Rail tran ...

Chennai Central
. The company operated a suburban electric train service for Madras city from May 1931 onwards. In April 1944, the Madras and South Mahratta Railway Company was taken over by the Madras Government. In 1947, there were of railway in the Presidency, in addition to of district board lines. Madras was well-connected with other Indian cities like Bombay and Calcutta and with Ceylon. Christophers 1927, p. 14 The connecting
Mandapam Mandapam is a panchayat town A Nagar Panchayat (town panchayat; ) or Notified Area Council (NAC) in India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and depend ...

Mandapam
on the Indian mainland with
Pamban island Pamban Island ( ta, பாம்பன் தீவு ''Pāmpan what''), also known as Rameswaram Island, is an island located between peninsular India South India is a region located in the southern part of India India (Hindi: ...
was opened for traffic in 1914. The
Nilgiri Mountain Railway The Nilgiri Mountain Railway (NMR) is a railway in Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu () is a States and union territories of India, state in southern India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian su ...

Nilgiri Mountain Railway
was inaugurated between Mettupalayam and
Ootacamund Ooty (), officially known as Udagamandalam (also known as Ootacamund ; abbreviated as Udhagai), is a town and a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and pow ...

Ootacamund
in 1899. The Madras Tramways Corporation was promoted in Madras city in 1892 by Hutchinsons and Co. and began operating in 1895, before even London had its own tramway system. It plied six routes in Madras linking distant parts of Madras city and covered a total of . The chief navigable waterways in the presidency were the canals in the Godavari and the Kistna deltas. The
Buckingham canal The Buckingham Canal is a long fresh water navigation canal Canals are waterways Channel (geography), channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. They may also help with irrigati ...
was cut in 1806 at a cost of 90
lakh A lakh (; abbreviated L; sometimes written lac) is a unit in the Indian numbering system The Indian numbering system is used in the Indian subcontinent (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka) to express large numbers. ...

lakh
s of silver Hunter 1908, p. 304 to connect the city of Madras with the delta of the Kistna river at Peddaganjam. Ships of the British India Steam Navigation Company frequently docked at Madras and provided frequent services to Bombay, Calcutta, Colombo and Rangoon. In 1917, Simpson and Co. arranged for a test flight by the first aeroplane in Madras while a flying club was established at the Mount Golf Club grounds near
St Thomas Mount St. Thomas Mount (known in Modern Tamil as Parangimalai) is a small hillock in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, near the neighbourhood of Guindy and very close to Chennai International Airport. The ancient Saint Thomas Christians, Syrian Christian co ...

St Thomas Mount
by a pilot named G. Vlasto in October 1929. Muthiah 2004, p. 127 This site was later used as the Madras aerodrome. One of the early members of the club, Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar went on to establish an aerodrome in his native Chettinad. On 15 October 1932,
Royal Air Force The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for th ...
pilot
Nevill Vintcent Nevill Vintcent, Order of the British Empire, OBE, Distinguished Flying Cross (United Kingdom), DFC (1902–1942) was a South African aviator and airline founder. He was the son of Charles Vintcent, a South African cricketer. Early life Nevill ...
piloted
J. R. D. Tata Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata (29 July 1904 – 29 November 1993) was an India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-m ...
's plane carrying air-mail from Bombay to
Madras Chennai (, ), also known as Madras (List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996), is the capital city of the states and territories of India, Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The state's largest city in area ...
via Bellary. This was the beginning of
Tata Sons Tata or TATA may refer to: Places * Jamshedpur, a city in Jharkhand, India also known as Tatanagar or Tata * Tata, Hungary, a town in Hungary * Tata Islands, a pair of small islands off the coast of New Zealand * Tata, Morocco, a city in Tata ...
' regular domestic passenger and airmail service from Karachi to Madras. The flight was later re-routed through Hyderabad and became bi-weekly. On 26 November 1935, Tata Sons started an experimental weekly service from Bombay to Trivandrum via Goa and Cannanore. From 28 February 1938, onwards, Tata Sons' Aviation division, now renamed Tata Airlines, began a Karachi to Colombo airmail service via Madras and Trichinopoly. On 2 March 1938, the Bombay-Trivandrum air service was extended to Trichinopoly. The first organised postal service was established between Madras and Calcutta by Governor Edward Harrison in 1712. After reform and regularisation, a new postal system was started by
Sir Archibald Campbell General Sir Archibald Campbell, 1st Baronet (12 March 1769 – 6 October 1843) was a Scottish soldier who served as an officer in the British Army. From 1824 to 1826, Gen. Campbell commanded the British forces in the First Anglo-Burmese War, ...
and was introduced on 1 June 1786. The Presidency was divided into three postal divisions: Madras North up to Ganjam, Madras South-West to Anjengo (erstwhile Travancore) and Madras West, up to Vellore. In the same year, a link with Bombay was established then in 1837, the Madras, Bombay and Calcutta mail services were integrated to form the All-India Service. On 1 October 1854, the first stamps were issued by the Imperial Postal Service. The General Post Office (GPO), Madras, was established by Sir Archibald Campbell in 1786. In 1872–73, a bimonthly sea-mail service began between Madras and Rangoon. This was followed by the commencement of a fortnightly sea-mail service between Madras and ports on the eastern coast. Madras was linked to the rest of the world through telegraphs in 1853 and a civilian telegraph service was introduced on 1 February 1855. Soon afterwards, telegraph lines linked Madras and Ootacamund with other cities in India. A Telegraph department was set up in 1854, with a Deputy Superintendent stationed in Madras city. The
Colombo Colombo ( si, කොළඹ, translit=Koḷam̆ba, ; ta, கொழும்பு, translit=Koḻumpu, ) is the commercial capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction betwe ...

Colombo
- Talaimannar telegraph line established in 1858, was extended to Madras in 1882, thereby connecting the city with
Ceylon Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island ...

Ceylon
. Wright 1999, p. 207 Telephones were introduced in the presidency in 1881 and on 19 November 1881, the first telephone exchange with 17 connections was established at Errabalu Street in Madras. Muthiah 2004, p. 54 A wireless telegraphy service was established between Madras and Port Blair in 1920 and in 1936, the Indo-Burma radio telephone service was established between Madras and Rangoon.


Education

The first schools offering Western-style education in the presidency were established in Madras Hunter 1908, p. 383 during the 18th century. In 1822, a Board of Public Instruction was created based on the recommendations of Sir Thomas Munro, after which schools teaching students in vernacular language was established. Hunter 1908, p. 338 A central training school was set up in Madras as per Munro's scheme. However, this system appeared to be a failure and the policy was altered in 1836 in order to promote European literature and science. The Board of Public Instruction was superseded by a Committee for Native Education. Hunter 1908, p. 339 In January 1840, during the viceroyalty of
Lord Ellenborough Baron Ellenborough, of Ellenborough, Cumbria, Ellenborough in the Cumberland, County of Cumberland, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 19 April 1802 for the lawyer, judge and politician Edward Law, 1st Baron Ellenboro ...
, a University Board was established with Alexander J. Arbuthnot as the Joint Director of Public Instruction. The central school was converted to a high school in April 1841 with 67 students and in 1853 became the with the addition of a college department. On 5 September 1857, the
University of Madras The University of Madras or Madras University is a in , , India. Established in 1857, it is one of the oldest universities in India, incorporated by an Act of under the . It is a and has six campuses in the city: , , , , and . It offers ...

University of Madras
was established as an examining body using the
University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply post-nominals, are letters placed after a p ...
as a model with the first examinations held in February 1858. C. W. Thamotharam Pillai and Caroll V. Visvanatha Pillai of Ceylon were the first to graduate from the University. Sir S. Subramaniya Iyer was the first Indian Vice-Chancellor of the University. Similarly,
Andhra University Andhra University (IAST: ''Āndhra Vișvakalāpariṣhat'') is a public university located in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. It was established in 1926.http://andhrauniversity.edu.in/about/au-profile History Andhra University was establ ...

Andhra University
was established by the Andhra University Act of 1925 Ralhan 2002, p. 74 and in 1937, the University of Travancore was established in the princely state of Travancore. The Government Arts College, established in
Kumbakonam Kumbakonam (formerly spelt as Coombaconum or Combaconum) or Kudanthai is a city municipal corporation in the Thanjavur district#REDIRECT Thanjavur district Thanjavur District is one of the 38 districts of the States and territories of India ...

Kumbakonam
in 1867, was one of the first educational institutions outside Madras. Craik 2007, p. 260 The oldest engineering college in the presidency,
College of Engineering, Guindy The College of Engineering, Guindy (CEG) is a public engineering college in Chennai Chennai (, ; also known as Madras, List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996) is the Capital city, capital of the ...
, was established as a Government Survey School in 1794 before being upgraded to an Engineering College in 1861. Muthiah 2004, p. 239 Initially, only
Civil Engineering Civil engineering is a professional engineering Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, well-being and other interests of the general public and to defin ...
was taught, with the further disciplines of Mechanical Engineering added in 1894, Electrical Engineering in 1930 and Telecommunication and Highways in 1945. Muthiah 2004, p. 240 The AC College, with its emphasis on textiles and leather technology, was founded by Alagappa Chettiar in 1944. Muthiah 2004, p. 241 The
Madras Institute of Technology Madras Institute of Technology (MIT) is an engineering institute located in Chromepet Chromepet is a southern neighbourhood of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It is located 22 km from the Chennai Central Railway Station. It lies on both side ...
, which introduced courses such as aeronautical and automobile engineering was established in 1949. In 1827, the first medical school in the Presidency was established then followed by the
Madras Medical College Madras Medical College is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different concept to the so ...

Madras Medical College
in 1835. Christophers 1927, p. 41 The Government Teacher's College was established at
Saidapet Saidapet, also known as Saidai, is a neighbourhood in Chennai, India, situated in the northern banks of the Adyar River and serves as an entry point to Central Chennai. It is surrounded by West Mambalam in the North, C.I.T Nagar in the North-Eas ...

Saidapet
in 1856. Hunter 1908, p. 343 Among the private institutions, the
Pachaiyappa's College Pachaiyappa's College is one of the oldest educational institutions in Chennai Chennai (, ; also known as Madras, List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996) is the Capital city, capital of the states a ...
, established in 1842, is the oldest Hindu educational institution in the presidency. The
Annamalai University Annamalai University is a public state university located in Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu () is a States and union territories of India, state in southern India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu ...
, established by Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar in Chidambaram in 1929, was the first university in the presidency to have hostel facilities Christian missionaries were pioneers in promoting education in the region. The
Madras Christian College Madras Christian College (MCC) is a liberal arts and sciences college in Chennai, India. Founded in 1837, MCC is one of Asia's oldest extant colleges. The college is affiliated to the University of Madras but functions as an autonomous instituti ...
, St. Aloysius College at Mangalore, Loyola College in Madras and the St. Peter's College at Tanjore were some of the educational institutions established by Christian missionaries. The Madras Presidency had the highest literacy rate of all the provinces in
British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcontinent. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one ...

British India
. Seal 1971, p. 103 In 1901, Madras had a male literacy rate of 11.9 percent and a female literacy rate of 0.9 percent. Hunter 1908, p. 345 In 1950, when the Madras Presidency became Madras State, the literacy rate was slightly higher than the national average of 18 percent. K. Mehrotra 2006, p. 23 In 1901, there were 26,771 public and private institutions with 923,760 scholars of whom 784,621 were male and 139,139 female. Hunter 1908, p. 361 By 1947, the number of educational institutions had increased to 37,811 and the number of scholars to 3,989,686. Apart from colleges, in 1947 there were 31,975 public and elementary schools, 720 secondary schools for boys and 4,173 elementary and 181 secondary schools for girls. Most of the early graduates were
Brahmins Brahmin (; sa, ब्राह्मण, brāhmaṇa) are a varna Varna may refer to: Places Europe * Varna, Bulgaria, a large city in Bulgaria. ** Varna Province **Varna Municipality **Gulf of Varna **Lake Varna *Vahrn, or Varna, a munic ...

Brahmins
. The preponderance of Brahmins in the universities and in the civic administration was one of the main causes for the growth of the Anti-Brahmin movement in the presidency. Madras was also the first province in British India where caste-based communal reservations were introduced. In 1923, the ''Madras University Act'' was passed after its introduction by Education Minister A. P. Patro. Under the bill's provisions, the governing body of
Madras University The University of Madras or Madras University is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a diff ...
was completely reorganised on democratic lines. The bill asserted that the governing body would henceforth be headed by a Chancellor who would be assisted by a pro-Chancellor, usually the Minister of Education. Apart from the Chancellor and the pro-Chancellor who were elected, there was to be a Vice-Chancellor appointed by the Chancellor.


Culture and society

Hindus, Muslims and Christians generally followed a joint family system. Finnemore 1917, p. 62 Srinivas 1982, p. 69 The society was largely patriarchal with the eldest male member the leader of the family. Most of the presidency followed a patrilineal system of inheritance. Agarwal 1994, p. 472 The only exceptions were the district of Malabar and the princely states of Travancore and Cochin which practised the ''
marumakkathayam Marumakkathayam was a system of matrilineal inheritance prevalent in what is now Kerala, India. Descent and the inheritance of property was traced through females. It was followed by all Nair castes, some of the Ambalavasis, Mappilas, and triba ...
'' system. Böck 2000, p. 177 Women were expected to confine themselves to indoor activities and the maintenance of the household. Muslims and high-caste Hindu women observed
purdah '' (1848 lithograph, by James Rattray) showing the lifting of purdah in ''zenana Zenana ( fa, زنانه, bn, জেনানা, ur, , hi, ज़नाना) literally meaning "of the women" or "pertaining to women," in Persian language ...
. The daughter in the family rarely received an education and usually helped her mother with household chores. Finnemore 1917, p. 22 Upon marrying, she moved to the house of her in-laws where she was expected to serve her husband and the elder members of his family. Finnemore 1917, p. 63 Finnemore 1917, p. 64 There have been recorded instances of torture and ill treatment of daughters-in-law. A Brahmin widow was expected to shave her head and was subjected to numerous indignities. Finnemore 1917, p. 65 Finnemore 1917, p. 66 Rural society comprised villages where people of different communities lived together. Brahmins lived in separate streets called '' agraharams''. Untouchables lived outside village limits in small hamlets called ''cheris'' and were strictly forbidden from having houses in the village. Thurston 1909, p. 87 They were also forbidden from entering important Hindu temples or approaching high-caste Hindus. Thurston 1909, p. 78 Thurston 1909, p. 79
Serfdom Serfdom was the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism, and similar systems. It was a condition of debt bondage and indentured servitude with similarities to and differences from slavery, which developed ...
was practised in almost all castes from Brahmins to non-Brahmins subjecting agricultural labourers to bondage for non-payment of debt. The Law Commission report on slavery in 1841 contains the indicative figures on the number of slaves, computed based on the population of specific castes of
Pallar The Pallar, who prefer to be called Mallar, are an agricultural community from the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The Pallars traditionally inhabited the fertile wetland area referred to as ''Marutham'' in the literary devices of the Sangam landsc ...
and
Paraiyar Paraiyar, or Parayar or Maraiyar (formerly anglicised as Pariah and Paree), is a caste Caste is a form of social stratification Social stratification refers to a society's categorization of its people into groups based on Socioeconomic ...
. British and Foreign Anti-slavery Society 1841, p. 4 There were proposed regulations in 1811 and 1823 to prevent child labour. In 1833, the British Crown and the House of Commons proposed immediate abolition of slavery in India, but East India Company decreed otherwise. All legal recognition to permit the civil status of slavery were withdrawn with the Act V of 1843 and selling of slaves became a criminal offence in 1862 under the new
Indian Penal Code The Indian Penal Code (IPC) is the official criminal code of India. It is a comprehensive code intended to cover all substantive aspects of criminal law. The code was drafted on the recommendations of first law commission of India established in 1 ...
. Chatterjee 2006, p. 231 In spite of these regulations, serfdom continued and the slave population formed 12.2%20% of the total population in 1930 across various districts of the Presidency. Kumar 1965 pp. 52–53 The Malabar Marriage Act of 1896 recognised ''
sambandham Sambandham was an informal mode of marriage followed by Nairs, Samantha Kshatriya and Ambalavasis with Nambudiris, in what is the present day state of Kerala, India. All of these were matrilineal communities. The custom is no longer observed. ...
'' contracts as legal marriages while the ''marmakkathayam'' system was abolished by the Marmakkathayam Law of 1933. P.V. 1981, p. 21 Numerous measures were taken to improve the lot of
Dalit Dalit (from sa, दलित, dalita meaning "broken/scattered", hi, दलित, dalit, same meaning) is a name for people belonging to the lowest stratum castes in India, previously characterised as "untouchable". Dalits were excluded fr ...
outcasts. The Thirumala Tirupathi Devasthanams Act (1933), included Dalits in the ''devasthanam''s administration. The presidency's Temple Entry Authorization Act (1939) and its Temple Entry Proclamation (1936) of Travancore were aimed at elevating the status of Dalit and other low castes to a position equal to that of high-caste Hindus. In 1872, T. Muthuswamy Iyer established the Widow Remarriage Association in Madras and advocated the remarriage of Brahmin widows. Anantha Raman 2005, p. 87 The ''
devadasi In Southern India, a devadasi was a female artist who was dedicated to worship and serve a deity or a temple for the rest of her life. The dedication took place in a Pottukattu ceremony that was somewhat similar to a marriage ceremony. In additi ...

devadasi
'' system was regulated in 1927 and completely abolished on 26 November 1947. The Widow Remarriage movement was spearheaded in the Godavari district by
Kandukuri Veeresalingam Rao Bahadur Kandukuri Veeresalingam Pantulu (16 April 1848 27 May 1919) was a social reformer and writer from the Madras Presidency The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St. George, and also known as Madras Province, was an Pre ...

Kandukuri Veeresalingam
. Roy 2002, p. 213. Most of the pioneers of social reform were Indian nationalists. Desai 2005, p. 224. Deol 2000, p. 26. Traditional pastimes and forms of recreation in rural areas were
cock-fighting A cockfight is a blood sport upright=1.25, A hare caught by two greyhounds A blood sport or bloodsport is a category of sport or entertainment that involves wikt:bloodshed, bloodshed. Common examples of the former include combat sports such a ...

cock-fighting
,
bull-fighting Bullfighting is a physical contest that involves a bullfighter and animals attempting to subdue, immobilize, or kill a bull, usually according to a set of rules, guidelines, or cultural expectations. There are several variations, including s ...

bull-fighting
, village fairs and plays. Finnemore 1917, pp. 35–41 Men in urban areas indulged in social and communistic activities at recreational clubs, music concerts or sabhas, dramas and welfare organisations.
Carnatic music Carnatic music, known as or in the South Indian languages, is a system of music commonly associated with South India South India is a region consisting of the southern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic ...
and
bharatanatyam Bharatanatyam, also previously called Sadhir Attam, is a major form of Indian classical dance Indian classical dance is an umbrella term for various performance arts rooted in musical theatre styles,, Quote: All of the dances considered to be ...

bharatanatyam
were especially patronised by the upper and upper-middle class Madras society. Of the sports introduced by the British in the presidency,
cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail (cricket), bai ...

cricket
, tennis,
football Football is a family of s that involve, to varying degrees, a to score a . Unqualified, normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly called ''football'' include (known as ''soccer'' ...
, and
hockey Hockey is a term used to denote various types of both summer and winter team sports which originated on either an outdoor field, sheet of ice, or dry floor such as in a gymnasium. There are many types of hockey. Some games make the use of ska ...

hockey
were the most popular. An annual cricket tournament, known as the Madras Presidency Matches, was held between Indians and Europeans during Pongal. Muthiah 2004, p. 173 The presidency's first newspaper, the ''Madras Courier'', was started on 12 October 1785, by Richard Johnston, a printer employed by the British East India Company. Muthiah 2004, p. 50 The first Indian-owned English-language newspaper was ''The Madras Crescent'' which was established by freedom-fighter Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty in October 1844. Muthiah 2004, p. 53 Lakshminarasu Chetty is also credited with the foundation of the Madras Presidency Association which was a forerunner of the Indian National Congress. The number of newspapers and periodicals published in the presidency totalled 821 in 1948. The two most popular English-language newspapers were ''
The Hindu ''The Hindu'' is an English-language, India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and ...

The Hindu
'' established by in 1878, and '' The Mail'', established as the ''Madras Times'' by the Gantz family in 1868. Muthiah 2004, p. 51 Regular radio service in the presidency commenced in 1938 when
All India Radio All India Radio (AIR), officially known since 1957 as Akashvani ("Voice from the Sky"), is the national public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general pub ...

All India Radio
established a station in Madras. Muthiah 2004, p. 164 Cinemas became popular in the 1930s and 1940s with the first film in a South Indian language,
R. Nataraja Mudaliar Rangaswamy Nataraja Mudaliar (1885–1972), popularly known as the father of Tamil cinema, was a pioneer in the production of silent films. Starting his career as an automobile spare parts merchant, he started the "Indian Film Company Limited" in ...

R. Nataraja Mudaliar
's Tamil film ''Keechaka Vadham'', released in 1916. The first sound films in Tamil and Telugu were made in 1931 while the first Kannada talkie ''Sati Sulochana'' was made in 1934 and the first Malayalam talkie ''Balan'' in 1938. There were film studios at Coimbatore, Salem, Madras and
Karaikudi Karaikudi is a Greater municipality in Sivagangai district in the Indian States and territories of India, state of Tamil Nadu. It is the 20 th largest urban agglomeration of Tamil Nadu based on 2011 census data. It is part of the area commonly re ...
. Most early films were made in Coimbatore and Salem but from the 1940s onwards, Madras began to emerge as the principal centre of film production. Until the 1950s, most films in Telugu, Thoraval 2000, p. 345 Kannada Ishizuka 2008, p. 174 and Malayalam Kasbekar 2006, p. 233 were made in Madras. File:Tamil brahmin couple circa 1945.jpg, A Westernized middle-class urban Tamil Brahmin couple. c.a .1945 File:M. K. Thyagaraja Bhagavathar.jpg, Tamil film actor File:Nambudiri house 1909.jpg, A
Namboodiri The Nambudiri (), also transliterated as Nampoothiri, Nambūdiri, Namboodiri, Nampoothiri, and Nampūtiri, NampiThiru, are a Malayali Brahmin caste, native to what is now the state of Kerala, India. As the traditional feudal elite, Nambudir ...
Brahman In Hinduism, ''Brahman'' ( sa, ब्रह्म) connotes the highest universal principle, the ultimate reality ''Ultimate reality'' is "something that is the supreme, final, and fundamental power in all reality". Buddhism In Theravada ...

Brahman
's house, c.a. 1909 File:Hindu devotees Secunderamalai Madurai.jpg, Hindu devotees in procession around the temple at
Tirupparankunram Thiruparankundram, also spelled Tirupparankundram or Tiruparangundram, is a town in Madurai district in Tamil Nadu, India. It is about from Madurai city and constitutes the southwest part of the greater Madurai city (Municipal Corporation). Th ...
, c.a. 1909 File:Kapu bride and groom 1909.jpg,
Telugu Telugu may refer to: * Telugu language, a major Dravidian language of India *Telugu people, an ethno-linguistic group of India * Telugu script, used to write the Telugu language ** Telugu (Unicode block), a block of Telugu characters in Unicode ...
bride and groom belonging to the
Kapu ''Kapu'' is the ancient Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (news ...
caste, c.a. 1909 File:Cajetan Lobo Prabhu.jpg, A Mangalorean Catholic gentleman belonging to the ''
Bamonn The Roman Catholic Brahmins, also referred to as ''Bammons'' (Kannada script, Kanarese: ಬಾಮಣು; IAST: Bamonn; pronounced ) in Konkani language, Konkani, is a caste among the Goan Catholics, Goan, East Indians, Bombay East Indian& Mangalo ...
'' caste, c. a. 1938 File:William Henry Jackson-Refreshment stall.jpg, Refreshment stall at a railway station in the Madras Presidency, c. a. 1895


See also

*
History of Tamil Nadu The region of Tamil Nadu in the southeast of modern India, shows evidence of having had continuous human habitation from 15,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE. Throughout its history, spanning the early Upper Paleolithic age to modern times, this region ...
*
Administrative divisions of Madras Presidency The Madras Presidency was a province of British India comprising most of the present day Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh along with a few districts and taluks of Karnataka, Kerala and Orissa, India, Orissa. A few princely states, notably Ramnad esta ...
* Madras States Agency *
List of colonial Governors and Presidents of Madras This is a list of the governors, agents, and presidents of colonial Madras Chennai (, ; also known as Madras, List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996) is the Capital city, capital of the states and t ...
* Advocate-General of Madras *
Sheriff of Madras The Sheriff of Madras was an apolitical titular position of authority bestowed for one year on a prominent citizen of Madras. The post was abolished in 1998. The position of Sheriff of Madras was created in the Madras Charter of 1726 which came in ...


References


Citations


Sources

; Government publications * * * * * * Madras District Gazetteers * * * * * * * * ; Other publications * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


Coins of the Madras Presidency
{{good article Historical Indian regions Presidencies of British India History of Chennai History of Andhra Pradesh Lakshadweep History of Karnataka Colonial Kerala History of Odisha 1652 establishments in British India 1950 disestablishments in India