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Lusitania (; ) or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian
Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled ...
located where modern
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
(south of the
Douro The Douro (, , ; es, Duero ; la, Durius) is the highest-flow river of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former ki ...

Douro
river) and part of western
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
(the present autonomous community of
Extremadura Extremadura ( , ; ext, Estremaúra; pt, Estremadura; Fala: ''Extremaúra'') is an autonomous community of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Es ...

Extremadura
and a part of the
province of Salamanca , population_note = 0.75% of Spain , blank_name_sec2 = Parliament , blank_info_sec2 = Cortes Generales The Cortes Generales (; en, Spanish Parliament, lit=General Courts) are the bicameral legislative chambers of Spain ...
) lie. It was named after the Lusitani or Lusitanian people (an
Indo-European people The Proto-Indo-Europeans were a hypothetical prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed ...
). Its capital was ''
Emerita Augusta Augusta Emerita, also called Emerita Augusta, was a Roman Colonia founded in 25 BC in present day Mérida, Spain Mérida () is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporatio ...
'' (currently
Mérida, Spain Mérida () is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it ...
), and it was initially part of the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
province of
Hispania Ulterior Hispania Ulterior (English: "Further Hispania", or occasionally "Thither Hispania") was a region of Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th cent ...
, before becoming a province of its own in the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
. Romans first came to the territory around the mid-2nd century BC. A war with Lusitanian tribes followed, from 155 to 139 BC. In 27 BC, the province was created. Lusitania was and is often used as an alternative name for Portugal.


Origin of the name

The etymology of the name of the
Lusitani The Lusitanians (or la, Lusitani) were an Indo-European speaking people living in the west of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous ...
(who gave the Roman province their name) remains unclear. Popular etymology connected the name to a supposed Roman demigod
Lusus Lusus is the supposed son or companion of Bacchus Dionysus (; grc-gre, Διόνυσος) is the god of the grape-harvest, winemaking and wine, of fertility, orchards and fruit, vegetation, insanity, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, festi ...

Lusus
, whereas some early-modern scholars suggested that ''Lus'' was a form of the Celtic
Lugus Lugus was a deity of the Celtic pantheon The God (male deity), gods and goddesses of the pre-Christian Celts, Celtic peoples are known from a variety of sources, including ancient places of worship, statues, engravings, cult objects and plac ...
followed by another (unattested) root ''*tan-'', supposed to mean "tribe", while others derived the name from ''Lucis'', an ancient people mentioned in Avienius' ''Ora Maritima'' (4th century AD) and from ''tan'' (
-stan The suffix -stan ( fa, ـستان, translit=stân after a vowel; estân or istân after a consonant) has the meaning of ''"a place abounding in"'' or ''"a place where anything abounds"'' in Persian language. It appears in the names of many regio ...
in
Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subreg ...
), or from ''tain'', meaning "a region" or implying "a country of waters", a root word that formerly meant a prince or sovereign governor of a region. Ancient Romans, such as
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
(''
Natural History Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecul ...
''
3.5
and
Varro Marcus Terentius Varro (; 116–27 BC) was a Roman polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a substantial number of subjects, known ...
(116 – 27 BC, cited by Pliny), speculated that the name ''Lusitania'' had Roman origins, as when Pliny says "lusum enim Liberi Patris aut lyssam cum eo bacchantium nomen dedisse Lusitaniae et Pana praefectum eius universae" [Lusitania takes its name from the ''
Lusus Lusus is the supposed son or companion of Bacchus Dionysus (; grc-gre, Διόνυσος) is the god of the grape-harvest, winemaking and wine, of fertility, orchards and fruit, vegetation, insanity, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, festi ...

Lusus
'' associated with Bacchus and the ''Lyssa'' of his Bacchantes, and Pan (mythology), Pan is its governor]. ''Lusus'' is usually translated as "game" or "play", while ''lyssa'' is a borrowing from the Greek language, Greek λυσσα, "frenzy" or "rage", and sometimes Rage personified; for later poets, Lusus and Lyssa become flesh-and-blood companions (even children) of Dionysus, Bacchus. Luís de Camões' epic ''Os Lusíadas'' (1572), which portrays Lusus as the founder of Lusitania, extends these ideas, which have no connection with modern etymology. In his work, Geographica, ''Geography'', the classical geographer Strabo (died ca. 24 AD) suggests a change had occurred in the use of the name "Lusitanian". He mentions a group who had once been called "Lusitanians" living north of the Douro river but were called in his day "Callacans".


Lusitanians

The Lusitani, who were Proto-Indo-Europeans, Indo-European speakers, established themselves in the region in the 6th century BC, but historians and archeologists are still undecided about their ethnogenesis. Some modern authors consider them to be an indigenous people who were Celticized culturally and possibly also through intermarriage. The archeologist Scarlat Lambrino defended the position that the Lusitanians were a tribal group of Celtic origin related to the Lusones (a tribe that inhabited the east of Iberian peninsula, Iberia). Some have claimed that both tribes came from the Swiss mountains. Others argue that the evidence points to the Lusitanians being a native Iberian tribe, resulting from intermarriage between different local tribes. The first area colonized by the Lusitani was probably the
Douro The Douro (, , ; es, Duero ; la, Durius) is the highest-flow river of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former ki ...

Douro
valley and the region of Beira Alta Province, Beira Alta (present day Portugal); in Beira, Portugal, Beira, they stayed until they defeated the Celtici and other tribes, then they expanded to cover a territory that reached Estremadura Province (historical), Estremadura before the arrival of the Roman Republic, Romans.


War against Rome

The Lusitani are mentioned for the first time in Livy (218 BC) and are described as fighting for the Carthage, Carthaginians; they are reported as fighting against Rome in 194 BC, sometimes allied with Celtiberians, Celtiberian tribes. In 179 BC, the ''praetor'' Lucius Postumius Albinus (consul 173 BC), Lucius Postumius Albinus celebrated a Roman Triumph, triumph over the Lusitani, but in 155 BC, on the command of Punicus (Πουνίκου, perhaps a Carthaginian) first and Cesarus (Καίσαρος) after, the Lusitani reached Gibraltar. Here they were defeated by the ''praetor'' Lucius Mummius. From 152 BC onwards, the Roman Republic had difficulties in recruiting soldiers for the wars in Hispania, deemed particularly brutal. In 150 BC, Servius Sulpicius Galba (consul 144 BC), Servius Sulpicius Galba organised a false armistice. While the Lusitani celebrated this new alliance, he massacred them, selling the survivors as slaves; this caused a new rebellion led by Viriathus, who was after many attempts killed by traitors paid by the Romans in 139 BC, after having led a successful guerrilla campaign against Rome and their local allies. Two years after, in 137 BC Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus led a successful campaign against the Lusitani, reaching as far north as the Minho River, Minho river. Romans scored other victories with ''proconsul'' Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus and Gaius Marius (elected in 113 BC), but still the Lusitani resisted with a long guerilla war; they later joined Sertorius' (a renegade Roman General) troops (around 80 BC) and Julius Caesar conducted a successful campaign against them in 61-60 BC, but they were not finally defeated until the reign of Augustus (around 28-24 BC).


Roman province


Division under Augustus (25–20 BC)

With Lusitania (and Asturia and Gallaecia), Rome had completed the conquest of the Iberian peninsula, which was then divided by Augustus (25–20 BC or 16-13 BC) into the eastern and northern Hispania Tarraconensis, the southwestern ''Hispania Baetica'' and the western ''Provincia Lusitana''. Originally, Lusitania included the territories of Asturia and Gallaecia, but these were later ceded to the jurisdiction of the new ''Provincia Tarraconensis'' and the former remained as ''Provincia Lusitania et Vettones''. Its northern border was along the Douro river, while on its eastern side its border passed through ''Salmantica'' (Salamanca) and ''Caesarobriga'' (Talavera de la Reina) to the ''Anas'' (Guadiana) river. Between 28 and 24 BC Augustus' military campaigns pacified all Hispania under Roman rule, with the foundation of Roman cities like Asturica Augusta (Astorga, Spain, Astorga) and Bracara Augusta (Braga) to the north, and to the south
Emerita Augusta Augusta Emerita, also called Emerita Augusta, was a Roman Colonia founded in 25 BC in present day Mérida, Spain Mérida () is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporatio ...
(Mérida, Spain, Mérida) (settled with the emeriti of the Legio V Alaudae and Legio X Gemina Roman legion, legions). Between the time of Augustus and Claudius, the province was divided into three conventus iuridicus, territorial units presided by capital cities with a court of justice and joint Roman/indigenous people assemblies (conventus), that counseled the Governor: *Conventus Emeritensis, with capital in
Emerita Augusta Augusta Emerita, also called Emerita Augusta, was a Roman Colonia founded in 25 BC in present day Mérida, Spain Mérida () is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporatio ...
(Mérida, Spain, Mérida, Spain) *Conventus Scalabitanus, with capital in Scalabis, Scalabis Iulia (Santarém, Portugal, Santarém, Portugal) *Conventus Pacensis, with capital in Pax Julia, Pax Iulia (Beja (Portugal), Beja, Portugal) The ''conventus'' ruled of a total of 46 populis, 5 being Colonia (Roman), Roman colonies (
Emerita Augusta Augusta Emerita, also called Emerita Augusta, was a Roman Colonia founded in 25 BC in present day Mérida, Spain Mérida () is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporatio ...
(Mérida, Spain, Mérida, Spain), Pax Iulia (Beja (Portugal), Beja), Scalabis (Santarém, Portugal, Santarém), Norba Caesarina and Metellinum). Felicitas Iulia Olisipo (Lisbon, which was a Roman law municipality) and 3 other towns had the old Latin status (Ebora (Évora), Myrtilis Iulia (Mértola) and Salacia (Alcácer do Sal). The other 37 were of ''stipendiarii'' class, among which Aeminium (Coimbra), Balsa (Roman town), Balsa (Tavira), or Miróbriga, Mirobriga (Santiago do Cacém). Other cities include Ossonoba (Roman city), Ossonoba (Faro, Portugal, Faro), Cetobriga (Tróia, Setúbal), Collippo (Leiria) or Arabriga (Roman city), Arabriga (Alenquer Municipality, Portugal, Alenquer).


Division under Diocletian

Under Diocletian, Lusitania kept its borders and was ruled by a ''praeses'', later by a ''consularis''; finally, in 298 AD, it was united with the other provinces to form the ''Diocesis Hispaniarum'' ("Roman diocese, Diocese of the Hispanias").


Governors

* Quintus Acutius Faienanus, ''legatus Augusti pro praetore'' between 19 and 1 BC. * Quintus Articuleius Regulus, between 2 BC and AD 14. * Gaius Ummidius Durmius Quadratus, c. 37 * Lucius Calventius Vetus Carminius, ''legatus Augusti pro praetore'' 44-45 * Otho, Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus Governor 58-68 * Gaius Catellius Celer 75/76-77/78Unless otherwise noted, the governors from 75 to the end of Hadrian's reign are taken from Werner Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten der senatorischen Statthalter von 69/70 bis 138/139", ''Chiron (journal), Chiron'', 12 (1982), pp. 281-362; 13 (1983), pp. 147-237. * ? Gaius Calpurnius Flaccus 119/120-120/121 * Gaius Oppius Sabinus Julius Nepos Manius Vibius Sollemnis Severus (under Hadrian) * Lucius Roscius Maecius Celer Postumus Mamilianus Vergilius Staberianus (under Hadrian) * Gaius Javolenus Calvinus (between 138 and 140)Géza Alföldy, ''Konsulat und Senatorenstand unter der Antoninen'' (Bonn: Rudolf Habelt Verlag, 1977), p. 256 * Aulus Avillius Urinatius Quadratus c.151-c.154 * ? Cornelius Repentinus c. 185 - c. 188Leunissen, ''Konsuln und Konsulare'', p. 290 * Publius Septimius Geta (brother of Septimius Severus), Publius Septimius Geta c. 188 - c. 191Paul Leunissen, ''Konsuln und Konsulare in der Zeit von Commodus bis Severus Alexander'' (Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben, 1989), p. 289 * Gaius Caesonius Macer Rufinianus 193/194 - 197 * Gaius Junius Faustinus [Pl]a[cidus] Postumianus c. 197 - c. 200 * Decimus Jun[ius? ...] Coelianus between 198 and 209 * Sextus Furnius Julianus c. 211 * Rutilius Pudens Crispinus around 225 - 227. * Vettius Agorius Praetextatus (4th century)


''Coloniae'' and ''Municipia''

* ''Colonia Metellinum'' (Medellín (Badajoz), Medellín, Badajoz) * ''Colonia Norba Caesarina'' (Cáceres (province), Cáceres) * ''Colonia Emerita Augusta, Augusta Emerita'' (Merida (Spain), Mérida), provincial capital. * ''Colonia Pax Julia, Civitas Pacensis'' (Beja (Portugal), Beja, Portugal) * ''Colonia Scalabis Praesidium Iulium'' (Santarém, Portugal, Santarém, Portugal) * ''Municipium Caesarobriga'' (Talavera de la Reina, Toledo, Spain, Toledo) * ''Municipium Talavera la Vieja, Augustobriga'' (Talavera la Vieja, Cáceres (province), Cáceres) * ''Municipium Aeminium'' (Coimbra, Portugal) * ''Municipium Conímbriga'' (Condeixa-a-Nova, Portugal) * ''Municipium Salmantica'' (Salamanca) * ''Municipium Caurium'' (Coria, Cáceres, Coria, Cáceres) * ''Municipium Turgalium'' (Trujillo (Cáceres), Trujillo, Cáceres) * ''Municipium Cáparra, Capara'' (Cáparra, Cáceres) * ''Municipium Olisipo'' (Lisboa, Portugal) * ''Municipium Egitania, Egitandiorum'' (Idanha-a-Velha, Portugal) * ''Municipium Regina Turdulorum'' (Casas de Reina, Badajoz) * ''Municipium Lacobriga'' (Lagos, Portugal)


Notable Lusitanians

*Viriathus *Gaius Appuleius Diocles


Legacy of the name

As with the Roman names of many European countries, ''Lusitania'' was and is often used as an alternative name for Portugal, especially in formal or literary and poetic contexts. The 16th-century colony that would eventually become Brazil was initially founded as "New Lusitania". In common use are such terms as Lusophone, meaning Portuguese-speaking, and Lusitanic, referring to the Community of Portuguese Language Countries—once Portuguese Empire, Portugal's colonies and presently independent countries still sharing some common heritage. Prior to his French invasion of Portugal, invasion in 1807, Napoleon Bonaparte proposed the establishment of a French-backed puppet Kingdom of Northern Lusitania as one of the successor states to Portugal under the assumption that such a campaign would result in an easy French victory. The province was also the namesake of the North Atlantic Ocean liner RMS Lusitania, RMS ''Lusitania'' infamous for being torpedoed by a German U-boat in 1915. The ship's owners the Cunard Line commonly named their vessels after Roman provinces with the ''Lusitania'' so being called after the Roman Iberian province to the north of the Strait of Gibraltar while her sister ship RMS Mauretania, RMS ''Mauretania'' was named after the Roman North African province on the south side of the strait.


See also

*Lusitanians *Lusitanian mythology *Lusitanian language *National Archaeology Museum (Portugal) *
Emerita Augusta Augusta Emerita, also called Emerita Augusta, was a Roman Colonia founded in 25 BC in present day Mérida, Spain Mérida () is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporatio ...
*Ophiussa *History of Portugal *Timeline of Portuguese history *History of Spain *Timeline of Spanish history *Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula *Romanization of Hispania *Balsa (Roman town)


References


An etymological lexicon of Proto-Celtic


External links


Lusitania, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography


*[https://web.archive.org/web/20190708130808/https://www.southernstar.ie/News/Crewmans-strange-foreboding-of-disaster-24042015.htm Southern Star Article: Crewman's strange foreboding of disaster] {{coord, 38.7689, N, 7.2181, W, source:wikidata, display=title Lusitania, Portugal in the Roman era, .L Roman provinces in Hispania Provinces of the Roman Empire History of Portugal by polity Ancient Portugal Medieval Portugal States and territories established in the 1st century BC States and territories disestablished in the 9th century 1st-century BC establishments in the Roman Republic 9th-century disestablishments in Portugal 1st millennium in Portugal