HOME

TheInfoList




Louis Pasteur (, ; 27 December 1822 – 28 September 1895) was a French
chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structu ...

chemist
and
microbiologist A microbiologist (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ...

microbiologist
renowned for his discoveries of the principles of
vaccination Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active to a particular . A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from we ...

vaccination
,
microbial fermentation Fermentation is a metabolism, metabolic process that produces chemical changes in organic Substrate (chemistry), substrates through the action of enzymes. In biochemistry, it is narrowly defined as the extraction of energy from carbohydrates in ...

microbial fermentation
, and
pasteurization Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk Milk is a nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the bas ...
. His research in chemistry led to remarkable breakthroughs in the understanding of the causes and preventions of
diseases A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function (biology), function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. Diseases are often known to be medical ...
, which laid down the foundations of hygiene, public health and much of modern medicine. His works are credited to saving millions of lives through the developments of vaccines for
rabies Rabies is a viral disease A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infection, infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells. Structural characteri ...
and
anthrax Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium ''Bacillus anthracis ''Bacillus anthracis'' is a Gram-positive and rod-shaped bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of Cell (biology), biological c ...

anthrax
. He is regarded as one of the founders of modern
bacteriology Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interact ...
and has been honoured as the "father of bacteriology" and as the "father of
microbiology Microbiology (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

microbiology
" (together with
Robert Koch Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch (; ; 11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist. As the discoverer of the specific causative agents of deadly infectious diseases including tuberculosis, cholera (though the Vibrio c ...

Robert Koch
, and the latter epithet also attributed to
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek ( ; ; 24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium ...
). Pasteur was responsible for disproving the doctrine of
spontaneous generation Spontaneous generation is a body of thought on the ordinary formation of living organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistr ...
. Under the auspices of the
French Academy of Sciences The French Academy of Sciences (French: ''Académie des sciences'') is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an discip ...
, his experiment demonstrated that in sterilized and sealed flasks, nothing ever developed; and, conversely, in sterilized but open flasks, microorganisms could grow. For this experiment, the academy awarded him the Alhumbert Prize carrying 2,500
francs The franc is any of several units of currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gil ...
in 1862. Pasteur is also regarded as one of the fathers of
germ theory of diseases The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the that has been and verified in accordance with the , using accepted of , measurement, and evaluation of results. ...
, which was a minor medical concept at the time. His many experiments showed that diseases could be prevented by killing or stopping germs, thereby directly supporting the germ theory and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating
milk Milk is a nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, any ...

milk
and
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flow ...

wine
to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called
pasteurization Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk Milk is a nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the bas ...
. Pasteur also made significant
discoveries Discoveries may refer to: * ''Discoveries'', a work by William Butler Yeats, written in 1907 * Discoveries (film), ''Discoveries'' (film), a 1939 British film * Discoveries (Robertson Davies), ''Discoveries'' (Robertson Davies), a 2002 book by Robe ...
in chemistry, most notably on the molecular basis for the
asymmetry Asymmetry is the absence of, or a violation of, symmetry Symmetry (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is ...

asymmetry
of certain
crystals A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas and plasma). The molecules in a solid are closely packed together and contain the least amount of kinet ...

crystals
and
racemization In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the ...

racemization
. Early in his career, his investigation of
tartaric acid Tartaric acid is a white, crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in many fruits, most notably in grapes, but also in bananas, tamarinds, and citrus. Its salt (chemistry), salt, potassium bitartrate, commonly known as cream of tartar, dev ...

tartaric acid
resulted in the first resolution of what is now called optical isomers. His work led the way to the current understanding of a fundamental principle in the structure of organic compounds. He was the director of the
Pasteur Institute The Pasteur Institute (french: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines. It is named after Louis Pasteur, who invented pasteurization and vaccines for ...
, established in 1887, until his death, and his body was interred in a vault beneath the institute. Although Pasteur made groundbreaking experiments, his reputation became associated with various controversies. Historical reassessment of his notebook revealed that he practiced deception to overcome his rivals.


Education and early life

Louis Pasteur was born on 27 December 1822, in
Dole, Jura Dole ( sometimes pronounced Francis Guthleben i''Imagine ce pays - Dôle'' France 3 Bourgogne-Franche Comté) is a commune An intentional community is a voluntary residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of gr ...
, France, to a
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
family of a poor tanner. He was the third child of Jean-Joseph Pasteur and Jeanne-Etiennette Roqui. The family moved to
Marnoz Marnoz is a Communes of France, commune in the Jura (department), Jura Departments of France, department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. Population See also *Communes of the Jura department References INSEE statistics
...
in 1826 and then to
Arbois Arbois is a Commune in France, commune in the Jura (département), Jura Departments of France, department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Regions of France, region in eastern France. The river Cuisance passes through the town, which has some pre ...
in 1827. Pasteur entered primary school in 1831. He was an average student in his early years, and not particularly academic, as his interests were
fishing Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. Around 99% of living fish species are ...

fishing
and sketching. He drew many pastels and portraits of his parents, friends and neighbors. Pasteur attended secondary school at the Collège d'Arbois. In October 1838, he left for Paris to join the Pension Barbet, but became homesick and returned in November. In 1839, he entered the Collège Royal at
Besançon Besançon (, , , ; archaic german: Bisanz; la, Vesontio) is the capital of the department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Dep ...
to study philosophy and earned his Bachelor of Letters degree in 1840. He was appointed a tutor at the Besançon college while continuing a degree science course with special mathematics. He failed his first examination in 1841. He managed to pass the '' baccalauréat scientifique'' (general science) degree from Dijon, where he earned his Bachelor of Science in Mathematics degree (Bachelier ès Sciences Mathématiques) in 1842, but with a mediocre grade in chemistry. Later in 1842, Pasteur took the entrance test for the
École Normale Supérieure École may refer to: * an elementary school in the French educational stages Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. ...
. He passed the first set of tests, but because his ranking was low, Pasteur decided not to continue and try again next year. He went back to the Pension Barbet to prepare for the test. He also attended classes at the
Lycée Saint-Louis The lycée Saint-Louis is a post-secondary school located in the 6th arrondissement The 6th arrondissement of Paris (''VIe arrondissement'') is one of the 20 Arrondissements of Paris, arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken Fre ...

Lycée Saint-Louis
and lectures of
Jean-Baptiste Dumas Jean Baptiste André Dumas (14 July 180010 April 1884) was a French chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classi ...
at the
Sorbonne The Sorbonne ( , , ) is a building in the Latin Quarter The Latin Quarter of Paris (french: Quartier latin, ) is an area in the 5th and the 6th arrondissements of Paris The city of Paris is divided into twenty ''municipal arrondissem ...

Sorbonne
. In 1843, he passed the test with a high ranking and entered the
École Normale Supérieure École may refer to: * an elementary school in the French educational stages Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. ...
. In 1845 he received the '' licencié ès sciences'' degree. In 1846, he was appointed professor of physics at the Collège de Tournon (now called Lycée Gabriel-Faure) in
Ardèche Ardèche (; oc, Ardecha; frp, Ardecha) is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geog ...

Ardèche
. But the chemist Antoine Jérôme Balard wanted him back at the ''École Normale Supérieure'' as a graduate laboratory assistant (''agrégé préparateur''). He joined Balard and simultaneously started his research in
crystallography Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure). The word "crystallography" is derived from the Greek language, Greek words ''crystallon'' "cold drop, frozen drop" ...

crystallography
and in 1847, he submitted his two thesis, one in chemistry and the other in physics.- (a) Chemistry Thesis: "Recherches sur la capacité de saturation de l'acide arsénieux. Etudes des arsénites de potasse, de soude et d'ammoniaque."; (b) Physics Thesis: "1. Études des phénomènes relatifs à la polarisation rotatoire des liquides. 2. Application de la polarisation rotatoire des liquides à la solution de diverses questions de chimie." After serving briefly as professor of physics at the Dijon
Lycée In France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several la ...

Lycée
in 1848, he became professor of chemistry at the
University of Strasbourg The University of Strasbourg (french: Université de Strasbourg, Unistra) is a Public university, public research university located in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, with over 52,000 students and 3,300 researchers. The French university traces it ...
, where he met and courted Marie Laurent, daughter of the university's
rector Rector (Latin for the member of a vessel's crew who steers) may refer to: Style or title *Rector (ecclesiastical), a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations *Rector (academia), a senior official in an educ ...
in 1849. They were married on 29 May 1849, and together had five children, only two of whom survived to adulthood; the other three died of
typhoid Typhoid fever, also known as typhoid, is a disease caused by ''Salmonella ''Salmonella'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living an ...
.


Career

Pasteur was appointed professor of chemistry at the University of Strasbourg in 1848, and became the chair of chemistry in 1852. In 1854, he was named dean of the new faculty of sciences at
University of Lille The University of Lille (french: Université de Lille, abbreviated as ULille, UDL or univ-lille) is a French pluridisciplinary List of public universities in France, public university located in and around Lille, Hauts-de-France (Métropole Europ ...
, where he began his studies on fermentation. It was on this occasion that Pasteur uttered his oft-quoted remark: "''dans les champs de l'observation, le hasard ne favorise que les esprits préparés''" ("In the field of observation, chance favors only the prepared mind"). In 1857, he moved to Paris as the director of scientific studies at the ''
École Normale Supérieure École may refer to: * an elementary school in the French educational stages Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. ...
'' where he took control from 1858 to 1867 and introduced a series of reforms to improve the standard of scientific work. The examinations became more rigid, which led to better results, greater competition, and increased prestige. Many of his decrees, however, were rigid and authoritarian, leading to two serious student revolts. During "the bean revolt" he decreed that a mutton stew, which students had refused to eat, would be served and eaten every Monday. On another occasion he threatened to expel any student caught smoking, and 73 of the 80 students in the school resigned. In 1863, he was appointed professor of geology, physics, and chemistry at the ''
École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts The Beaux-Arts de Paris is a French grande école whose primary mission is to provide high-level arts education and training. This is classical and historical School of Fine Arts in France. The art school, which is part of the PSL Research Unive ...

École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts
'', a position he held until his resignation in 1867. In 1867, he became the chair of organic chemistry at the Sorbonne, but he later gave up the position because of poor health. In 1867, the École Normale's laboratory of physiological chemistry was created at Pasteur's request, and he was the laboratory's director from 1867 to 1888. In Paris, he established the Pasteur Institute in 1887, in which he was its director for the rest of his life.


Research


Molecular asymmetry

In Pasteur's early work as a
chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structu ...

chemist
, beginning at the ''École Normale Supérieure'', and continuing at Strasbourg and Lille, he examined the chemical, optical and crystallographic properties of a group of compounds known as
tartrates A tartrate is a salt Salt is a mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occu ...
. He resolved a problem concerning the nature of
tartaric acid Tartaric acid is a white, crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in many fruits, most notably in grapes, but also in bananas, tamarinds, and citrus. Its salt (chemistry), salt, potassium bitartrate, commonly known as cream of tartar, dev ...

tartaric acid
in 1848.Joseph Gal: ''Louis Pasteur, Language, and Molecular Chirality. I. Background and Dissymmetry'', Chirality ''23'' (2011) 1−16. A solution of this compound derived from living things rotated the
plane of polarization The term ''plane of polarization'' refers to the direction of polarization (waves), polarization of ''linear polarization, linearly-polarized'' light or other electromagnetic radiation. Unfortunately the term is used with two contradictory meanin ...
of light passing through it.H.D. Flack (2009
"Louis Pasteur's discovery of molecular chirality and spontaneous resolution in 1848, together with a complete review of his crystallographic and chemical work,"
''Acta Crystallographica'', Section A, vol. 65, pp. 371–389.
The problem was that tartaric acid derived by
chemical synthesis As a topic of chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they unde ...
had no such effect, even though its chemical reactions were identical and its elemental composition was the same. Pasteur noticed that crystals of tartrates had small faces. Then he observed that, in
racemic mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a ...
s of tartrates, half of the crystals were right-handed and half were left-handed. In solution, the right-handed compound was
dextrorotatory Optical rotation, also known as polarization rotation or circular birefringence, is the rotation of the orientation of the plane of polarization Polarization or polarisation may refer to: In the physical sciences *Polarization (waves), the abi ...
, and the left-handed one was levorotatory. Pasteur determined that optical activity related to the shape of the crystals, and that an asymmetric internal arrangement of the molecules of the compound was responsible for twisting the light. The (2''R'',3''R'')- and (2''S'',3''S'')- tartrates were isometric, non-superposable mirror images of each other. This was the first time anyone had demonstrated molecular chirality, and also the first explanation of
isomer In chemistry, isomers are molecules or polyatomic ions with identical molecular formulas — that is, same number of atoms of each element (chemistry), element — but distinct arrangements of atoms in space. Isomerism is existence or possibil ...

isomer
ism. Some historians consider Pasteur's work in this area to be his "most profound and most original contributions to science", and his "greatest scientific discovery."


Fermentation and germ theory of diseases

Pasteur was motivated to investigate fermentation while working at Lille. In 1856 a local wine manufacturer, M. Bigot, whose son was one of Pasteur's students, sought for his advice on the problems of making beetroot alcohol and souring. According to his son-in-law, René Vallery-Radot, in August 1857 Pasteur sent a paper about lactic acid fermentation to the Société des Sciences de Lille, but the paper was read three months later. A memoire was subsequently published on 30 November 1857. In the memoir, he developed his ideas stating that: "I intend to establish that, just as there is an alcoholic ferment, the yeast of beer, which is found everywhere that sugar is decomposed into alcohol and carbonic acid, so also there is a particular ferment, a lactic yeast, always present when ." Pasteur also wrote about alcoholic fermentation. It was published in full form in 1858.
Jöns Jacob Berzelius Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (; by himself and his contemporaries named only Jacob Berzelius, 20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848) was a Swedish chemist. Berzelius is considered, along with Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (; 25 January 1627 &ndash ...

Jöns Jacob Berzelius
and
Justus von Liebig Justus Freiherr (; male, abbreviated as ), (; his wife, abbreviated as , literally "free lord" or "free lady") and (, his unmarried daughters and maiden aunts) are designations used as titles of nobility Traditional rank amongst Euro ...

Justus von Liebig
had proposed the theory that fermentation was caused by decomposition. Pasteur demonstrated that this theory was incorrect, and that yeast was responsible for fermentation to produce alcohol from sugar. He also demonstrated that, when a different microorganism contaminated the wine, lactic acid was produced, making the wine sour. In 1861, Pasteur observed that less sugar fermented per part of yeast when the yeast was exposed to air. The lower rate of fermentation aerobically became known as the
Pasteur effect The Pasteur effect is an inhibiting effect of oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element with the chemical symbol, symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen Group (periodic table), group in the periodic table, a highly Ch ...
. Pasteur's research also showed that the growth of micro-organisms was responsible for spoiling beverages, such as beer, wine and milk. With this established, he invented a process in which liquids such as milk were heated to a temperature between 60 and 100 °C. This killed most bacteria and moulds already present within them. Pasteur and
Claude Bernard Claude Bernard (; 12 July 1813 – 10 February 1878) was a French physiologist. Historian I. Bernard Cohen of Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachus ...

Claude Bernard
completed tests on blood and urine on 20 April 1862. Pasteur patented the process, to fight the "diseases" of wine, in 1865. The method became known as
pasteurization Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk Milk is a nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the bas ...
, and was soon applied to beer and milk. Beverage contamination led Pasteur to the idea that micro-organisms infecting animals and humans cause disease. He proposed preventing the entry of micro-organisms into the human body, leading
Joseph Lister Joseph Lister, Baron Lister of Lyme Regis (5 April 182710 February 1912), was a British surgeon In modern medicine Medicine is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterpri ...
to develop
antiseptic Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί ''anti'', "against" and σηπτικός ''sēptikos'', "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cel ...

antiseptic
methods in surgery. In 1866, Pasteur published ''Etudes sur le Vin'', about the diseases of wine, and he published ''Etudes sur la Bière'' in 1876, concerning the diseases of beer. In the early 19th century,
Agostino Bassi Agostino Bassi, sometimes called de Lodi (25 September 1773 – 8 February 1856), was an Italy, Italian entomologist. He preceded Louis Pasteur in the discovery that microorganisms can be the cause of disease (the germ theory of disease). He dis ...
had shown that
muscardine Muscardine is a disease of insects. It is caused by many species of entomopathogenic fungus. Many muscardines are known for affecting silkworms.Singh, T. ''Principles And Techniques Of Silkworm Seed Production''. Discovery Publishing House. 2004. ...
was caused by a fungus that infected silkworms. Since 1853, two diseases called '' pébrine'' and ''
flacherie Flacherie (literally: "flaccidness") is a disease of silkworm ''Bombyx mori'', the domestic silk moth, is an insect from the moth Moths are a paraphyletic In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last com ...
'' had been infecting great numbers of
silkworm ''Bombyx mori'', the domestic silk moth, is an insect from the moth Moths are a paraphyletic In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a ...

silkworm
s in southern France, and by 1865 they were causing huge losses to farmers. In 1865, Pasteur went to
Alès Alès (; oc, Alès) is a Communes of France, commune in the Gard Departments of France, department in the Occitanie regions of France, region in southern France. It is one of the Subprefectures in France, sub-prefectures of the department. It ...
and worked for five years until 1870. Silkworms with pébrine were covered in corpuscles. In the first three years, Pasteur thought that the corpuscles were a symptom of the disease. In 1870, he concluded that the corpuscles were the cause of pébrine (it is now known that the cause is a
microsporidian Microsporidia are a group of spore )'', growing on a thinning, thinned hybrid black poplar ''(populus, Populus x canadensis)''. The last stage of the moss#Life cycle, moss lifecycle is shown, where the sporophytes are visible before dispersi ...
). Pasteur also showed that the disease was hereditary. Pasteur developed a system to prevent pébrine: after the female moths laid their eggs, the moths were turned into a pulp. The pulp was examined with a microscope, and if corpuscles were observed, the eggs were destroyed. Pasteur concluded that bacteria caused flacherie. The primary cause is currently thought to be viruses. The spread of flacherie could be accidental or hereditary. Hygiene could be used to prevent accidental flacherie. Moths whose digestive cavities did not contain the microorganisms causing flacherie were used to lay eggs, preventing hereditary flacherie.


Spontaneous generation

Following his fermentation experiments, Pasteur demonstrated that the skin of grapes was the natural source of yeasts, and that sterilized grapes and grape juice never fermented. He drew grape juice from under the skin with sterilized needles, and also covered grapes with sterilized cloth. Both experiments could not produce wine in sterilized containers. His findings and ideas were against the prevailing notion of
spontaneous generation Spontaneous generation is a body of thought on the ordinary formation of living organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistr ...
. He received a particularly stern criticism from
Félix Archimède Pouchet Félix-Archimède Pouchet (26 August 1800 – 6 December 1872) was a French naturalist and a leading proponent of spontaneous generation Spontaneous generation is a body of thought on the ordinary formation of living organism In biol ...
, who was director of the Rouen Museum of Natural History. To settle the debate between the eminent scientists, the French Academy of Sciences offered the Alhumbert Prize carrying 2,500
francs The franc is any of several units of currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gil ...
to whoever could experimentally demonstrate for or against the doctrine. Pouchet stated that air everywhere could cause spontaneous generation of living organisms in liquids. In the late 1850s, he performed experiments and claimed that they were evidence of spontaneous generation.
Francesco Redi Francesco Redi (18 February 1626 – 1 March 1697) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian langua ...

Francesco Redi
and
Lazzaro Spallanzani Lazzaro Spallanzani (; 12 January 1729 – 11 February 1799) was an Italian Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from ...
had provided some evidence against spontaneous generation in the 17th and 18th centuries, respectively. Spallanzani's experiments in 1765 suggested that air contaminated broths with bacteria. In the 1860s, Pasteur repeated Spallanzani's experiments, but Pouchet reported a different result using a different broth. Pasteur performed several experiments to disprove spontaneous generation. He placed boiled liquid in a flask and let hot air enter the flask. Then he closed the flask, and no organisms grew in it. In another experiment, when he opened flasks containing boiled liquid, dust entered the flasks, causing organisms to grow in some of them. The number of flasks in which organisms grew was lower at higher altitudes, showing that air at high altitudes contained less dust and fewer organisms. Pasteur also used
swan neck flask A swan neck flask, also known as a gooseneck flask, is a laboratory flask, flask with a particular shape of tube leading into it. A test tube or other vessel may also have a "swan neck". The swan neck significantly slows down the motion of air thr ...
s containing a fermentable liquid. Air was allowed to enter the flask via a long curving tube that made dust particles stick to it. Nothing grew in the broths unless the flasks were tilted, making the liquid touch the contaminated walls of the neck. This showed that the living organisms that grew in such broths came from outside, on dust, rather than spontaneously generating within the liquid or from the action of pure air. These were some of the most important experiments disproving the theory of spontaneous generation. Pasteur gave a series of five presentations of his findings before the French Academy of Sciences in 1881, which were published in 1882 as ''Mémoire'' ''Sur les corpuscules organisés qui existent dans l'atmosphère: Examen de la doctrine des générations spontanées'' (''Account of Organized Corpuscles Existing in the Atmosphere: Examining the Doctrine of Spontaneous Generation''). Pasteur won the Alhumbert Prize in 1862. He concluded that:
Never will the doctrine of spontaneous generation recover from the mortal blow of this simple experiment. There is no known circumstance in which it can be confirmed that microscopic beings came into the world without germs, without parents similar to themselves.


Immunology and vaccination


Chicken cholera

Pasteur's first work on vaccine development was on
chicken cholera Fowl cholera is also called avian cholera, avian pasteurellosis, avian hemorrhagic septicemia. It is the most common pasteurellosis Pasteurellosis is an infection with a species of the bacterial genus ''Pasteurella'', which is found in humans and ...
. He received the bacteria samples (later called ''Pasteurella multocida'' after him) from Henry Toussaint. He started the study in 1877, and by the next year, was able to maintain a stable culture using broths. After another year of continuous culturing, he found that the bacteria were less pathogenic. Some of his culture samples could no longer induce the disease in healthy
chicken The chicken (''Gallus gallus domesticus'') is a domestication, domesticated subspecies of the red junglefowl originally from Southeastern Asia. Rooster or cock is a term for an adult male bird, and a younger male may be called a cockerel. A m ...

chicken
s. In 1879, Pasteur, planning for holiday, instructed his assistant,
Charles Chamberland Charles Chamberland (12 March 1851 – 2 May 1908) was a French microbiologist from Chilly-le-Vignoble in the department of Jura (department), Jura who worked with Louis Pasteur. In 1884 he developed a type of filtration known today as the Cha ...

Charles Chamberland
to inoculate the chickens with fresh bacteria culture. Chamberland forgot and went on holiday himself. On his return, he injected the month-old cultures to healthy chickens. The chickens showed some symptoms of infection, but instead of the infections being fatal, as they usually were, the chickens recovered completely. Chamberland assumed an error had been made, and wanted to discard the apparently faulty culture, but Pasteur stopped him. Pasteur injected the freshly recovered chickens with fresh bacteria (that normally would kill other chickens), the chickens no longer showed any sign of infection. It was clear to him that the weakened bacteria had caused the chickens to become
immune In biology, immunity is the capability of multicellular organisms Multicellular organisms are organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that emb ...

immune
to the disease. In December 1880, Pasteur presented his results to the French Academy of Sciences as "''Sur les maladies virulentes et en particulier sur la maladie appelée vulgairement choléra des poules'' (On virulent diseases, and in particular on the disease commonly called chicken cholera)" and published it in the academy's journal ('' Comptes-Rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des Sciences''). He attributed that the bacteria were weakened by contact with oxygen. He explained that bacteria kept in sealed containers never lost their virulence, and only those exposed to air in culture media could be used as vaccine. Pasteur introduced the term "attenuation" for this weakening of virulence as he presented before the academy, saying:
We can diminish the microbe’s virulence by changing the mode of culturing. This is the crucial point of my subject. I ask the Academy not to criticize, for the time being, the confidence of my proceedings that permit me to determine the microbe’s attenuation, in order to save the independence of my studies and to better assure their progress... n conclusionI would like to point out to the Academy two main consequences to the facts presented: the hope to culture all microbes and to find a vaccine for all infectious diseases that have repeatedly afflicted humanity, and are a major burden on agriculture and breeding of domestic animals.


Anthrax

In the 1870s, he applied this immunization method to
anthrax Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium ''Bacillus anthracis ''Bacillus anthracis'' is a Gram-positive and rod-shaped bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of Cell (biology), biological c ...

anthrax
, which affected
cattle Cattle, taurine cattle, Eurasian cattle, or European cattle (''Bos taurus'' or ''Bos primigenius taurus'') are large domestication, domesticated Cloven hoof, cloven-hooved herbivores. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae ...

cattle
, and aroused interest in combating other diseases. Pasteur cultivated bacteria from the blood of animals infected with anthrax. When he inoculated animals with the bacteria, anthrax occurred, proving that the bacteria was the cause of the disease. Many cattle were dying of anthrax in "cursed fields". Pasteur was told that sheep that died from anthrax were buried in the field. Pasteur thought that earthworms might have brought the bacteria to the surface. He found anthrax bacteria in earthworms' excrement, showing that he was correct. He told the farmers not to bury dead animals in the fields. Pasteur had been trying to develop the anthrax vaccine since 1877, soon after Robert Koch's discovery of the bacterium. On 12 July 1880, Henri Bouley read before the French Academy of Sciences a report from Henry Toussaint, a
veterinary surgeon Veterinary surgery is surgery Surgery ''cheirourgikē'' (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via la, chirurgiae, meaning "hand work". is a medical or dental specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniqu ...
, who was not member of the academy. Toussaint had developed anthrax vaccine by killing the bacilli by heating at 55°C for 10  minutes. He tested on eight dogs and 11 sheep, half of which died after inoculation. It was not a great success. Upon hearing the news, Pasteur immediately wrote to the academy that he could not believe that dead vaccine would work and that Toussaint's claim "overturns all the ideas I had on viruses, vaccines, etc." Following Pasteur's criticism, Toussaint switched to
carbolic acid Phenol (also called carbolic acid) is an aromatic In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or ...
to kill anthrax bacilli and tested the vaccine on sheep in August 1880. Pasteur thought that this type of killed vaccine should not work because he believed that attenuated bacteria used up nutrients that the bacteria needed to grow. He thought oxidizing bacteria made them less virulent. But Pasteur found that anthrax bacillus was not easily weakened by culturing in air as it formed spores – unlike chicken cholera bacillus. In early 1881, he discovered that growing anthrax bacilli at about 42 °C made them unable to produce spores, and he described this method in a speech to the French Academy of Sciences on 28 February. On 21 March, he announced successful vaccination of sheep. To this news, veterinarian Hippolyte Rossignol proposed that the Société d'agriculture de Melun organize an experiment to test Pasteur's vaccine. Pasteur signed agreement of the challenge on 28 April. A public experiment was conducted in May at Pouilly-le-Fort. 58 sheep, 2 goats and 10 cattle were used, half of which were given the vaccine on 5 and 17 May; while the other half was untreated. All the animals were injected with the fresh virulent culture of anthrax bacillus on 31 May. The official result was observed and analysed on 2 June in the presence of over 200 spectators. All cattle survived, vaccinated or not, as Pasteur had bravely predicted: "I hypothesized that the six vaccinated cows would not become very ill, while the four unvaccinated cows would perish or at least become very ill." On the other hand, all vaccinated sheep and goats survived, while the unvaccinated one either had died or were dying before the viewers. His report to the French Academy of Sciences on 13 June condludes:
looking at everything from the scientific point of view, the development of a vaccination against anthrax constitutes significant progress beyond the first vaccine developed by Jenner, since the latter had never been obtained experimentally.
Pasteur did not directly disclose how he prepared the vaccines used at Pouilly-le-Fort. Although his report indicated it as a "live vaccine", his laboratory notebooks show that he actually used
potassium dichromate Potassium dichromate, , is a common inorganic In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, ...

potassium dichromate
-killed vaccine, as developed by Chamberland, quite similar to Toussaint's method. The notion of a weak form of a disease causing immunity to the virulent version was not new; this had been known for a long time for
smallpox Smallpox was an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to the infectious ...

smallpox
. Inoculation with smallpox (
variolation Variolation was the method of inoculation Inoculation is a set of methods of artificially inducing immunity against various infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, diseas ...
) was known to result in a much less severe disease, and greatly reduced mortality, in comparison with the naturally acquired disease.
Edward Jenner Edward Jenner, (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was a British physician A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English), medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a pro ...

Edward Jenner
had also studied
vaccination Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active to a particular . A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from we ...

vaccination
using
cowpox Cowpox is an infectious disease caused by the cowpox virus (CPXV). The virus, part of the genus ''Orthopoxvirus ''Orthopoxvirus'' is a genus of virus A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that Viral replication, replicates on ...
(''
vaccinia ''Vaccinia virus'' (VACV or VV) is a large, complex, enveloped virus A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physi ...
'') to give cross-immunity to smallpox in the late 1790s, and by the early 1800s vaccination had spread to most of Europe. The difference between smallpox vaccination and
anthrax Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium ''Bacillus anthracis ''Bacillus anthracis'' is a Gram-positive and rod-shaped bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of Cell (biology), biological c ...

anthrax
or
chicken cholera Fowl cholera is also called avian cholera, avian pasteurellosis, avian hemorrhagic septicemia. It is the most common pasteurellosis Pasteurellosis is an infection with a species of the bacterial genus ''Pasteurella'', which is found in humans and ...
vaccination was that the latter two disease organisms had been artificially weakened, so a naturally weak form of the disease organism did not need to be found. This discovery revolutionized work in infectious diseases, and Pasteur gave these artificially weakened diseases the generic name of "
vaccine A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity The adaptive immune system, also referred as the acquired immune system, is a subsystem of the immune system The immune system is a network of biological process ...

vaccine
s", in honour of Jenner's discovery. In 1876,
Robert Koch Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch (; ; 11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist. As the discoverer of the specific causative agents of deadly infectious diseases including tuberculosis, cholera (though the Vibrio c ...

Robert Koch
had shown that ''
Bacillus anthracis ''Bacillus anthracis'' is a Gram-positive In bacteriology, gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to ...

Bacillus anthracis
'' caused anthrax. In his papers published between 1878 and 1880, Pasteur only mentioned Koch's work in a footnote. Koch met Pasteur at the Seventh International Medical Congress in 1881. A few months later, Koch wrote that Pasteur had used impure cultures and made errors. In 1882, Pasteur replied to Koch in a speech, to which Koch responded aggressively. Koch stated that Pasteur tested his vaccine on unsuitable animals and that Pasteur's research was not properly scientific. In 1882, Koch wrote "On the Anthrax Inoculation", in which he refuted several of Pasteur's conclusions about anthrax and criticized Pasteur for keeping his methods secret, jumping to conclusions, and being imprecise. In 1883, Pasteur wrote that he used cultures prepared in a similar way to his successful fermentation experiments and that Koch misinterpreted statistics and ignored Pasteur's work on silkworms.


Swine erysipelas

In 1882, Pasteur sent his assistant to southern France because of an
epizootic In epizoology Epizootiology, epizoology, or veterinary epidemiology is the study of disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelat ...
of swine erysipelas. Thuillier identified the bacillus that caused the disease in March 1883. Pasteur and Thuillier increased the bacillus's virulence after passing it through pigeons. Then they passed the bacillus through rabbits, weakening it and obtaining a vaccine. Pasteur and Thuillier incorrectly described the bacterium as a figure-eight shape. Roux described the bacterium as stick-shaped in 1884.


Rabies

Pasteur produced the first vaccine for
rabies Rabies is a viral disease A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infection, infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells. Structural characteri ...
by growing the virus in rabbits, and then weakening it by drying the affected nerve tissue. The rabies vaccine was initially created by
Emile Roux Emil or Emile may refer to: Literature *''Emile, or On Education ''Emile, or On Education'' (french: Émile, ou De l’éducation) is a treatise on the nature of education and on the nature of Human, man written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who c ...
, a French doctor and a colleague of Pasteur, who had produced a killed vaccine using this method. The vaccine had been tested in 50 dogs before its first human trial. This vaccine was used on 9-year-old
Joseph Meister Joseph Meister (21 February 1876 – 24 June 1940) was the first person to be inoculation, inoculated against rabies by Louis Pasteur, and likely the first person to be successfully treated for the infection. History In 1885, nine-year-old Me ...

Joseph Meister
, on 6 July 1885, after the boy was badly mauled by a rabid dog. This was done at some personal risk for Pasteur, since he was not a licensed physician and could have faced prosecution for treating the boy. After consulting with physicians, he decided to go ahead with the treatment. Over 11 days, Meister received 13 inoculations, each inoculation using viruses that had been weakened for a shorter period of time. Three months later he examined Meister and found that he was in good health. Pasteur was hailed as a hero and the legal matter was not pursued. Analysis of his laboratory notebooks shows that Pasteur had treated two people before his vaccination of Meister. One survived but may not actually have had rabies, and the other died of rabies. Pasteur began treatment of Jean-Baptiste Jupille on 20 October 1885, and the treatment was successful. Later in 1885, people, including four children from the United States, went to Pasteur's laboratory to be inoculated. In 1886, he treated 350 people, of which only one developed rabies. The treatment's success laid the foundations for the manufacture of many other vaccines. The first of the Pasteur Institutes was also built on the basis of this achievement. In ''
The Story of San Michele ''The Story of San Michele'' is a book of memoirs by Sweden, Swedish physician Axel Munthe (October 31, 1857 – February 11, 1949) first published in 1929 by British publisher John Murray (publishing house), John Murray. Written in English, it w ...
'',
Axel Munthe Axel Martin Fredrik Munthe (31 October 1857 – 11 February 1949) was a Swedish-born medical doctor and psychiatrist, best known as the author of '' The Story of San Michele'', an autobiographical account of his life and work. He spoke several lan ...

Axel Munthe
writes of some risks Pasteur undertook in the rabies vaccine research: Because of his study in germs, Pasteur encouraged doctors to sanitize their hands and equipment before surgery. Prior to this, few doctors or their assistants practiced these procedures.
Ignaz Semmelweis Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (; hu, Semmelweis Ignác Fülöp ; 1 July 1818–13 August 1865) was an ethnic German-Hungarian physician and scientist born in the Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy A monarch ...

Ignaz Semmelweis
and
Joseph Lister Joseph Lister, Baron Lister of Lyme Regis (5 April 182710 February 1912), was a British surgeon In modern medicine Medicine is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterpri ...

Joseph Lister
had earlier practiced hand sanitizing in medical contexts in the 1860s.


Controversies

A French national hero at age 55, in 1878 Pasteur discreetly told his family never to reveal his laboratory notebooks to anyone. His family obeyed, and all his documents were held and inherited in secrecy. Finally, in 1964 Pasteur's grandson and last surviving male descendant, Pasteur Vallery-Radot, donated the papers to the
French national library French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France ** French language, which originated in France, and its various dialects ** French people, a nation and ethnic group identified with France ** French c ...
. Yet the papers were restricted for historical studies until the death of Vallery-Radot in 1971. The documents were given a catalogue number only in 1985. In 1995, the centennial of the death of Louis Pasteur, a historian of science
Gerald L. Geison Gerald Lynn Geison (March 26, 1943 – July 3, 2001) was an American historian who died at 58. Career Gerald L. Geison went on to earn a doctorate in Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * ...
published an analysis of Pasteur's private notebooks in his ''The Private Science of Louis Pasteur'', and declared that Pasteur had given several misleading accounts and played deceptions in his most important discoveries.
Max Perutz Max Ferdinand Perutz (19 May 1914 – 6 February 2002) was an Austrian-born British molecular biologist, who shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with John Kendrew, for their studies of the structures of haemoglobin and myoglobin. He went ...

Max Perutz
published a defense of Pasteur in ''
The New York Review of Books ''The New York Review of Books'' (or ''NYREV'' or ''NYRB'') is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs. Published in New York City, it is inspired by the idea that the discussion of i ...
''. Based on further examinations of Pasteur's documents, French immunologist Patrice Debré concluded in his book'' Louis Pasteur'' (1998) that, in spite of his genius, Pasteur had some faults. A book review states that Debré "sometimes finds him unfair, combative, arrogant, unattractive in attitude, inflexible and even dogmatic".


Fermentation

Scientists before Pasteur had studied fermentation. In the 1830s, Charles Cagniard-Latour, Friedrich Traugott Kützing and Theodor Schwann used microscopes to study yeasts and concluded that yeasts were living organisms. In 1839,
Justus von Liebig Justus Freiherr (; male, abbreviated as ), (; his wife, abbreviated as , literally "free lord" or "free lady") and (, his unmarried daughters and maiden aunts) are designations used as titles of nobility Traditional rank amongst Euro ...

Justus von Liebig
, Friedrich Wöhler and
Jöns Jacob Berzelius Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (; by himself and his contemporaries named only Jacob Berzelius, 20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848) was a Swedish chemist. Berzelius is considered, along with Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (; 25 January 1627 &ndash ...

Jöns Jacob Berzelius
stated that yeast was not an organism and was produced when air acted on plant juice. In 1855, Antoine Béchamp, Professor of Chemistry at the University of Montpellier, conducted experiments with sucrose solutions and concluded that water was the factor for fermentation. He changed his conclusion in 1858, stating that fermentation was directly related to the growth of moulds, which required air for growth. He regarded himself as the first to show the role of microorganisms in fermentation. Pasteur started his experiments in 1857 and published his findings in 1858 (April issue of ''Comptes Rendus Chimie'', Béchamp's paper appeared in January issue). Béchamp noted that Pasteur did not bring any novel idea or experiments. On the other hand, Béchamp was probably aware of Pasteur's 1857 preliminary works. With both scientists claiming priority on the discovery, a dispute, extending to several areas, lasted throughout their lives. However, Béchamp was on the losing side, as the ''BMJ'' obituary remarked: His name was "associated with bygone controversies as to priority which it would be unprofitable to recall". Béchamp proposed the incorrect theory of microzymes. According to K. L. Manchester, anti-vivisectionists and proponents of alternative medicine promoted Béchamp and microzymes, unjustifiably claiming that Pasteur plagiarized Béchamp. Pasteur thought that succinic acid inverted sucrose. In 1860, Marcellin Berthelot isolated invertase and showed that succinic acid did not invert sucrose. Pasteur believed that fermentation was only due to living cells. He and Berthelot engaged in a long argument subject of vitalism, in which Berthelot was vehemently opposed to any idea of vitalism. Hans Ernst August Buchner, Hans Buchner discovered that zymase catalyzed fermentation, showing that fermentation was catalyzed by enzymes within cells. Eduard Buchner also discovered that fermentation could take place outside living cells.


Anthrax vaccine

Pasteur publicly claimed his success in developing the anthrax vaccine in 1881. However, his admirer-turned-rival Henry Toussaint was the one who developed the first vaccine. Toussaint isolated the bacteria that caused chicken cholera (later named ''Pasteurella'' in honour of Pasteur) in 1879 and gave samples to Pasteur who used them for his own works. On 12 July 1880, Toussaint presented his successful result to the French Academy of Sciences, using an attenuated vaccine against anthrax in dogs and sheep. Pasteur on grounds of jealousy contested the discovery by publicly displaying his vaccination method at Pouilly-le-Fort on 5 May 1881. Pasteur then gave a misleading account of the preparation of the anthrax vaccine used in the experiment. He claimed that he made "live vaccine", but used potassium dichromate to kill the vaccine, a method similar to Toussaint's. The promotional experiment was a success and helped Pasteur sell his products, getting the benefits and glory.


Experimental ethics

Pasteur experiments are often cited as against medical ethics, especially on his vaccination of Meister. He did not have any experience in medical practice, and more importantly, lacked a medical license. This is often cited as a serious threat to his professional and personal reputation. His closest partner Émile Roux, who had medical qualifications, refused to participate in the clinical trial, likely because he considered it unjust. However, Pasteur executed vaccination of the boy under the close watch of practising physicians Jacques-Joseph Grancher, head of the Paris Children's Hospital's paediatric clinic, and Alfred Vulpian, a member of the Commission on Rabies. He was not allowed to hold the syringe, although the inoculations were entirely under his supervision. It was Grancher who was responsible for the injections, and he defended Pasteur before the Académie de Médecine, French National Academy of Medicine in the issue. Pasteur has also been criticized for keeping secrecy of his procedure and not giving proper pre-clinical trials on animals. Pasteur stated that he kept his procedure secret in order to control its quality. He later disclosed his procedures to a small group of scientists. Pasteur wrote that he had successfully vaccinated 50 rabid dogs before using it on Meister. According to Geison, Pasteur's laboratory notebooks show that he had vaccinated only 11 dogs. Meister never showed any symptoms of rabies, but the vaccination has not been proved to be the reason. One source estimates the probability of Meister contracting rabies at 10%.


Awards and honours

Pasteur was awarded 1,500 francs in 1853 by the Pharmaceutical Society for the synthesis of racemic acid. In 1856 the Royal Society of London presented him the Rumford Medal for his discovery of the nature of racemic acid and its relations to polarized light, and the Copley Medal in 1874 for his work on fermentation. He was elected a List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1869, Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1869. The
French Academy of Sciences The French Academy of Sciences (French: ''Académie des sciences'') is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an discip ...
awarded Pasteur the 1859 Montyon Prizes, Montyon Prize for experimental physiology in 1860, and the Jecker Prize in 1861 and the Alhumbert Prize in 1862 for his experimental refutation of spontaneous generation. Though he lost elections in 1857 and 1861 for membership to the French Academy of Sciences, he won the 1862 election for membership to the mineralogy section. He was elected to permanent secretary of the physical science section of the academy in 1887 and held the position until 1889. In 1873 Pasteur was elected to the Académie Nationale de Médecine and was made the commander in the Brazilian Order of the Rose. In 1881 he was elected to a seat at the Académie française left vacant by Émile Littré. Pasteur received the Albert Medal (Royal Society of Arts), Albert Medal from the Royal Society of Arts in 1882. In 1883 he became foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 1885, he was elected as a member to the American Philosophical Society. On 8 June 1886, the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II awarded Pasteur with the Order of the Medjidie (I Class) and 10000 Ottoman liras. He was awarded the Cameron Prize for Therapeutics of the University of Edinburgh in 1889. Pasteur won the Leeuwenhoek Medal from the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences for his contributions to
microbiology Microbiology (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

microbiology
in 1895. Pasteur was made a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1853, promoted to Officer in 1863, to Commander in 1868, to Grand Officer in 1878 and made a Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor in 1881.


Legacy

In many localities worldwide, streets are named in his honor. For example, in the US: Palo Alto, California, Palo Alto and Irvine, California, Boston and Polk, Florida, adjacent to the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio; Jonquière, Québec; San Salvador de Jujuy and Buenos Aires (Argentina), Great Yarmouth in Norfolk, in the United Kingdom, Jericho and Wulguru in Queensland, (Australia); Phnom Penh in Cambodia; Ho Chi Minh City and Da Nang, Vietnam; Batna in Algeria; Bandung in Indonesia, Tehran in Iran, near the central campus of the Warsaw University in Warsaw, Poland; adjacent to the Odessa State Medical University in Odessa, Ukraine; Milan in Italy and Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca and Timișoara in Romania. The Avenue Pasteur in Saigon, Vietnam, is one of the few streets in that city to retain its French name. ''Avenue Louis Pasteur'' in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area in Boston, Massachusetts was named in his honor in the French manner with "Avenue" preceding the name of the dedicatee. Both the Institut Pasteur and Université Louis Pasteur were named after Pasteur. The schools Lycée Pasteur (Neuilly-sur-Seine), Lycée Pasteur in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, and Lycée Louis Pasteur (Calgary), Lycée Louis Pasteur in Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, are named after him. In South Africa, the Louis Pasteur Private Hospital in Pretoria, and Life Louis Pasteur Private Hospital, Bloemfontein, are named after him. Louis Pasteur University Hospital in Košice, Slovakia is also named after Pasteur. A statue of Pasteur is erected at San Rafael High School in San Rafael, California. A bronze bust of him resides on the French Campus of Kaiser Permanente's San Francisco Medical Center in San Francisco. The sculpture was designed by Harriet G. Moore and cast in 1984 by Artworks Foundry. The UNESCO/Institut Pasteur Medal was created on the centenary of Pasteur's death, and is given every two years in his name, "in recognition of outstanding research contributing to a beneficial impact on human health". The french Academician Henri Mondor stated: "''Louis Pasteur was neither a physician nor a surgeon, but no one has done as much for medicine and surgery as he has''."


Pasteur Institute

After developing the rabies vaccine, Pasteur proposed an institute for the vaccine. In 1887, fundraising for the Pasteur Institute began, with donations from many countries. The official statute was registered in 1887, stating that the institute's purposes were "the treatment of rabies according to the method developed by M. Pasteur" and "the study of virulent and contagious diseases". The institute was inaugurated on 14 November 1888. He brought together scientists with various specialties. The first five departments were directed by two graduates of the ''
École Normale Supérieure École may refer to: * an elementary school in the French educational stages Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. ...
'': Émile Duclaux (general
microbiology Microbiology (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

microbiology
research) and
Charles Chamberland Charles Chamberland (12 March 1851 – 2 May 1908) was a French microbiologist from Chilly-le-Vignoble in the department of Jura (department), Jura who worked with Louis Pasteur. In 1884 he developed a type of filtration known today as the Cha ...

Charles Chamberland
(microbe research applied to hygiene), as well as a biologist, Élie Metchnikoff (morphological microbe research) and two physicians, Jacques-Joseph Grancher (
rabies Rabies is a viral disease A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infection, infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells. Structural characteri ...
) and Émile Roux (technical microbe research). One year after the inauguration of the institute, Roux set up the first course of microbiology ever taught in the world, then entitled ''Cours de Microbie Technique'' (Course of microbe research techniques). Since 1891 the Pasteur Institute had been extended to different countries, and currently there are 32 institutes in 29 countries in various parts of the world.


Personal life

Pasteur married Marie Pasteur (née Laurent) in 1849. She was the daughter of the rector of the University of Strasbourg, and was Pasteur's scientific assistant. They had five children together, only three of whom survived until adulthood.


Faith and spirituality

His grandson, Louis Pasteur Vallery-Radot, wrote that Pasteur had kept from his Catholic background only a spiritualism without religious practice. However, Catholic observers often said that Pasteur remained an ardent Christian throughout his whole life, and his son-in-law wrote, in a biography of him: The ''Literary Digest'' of 18 October 1902 gives this statement from Pasteur that he prayed while he worked: Maurice Vallery-Radot, grandson of the brother of the son-in-law of Pasteur and outspoken Catholic, also holds that Pasteur fundamentally remained Catholic. According to both Pasteur Vallery-Radot and Maurice Vallery-Radot, the following well-known quotation attributed to Pasteur is apocryphal: "The more I know, the more nearly is my faith that of the Breton peasant. Could I but know all I would have the faith of a Breton peasant's wife". According to Maurice Vallery-Radot, the false quotation appeared for the first time shortly after the death of Pasteur. However, despite his belief in God, it has been said that his views were that of a freethinker rather than a Catholic, a spiritual more than a religious man. He was also against mixing science with religion.


Death

In 1868, Pasteur suffered a severe brain stroke that paralysed the left side of his body, but he recovered. A stroke or uremia in 1894 severely impaired his health. Failing to fully recover, he died on 28 September 1895, near Paris. He was given a state funeral and was buried in the Notre Dame de Paris, Cathedral of Notre Dame, but his remains were reinterred in the Pasteur Institute in Paris, in a vault covered in depictions of his accomplishments in Mosaic#Byzantine mosaics, Byzantine mosaics.


Publications

Pasteur's principal published works are:


See also

* Infection control * Infectious disease *
Pasteur Institute The Pasteur Institute (french: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines. It is named after Louis Pasteur, who invented pasteurization and vaccines for ...
* Pasteurization * ''The Story of Louis Pasteur'' (a 1936 biographical film) * List of things named after Louis Pasteur * Statue of Louis Pasteur, Mexico City


References


Further reading

* * * * , chapters III (PASTEUR: Microbes are a Menace!) and V (PASTEUR: And the Mad Dog) * * Reynolds, Moira Davison. '' How Pasteur Changed History: The Story of Louis Pasteur and the Pasteur Institute'' (1994) *


External links


The Institut Pasteur
– Foundation dedicated to the prevention and treatment of diseases through biological research, education and public health activities
The Pasteur Foundation
– A US nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting the mission of the Institut Pasteur in Paris. Full archive of newsletters available online containing examples of US Tributes to Louis Pasteur.
Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory

The Life and Work of Louis Pasteur
Pasteur Brewing
The Pasteur Galaxy


* [http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BC/Louis_Pasteur.html Louis Pasteur (1822–1895)] profile, AccessExcellence.org * * * * *
''Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences''
Articles published by Pasteur {{DEFAULTSORT:Pasteur, Louis Louis Pasteur, 1822 births 1895 deaths People from Dole, Jura 19th-century French biologists French microbiologists 19th-century French chemists Vaccinologists École Normale Supérieure alumni Conservatoire national des arts et métiers alumni Lille University of Science and Technology faculty University of Strasbourg faculty Members of the Académie Française Members of the French Academy of Sciences Members of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences Foreign Members of the Royal Society Foreign associates of the National Academy of Sciences Honorary members of the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences Grand Croix of the Légion d'honneur Recipients of the Order of the Medjidie, 1st class Recipients of the Copley Medal Recipients of the Order of Agricultural Merit Leeuwenhoek Medal winners French Roman Catholics French humanitarians École des Beaux-Arts faculty Members of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts Lycée Saint-Louis alumni Members of the American Philosophical Society Stereochemists