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Synagogues may be considered "oldest" based on different criteria. Many very old
synagogue A synagogue, ', 'house of assembly', or ', "house of prayer"; Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a West Germanic The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches ...

synagogue
s have been discovered in archaeological digs. Some synagogues have been destroyed and rebuilt several times on the same site, so while the site or congregation may be ancient, the building may be modern. Still other very old synagogue buildings exist, but have been used for many centuries as churches, mosques, or for other purposes. Some very old synagogues have been in continuous use as synagogues for many centuries.


Worldwide

* The oldest evidence of the presence of synagogue buildings are found in middle and lower
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
in the 3rd century BCE on
Elephantine island Elephantine ( ; ; arz, جزيرة الفنتين, Gazīrat il-Fantīn; el, Ἐλεφαντίνη ''Elephantíne''; ''(Ə)iêw'') is an island on the Nile, forming part of the city of Aswan in Upper Egypt. The archaeological sites on the isl ...
. They consist of two synagogue dedication inscription stones and a reference to a synagogue in a papyrus letter dated to 218 BCE. * The oldest synagogue building yet uncovered by archaeologists is the
Delos Synagogue The synagogue of Delos The island of Delos (; el, Δήλος ; Attic Greek, Attic: , Doric Greek, Doric: ), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological site ...
, a possibly
Samaritan Samaritans (; ; he, שומרונים, translit=Shomronim; ar, السامريون, translit=as-Sāmiriyyūn) or Samaritan people are members of an ethnoreligious group originating from the Israelites of historical History of ancient Israel a ...

Samaritan
synagogue that dates from at 150 to 128 BCE, or earlier, and is located on the island of
Delos The island of Delos (; el, Δήλος ; Attic Greek, Attic: , Doric Greek, Doric: ), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece. The excava ...

Delos
,
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
. * The excavated
Jericho synagogue#REDIRECT Jericho synagogue {{Rcat shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalization {{R unprintworthy ...
may be the oldest, securely dated, mainstream Jewish synagogue in the world, although the identification of the remains as a synagogue is not certain. It was built between 70 and 50 BCE as part of a royal winter palace complex near
Jericho Jericho ( ; ar, أريحا ' ; he, יְרִיחוֹ ') is a State of Palestine, Palestinian city in the West Bank. It is located in the Jordan Valley, with the Jordan River to the east and Jerusalem to the west. It is the administrative sea ...

Jericho
. *
Dura-Europos synagogue The Dura-Europos synagogue (or "Dura Europas", "Dura Europos" etc.) was an ancient synagogue A synagogue, ', 'house of assembly', or ', "house of prayer"; Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is ...
,
Dura-Europos Dura-Europos ( el, Δοῦρα Εὐρωπός) was a Hellenistic, Parthian Empire, Parthian and Ancient Rome, Roman border city built on an escarpment above the southwestern bank of the Euphrates river. It is located near the village of Al-Sal ...
,
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
.


Standing buildings

According to legend, el Ghriba synagogue in
Djerba Djerba (; ar, جربة, Jirba, ; it, Meninge, Girba), also transliteration, transliterated as Jerba or Jarbah, is a Tunisian island and the largest island of North Africa at , in the Gulf of Gabès, off the coast of Tunisia. It had a popula ...

Djerba
, Tunisia was first built in 586 BCE or 70 CE, which would make it the oldest synagogue still standing and in continuous use in the world. Two of the claimants to be the oldest structures still standing that were built as synagogues are the Old Synagogue in
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Erfurt
, Germany, which was built c. 1100Archeologists Discover Medieval Jewish Bath in Erfurt, 12.04.2007, Deutsche Welle

/ref>"Treasures of the plague," Marian Campbell, ''Apollo Magazine'', 31 August 2007 and the
Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca The Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca (literally ''Synagogue of Saint Mary the White'', originally known as the ''Ibn Shushan Synagogue'', or commonly the ''Congregational Synagogue of Toledo'') is a museum and former synagogue in Toledo, Spain ...
in
Toledo, Spain Toledo ( , , ) is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-l ...
, which was built in 1190. However, neither has been used as a synagogue for centuries. The oldest active synagogue in the world is the
Old New Synagogue The Old New Synagogue ( cs, Staronová synagoga; german: link=no, Altneu-Synagoge), also called the Altneuschul, situated in Josefov Josefov (also Jewish Quarter; german: Josefstadt) is a town quarter and the smallest cadastre, cadastral area o ...

Old New Synagogue
of
Prague Prague ( ; cs, Praha ; german: Prag, ; la, Praga) is the capital and largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...

Prague
in the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to ...
, built in 1270s. The
Ben Ezra Synagogue The Ben Ezra Synagogue ( he, בית כנסת בן עזרא; ar, معبد بن عزرا), sometimes referred to as the El-Geniza Synagogue () or the Synagogue of the Levantines (al-Shamiyin), is situated in the Fustat part of Old Cairo, Egypt. Ac ...

Ben Ezra Synagogue
of Cairo has the honor of being the longest-serving synagogue in the world, having continuously served as one from 1025 until the mid 20th century. Owing to the migration of nearly all of Egypt's Jews to Israel, today the monument functions as a museum.


By country


Africa


Algeria

* Synagogue of
Tlemcen Tlemcen (; ar, تلمسان ''Tilimsān'') is the second-largest city in north-western Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers , coordinates ...

Tlemcen
was built around 1392 when Rabbi
Ephraim Alnaqua Rabbi Ephraim ben Israel Alnaqua (1359–1442) ( he, אפרים בן ישראל אלנאקוה, Efrayim ben Yisra'el 'alnakuvah) (also, "Al-Nakawa", "Al-Nakava", "Ankava", "Ankoa", "Enkaoua", "Alnucawi", etc., Hebrew: "נקוה", "אלנאקוה", ...
, a Spanish refugee who was the son of the author of Menorah, settled in
Agadir Agadir ( ar, أكادير or ar, أݣادير or ar, أغادير, ʾagādīr; shi, ⴰⴳⴰⴷⵉⵔ, agadir) is a major city in Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption ...

Agadir
, he obtained permission for Jews to settle in the city of Tlemcen, where he built a synagogue.


Egypt

* Stone synagogue dedication inscriptions stones found in middle and lower Egypt ''(see above)'', and dating from the 3rd century BCE, are the oldest synagogue fragments found anywhere in the World.


Libya

*
Slat Abn Shaif Synagogue The Slat Abn Shaif Synagogue ( he, בית הכנסת צלאת בן שאיף) in Zliten, Libya was a historic synagogue and Lag Ba'omer pilgrimage site for History of the Jews in Libya, Libyan Jews. It was built c. 1060. During the Ottoman rule, ...
, in Zliten, Libya, was built around 1060 and destroyed in the 1980s.


Tunisia

* El Ghriba synagogue, according to legend, the construction of the synagogue goes back to the High Priests' escape following the destruction of
Solomon's Temple According to the Biblical narrative, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was a temple in Jerusalem (: ''Bēṯ hamMīqdāš'') built under King Solomon's reign and completed in 957 BCE. The Temple was looted and then Siege of Jer ...

Solomon's Temple
by the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar II in the year 586 BCE (or, alternately, the destruction of the
Second Temple The Second Temple (, ), also known in its later years as Herod's Temple, was the reconstructed Jewish holy temple that stood on the Temple Mount The Temple Mount (Hebrew language, Hebrew: , ; "Mount of the House f God, i.e. the Temple in ...

Second Temple
in 70 CE). The High Priests carried with them a door and a stone of the destroyed Temple. Thus the synagogue links the
Jewish diaspora The Jewish diaspora ( he, תְּפוּצָה, təfūṣā) or exile (Hebrew: ; Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a High German languages, High German–derived language historically spoken by As ...
to the "sole sanctuary of Judaism". In modern times, the local Jews are distinguished by their dress, which includes a black band around their pants, which signifies the destruction of the Temple.


South Africa

* The
Gardens Shul The Gardens Shul, formally, the Cape Town Hebrew Congregation, founded in 1841, located in the Company Gardens (Cape Town), Cape Town Botanical Gardens, in the Gardens neighborhood of Cape Town, is the Oldest synagogues in the World, oldest Jewi ...
, established 1841, is the oldest congregation in South Africa. Its 1863 building, which is still standing, may be the oldest synagogue building in the country. Rabbi Osher Feldman is the Rabbi of the Gardens Shul.


Asia


Afghanistan

* In Herat, Afghanistan, the
Yu Aw Synagogue The Yu Aw Synagogue ( fa, کنیسای یوآو) is located in the Momanda neighbourhood of the old city of Herat, in western Afghanistan. The area was once known as ''Mahalla-yi Musahiya'', or the "Neighbourhood of the Jews". It is the only s ...
still stands. There is no definitive date for the synagogue.


India

* The Kochangadi Synagogue (1344 A.D to 1789 A.D) in
Kochi , settlement_type = Metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or int ...

Kochi
in the
Kerala Kerala ( ; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Kerala
, built by the
Malabar Jews Cochin Jews (also known as Malabar Jews or Kochinim, from ''Yehudey Kochin'') are the oldest group of History of the Jews in India, Jews in India, with roots that are claimed to date back to the time of King Solomon. The Cochin Jews settled ...

Malabar Jews
. It was destroyed by
Tipu Sultan Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 01 December 1751 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tiger of Mysore, was the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore The Kingdom of Mysore was a realm in southern India South India is a re ...

Tipu Sultan
in 1789 A.D and was never rebuilt. An inscription tablet from this synagogue is the oldest relic from any synagogue in India. * The
Paravur Synagogue The Paravur Synagogue aka Parur Synagogue (Malayalam: പറവൂർ ജൂതപള്ളി) (Hebrew language, Hebrew: בית הכנסת פראבור) is one of the largest and most complete among the List of Synagogues in Kerala, Jewish sy ...

Paravur Synagogue
(750 A.D or 1164 A.D) in Paravur in
Kochi , settlement_type = Metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or int ...

Kochi
,
Kerala Kerala ( ; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Kerala
, built by the Operating as a Kerala Jews Lifestyle Museum, the present 1616 A.D structure was built on top of an older structure whos foundation remains were unearthed and are kept on display. * The
Paradesi Synagogue The Paradesi Synagogue aka Cochin Jewish Synagogue or the Mattancherry Synagogue (Malayalam: പരദേശി ജൂതപള്ളി) is a synagogue located in Mattancherry Jew Town, a suburb of the city of Kochi, India, Kochi, Kerala, i ...
(1568 A.D) in
Kochi , settlement_type = Metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or int ...

Kochi
,
Kerala Kerala ( ; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Kerala
,. It is the oldest Jewish synagogue in India that is still in active use and the most complete, although there are even older ones still existing but not in active use anymore. Belongs to the
Paradesi Jews Paradesi may refer to: * ''Paradesi'' (1953 film), a 1953 Telugu-Tamil Bilingual film directed by L. V. Prasad, starring Anjali Devi and Sivaji Ganesan * ''Paradesi'' (1998 film), a 1998 Telugu film directed by K. Raghavendra Rao * ''Paradesi'' ...
. The oldest of India's synagogue buildings can be found in the state of Kerala, where synagogue construction began during the medieval period. Whereas Kerala's first Jewish houses of prayer said to be from the eleventh through the 13th centuries perished long ago as a consequence of natural disasters, enemy attacks, or the abandonment of buildings when congregations shifted. These extant synagogues, though altered over time, include not only the oldest found on the Indian subcontinent but in the British Commonwealth. The consensus among historians based on a compilation of limited recorded history and a mélange of oral narratives is that first synagogues in Kerala were not built until the medieval period. Various Kerala Jews and the scholars who have studied the community believe that the earliest synagogues in the region date to the early 11th century. According to a narrative, a Kerala Jew by the name of Joseph Rabban who accepted on behalf of his community copper plates granting the local Jews a set of privileges by the Hindu King Bhaskara Ravi Varman was also given wood by his Highness for the erection of a synagogue around 1000. While no physical evidence of this and any other similar period building survives, study of the literature, Jewish folksongs, and narratives supports the notion that synagogues likely stood in Malabar Coast towns, places now within the modern-day State of Kerala, from this epoch. A portion of these medieval-period buildings perished when the Kerala Jews had to leave them behind under the threat of persecution by the Moors and the Portuguese or as a result of natural disasters. The balance was rebuilt as a consequence of naturally occurring or intentionally set fires, modernization efforts, or assorted other variables.


Iraq

* A rabbi in the American army found an abandoned, dilapidated synagogue near
Mosul Mosul ( ar, الموصل, al-Mawṣil, ku, مووسڵ, translit=Mûsil, Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe a ...

Mosul
dating back to the 13th century. It is located two miles northeast of
Mosul Mosul ( ar, الموصل, al-Mawṣil, ku, مووسڵ, translit=Mûsil, Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe a ...

Mosul
, across the
Tigris River The Tigris, () is the eastern of the two great river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end ...

Tigris River
, in a city called
Nineveh Nineveh (; ar, نَيْنَوَىٰ '; syr, ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ, Nīnwē; akk, ) was an ancient Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a n kingdom and of the that existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th ...
, the city to which the prophet
Jonah Jonah or Jonas, ''Yōnā'', "dove"; gr, Ἰωνᾶς ''Iōnâs''; ar, يونس ' or '; Latin: ''Ionas'' Ben (Hebrew), son of Amittai, is a prophet in the Hebrew Bible and the Quran, from Gath-hepher of the northern Kingdom of Israel (Samaria ...

Jonah
was sent to preach repentance. The Nineveh Synagogue was constructed by ''Daud Ibn Hodaya al-Daudi, Exilarch of Mosul''. There is record of a second synagogue in Mosul, as early as 990, when the Gaon of
Sura A ''surah'' (; ar, سورة, sūrah) is the equivalent of "chapter" in the Qur'an The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be ...

Sura
, Semah ibn Yitzhak, mentions "''Sahl Aluf ibn Aluf our representative in Mosul''", in 1170
Benjamin of Tudela Benjamin of Tudela ( he, בִּנְיָמִין מִטּוּדֶלָה, ; ar, بنيامين التطيلي ''Binyamin al-Tutayli'';‎ TudelaTudela may refer to: *Tudela, Navarre, a town and municipality in northern Spain ** Benjamin of Tudel ...

Benjamin of Tudela
notes that there are about 7,000 Jews in Mosul. In later years, when
Petachiah of Regensburg Petachiah of Regensburg, also known as Petachiah ben Yakov, Moses Petachiah, and Petachiah of Ratisbon, was a German rabbi of the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries Common Era, CE. At some point he left his place of birth, Regensburg in Bavaria, ...
visited
Mosul Mosul ( ar, الموصل, al-Mawṣil, ku, مووسڵ, translit=Mûsil, Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe a ...

Mosul
, Nineveh was in ruins.


Israel and Palestinian Territories

*
Herodium Herodium (Latin) or Herodeion ( grc, Ἡρώδειον, ar, هيروديون, he, הרודיון), also known in Hebrew as Har Hordus ("Mount Herodes") and in Arabic as Jabal al-Fureidis ( ar, جبل فريديس, , "Mountain of the Little Par ...

Herodium
- a synagogue from the 1st century was discovered in Herod's palace fortress at Herodiu

* Masada - the ruins of the small synagogue at the top of
Masada Masada ( he, מצדה ', "fortress") is an ancient fortification A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to establish rule in a region during peacetime. ...

Masada
is one of the most well-documented
Second Temple Period The Second Temple period in Jewish history Jewish history is the history of the Jews, and their nation, Judaism, religion and Jewish culture, culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures. Although Judaism a ...
synagogues.Israel Antiquities Authority
/ref> *
Magdala Magdala (Aramaic language, Aramaic: מגדלא, ''Magdala'', meaning "tower"; Hebrew language, Hebrew: , ''Migdal''; ar, المجدل, ''al-Majdal'') was an ancient Jews, Jewish city on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, north of Tiberias. In the ...
- also known as the Migdal Synagogue, this synagogue was discovered in 2009. One of the unique features of this synagogue, which is located on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, is an intricately carved stone
block Block or blocked may refer to: Arts, entertainment and media Broadcasting * Block programming, the result of a programming strategy in broadcasting * W242BX, a radio station licensed to Greenville, South Carolina, United States known as ''96.3 ...
that was found in the center of the main room. * Modi'in - a synagogue dating to the second century BCE was discovered between
Modi'in Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut ( he, מוֹדִיעִין-מַכַּבִּים-רֵעוּת) is an Israeli city located in central Israel, about southeast of Tel Aviv Tel Aviv-Yafo ( he, תֵּל־אָבִיב-יָפוֹ, ''Tel Aviv-Yafo'' ; ar ...
and
Latrun Latrun ( he, לטרון, ''Latrun''; ar, اللطرون, ''al-Latrun'') is located at a strategic hilltop in the Latrun salient in the Ayalon Valley. It overlooks the road between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, 25 kilometers west of Jerusalem and 14 kil ...

Latrun
. * Qiryat Sefer/Modi'in Illit synagogue (1st century BCE) - Israeli archaeologist
Yitzhak Magen Yitzhak( ()) is a male first name, and is Hebrew for Isaac Isaac, ''Isaák''; ar, إسحٰق/إسحاق, ; am, ይስሐቅ is one of the three patriarchs The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed me ...
claimed in 1995 to have excavated a small first-century BCE synagogue at
Modi'in Illit Modi'in Illit ( he, מוֹדִיעִין עִלִּית; ar, موديعين عيليت, lit. "Upper Modi'in") is a Haredi Judaism, Haredi Israeli settlement and city in the West Bank, situated midway between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. Modi'in Illi ...
/Qiryat Sefer, at a site known in
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
as Khirbet Badd ‘Isa. *
Gamla Gamla, alt. sp. Gamala ( he, גַּמְלָא, The Camel) was an ancient Jewish city on the Golan Heights The Golan Heights ( ar, هَضْبَةُ الْجَوْلَانِ, Haḍbatu l-Jawlān or , he, רמת הגולן, ), or simply t ...

Gamla
- a synagogue was discovered near the city gate at Gamla, a site in the Golan northeast of the Sea of Galilee. This city was destroyed by the Roman army in AD 67 and was never rebuilt. Other ancient post-70 CE synagogues are: * The excavated
Shalom Al Yisrael Synagogue The Jericho synagogue dates to the late 6th or early 7th century CE and was discovered in Jericho in 1936. All that remains from the ancient prayer house is its mosaic floor, which contains an Aramaic inscription presenting thanks to the synagogu ...
in
Jericho Jericho ( ; ar, أريحا ' ; he, יְרִיחוֹ ') is a State of Palestine, Palestinian city in the West Bank. It is located in the Jordan Valley, with the Jordan River to the east and Jerusalem to the west. It is the administrative sea ...

Jericho
dates to the late 6th or early 7th century, and is frequented on the beginning of every Hebrew calendar month for prayers and services. * A large 6th-century synagogue with a mosaic tile floor depicting
King David David (; ) (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυΐδ, Dauíd; la, Davidus, David; gez , ዳዊት, ''Dawit''; xcl, Դաւիթ, ''Dawitʿ''; cu, Давíдъ, ''Davidŭ''; possibly meaning "beloved one". is described in th ...
was discovered in
Gaza Gaza may refer to: Places Palestine * Gaza Strip, a Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea ** Gaza City, a city in the Gaza Strip ** Gaza Governorate, a governorate in the Gaza Strip United States * Gaza, Iowa, an ...
. An inscription states that the floor was donated in 508–509 CE by two merchant brothers. * Jerusalem - there are synagogues in the
Old City of Jerusalem The Old City ( he, הָעִיר הָעַתִּיקָה, ''Ha'Ir Ha'Atiqah'', ar, البلدة القديمة, ''al-Balda al-Qadimah'') is a walled area within the modern city of Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ...

Old City of Jerusalem
built over the ruins of far older synagogues, which were destroyed by non-Jewish rulers of the city. ** The Karaite Synagogue in Jerusalem is the oldest of Jerusalem's active synagogues, having been built in the 8th century. It was destroyed by the Crusaders in 1099 and Jews were not allowed to live in the city for 50 years. In 1187
Saladin Al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub ( ku, سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی, Selahedînê Eyûbî; ar, الناصر صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب, an-Nāṣir Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; 11374 March 1193), better k ...

Saladin
restored the site to the
Karaite Jews Karaite Judaism () or Karaism (; ; also spelt Qaraite Judaism or Qaraism) is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the written Torah alone as its supreme authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is th ...
, who promptly rebuilt the synagogue. It has been active continuously since its foundation, except during the Crusades and Jordanian rule of the city (1948-1967). In 1967, the Israeli government returned the synagogue to the Karaite community, who finished renovating it in 1982.


Jordan

* In
Jerash Jerash ( ar, جرش ''Ǧaraš''; grc, Γέρασα ''Gérasa'') is a city in northern Jordan. The city is the administrative center of the Jerash Governorate, and has a population of 50,745 as of 2015. It is located north of the capital city ...

Jerash
,
Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; tr. ') is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In ge ...

Jordan
, the remnants of a synagogue dating from
Late Antiquity Late antiquity is a periodization Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time.Adam Rabinowitz. It’s about time: historical periodization and Linked Ancient World Data'. Inst ...
have been found.


Lebanon

* In
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part ...

Lebanon
, the Sidon Synagogue was built in 833 CE, on an older
synagogue A synagogue, ', 'house of assembly', or ', "house of prayer"; Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a West Germanic The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches ...

synagogue
which is thought to have been built during the destruction of the
Second Temple The Second Temple (, ), also known in its later years as Herod's Temple, was the reconstructed Jewish holy temple that stood on the Temple Mount The Temple Mount (Hebrew language, Hebrew: , ; "Mount of the House f God, i.e. the Temple in ...

Second Temple
, in
Ancient Israel The Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah were two related Israelite The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Semitic-speaking tribes of the anci ...
i.e., in 66 CE.Sacy, Andre. 2011. ''Saida D'hier Et D'aujourd'hui''. Beyrouth: Editions Aleph
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it ...

Jesus
is said to have preached in it and in its vicinity as attested in Matthew (15:21) and
Mark Mark may refer to: Currency * Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark The Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark (Bosnian Bosnian may refer to: *Anything related to the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina or its inhabitants *Anything related to Bo ...
(7:24). * Also, in
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part ...

Lebanon
, in
Deir el Qamar Deir al-Qamar ( ar, دير القمر), meaning "''Monastery of the Moon''" is a village south-east of Beirut in south-central Lebanon. It is located five kilometres outside of Beiteddine in the Chouf District of the Mount Lebanon Governorate at 8 ...
, a village in
Mount Lebanon Mount Lebanon ( ar, جَبَل لُبْنَان, ''jabal lubnān'', ; syr, ܛܘܪ ܠܒܢܢ, ', , french: Mont Liban) is a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain sys ...
, another old synagogue that was built in the 17th century to serve the local
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

Jewish
population. As of 2016, the Synagogue is in excellent condition; yet, in the meantime, the synagogue has been shut to the public for security reasons and has been entrusted to the
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of co ...

French
cultural center by Lebanon's Direction Générale des Antiquités (General Directorate of Antiquities).


Myanmar

The in Rangoon (Yangon) was originally built in 1854. Located between shops and traders, the synagogue is still operating for the small community of Burmese Jews who live in Rangoon.


Syria

* The 3rd Century
Dura-Europos synagogue The Dura-Europos synagogue (or "Dura Europas", "Dura Europos" etc.) was an ancient synagogue A synagogue, ', 'house of assembly', or ', "house of prayer"; Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is ...
established in 244 AD (CE) per dedicatory inscription on ceiling tile (though remodelled from an earlier synagogue) * The 4th Century Apamea on Orontes Synagogue established in 392 AD (CE) per dedicatory inscription on mosaic. *
Jobar Synagogue The Jobar Synagogue was an ancient synagogue complex destroyed in May 2014. Also known as the Eliyahu Hanavi Synagogue it was situated in the village of Jobar now encompassed by the metropolitan area of the City of Damascus. It was once adjoined to ...
, incorrectly described as "2,000 years old." The main hall is at least mediaeval. However, the shrine (or "hever" attributed to the Prophet Elijah) beneath the former prayer hall resembles other Late Antique catacombs 3rd -6th Century AD (CE).


Turkey

*
Sardis Synagogue Sardis Synagogue is a synagogue A synagogue, ', 'house of assembly', or ', "house of prayer"; Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a West Germanic The West Germanic languages constitut ...
was built by Babylonian Jews who were invited to Sardis by Seleucid King Antiochus III (223–187 BCE). The Jews of Sardis are mentioned by Josephus Flavius in the 1st century CE, who refers to a decree of the Roman proquestor Lucius Antonius from the previous century (50–49 BCE): "Lucius Antonius, the son of Marcus, vice-quaestor, and vice-praetor, to the magistrates, senate, and people of the Sardians, sends greetings. Those Jews that are our fellow citizens of Rome came to me, and demonstrated that they had an assembly of their own, according to the laws of their forefathers, and this from the beginning, as also a place of their own, wherein they determined their suits and controversies with one another. Upon their petition therefore to me, that these might be lawful for them, I gave order that their privileges be preserved, and they be permitted to do accordingly." (Ant., XIV:10, 17) It is generally understood that "a place of their own" refers to the synagogue serving the local Jewish community of Sardis. Josephus Flavius also mentions the decree of Caius Norbanus Flaccus, a Roman proconsul during the reign of Augustus at the end of the 1st century BCE, who confirms the religious rights of the Jews of Sardis, including the right to send money to the Temple of Jerusalem. (Ant., XVI:6,6) * Priene Synagogue, was found in the ancient city of
Priene Priene ( grc, Πριήνη, Priēnē; tr, Prien) was an Ancient Greece, ancient Greek city of Ionia (and member of the Ionian League) located at the base of an escarpment of Mycale, about north of what was then the course of the Maeander River ...

Priene
in
Ionia Ionia (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). Ancient ...
.


Australia

* The
Hobart Synagogue The Hobart Synagogue is a heritage-listed synagogue A synagogue, ', 'house of assembly', or ', "house of prayer"; Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a West Germanic The West German ...

Hobart Synagogue
(1845), in
Hobart Hobart () is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

Hobart
,
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
, is the oldest surviving synagogue building in Australia. * The
Melbourne Hebrew Congregation The Melbourne Hebrew Congregation (Hebrew: ק"ק שארית ישראל), or Toorak Shule, is the oldest Jewish congregation in Melbourne, Australia, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. Formed in 1841, the congregation was original ...
is the oldest congregation. Its synagogue was built in 1841 and at its current location was built in 1930. * Ballarat Synagogue (1861), in
Ballarat East Ballarat East is a suburb of Ballarat in Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. From 1857 until 1921 the suburb was its own town with its own council, the East Ballarat Town Council. The suburb covers a large area east of the City of Ballar ...
,
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia) Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a in southeastern . It is the second-smallest state with a of and the most densely populated state in Australia (28 per km2). Victoria is bord ...
, is the oldest surviving synagogue on Australia's mainland.


Europe

* The oldest synagogue in Western Europe uncovered in an archaeological dig to date is the
Ostia Synagogue The Ostia Synagogue is an ancient synagogue located in Ostia Antica, ancient Ostia, the seaport of Imperial Rome. It is one of the Oldest synagogues in the World, oldest synagogues in the world, the oldest synagogue in Europe and the oldest mainst ...
in the ancient Roman port of , in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
. The present building, of which partial walls and pillars set upright by archaeologists remain, dates from the 4th century. However, excavation revealed that it is on the site of an earlier synagogue dating from the middle of the 1st century CE, that is, from before the destruction of the Temple. * The Ancient Synagogue of Barcelona, is a building from the 3rd or 4th century, when its function is unknown, and extended in the 13th, perhaps marking the start of its use as a synagogue. It has been described as the oldest synagogue in Europe. It was used as a synagogue until the massacre of the Jews in Barcelona in 1391, then used for other purposes until it was rediscovered and restored in the 1990s. * The Köln Synagogue in Cologne, Germany has been excavated 2007/2012 and dates clearly pre Carolingian (bef. 780/90). There is at the moment some strong evidence that it dates back to the early 4th century when emperor Constantine in 321 issued a privilege for the Cologne Jews. This has been confirmed recently by the find of a rainwater mikveh of the 4th century inside the building complex. * The Old Synagogue in
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Erfurt
, Germany, which was partly built c.1100, is thought by some experts to be one of the oldest synagogue buildings still standing in Europe (most of it is 13th/14th century). It has been used as museum of Jewish history since 2009. * Santa María la Blanca, built in
Toledo, Spain Toledo ( , , ) is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-l ...
in 1190, has long been regarded as the oldest synagogue building in Europe still standing. It was consecrated as a church upon the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in the 15th century, but no major renovations were done. While still a consecrated church, it is no longer used for worship and is open as a museum. * The oldest active synagogue building in Europe is the Alteneu Shul (Old New Synagogue, Prague, Old-New Synagogue) in
Prague Prague ( ; cs, Praha ; german: Prag, ; la, Praga) is the capital and largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...

Prague
,
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to ...
, which dates from the 13th century (probably 1270). The Altneu Shul was the pulpit of the great Rabbi Maharal, Yehuda Loew, (the Maharal), and his creation, the golem of Prague, is rumored to be hidden within the synagogue. * The Plymouth Synagogue of 1762, in Plymouth, England, is the oldest synagogue built by Ashkenazi Jews in the English speaking world.


Albania

*A 5th or 6th century synagogue has been discovered in the costal city of Saranda, Albania. Impressive remains of a 5th or 6th century AD synagogue have been uncovered in the coastal city of Saranda, Albania, which lies just opposite the Greek island of Corfu. Albania's recent Synagogue was built around 1500 in Vlorë (in Italian, Valona) by a community of 609 Sephardic Jewish Families fleeing the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions. The Vlorë Synagogue was destroyed during World War I and not rebuilt. Of historic note, in 1675, the Messianic pretender Sabbatai Zevi died in exile at Ulcinj, Montenegro, a nearby town without a Jewish population.


Austria

* The "Synagogue of St Stephens Parish" was built in Vienna around 1204; The first Jews lived in the area near the Seitenstettengasse; from around 1280, they also lived around the modern-day Judenplatz where they built another Synagogue around the same time. The center of Jewish cultural and religious life was located in this area of Vienna from the 13th to the 15th century, until the Vienna Gesera of 1420/21, when Albert V ordered the annihilation of the city's Jews. Proof exists of a Jewish presence in Vienna since 1194. The first named individual was Schlom, Duke Frederick I's ''Münzmeister'' (master of the mint). * The Rossmuehl Synagogue was built in the early 1300s for the Jewish community of Korneuburg, a market town some 15 kilometers upriver from Vienna. Local Church authorities destroyed the previous synagogue after the Host Desecration of 1298 (the resulting pogrom saw 10 Jews burned alive). A clerical investigation revealed the Desecration accusation lacked evidence and was the result of an unlawful conspiracy. Moreover, local church authorities benefitted from the seizure of the murdered Jews property; notably the St. Augustine Monastery was built on the site of the former synagogue, where it stands to this day. Some 100 meters NE of the town square, the Rossmuehl Synagogue served Korneuburg's Jewish community until the Expulsion of 1420. The property was converted to storage and various plans have been put forth to renovate the structure. Unfortunately, the Austrian Jewish Community (IKG) has shown no interest in assisting local groups and government agencies in the preservation of the structure, which is one of the oldest synagogues in Europe.


Belarus

* The Great Synagogue (Hrodna), Great Synagogue of Hrodna was built from 1576 to 1580 by Santi Gucci, who designed a Wooden synagogue at Rabbi Mordechai Yaffe's invitation. * Bychau Synagogue built at the beginning of 17th century.


Belgium

*The Arlon Synagogue was the first synagogue in modern Belgium, built between 1863 and 1865.


Bosnia and Herzegovina

* "Il Cal Grande Esnoga," a Sephardic synagogue in the Jewish Quarter known as "el Cortijo," was built in 1587. The History of the Jews in Bosnia and Herzegovina, first Sephardim to arrive in Sarajevo arrived in 1565 during the Spanish Inquisition.


Croatia

* The Dubrovnik Synagogue in Dubrovnik, Croatia is the second-oldest synagogue in Europe. It is said to have been established in 1352, but gained legal status in the city in 1408. Owned by the local Jewish community, the main floor still functions as a place of worship for Holy days and special occasions, but is now mainly a city museum which hosts numerous Jewish ritual items and centuries-old artifacts. * The Split Synagogue was built in roughly 1500. Located on ''Židovski Prolaz'', or the Jewish Passage, is the second oldest continuously operational Sephardic Synagogue in the world. It was built into the western wall of Diocletian's palace by Jews escaping the Inquisition in Spain and Portugal. In 1573, a Jewish Cemetery was approved and built on Marjan Hill, which overlooks the city of Split. Jews arrived in Dalmatia, during the early centuries of the Christian era, with the conquering Roman armies. Romans established the city of Salona just behind Split, in the 1st Century, where Jewish traders and craftsmen settled. Archaeological excavations have discovered artifacts of Jewish origin dating from this period and clues to the existence of a Synagogue dating back to the time of Diocletian who was Roman Emperor from 284 to 305.


Czech Republic

* The Alteneu Shul (Old New Synagogue, Prague, Old-New Synagogue) ''(see above)'', in Prague, in the Czech Republic, which dates from the 13th century (probably 1270), is the oldest active synagogue building in Europe.


Denmark

The Great Synagogue (Copenhagen), Great Synagogue in Copenhagen, Denmark was built in 1833.


France

* The Synagogue of Carpentras was built in 1367. Today, only the underground parts (mikveh, bakery, butcher) remain, as the synagogue was rebuilt in the 18th century. The current facade is from 1909. * The Synagogue of Lunéville, built in 1786. * :fr:Synagogue d'Avignon, Synagogue d'Avignon was built in 1846 on a former synagogue from 1221. In 1221, the Jewish community was transferred to an enclosed quarter in the parish of Saint-Pierre, around the Place Jerusalem. The Jewish ghetto was closed off by three doors (the only one of which remaining is the portal of the Calandre) and the inhabitants were under the protection of the pope. The Synagogue was built just after the move in 1221. The Jewish Quarter was originally northwest of the Place du Palais but was moved due to burnings and harassment. *The Synagogue of Nancy, France, Nancy. There was a Jewish community in the city in the Middle Ages. This synagogue was built between 1788 and 1861, its facade dates from 1935.


Germany

* The Köln Synagogue ''(see above)'', in Cologne, Germany, excavated in 2007/2012, dates from pre-Carolingian times (before 780/90) most likely first half 4th century. * The Old Synagogue ''(see above)'', in Erfurt, Germany, which was partly built c. 1100, mostly 13th and 14th century, is thought by some experts to be one of the oldest synagogue building still standing in Europe. * The Worms Synagogue, also known as Rashi Shul, is an 11th-century synagogue located in Worms, Germany.


Greece

* The
Delos Synagogue The synagogue of Delos The island of Delos (; el, Δήλος ; Attic Greek, Attic: , Doric Greek, Doric: ), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological site ...
''(see above)'', a Samaritan synagogue on the island of Delos, Greece, is the oldest synagogue building yet uncovered by archaeologists anywhere in the World and dates from at 150 to 128 BCE, or earlier. * The Kahal Shalom Synagogue on Rhodes (1577) is the oldest surviving synagogue building in Greece.


Hungary

* In Sopron two medieval synagogues can be visited dating back to the 14th century. * In the Buda Castle remnants of two synagogues were discovered from the 14th and the 15th century. * The Óbuda Synagogue in Budapest, built in 1820, is the oldest synagogue in Hungary still in use.


Ireland

*Ireland's oldest active synagogue is Terenure Synagogue, Dublin, built in 1953. *The synagogue at 37 Adelaide Road, Dublin opened in 1892 and closed in 1999. *A synagogue existed on Crane Lane, Dublin in 1700 and may have been established as early as the 1660s.


Italy

* The
Ostia Synagogue The Ostia Synagogue is an ancient synagogue located in Ostia Antica, ancient Ostia, the seaport of Imperial Rome. It is one of the Oldest synagogues in the World, oldest synagogues in the world, the oldest synagogue in Europe and the oldest mainst ...
, in the ancient Roman port of Ostia, is one of the oldest synagogue sites in Europe dating from the 1st Century. * The Bova Marina Synagogue site in Bova Marina, Calabria. This site was discovered 1983. The remains of this ancient synagogue has been dated to the 4th Century. * The Scolanova Synagogue, Trani, Apulia, Trani, Italy, built around 1200 and seized by the Roman Catholic Church and converted into a church in 1380. In 2006 it was once more rededicated as a synagogue. * The Ferrara Synagogue built in 1421. The last surviving synagogue in the Ferrara region of Italy. * The Spanish Synagogue (Venice) located in the Venetian Ghetto of Venice. Founded in the 1490s by Spanish Jews. * The Italian Synagogue (Venice) located in the Venetian Ghetto of Venice. Founded in 1575. * The Padua Synagogue located in Padua and built in 1584. * The Synagogue of Casale Monferrato built in 1595 in Piedmont.


North Macedonia

* The Polycharmos Synagogue, of Stobi, North Macedonia, was discovered in 1974; it was adjacent to a Christian church. The Synagogue site, itself, has an archaeological record of two (2) older Synagogues under the foundation of the Polycharmos Synagogue dating to the 4th century BCE * The Bet Aharon Synagogue was built in 1366 then later renamed to "Kahal Kadosh D’Abasho" with the arrival of Sephardic Jews who displaced indigenous Romaniote Jews of the area. The Jewish community of Skopje outnumbered the non-Jewish Community by 1566 * The Sephardi Bet Yaʿaqov Synagogue was built in the early 1900s then renamed "Qahal Qadosh de Ariba" (congregation on the mountaintop).


Netherlands

* The Portuguese Synagogue (Amsterdam) – on December 12, 1670, the Sephardic Jewish community of Amsterdam acquired the site to build a synagogue and construction work began on April 17, 1671, under architect Elias Bouwman. On August 2, 1675, the Esnoga was finished.


Poland

* Old Synagogue, Kraków, Old Synagogue in Kraków is from the 15th century and the oldest surviving synagogue building in Poland. The Synagogue was built in 1407 or 1492; the date of building varies with several sources * High Synagogue, Kraków, High Synagogue in Kraków was built in 1556−1563 * Remuh Synagogue was completed in 1557 * Zamość Synagogue, built between 1610 and 1618 * Wolf Popper Synagogue was founded in 1620 * Tykocin Synagogue, built in 1642 * Lesko Synagogue, built in 1626-1654 * Kupa Synagogue was founded in 1643 * Izaak Synagogue was built in 1644 * Tempel Synagogue (Kraków), Tempel Synagogue is the youngest in Kraków and was completed in 1862


Portugal

* The Synagogue of Óbidos, Portugal, Óbidos is located in the old Jewish Quarter and dates to the 7th century where a Jewish community was re-established after the Visigoths seized the village in the 5th century. Obidos was liberated in 1148, by the Jewish vizier, Yaish ibn Yahya; in return for its liberation King Afonso I Henriques rewarded Yaish ibn Yahya with a nearby town and anointed him "Lord of Unhos, Frielas and Aldeia dos Negros". * Synagogue of Tomar is located in the historic centre of the city of Tomar, and houses a small Jewish Museum. The synagogue of Tomar was built in 1460 by the thriving Jewish community of the town. Today, the museum holds Judaica, fine art, several medieval Jewish gravestones, important architectural fragments from other buildings, including an inscribed stone from 1307 believed to have come from the Lisbon Great Synagogue (destroyed in the earthquake of 1755) and a 13th-century inscribed stone from the medieval synagogue in Belmonte Municipality, Belmonte.


Romania

* The 1671 Great Synagogue (Iaşi), Great Synagogue in Iaşi is the oldest surviving synagogue in Romania.


Russia

* Grand Choral Synagogue in St. Petersburg was begun in 1880 and completed in 1888. * Volgograd Synagogue was built in 1898. * Moscow Choral Synagogue, completed in 1906, is the oldest synagogue in Moscow.


Spain

* The Main Synagogue of Barcelona, the building was started to built in the 3rd or 4th century, although there is no certainty of the date when it began to be a synagogue. It could be the oldest synagogue in Europe. * Santa María la Blanca ''(see above)'', built in Toledo, Spain, Toledo in 1180, has long been regarded as the oldest synagogue building in Europe still standing. * Córdoba Synagogue, Synagogue of Córdoba, built in 1305, located in the Jewish Quarter of Córdoba, Spain, Córdoba * Synagogue of El Transito, built in Toledo, Spain, Toledo in 1356. It was founded by Jew Samuel ha-Levi, Samuel ha-Levi Abulafia, the Treasurer to Peter of Castile. * Híjar Synagogue, Synagogue of Híjar, built in Híjar (in Aragon). It pre-dates the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, and later was used as a church, although its Jewish architecture remains intact.


Slovenia

* The Maribor Synagogue (a/k/a Marburg Synagogue), first mentioned in 1354, was built in around the year 1300. Located at Ž''idovska ulica 4'' in the Jewish Square Ž''idovski trg'', it is among some of the oldest still standing Synagogues in Europe. The first documented evidence of a Jewish presence in Slovenia dates to the 13th century when Yiddish and Italian-speaking Jews migrated south from Austria.


Ukraine

* Golden Rose Synagogue (Lviv), 1582, a standing ruin as of 2009. * Golden Rose Synagogue (Dnipropetrovsk), originally constructed in the late 1850s, restored in 1999.


United Kingdom

* Jew's Court, Lincoln, England, Lincoln, Has been claimed as an early synagogue, but it is very unlikely that any of the building is earlier than the 15th or 16th.centuries. It has always been used for domestic or commercial purposes. Johnson C. (2015) Jews' Court:Truth and Legend, In Walker A. (ed), Lincoln City Centre North of the River Witham in the Survey of Lincoln Vol.1.(2015), pp11-13. * Bevis Marks Synagogue in London, built in 1701 is the oldest synagogue building in the United Kingdom still in use. * The Plymouth Synagogue ''(see above)'', built in 1762, is the oldest surviving Ashkenazi synagogue in continuous use in the English speaking world. * Garnethill Synagogue, built 1879–81, is the oldest synagogue in Scotland.


North America

The Touro Synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island, is the oldest Jewish house of worship in North America that is still standing. It was built in 1759 for the Jeshuat Israel congregation, which was established in 1658.


Canada

* The Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue of Montreal is the oldest congregation in Canada. * The 1863 building of Congregation Emanu-El (Victoria, British Columbia) may be the oldest synagogue building in Canada.


United States

* Congregation Shearith Israel in New York City, 1654, is the oldest congregation in the United States, although its present building dates from 1897. * Touro Synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island, the building of which commenced in 1759, is the United States' oldest synagogue and began services in the current building in the year 1763; the congregation was founded in 1658. * Congregation Talmud Torah Adereth El (located on East 29th Street in Manhattan) has been operating services from that location since 1863. The congregation was founded in 1857. It has the distinction of being the oldest synagogue in New York running services from the same location. * Congregation Mickve Israel of Savannah, Georgia was organized in 1733 by Sephardic Jews. The current 1878 Neo-Gothic building is unique in its cross-shaped floor plan. * Congregation Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim in Charleston, South Carolina was founded in 1749 and is the oldest synagogue in continuous use in the United States. The present building dates to 1840 and was constructed after the original structure was destroyed in the fire of 1838.


South America and Caribbean


Recife, Brazil

* The Kahal Zur Israel Synagogue in Recife, Brazil, erected in 1636, was the first synagogue erected in the Americas. Its foundations have been recently discovered, and the 20th-century buildings on the site have been altered to resemble a 17th-century Dutch synagogue.


Jamaica

* The first synagogue, a Sephardic Synagogue, was built in Port Royal in approximately 1646, but was destroyed during the earthquake of 1692. Another Synagogue, ''Neveh Shalom Synagogue'', was established on Spanish Town's Monk Street in 1704, but today lies largely in ruins. The only synagogue still in current use, Shaare Shamayim in Kingston, Jamaica, Kingston, was built in 1912.


Barbados

* Nidhe Israel Synagogue in Bridgetown, Barbados: one of the oldest Synagogues in the Americas, standing since 1654, restored and used by the Jewish community in Barbados to this day.


Argentina

* Synagogue in Aldea San Gregorio, Entre Ríos Province, Entre Ríos. Built in 1893, today abandoned.


Suriname

* Wooden, later brick synagogue ''Beracha ve Shalom'' ("Blessings and Peace") at ''Jodensavanne'', Suriname, built between 1665 and 1671. Destroyed in 1832, ruins still exist. * Neveh Shalom Synagogue, erection first completed in 1723 and rebuilt in 1842 or 1843, currently the only synagogue in use in Suriname.


Curaçao

* The Jewish community was founded in 1659. The Curaçao synagogue, congregation ''Mikvé Israel-Emanuel'', built in 1732. It is the oldest synagogue still in use today in Americas, the Americas. When Jews were expelled from the French islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe the number of Jews in Curaçao increased and by 1780 reached 2,000, more than half of the white population. The Curaçao community became the "mother community" of The Americas and assisted other communities in the area, mainly in Suriname and St. Eustatius. It also financed the construction of the first synagogues in New York and Newport.


Sint Eustatius

* The ''Honen Dalim'' Synagogue, Oranjestad, Sint Eustatius, built in 1739, fallen into ruins after the economy of the island collapsed and the Jews started to leave the island from 1795 to the point where there was no Jewish community left. Partially restored in 2001.


St Thomas – United States Virgin Islands

* The St. Thomas Synagogue in the United States Virgin Islands was founded in 1796 by Jews who left St. Eustatius (see above).


See also

* List of oldest church buildings * List of the oldest mosques


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Oldest Synagogues In The World Ancient synagogues, Lists of oldest buildings and structures, *Synagogues Religion-related lists of superlatives Judaism-related lists