HOME

TheInfoList




Dialect The term dialect (from , , from the word , 'discourse', from , 'through' and , 'I speak') can refer to either of two distinctly different types of phenomena: * One usage refers to a of a that is a characteristic of a particular group of ...
s are linguistic varieties that may differ in
pronunciation Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful d ...
,
vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of familiar words In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), m ...
,
spelling Spelling is a set of conventions that regulate the way of using s (writing system) to represent a language in its . In other words, spelling is the rendering of speech sound (phoneme) into writing (grapheme). Spelling is one of the elements of , ...

spelling
and
grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...
. For the classification of varieties of
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
only in terms of pronunciation, see
regional accents of English Spoken English Dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of Linguistics, linguistic phenomena: * O ...
.


Overview

Dialects can be defined as "sub-forms of languages which are, in general, mutually comprehensible." English speakers from different countries and regions use a variety of different
accentsAccent may refer to: Speech and language * Accent (sociolinguistics), way of pronunciation particular to a speaker or group of speakers * Accent (phonetics), prominence given to a particular syllable in a word, or a word in a phrase ** Pitch accen ...
(systems of pronunciation) as well as various localized words and grammatical constructions; many different dialects can be identified based on these factors. Dialects can be classified at broader or narrower levels: within a broad national or regional dialect, various more localised sub-dialects can be identified, and so on. The combination of differences in pronunciation and use of local words may make some English dialects almost unintelligible to speakers from other regions without any prior exposure. The major native dialects of English are often divided by linguists into three general categories: the
British Isles The British Isles are a in the North off the north-western coast of , consisting of the islands of , , the , the and over six thousand smaller islands."British Isles", ' They have a total area of and a combined population of almost 72&nb ...

British Isles
dialects, those of
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
, and those of
Australasia Australasia is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. ...

Australasia
. Dialects can be associated not only with place but also with particular social groups. Within a given English-speaking country, there is a form of the language considered to be
Standard English In an English-speaking country This article is intended to provide details and data regarding the geographical distribution of all English speakers, regardless of the legislative status of the countries where it's spoken. The English language is o ...
: the Standard Englishes of different countries differ and can themselves be considered dialects. Standard English is often associated with the more
educated Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion and directed resear ...

educated
layers of society as well as more formal registers. British and American English are the reference norms for English as spoken, written, and taught in the rest of the world, excluding countries in which English is spoken natively such as
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Oce ...

Canada
,
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
, and
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
. In many former
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
countries in which English is not spoken natively, British English forms are closely followed, alongside numerous American English usages that have become widespread throughout the
English-speaking world Speakers of English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the Wo ...
. Conversely, in many countries historically influenced by the United States in which English is not spoken natively, American English forms are closely followed. Many of these countries, while retaining strong British English or American English influences, have developed their own unique dialects, which include
Indian English Indian English (IE) is a class of varieties of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsula on the (not to be ...
and
Philippine English Philippine English (similar and related to American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United St ...
. Chief among other native English dialects are
Canadian English Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of alg ...
and
Australian English Australian English (AusE,AusEng, AuE, AuEng, en-AU) is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to Australia. Australian English is the country's national and ''de facto'' common language. English is the Lan ...
, which rank third and fourth in the . For the most part, Canadian English, while featuring numerous British forms, alongside indigenous Canadianisms, shares vocabulary, phonology and syntax with American English, which leads many to recognise
North American English North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety (linguistics), variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada. Because of their related histories and cultures, plus the similarities between the pronu ...
as an organic grouping of dialects. Australian English, likewise, shares many American and British English usages, alongside plentiful features unique to Australia and retains a significantly higher degree of distinctiveness from both larger varieties than does Canadian English.
South African English South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English language dialects native to South Africans. History British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or B ...
,
New Zealand English New Zealand English (NZE) is the dialect The term dialect (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area arou ...
and
Irish English Hiberno-English (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the pow ...
are also distinctive and rank fifth, sixth, and seventh in the number of native speakers.


Europe

English language in Europe English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...


British Isles

*
British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a populatio ...


British Islands

English language in England The English language spoken and written in England encompasses a diverse range of accents and dialects. The dialect forms part of the broader British English, along with other varieties in the United Kingdom. Terms used to refer to the E ...
: *
Received Pronunciation Received Pronunciation (often abbreviated as RP) is the accentAccent may refer to: Speech and language * Accent (sociolinguistics), way of pronunciation particular to a speaker or group of speakers * Accent (phonetics), prominence given to a ...
(sometimes called "the Queen's English" or
Standard English In an English-speaking country This article is intended to provide details and data regarding the geographical distribution of all English speakers, regardless of the legislative status of the countries where it's spoken. The English language is o ...
in
British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a populatio ...
) * Northern ** Lancastrian (
Lancashire Lancashire ( , ; abbreviated Lancs.) is a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial co ...

Lancashire
) and
Cheshire Cheshire ( ;), archaically the County Palatine of Chester, is a historic and ceremonial county in North West England, northwest England. It is bordered by Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire and ...
***
Bolton Bolton (, locally ) is a large town in Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; the third largest in England afte ...
*** Mancunian (
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguis ...

Manchester
) ***
Scouse Scouse (; formally known as Liverpool English or Merseyside English) is an Accent (dialect), accent and dialect of English language, English associated with Liverpool and the surrounding county of Merseyside. The Scouse accent is highly dist ...
(
Merseyside Merseyside ( ) is a metropolitan Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form of local government district i ...

Merseyside
) **
Cumbrian The Cumberland dialect is a local Northern England English, Northern English dialect in decline, spoken in Cumberland, Westmorland and surrounding northern England, not to be confused with the area's extinct Celtic language, Cumbric. Some parts ...
(
Cumbria Cumbria ( ) is a ceremonial A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a ...

Cumbria
) ***
Barrovian Barrovian (or Barrow dialect) is an accent and dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of Linguis ...
(
Barrow-in-Furness Barrow-in-Furness is a town in Cumbria, North-West England. Historic counties of England, Historically part of Lancashire, it was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1867 and merged with Dalton-in-Furness Urban District in 1974 to form the Ba ...
) ** Northumbrian (
Northumberland Northumberland () is a ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-li ...

Northumberland
and
County Durham County Durham ( ) is a historic county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publishe ...
) ***
Geordie Geordie () is a List of regional nicknames, nickname for a person from the Tyneside area of North East England, and the dialect used by its inhabitants, also known in linguistics as Tyneside English or Newcastle English. There are different defi ...
(
Tyneside Tyneside is a conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, ...

Tyneside
) *** Hartlepudlian (
Hartlepool Hartlepool () is a large port town in County Durham, North East England. It is the largest settlement and administrative centre of the Borough of Hartlepool. The town is located south-east of Newcastle upon Tyne, south-east of Durham, Engla ...

Hartlepool
) ***
Mackem Mackem, Makem or Mak'em is the informal nickname for residents of and people from Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, Sunderland, a city in North East England. It is also a name for the local dialect and accent (not to be confused with Geordie); and for ...
(
Sunderland Sunderland () is a port city and the administrative centre of the City of Sunderland metropolitan borough in Tyne and Wear, North East England. Sunderland is situated near the mouth of the River Wear which flows through the city and as well as ...
) ***
Pitmatic__NOTOC__ Pitmatic (originally "pitmatical"), colloquially known as "yakka", is an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon E ...
( Great Northern Coalfield) ***
Smoggie Smoggie or Smoggy is a nickname A nickname is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place or thing. Commonly used to express affection, it is a form of endearment and amusement. It can also be used to express defamation of ch ...
(
Teesside Teesside () is a built-up area around the River Tees in the north of England, split between County Durham and North Yorkshire. The name was initially used as a county borough in the North Riding of Yorkshire. The number of people employed in t ...
) **
Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a Historic counties of England, historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Because of its great size in comparison with other English cou ...
*
East Midlands The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the ITL 1 statistical regions of England, first level of International Territorial Level, ITL for Statistics, statistical purposes. It consists of Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Linc ...
**
Lincolnshire Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs.) is a Counties of England, county in the East Midlands of England, with a long coastline on the North Sea to the east. It borders Norfolk to the south-east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south-w ...
** East Lincolnshire *
West MidlandsWest Midlands may refer to: Places * West Midlands (region), a region of the United Kingdom **West Midlands (county), the metropolitan county in the West Midlands region ** West Midlands conurbation, the large conurbation in the West Midlands region ...
**
Black Country The Black Country is an area of the English West Midlands (county), West Midlands, covering most of the Metropolitan Boroughs of Metropolitan Borough of Dudley, Dudley, Sandwell, and only some minor parts of Metropolitan Borough of Walsall, Wa ...
**
Brummie The Brummie dialect, or more formally the Birmingham dialect, is spoken by many people in Birmingham, England, and some of its surrounding areas. "Brummie" is also a demonym for people from Birmingham. It is often erroneously used in referring to al ...
(
Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Ro ...

Birmingham
) ** Potteries (north
Staffordshire Staffordshire (; postal abbreviation Staffs.) is a landlocked Counties of England, county in the West Midlands (region), West Midlands of England. It borders Cheshire to the northwest, Derbyshire and Leicestershire to the east, Warwickshire to ...

Staffordshire
) **
Coventry Coventry ( or ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, city in the West Midlands (county), West Midlands, England. It is on the River Sherbourne. Coventry has been a large settlement for centuries, although it was not founded and given its c ...

Coventry
* East Angle **
Norfolk Norfolk () is a rural and non-metropolitan county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambe ...
**
Suffolk Suffolk () is a ceremonial county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), W ...
*
Southern The name Southern may refer to: * South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earl ...
**
Cockney A Cockney is a certain type of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at ...
(working-class
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
and surrounding areas) ** Essaxon (
Essex Essex () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...

Essex
) **
Estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed Coast, coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime envir ...
(middle-class
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
, Home Counties and
Hampshire Hampshire (, ; abbreviated to Hants) is a Counties of England, county in South East England on the coast of the English Channel. The county town is Winchester, but the county is named after Southampton. Its two largest cities are Southampton a ...

Hampshire
) ** Kentish (
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
) ** Multicultural London (
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
) **
Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and R ...
**
Sussex Sussex (), from the Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, e ...
*
West Country The West Country is a loosely defined area of south-western England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is sep ...
**
Anglo-Cornish The Cornish dialect (also known as Cornish English, Cornu-English, kw, Sowsnek Kernowek) is a dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two distinct ...
** Bristolian **
Dorset Dorset (; archaically In language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system compose ...
**
Janner Janner is an English regional nickname associated with Plymouth both as a noun and as an adjective for the local accent and colloquialisms. In 1987 Cyril Tawney, in his book ''Grey Funnel Lines'', described its meaning as "a person from Devon", deri ...
(Plymouth)


Scotland

*
Scottish English Scottish English ( gd, Beurla Albannach) is the set of varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classe ...
comprising varieties based on the Standard English of England. **
Highland English Highland English ( sco, Hieland Inglis) is the variety of Scottish English Scottish English ( gd, Beurla Albannach) is the set of varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutio ...


Wales

*
Welsh English Welsh English ( cy, Saesneg Gymreig) comprises the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of L ...
**
Abercraf Abercraf ( en, Abercrave) is a village within the historic boundaries of the county of Brecknockshire, Wales, administered as part of the unitary authority of Powys, and in the community of Ystradgynlais. Location Abercraf lies in the extreme s ...
**
Cardiff Cardiff (; cy, Caerdydd ) is the capital city of Wales and a Local government in Wales, county. Officially known as the City and County of Cardiff, it is the United Kingdom's eleventh-largest city and the main commercial centre of Wales. Cardi ...
**
Gower Gower ( cy, Gŵyr) or the Gower Peninsula () in southwest The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive en ...
**
Port Talbot Port Talbot (, ) is a town and community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, or Identity (social science), identity. Communitie ...


Isle of Man

*
Manx English Manx English, or Anglo-Manx ( gv, Baarle Ghaelgagh), is the historic dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two diffe ...


Channel Islands

*
Channel Island English Channel Island English refers to Alderney English, Guernsey English and Jersey English and similar dialects of English found in the other Channel Islands The Channel Islands ( nrf, Îles d'la Manche; french: îles Anglo-Normandes or ''îles de ...


Gibraltar

* Gibraltarian English


Ireland

*
Hiberno-English Hiberno-English (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" ...
(Irish English) **
Ulster Ulster (; ga, Ulaidh or ''Cúige Uladh'' ; sco, label=Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster Scots, Ulstèr or ''Ulster'') is one of the four traditional Irish provinces of Ireland, provinces, in the north of Ireland. It is made up of nine Counties ...
***
Ulster Scots dialects Ulster Scots or Ulster-Scots (', ga, Albainis Ultach), also known as Ulster Scotch, Scots-Irish and Ullans, is the dialect of Scots language, Scots spoken in parts of Ulster in Ireland.Gregg, R. J. (1972) "The Scotch-Irish Dialect Boundaries ...
**
Leinster Leinster ( ; ga, Laighin or ) is one of the provinces of Ireland Since pre-historic times, there have been four Provinces of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic ...

Leinster
***
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_ ...
****
Dublin 4 Dublin 4 is a historic Dublin postal districts, postal district of Dublin, Republic of Ireland, Ireland including Baggot Street, Baggot Street Upper, the southernmost fringes of the Dublin Docklands, and the suburbs of Ballsbridge, Donnybrook, Dubl ...

Dublin 4
(D4) ** South-West Ireland


Extinct

*
Forth and Bargy dialect Forth and Bargy, also known as Yola, or historically, the Forth and Bargy dialect is an extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living or ...
(also known as Yola), thought to have been a descendant of
Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured sys ...
, spoken in
County Wexford County Wexford ( ga, Contae Loch Garman) is a county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geogr ...
*
Fingallian Fingallian or the Fingal dialect is an extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that e ...
, another presumed descendant of Middle English, spoken in
Fingal Fingal ( ; ) is a Counties of Ireland, county in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is located in the Provinces of Ireland, province of Leinster and, within that, is part of the Dublin Region. Its name is derived from the medieval territory of Sca ...

Fingal


European Union

European English: * Euro English


Malta

*
Maltese English Malta has two official languages: Maltese language, Maltese and English language, English. Maltese is the national language. Until 1934, Italian language, Italian was also an official language in Malta, and in the 19th and 20th centuries there w ...


The Netherlands

* Dutch English


Germany

* German English


Nordics


Sweden

* Swedish English


Norway

* Norwegian English


Finland

*


Denmark

*


North America


United States

American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the m ...
: *Cultural and ethnic American English **
African American English African-American English (AAE), also known as Black English in American linguistics, is the set of English sociolects primarily spoken by most black people in the United States and many in Canada; most commonly, it refers to a dialect continuum ...
(" Ebonics") ***
African-American Vernacular English African-American Vernacular English (AAVE, ), also referred to as Black Vernacular, Black English Vernacular (BEV), Black Vernacular English (BVE), occasionally as Ebonics (word), Ebonics (a colloquial, Ebonics (word)#Common usage and controversy ...
** Cajun Vernacular English **
General American General American English or General American (abbreviated GA or GenAm) is the umbrella accentAccent may refer to: Speech and language * Accent (sociolinguistics), way of pronunciation particular to a speaker or group of speakers * Accent (p ...

General American
: the "standard" or "mainstream" spectrum of American English ** Latino (Hispanic) Vernacular Englishes ***
Chicano English Chicano English, or Mexican-American English, is a dialect of American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native ...
(Mexican-American English) ***
Miami English The Miami accent is an evolving American English accent or sociolect spoken in South Florida, particularly in Miami-Dade County, Florida, Miami-Dade county, originating from central Miami. The Miami accent is most prevalent in American-born Hispan ...
***
New York Latino English The English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading language of international disco ...
**
Pennsylvania Dutch English Pennsylvania Dutch English is a dialect of English that has been influenced by the Pennsylvania German language. It is largely spoken in South Central Pennsylvania South Central Pennsylvania is a region of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania P ...
** Yeshiva English *Regional and local American English **
Northern American English Northern American English or Northern U.S. English (also, Northern AmE) is a class of historically related American English dialects, spoken by predominantly white Americans, best documented in the greater metropolitan areas of Connecticut, Wester ...
***
Inland North Inland Northern (American) English, also known in American linguistics as the Inland North or Great Lakes dialect, is an American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. Engli ...
ern English:
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
,
Cleveland Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a city in the U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North ...

Cleveland
,
Detroit (strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both sides and through the strait in either direction. Mo ...

Detroit
,
Milwaukee Milwaukee ( ) is the largest city in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in ...

Milwaukee
,
Western New York Western New York (WNY) is the westernmost region of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primari ...

Western New York
, the
Lower Peninsula of Michigan The Lower Peninsula of Michigan – also known as Lower Michigan – is the southern and less elevated of the two major landmasses that make up the U.S. state of Michigan Michigan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
, and most of the U.S.
Great Lakes region The Great Lakes region of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographic ...

Great Lakes region
*** Northeastern American English ****
New England English New England English collectively refers to the various distinct dialects and varieties of American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of ...
*****
Eastern New England English Eastern New England English, historically known as the Yankee dialect since at least the nineteenth century, is the traditional regional dialect of Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered ...
(including
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...
and Maine English) ***** Rhode Island English ***** Western New England: Connecticut, Hudson Valley, western Massachusetts, and Vermont *** North-Central (Upper Midwestern) English: Brockway, Minot, Bismarck, Bemidji, Chisholm, Duluth, Marquette, etc. ** Southeast Super-Regional English *** Mid-Atlantic American English, Mid-Atlantic (Delaware Valley) English **** Baltimore English, Baltimore English **** Philadelphia English **** New York City English, Metropolitan New York English *** Midland American English, Midland American English **** North Midland English: Iowa City, Omaha, Lincoln, Columbia, Springfield, Muncie, Columbus, etc. **** South Midland English: Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Topeka, Wichita, Kansas City, St. Louis (in transition), Decatur, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Dayton, etc. *** High Tider, "Hoi Toider" English: traditional dialect of the Chesapeake Bay, Tangier, Ocracoke, the Outer Banks, Virginia Barrier Islands, etc. *** New Orleans English, New Orleans English *** Southern American English, Southern American English **** Appalachian English, Southern Appalachian English: Linden, Birmingham, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Asheville, and Greenville **** Texan English: Lubbock, Odessa, and Dallas **** Upper Dixie: Smyrna, Nashville, and Murfreesboro **Western American English, Western American English *** California English *** Pacific Northwest English **Pittsburghese, Western Pennsylvania (Pittsburgh) English *Extinct or near-extinct American English **Boontling **Older Southern American English **Mid-Atlantic accent *American English-based hybrid languages (creoles or pidgin, Pidgin) ** Angloromani language, Angloromani ** Gullah language, Gullah ** Hawaiian Pidgin ** Spanglish


Canada

Canadian English Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of alg ...
: * Atlantic Canadian English ** Lunenburg English ** Newfoundland English * Ottawa Valley English * Quebec English * Standard Canadian English ** Pacific Northwest English


Caribbean, Central, and South America


Caribbean

* Caribbean English


The Bahamas

* Bahamian English


Barbados

*Bajan English


Belize

* Languages of Belize, Belizean English


Bermuda

* Bermudian English


Cayman Islands

* Cayman Islands English


Falkland Islands

* Falkland Islands English


Guyana

* Guyanese English


Honduras

* Bay Islands English


Jamaica

* Jamaican English


Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

* Vincentian English


Trinidad and Tobago

* Trinidadian English


Asia


Bangladesh

* Bangladeshi English (''Benglish'' or ''Banglish'')


Brunei

* Brunei English


Burma

* Burmese English


Hong Kong

* Hong Kong English


China

* Chinese Pidgin English (Extinct) * Chinglish (Disputed)


India

Indian English: * Standard Indian English **
Indian English Indian English (IE) is a class of varieties of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsula on the (not to be ...
: the "standard" English used by administration and educated people, it derives from the British Indian Empire. *Regional differences and dialects in Indian English, Regional and local Indian English ** East Region: Oriya English, Assamese/Bengali English, North-East Indian English etc. ** West Region: Gujarati English, Maharashtrian English etc. ** North Region: Hindustani English/Hinglish, Delhi/Punjabi English, UP/Bihari English, Rajasthani English etc. ** South Region: Telugu English, Kannada English, Tamil English, Malayali English etc.


Japan

* English in Japan * Engrish


Korea

* Korean English


Malaysia

* Malaysian English


Middle East

*Arabic chat alphabet, Middle Eastern English (or Arablish)


Nepal

*Nepali English


Pakistan

* Pakistani English


Philippines

*
Philippine English Philippine English (similar and related to American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United St ...


Singapore

* Singapore English


Sri Lanka

* Sri Lankan English


Africa


Cameroon

* Cameroonian English


The Gambia

*Gambian English


Ghana

* Ghanaian English


Kenya

* Kenyan English


Liberia

* Liberian English *Merico language


Malawi

* Malawian English


Namibia

* Namlish


Nigeria

* Nigerian English


Sierra Leone

* Sierra Leonean English


South Africa

*
South African English South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English language dialects native to South Africans. History British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or B ...
: Black South African English, White South African English, Indian South African English etc. **Cape Flats English


South Atlantic

*South Atlantic English spoken on Tristan da Cunha and Saint HelenaDaniel Schreier, Peter Trudgill. ''The Lesser-Known Varieties of English: An Introduction.'' Cambridge University Press, Mar 4, 2010 pg. 10


Uganda

* Ugandan English


Zambia

* Zambian English


Zimbabwe

* Zimbabwean English


Oceania


Australia

Australian English Australian English (AusE,AusEng, AuE, AuEng, en-AU) is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to Australia. Australian English is the country's national and ''de facto'' common language. English is the Lan ...
* Variation in Australian English, General Australian: Broad Australian, Cultivated Australian, Tasmanian English etc. ** Australian Aboriginal English ** South Australian English ** Western Australian English ** Torres Strait English


Fiji

* Fiji English


New Zealand

New Zealand English New Zealand English (NZE) is the dialect The term dialect (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area arou ...
: Maori English, Southland accent, Taranaki accent etc.


South Atlantic

* South Atlantic English


World Global English

These dialects are used in everyday conversation almost all over the world, and are used as lingua francas and to determine grammar rules and guidelines. *
Standard English In an English-speaking country This article is intended to provide details and data regarding the geographical distribution of all English speakers, regardless of the legislative status of the countries where it's spoken. The English language is o ...
*Learning_English_(version_of_English), Special English *International English *English as a lingua franca *Simplified Technical English


See also

* American English regional vocabulary ** North American English regional phonology * English-based creole languages * History of the English language ** Old English language, Old English **
Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured sys ...
** Early Modern English ** Modern English * Linguistic purism in English * List of English-based pidgins * Macaronic language * Regional accents of English * Survey of English Dialects * World Englishes


References


Further reading

* * * * * * * * *


External links


Sounds Familiar?
Listen to examples of regional accents and dialects from across the UK on the British Library's 'Sounds Familiar?' website



– International Dialects of English Archive
English Dialects
– English Dialects around the world
Dialect poetry from the English regions

American Languages: Our Nation's Many Voices
- An online audio resource presenting interviews with speakers of German-American and American English dialects from across the United States
electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English (eWAVE)
{{DEFAULTSORT:List Of Dialects Of The English Language Dialects of English, Lists of Indo-European languages, English Dialects English as a global language