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The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur;
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
: Ligurians;
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
: ) were an ancient people after whom
Liguria it, Ligure , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Liguria
, a region of present-day north-western Italy, is named. In pre-Roman times, the Ligurians occupied, at a minimum, the present-day
Italian region The regions of Italy ( it, regioni d'Italia) are the first-level constituent entity, constituent entities of the Italian Republic, constituting its second Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, NUTS administrative level. There are 20 r ...

Italian region
of
Liguria it, Ligure , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Liguria
,
Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Piedmont
south of the
Po river The Po ( , ; la, Padus or ; grc, Πάδος, Pádos, or , ; Ancient Ligurian: or ) is the longest river in Italy. It is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy starting from the Cottian Alps; it, Alpi Cozie , photo=Monviso_Cottian_ ...
and north-western
Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demogra ...
, and the
French region France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territori ...
of
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (; oc, Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur, , or , ; commonly shortened to PACA; en, Provence-Alps-French Riviera, italic=yes; also known as Région Sud) is one of the eighteen administrative regions of France France ...
(PACA). However, it is generally believed that around
2000 BC The 20th century BC was a century that lasted from the year 2000 BC to 1901 BC. Events Image:AmenemhetIPyramid.jpg, 400px, The pyramid ruin of Amenemhet I at Lisht. He was the founder of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt c. 2000 BC: * Farmers and he ...
, the Ligurians occupied a much larger area, including much of north-western Italy, all of northern Tuscany (the part that lies north of the
Arno river The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. It is the most important river of central Italy after the Tiber. Source and route The river originates on Monte Falterona in the Casentino area of the Apennine Mountains, Apennines, and i ...

Arno river
),
southern France Southern France, also known as the South of France or colloquially in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, Répub ...
, and a portion of what today is
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, na ...

Catalonia
(in the north-eastern corner of the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region ...

Iberian Peninsula
). Little is known about the Old Ligurian language because there are no known written records or inscriptions in it, and because it is not known where the ancient Ligurian people originally came from. Scholars have suggested that it may have been a Pre-Indo-European or
Indo-European language The Indo-European languages are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation ...
in the
Celtic language family The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic. They form a branch of the Indo-European language family. The term "Celtic" was first used to describe this language group by Edward Lhuyd in 1707, fol ...
, partly based on inferences from local
toponyms Toponymy, also toponymics or toponomastics (from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name') is the study of ''wikt:toponym, toponyms'' (proper names of places, also known as ''place name'' or ''geographic name''), their origins and meanings ...
and from
proper names A proper noun is a noun A noun (from Latin ''nōmen'', literally ''name'') is a word that functions as the name of a specific object or set of objects, such as living creatures, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.Exampl ...
that have been common in the region. In addition, the people were known in antiquity as Celto-Ligurians (in Greek ''Keltolígues''), presumably due to evidence of strong Celtic influences on their language and culture. It is generally believed that Old Ligurian developed into an
Indo-European language The Indo-European languages are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation ...
that had particularly strong
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
affinities, as well as similarities to
Italic languages The Italic languages form a branch of the Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian sub ...

Italic languages
. Only some
proper name A proper noun is a noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (lingu ...
s have survived, such as the inflectional
suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languag ...
''-asca'' or ''-asco'' "village".


Name

The name ''Liguria'' and ''Ligures'' predates
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
and is of obscure origin, however the Latin
adjectives In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Itali ...
''Ligusticum'' (as in ''Mare Ligusticum'') and ''Liguscus'' reveal the original -sc- in the root ligusc-, which shortened to -s- and turned into -r- in the Latin name ''Liguria'' according to rhotacism. The
formant 250px, Spectrogram of American English vowels showing the formants ''F''1 and ''F''2 In speech science Speech science refers to the study of production, transmission and perception of speech Speech is human vocal communication using language ...

formant
-sc- (-sk-) is present in the names
Etruscan__NOTOC__ Etruscan may refer to: Ancient civilisation *The Etruscan language, an extinct language in ancient Italy *Something derived from or related to the Etruscan civilization **Etruscan architecture **Etruscan art **Etruscan cities **Etruscan ...
,
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to th ...
,
Gascony Gascony (; french: Gascogne ; oc, Gasconha ; eu, Gaskoinia) was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region ...
and is believed by some researchers to relate to maritime people or sailors. Compare
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
: λίγυς,
romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign lan ...
:
''Lígus'', lit. 'a Ligurian, a person from Liguria' whence ''Ligustikḗ'' λιγυστική transl. the name of the place Liguria. The term Ligurian seems to be related to
Loire river The Loire (, also ; ; oc, Léger, ; la, Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world. With a length of , it drains , more than a fifth of France's land while its average discharge is only half that of the Rhône ...

Loire river
. The name of the French river in fact derives from the Latin "Liger", the latter probably from the Gallic *liga, meaning mud or silt. Liga derives from the root proto-Indo-European *legʰ-, meaning "lie", as in the Welsh word Lleyg. According to
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
, the Ligurians called themselves ''Ambrones'', which could indicate a relationship with the
Ambrones The Ambrones ( grc, Ἄμβρωνες) were an ancient tribe mentioned by Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people o ...
of northern Europe. Plutarch however refers to a single episode (the
battle of Aquae Sextiae The Battle of Aquae Sextiae (Aix-en-Provence) took place in 102 BC. After a string of Roman Republic, Roman defeats (see: the Battle of Noreia, the Battle of Burdigala, and the Battle of Arausio), the Romans under Gaius Marius finally defeated the ...
of 102 BC), when the Ligurian
auxilia The lat, Auxilia (: , lit. "auxiliaries") were introduced as non-citizen troops attached to the citizen by after his reorganisation of the from 30 BC. By the 2nd century, the Auxilia contained the same number of infantry as the legions ...
res of the Romans against the Cimbrians and the Teutons screamed "Ambrones!" as a battle cry, obtaining in response the same battle cry from the opposing front; but on the episode there are opposite interpretations. It is not known how the Ligurians called themselves in their language and if they had a term to define themselves. "Ligurians" is a term that derives from the name by which the Greeks called this ethnic group (Ligues) when they began exploring the western Mediterranean. Later, in late times, they too began to use this term to differentiate themselves from other ethnic groups. One opinion is that originally the Ligurians did not have a term to define their entire ethnicity, but only had names by which they defined themselves as members of a particular tribe. Only when they had to deal with united and organized peoples (Greeks, Etruscans, Romans) and had to federate to defend themselves would they have felt the need to recognize themselves ethnically through a single term.


Controversy and geographical area of ancient Liguria

The geography of
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
, from book 2, chapter 5, section 28 : This zone corresponds to the current region of
Liguria it, Ligure , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Liguria
in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
as well as to the former
county of Nice The County of Nice (french: Comté de Nice / Pays Niçois, it, Contea di Nizza/Paese Nizzardo, Niçard oc, Contèa de Niça/País Niçard) is a historical region of France located around the southeastern city of Nice Nice ( , ; Niçard ...

county of Nice
which could be compared today to the
Alpes Maritimes Alpes-Maritimes (; oc, Aups Maritims; it, Alpi Marittime, "Maritime Alps") is a department of France located in the extreme southeast corner of the country, on the border with Italy and on the Mediterranean coast. Part of the Provence-Alpes- ...
. The writer, naturalist and Roman philosopher
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
writes in his book "The Natural History" book III chapter 7 on the
Ligurians The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English language, English: Ligurians; Ancient Greek, Greek: ) were an ancient population that gave the name to Liguria, a region of Northern Italy, north-western Italy. File:Meyers b9 s0067b.jpg, Roman Liguri ...
and
Liguria it, Ligure , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Liguria
: Just like
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
,
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
situates Liguria between the rivers Varus and
Magra __NOTOC__ The Magra is a long river of Northern Italy, which runs through Pontremoli, Filattiera, Villafranca in Lunigiana and Aulla in the province of Massa-Carrara (Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note ...
. He also quotes the Ligurian peoples living on the other side of the banks of the Var and the Alps. He writes in his book "The Natural History" book III chapter 6 : So there is no archaeological evidence or ancient text that affirms the presence of Ligurians in southern Gaul except in the
Alpes-Maritimes Alpes-Maritimes (; oc, Aups Maritims; it, Alpi Marittime, "Maritime Alps") is a department of France In the administrative divisions of France, the department (french: département, ) is one of the three levels of government under the nat ...
, of which the major part of this territory was in Italy until 1860. We note that Pliny the Elder cites the Ligurian peoples between the river
Argenteus Image:Argenteus-Constantius I-antioch RIC 033a.jpg, 300px, Argenteus struck under Constantius Chlorus, weighing 3.36 g. The argenteus was a silver coin produced by the Roman Empire from the time of Diocletian's coinage reform in AD 294 to ca. AD 310 ...

Argenteus
and Varus, which corresponds to the western part of the
Alpes-Maritimes Alpes-Maritimes (; oc, Aups Maritims; it, Alpi Marittime, "Maritime Alps") is a department of France In the administrative divisions of France, the department (french: département, ) is one of the three levels of government under the nat ...
. The southern Gaul was therefore populated by Celts before the Germanic invasions of the Franks at the end of the Roman Empire. While Liguria was populated by Italic population, the Ligurians.


History


Proto-history of northern Italy

The Polada Culture (a location near
Brescia Brescia (; lmo, link=no, label=Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title ...

Brescia
,
Lombardy (man), (woman) lmo, lombard, links=no (man), (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = ...
, Italy) was a cultural horizon extended in the
Po valley The Po Valley, Po Plain, Plain of the Po, or Padan Plain ( it, Pianura Padana , or ''Val Padana'') is a major geographical feature of Northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, ...
from eastern Lombardy and
Veneto it, Veneto (man) it, Veneta (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = ...

Veneto
to
Emilia and Romagna
Emilia and Romagna
, formed in the first half of
2nd millennium BC The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC. In the Ancient Near East The ancient Near East was the home of early civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban de ...
perhaps for the arrival of new people from the transalpine regions of
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
and Southern
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
. Its influences are also found in the cultures of the Early Bronze Age of
Liguria it, Ligure , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Liguria
,
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
,
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , ...

Sardinia
( Bonnanaro culture) and
southern France Southern France, also known as the South of France or colloquially in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, Répub ...
. There are some commonalities with the previous
Bell Beaker Culture The Bell Beaker culture (or, in short, Beaker culture) is an archaeological culture named after the inverted-bell beaker (archaeology), beaker drinking vessel used at the very beginning of the European Bronze Age. Arising from around 2800 BC, it ...

Bell Beaker Culture
including the usage of the
bow Bow often refers to: * Bow and arrow The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon A ranged weapon is any weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used with the intent to inflict physical damage or harm. Weapons ar ...

bow
and a certain mastery in metallurgy. Apart from that, the Polada culture does not correspond to the Beaker culture nor to the previous
Remedello culture The Remedello culture (Italian ''Cultura di Remedello'') developed during the Copper Age The Chalcolithic (),The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) , p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective ''Archaeology'' of, relating to, or d ...

Remedello culture
. The
Bronze Bronze is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appear ...

Bronze
tools and weapons show similarities with those of the
Unetice Culture The Únětice culture (, Czech ''Únětická kultura'', German ''Aunjetitzer Kultur'', Polish ''Kultura unietycka'') is an archaeological culture An archaeological culture is a recurring Assemblage (archaeology), assemblage of types of Artifact ( ...
and other groups in north of
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt ...

Alps
. According to
Bernard SergentBernard Sergent (; born 23 February 1946) is a French ancient history, ancient historian and comparative mythologist. He is researcher of the Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS and president of the Société de mythologie française. ...
, the origins of the Ligurian language, in his opinion related to the distant with
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
and
Italic
Italic
languages families, would be sought in the Polada Culture and that of the Rhone (early Bronze Age), southern emanations of the
Unetice Culture The Únětice culture (, Czech ''Únětická kultura'', German ''Aunjetitzer Kultur'', Polish ''Kultura unietycka'') is an archaeological culture An archaeological culture is a recurring Assemblage (archaeology), assemblage of types of Artifact ( ...
. It is said that the ligurians inhabited the Po valley around the 2,000 B.C., they not only appear in the legends of the Po valley, but would have left traces (linguistic and craft) found in the archaeological also in the area near the northern Adriatic coast. The Ligurians are credited with forming the first villages in the Po Valley of the facies of the pile dwellings and of the dammed settlements, a society that followed the Polada culture, and is well suited in middle and late
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
. The ancient name of Po river (Padus in Latin) derived from the Ligurian name of the river: ''Bod-encus'' or ''Bod-incus.'' This word appears in the
place name Place may refer to: Geography * Place (United States Census Bureau), defined as any concentration of population ** Census-designated place, a populated area lacking its own municipal government * "Place", a type of street or road name ** Often ...
Bodincomagus, a Ligurian town on the right bank of the Po downstream near today's Turin. According to a legend, of the late Bronze Age are the foundations of Brescia and Barra (
Bergamo Bergamo (, also ; ; lmo, label=Eastern Lombard Eastern Lombard is a group of closely related dialects of Lombard language, Lombard, a Gallo-Italic languages, Gallo-Italic language spoken in Lombardy, mainly in the provinces of Bergamo, Bresc ...

Bergamo
) by Cydno, the forefather of Ligurians.Ducato di Piazza Pontida
/ref> This myth seems to have a grain of truth, because recent archaeological excavations have unearthed remains of a settlement dating back to 1,200 B.C. that scholars presume to have been built and inhabited by Ligures peoples. Others scholars attribute the founding of Bergamo and Brescia to the
Etruscans The Etruscan civilization () of ancient Italy The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Magna Graecia, Greeks, Etruscan civilization, Etruscans, and Celts ha ...
. With the facies of the pile dwellings and of the dammed settlements, the continuity of the previous Polada culture of the ancient Bronze Age seems to be unbroken. The villages, as in the previous phase, are on
stilts Stilts are poles, posts or pillars that allow a person or structure to stand at a height above the ground. In flood plain File:Flood plain 7991.JPG, Riparian vegetation on the floodplain of the Lynches River, close to Johnsonville, So ...
and are concentrated in the area of the Lake of Garda. In the plains appear instead villages with levees and ditches. The settlements were usually made up of
stilt houses Stilt houses (also called pile dwellings or lake dwellings) are houses raised on Stilts (architecture), stilts (or piles) over the surface of the soil or a body of water. Stilt houses are built primarily as a protection against flooding; they also ...
; the economy was characterized by agricultural and pastoral activities, hunting and fishing were also practiced as well as the metallurgy of copper and bronze (axes, daggers, pins etc.). Pottery was coarse and blackish. The bronze metallurgy (weapons, work tools, etc.) was well developed among these populations. As for the burial customs both
cremation Cremation is a method of Disposal of human corpses, final disposition of a Cadaver, dead body through combustion, burning. Cremation may serve as a funeral or post-funeral rite and as an alternative to burial. In some countries, including India ...

cremation
and
inhumation Burial, also known as interment or inhumation, is a method of final disposition wherein a dead person or non-human animal is placed into the ground, sometimes with objects. This is usually accomplished by excavating a pit or trench, placing th ...

inhumation
were practiced.


The foundation of Massalia

Between the 10th and 4th century BC, the Ligures were found in Provence from
Massilia Massalia (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as o ...
. According to
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
, the Ligurians, living in proximity of numerous Celtic mountain tribes, were a different people (''ἑτεροεθνεῖς''), but "were similar to the Celts in their ways of life". Massalia, whose name was probably adapted from an existing Ligurian name, was the first Greek settlement in France. It was established within modern Marseille around 600 BC by colonists coming from
Phocaea Phocaea or Phokaia (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). ...
(now
Foça Foça is a town and district in Turkey's İzmir Province, on the Aegean Sea, Aegean coast. The town of Foça is situated at about northwest of İzmir's city center. The district also has a township with its own municipality named Yenifoça (lite ...

Foça
, in modern Turkey) on the
Aegean Aegean may refer to: *Aegean Sea *Aegean Islands *Aegean Region (geographical), Turkey *Aegean Region (statistical), Turkey *Aegean civilizations *Aegean languages, a group of ancient languages and proposed language family *Aegean Sea (theme), a n ...

Aegean
coast of
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
. The connection between Massalia and the Phoceans is mentioned in
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc-gre, Θουκυδίδης ; BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the app ...
's ''
Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to ...
''; he notes that the Phocaean project was opposed by the
Carthaginians The Punics, Carthaginians or Western Phoenicians, were a group of peoples in the Western Mediterranean who traced their origins to the Phoenicians. In modern scholarship, the term 'Punic' – the Latin equivalent of the Greek-derived term 'Phoen ...
, whose fleet was defeated. The founding of Massalia has also been recorded as a legend. According to the legend, Protis, or Euxenes, a native of Phocae, while exploring for a new trading outpost or ''emporion'' to make his fortune, discovered the Mediterranean
cove A cove is a small type of bay or coast The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of ...

cove
of the Lacydon, fed by a freshwater stream and protected by two rocky promontories.Duboi, Marius; Gaffarel, Paul; Samat, J.-B. (1913). ''Histoire de Marseille'' (in French). Marseille: Librairie P. Ruat. Protis was invited inland to a banquet held by Nannu, the chief of the local ligurian tribe of Segobrigi, for suitors seeking the hand of his daughter Gyptis in marriage. At the end of the banquet, Gyptis presented the ceremonial cup of wine to Protis, indicating her unequivocal choice. Following their marriage, they moved to the hill just to the north of the Lacydon; and from this settlement grew Massalia. Robb gives greater weight to the Gyptis story, though he notes that the tradition was to offer water, not wine, to signal the choice of a marriage partner. Later, the natives would treacherously lay a plot to destroy the new colony, but the scheme was divulged and Conran, king of the natives, was killed in the ensuing battle. Probably the Greeks expressed the intention to expand the territory of the colony, and this is why Conran ( the son of Nannu),tried to destroy it. However, the resistance of the Ligurians had the effect of reducing the Greek claims, which renounced territorial expansion. The massaliotes ended up concentrating on the development of trade, first with the Ligurians, and then with the Gauls, until Massalia became the most important port in
Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rat ...

Gaul
.


The arrival and the fusion with the Celts

Between the 8th and 5th centuries BC, tribes of Celtic peoples, probably coming from Central Europe, also began moving into Provence. They had weapons made of iron, which allowed them to easily defeat the local tribes, who were still armed with bronze weapons. Ligurians and newly arrived Celts spread throughout the area, sharing the territory of modern
Provence Provence (, , , , ; oc, Provença or ''Prouvènço'' , ) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, ...

Provence
,
Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European peoples The Indo-European languages ar ...

Celts
and Ligurians later started to inter-mixing between each other and form a Celto-Ligurian culture, with many tribes. Each tribe in its own alpine valley or settlement along a river, each with its own king and dynasty. Of these numerous Celto-Ligurian tribes, the Salluvi settled north of Massalia, in the area of Aix-en-Provence while Caturiges, Tricastins, and Cavares settled to the west of the
Durance The Durance (; ''Durença'' in the Occitan language, Occitan classical norm or ''Durènço'' in the Mistralian norm) is a major river in Southeastern France. A left tributary of the Rhône, it is long. Its drainage basin is .< ...

Durance
river. They built hilltop forts and settlements, later given the Latin name ''oppida''. Today the traces of 165 ''
oppida An ''oppidum'' (plural ''oppida'') is a large fortified Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Huma ...

oppida
'' are found in the
Var Var or VAR may refer to: Places * Var (department), a department of France * Var (river) The Var (; oc, Var, it, Varo, la, Varus) is a river located in the southeast of France. It is long. Its drainage basin is .Alpes-Maritimes Alpes-Maritimes (; oc, Aups Maritims; it, Alpi Marittime, "Maritime Alps") is a department of France In the administrative divisions of France, the department (french: département, ) is one of the three levels of government under the nat ...
.J. R. Palanque, ''Ligures, Celts et Grecs'', in ''Histoire de la Provence''. Pg. 34. They worshipped various aspects of nature, establishing sacred woods at Sainte-Baume and Gemenos, and healing springs at Glanum and Vernègues. Later, in the 5th and 4th centuries BC, the different tribes formed confederations; the Voconces in the area from the
Isère Isère ( , ; frp, Isera; oc, Isèra, ) is a landlocked Departments of France, department in the southeastern French Regions of France, region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. Named after the river Isère (river), Isère, it had a population of 1,252 ...

Isère
to the
Vaucluse Vaucluse (; oc, Vauclusa, label= Provençal or ) is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivisi ...
; the Cavares in the Comtat; and the Salyens, from the
Rhône The Rhône ( , ) is a major river in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent ...

Rhône
river to the Var. The tribes began to trade their local products, iron, silver, alabaster, marble, gold, resin, wax, honey and cheese; with their neighbours, first by trading routes along the Rhône river, and later
Etruscan__NOTOC__ Etruscan may refer to: Ancient civilisation *The Etruscan language, an extinct language in ancient Italy *Something derived from or related to the Etruscan civilization **Etruscan architecture **Etruscan art **Etruscan cities **Etruscan ...
traders visited the coast. Etruscan
amphorae An amphora (; grc, ἀμφορεύς, ''amphoreús''; English plural: amphorae or amphoras) is a type of container with a pointed bottom and characteristic shape and size which fit tightly (and therefore safely) against each other in storag ...

amphorae
from the 7th and 6th centuries BC have been found in Marseille, Cassis, and in hilltop oppida in the region.


The Corsi

Corsi were an ancient people of
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , ...

Sardinia
and
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
, to which they gave the name. They dwelt at the extreme north-east of Sardinia, in the region today known as
Gallura Gallura ( sdn, Gaddùra ; sc, Caddura ) is a region in North-Eastern Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna and , also ''Saldigna'', ''Sardíngia'', ''Sardinna'', ''Sardinza''; sdc, Sardhigna; sdn, Saldigna; ca, label=Algh ...

Gallura
, According to historian
Ettore PaisEttore Pais (27 July 1856, Borgo San Dalmazzo, Borgo San Dalmazzo, Piedmont, Italy – 1939, Rome) was an ancient historian, Latin epigrapher, and an Italian politician. Pais was the son of Michele Pais Leoni, a nobleman from Sassari, Sardinia a ...
and archeologist Giovanni Ugas, the Corsi probably belonged to the Ligurian people. Similar was also the opinion of
Seneca Seneca may refer to: People and language *Seneca (name), a list of people with either the given name or surname *Seneca the Elder, a Roman rhetorician, writer and father of the stoic philosopher Seneca the Younger *Seneca the Younger, a Roman Stoi ...
, who claimed that the ''Corsi'' from Corsica, where he had then been staying in exile, were of mixed origin, resulting from the continuous mingling of various ethnic groups of foreign origin, like the Ligures, the
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...

Greeks
and the
Iberians The Iberians ( la, Hibērī, from el, Ἴβηρες, ''Iberes'') were a set of people that Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic ...
. In a myth, reported by
Sallust Gaius Sallustius Crispus, usually anglicised Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounc ...

Sallust
, the peopling of Corsica is traced back to Corsa, a Ligurian woman who when grazing her
cattle Cattle, taurine cattle, Eurasian cattle, or European cattle (''Bos taurus'' or ''Bos primigenius taurus'') are large domestication, domesticated Cloven hoof, cloven-hooved herbivores. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae ...

cattle
, went to the island, which then took her name. The Massaliotes in 565 or 562 B.C. founded the colony of Alalia, at the site of the current city of . The Greeks called the island first Kalliste and then Cyrnos, Cernealis, Corsis and Cirné. In 535 B.C., following the Battle Alalia, they were defeated by an Etruscan-Carthaginian coalition formed on a pact specifically stipulated and that, after the conflict, in case of victory, provided for the division of the two islands on which the influence had been conquered: Sardinia to the Carthaginians, Corsica to the Etruscans. In reality, according to
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an Classical Greece, ancient Greek writer, geographer, and historian born in the Greek city of Halicarnassus, part of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire (now Bodrum, Turkey). He ...
, the Focei had won, but it would have been a
pyrrhic victory A Pyrrhic victory ( ) is a victory that inflicts such a devastating toll on the victor that it is tantamount to defeat. A Pyrrhic victory takes a heavy toll that negates any true sense of achievement or damages long-term progress. The phrase origi ...
, given that of the 60 ships employed (half of the total armoury of the opposing fleets) 40 were sunk and the remaining rendered useless. The Massaliotes then left Corsica and the Carthaginians and Etruscans were able to give substance equally to the pact of partition. The Etruscans regained control over the eastern shores of the island, which they had already consolidated with the activity of the war marinas of Pisa,
Volterra Volterra (; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Rep ...

Volterra
,
Populonia Populonia or Populonia Alta ( Etruscan: ''Pupluna'', ''Pufluna'' or ''Fufluna'', all pronounced ''Fufluna''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was ...

Populonia
,
Tarquinia Tarquinia (), formerly Corneto, is an old city in the province of Viterbo Viterbo ( it, provincia di Viterbo) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1 ...
and Cere.


Between Celts and Etruscans


The Celto-Ligurian fusion in Western Alps and Po Valley

Starting from the 12th century B.C., from the union of the previous cultures of Polada and
Canegrate Canegrate ( lmo, Canegraa ) is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the basic civil fu ...
, that is from the union of pre-existing Ligurian populations with the arrival of Celtic populations, at the same time as the birth of the
Hallstatt culture The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a loc ...

Hallstatt culture
in central Europe and the Villanova culture in central Italy, a new civilization developed that archaeologists call Golasecca from the name of the place where the first discoveries were found. The People of Golasecca Culture inhabited a territory of about 20,000 km2, from the Alpine watershed to the Po, from Valsesia to the Serio, gravitating around three main centers: the area of Sesto Calende, Bellinzona, but especially the protourban center of Como. With the arrival of Gallic populations from beyond the Alps, in the 4th century B.C. this Celtic-Ligurian civilization declined and came to an end. The Etruscan expansion in the plain of the Po and the invasion of the Gauls confined the Ligurians between the Alps and the Apennines, where they offered such resistance to Roman penetration that they gained a reputation with the ancients for primitive fierceness.


= The Cultures of Canagrate, Polada and Golasecca

= The
Canegrate culture The Canegrate culture was a civilization of Prehistoric Italy which developed from the recent Bronze Age Europe, Bronze Age (13th century BC) until the Iron Age Europe, Iron Age, in the areas of what are now western Lombardy, eastern Piedmont, an ...
(13th century BC) may represent the first migratory wave of the proto-Celtic population from the northwest part of the Alps that, through the
Alpine passes This article lists the principal mountain passes and tunnels in the Alps, and gives a history of transport across the Alps. Main passes The following are the main paved road passes across the Alps. Main indicates on the main chain of the Alps, fro ...
, penetrated and settled in the western Po valley between
Lake Maggiore Lake Maggiore (, ; it, Lago Maggiore ; lmo, label=Western Lombard Western Lombard is a group of dialects of Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, L ...

Lake Maggiore
and
Lake Como Lake Como ( it, Lago di Como , ; lmo, label=Western Lombard, Lagh de Còmm , ''Cómm'' or ''Cùmm'' ), also known as Lario (; after the la, Larius Lacus), is a Glacial lake, lake of glacial origin in Lombardy, Italy. It has an area of , making ...

Lake Como
(
Scamozzina culture The Scamozzina culture (Italian ''Cultura della Scamozzina''), which takes its name from the necropolis found in Cascina Scamozzina of Albairate, was a prehistoric civilization of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ...
). They brought a new
funerary A funeral is a ceremony A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gesture A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication or non-vocal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare' ...
practice—
cremation Cremation is a method of Disposal of human corpses, final disposition of a Cadaver, dead body through combustion, burning. Cremation may serve as a funeral or post-funeral rite and as an alternative to burial. In some countries, including India ...

cremation
—which supplanted
inhumation Burial, also known as interment or inhumation, is a method of final disposition wherein a dead person or non-human animal is placed into the ground, sometimes with objects. This is usually accomplished by excavating a pit or trench, placing th ...

inhumation
. It has also been proposed that a more ancient proto-Celtic presence can be traced back to the beginning of the Middle
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
(16th-15th century BC), when North Western Italy appears closely linked regarding the production of bronze artifacts, including ornaments, to the western groups of the
Tumulus culture The Tumulus culture (german: Hügelgräberkultur) dominated Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost ...
(
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both ...

Central Europe
, 1600 BC - 1200 BC)."The Golasecca civilization is therefore the expression of the oldest
Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European peoples The Indo-European languages ar ...

Celts
of Italy and included several groups that had the name of Insubres, Laevi, Lepontii, Oromobii (o Orumbovii)". (Raffaele C. De Marinis)
The bearers of the Canegrate culture maintained its homogeneity for only a century, after which it melded with the Ligurian aboriginal populations and with this union gave rise to a new phase called the
Golasecca culture The Golasecca culture (9th - 4th century BC) was a Late Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilizatio ...
, which is nowadays identified with the Lepontii and other Celto-Ligurian tribes Within the Golasecca culture territory, which has become Cisalpine Gaul, now included in areas belonging to two Italian regions (West Lombardy and eastern Piedmont) and Ticino in Switzerland, it could observe that some areas that have a greater concentration of findings and that correspond broadly to the different archaeological facies attested in the Culture of Golasecca. They coincide, in a significant way, with the territories occupied by those tribal groups whose names are reported by Latin and Greek historians and geographers: * Insubri: in the area south of Lake Maggiore, in Varese and part of Novara with Golasecca, Sesto Calende, Castelletto sopra Ticino; from the fifth century BC this area remains suddenly depopulated, while the first settlement of Mediolanum (Milan) rises. * Leponti: in the
Canton of Ticino Ticino (), sometimes Tessin (), officially the Republic and Canton of Ticino or less formally the Canton of Ticino,, informally ''Canton Ticino'' ; lmo, Canton Tesin ; german: Kanton Tessin ; french: canton du Tessin ; rm, chantun dal Tessin . ...
, with Bellinzona and Sopra Ceneri; in the Ossola. * Orobi: in the area of Como and Bergamo. *
Laevi The Laevi, or Levi (who are not to be confused with descendants of Levi), were a LigurianLivius, ''Ab Urbe condita 300px, Antoninianus of Pacatianus, Roman usurper, usurper of Roman emperor Philip the Arab, Philip in 248. It reads ''ROMAE AET ...
and Marici: in Lomellina (Pavia/Ticinum). The Celts have not imposed themselves on the existing tribes, but have mixed with them. When the Etruscans and Romans arrived, north-west Italy was inhabited by a complex network of Celtic-Ligurian populations with some geographical differences: in general, to the north of the Po (named ''Gallia Transpadana'' later by Romans '')'', Celtic culture prevailed decisively, while to the south (''Gallia Cispadana'' named later'')'' the Ligurian imprint continued to leave important traces. Looking at North-Western Italy up to the Po river, while in modern Lombardy and eastern Piedmont the Golasecca culture emerged, in the westernmost part there are 2 principal tribal groups: the
Taurini The Taurini were an ancient Ligurian or Celtic people, who occupied the upper valley of the river Po, in the centre of modern Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , d ...
in the area of Turin and the
Salassi The Salassi or Salasses were a Gauls, Gallic or Ligurians, Ligurian tribe dwelling in the upper valley of the Dora Baltea river, near present-day Aosta (Val d'Aosta), during the La Tène culture, Iron Age and the Roman period. Name They are menti ...
in modern
Ivrea Ivrea (; pms, Ivrèja ; ; lat, Eporedia) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of l ...
and the
Aosta Valley , Valdostan or Valdotainian it, Valdostano (man) it, Valdostana (woman)french: Valdôtain (man)french: Valdôtaine (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = Official languages , population_blank1 = Italian Italian ...

Aosta Valley
.


The Etruscan expansion and foundation of Genua

Ligurian sepulchres of the Italian Riviera and of Provence, holding cremations, exhibit Etruscan and Celtic influences.Ancient Italic people, The Ligurians, Enciclopedia Britannica https://www.britannica.com/topic/ancient-Italic-people/Other-Italic-peoples#ref63581 In the seventh century BC, in addition to the Greeks, the
Etruscans The Etruscan civilization () of ancient Italy The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Magna Graecia, Greeks, Etruscan civilization, Etruscans, and Celts ha ...
also began to push in the northern
Tyrrhenian Sea The Tyrrhenian Sea (; it, Mar Tirreno , french: Mer Tyrrhénienne , sc, Mare Tirrenu, co, Mari Tirrenu, scn, Mari Tirrenu, nap, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by ...
, until what is now called the
Ligurian Sea 300px, The Ligurian Sea The Ligurian Sea ( it, Mar Ligure; french: Mer Ligurienne; lij, Mâ Ligure) is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin ...
. Although they had intense commercial exchanges, they were competitors of the Greeks, with whom they often clashed. From 540 B.C. about the Etruscan presence in the Po Valley experienced a renewed expansion in the scenario following the Battle of Alalia resulted in a progressive limitation of Etruscan movements in the Upper Tyrrhenian Sea. The expansion to the north of the Apennines is characterized by that moment as aimed at identifying and controlling new trade routes Their expansionist policy was different from that of the Greeks: their expansion was mainly by land, trying gradually to occupy the areas bordering them. Even though they were good sailors, they did not found far away colonies, but at the very least emporiums destined to support trade with the local populations. This created an ambivalence in the relations with the Ligurians; on the one hand they were excellent commercial partners for all the coastal emporiums, on the other hand, their expansionist policy led them to press on the Ligurian populations settled north of the Arno river, making them retreat into the mountain areas of the northern Apennines. Even in this case, the Ligurian opposition prevented the Etruscans from going further; indeed, although traditionally the border between the Ligurian and Etruscan areas is considered the Magra river, it is testified that the Etruscan settlements north of the Arno (for example
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public ser ...

Pisa
) were periodically attacked and plundered by the Ligurian tribes of the mountains. As already mentioned, hostility to the borders did not prevent an intense commercial relationship, as evidenced by the large quantity of Etruscan ceramics found in the Ligurian sites. Of this period is the foundation of the oppida of Genua (nowadays
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived ...

Genoa
, about 500 BC), the urban core of the "Castello" (perhaps an ancient Ligurian oppidum) began, for flourishing trade, to expand towards today's Prè (the area of meadows) and the Rivo Torbido. Some scholars believe that Genoa was an Etruscan emporium, and that only later, the local Ligurian tribe took control (or merged with the Etruscans). From the beginning of the fifth century BC, the Etruscan power began to decline: attacked in the north by the Gauls, south by the Greeks and with the revolts of controlled cities (e.g. Rome), the Etruscan presence among the Ligurians came less and less, intensifying massilian and gallic influence From that moment on, Genoa, inhabited by the Ligurian Genuati, was considered by the Greeks, given its strong commercial character, "the emporium of the Ligurians": wood for shipbuilding, livestock, leather, honey, textiles were some of the Ligurian products of commercial exchange.


First contacts with Romans

In the third century B.C., the Romans, having been right of the Etruscans and integrated their territories, found themselves in direct contact with the Ligurians. However, Roman expansionism was directed towards the rich territories of
Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rat ...

Gaul
and the Iberian Peninsula (then under Carthaginian control), and the territory of the Ligurians was on the road (they controlled the Ligurian coasts and the South-western Alps). At the beginning the Romans had a rather condescending attitude: the Ligurian territory was considered poor, while the fame of its warriors was known (they had already met them as mercenaries), finally they were already engaged in the
First Punic War The First Punic War (264–241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (m ...
and were not willing to open new fronts, so they tried first of all to make them allies. However, despite their efforts, only a few Ligurian tribes made alliance agreements with the Romans, notably the Genuates. The rest soon proved hostile. The hostilities were opened in 238 BC by a coalition of Ligurians and
Boii The Boii (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman ...
Gauls, but the two peoples soon found themselves in disagreement and the military campaign came to a halt with the dissolution of the alliance. Meanwhile, a Roman fleet commanded by Quintus Fabius Maximus routed Ligurian ships on the coast (234-233 BC), allowing the Romans to control the coastal route to and from Gaul. In 222 B.C. the Insubres, during a war with Romans occupied the
oppidum An ''oppidum'' (plural ''oppida'') is a large fortified Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of Homo sapiens, humanity. It was preceded by the Stone Age (Pal ...

oppidum
of Clastidium, that at that time, it was an important locality of the Anamari (or Marici), a Ligurian tribe that, probably for fear of the nearby warlike Insubres, had already accepted the alliance with Rome the year before. For the first time, the Roman army marched beyond the Po, expanding into Gallia Transpadana. In 222 BC, the
battle of Clastidium The Battle of Clastidium was fought in 222 BC between a Roman Republican army led by the Roman consul Marcus Claudius Marcellus and the Insubres. Florus writes that the Insubres were led by Viridomarus,Wikisource:Epitome of Roman History/Book 1#1, ...
was fought, and allowed Rome to take the capital of the Insubres,
Mediolanum Mediolanum, the ancient city where Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome. Milan served as the capital of the Western Roman Empire, ...
(modern-day
Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its ...

Milan
). To consolidate its dominion, Rome created the colonies of Placentia in the territory of the Boii and
Cremona Cremona (, also ; ; lmo, label=Cremunés, Cremùna; egl, Carmona) is a city and ''comune'' in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po (river), Po river in the middle of the ''Pianura Padana'' (Po Valley). It is the capi ...

Cremona
in that of the Insubres.


Second Punic War

With the outbreak of the second Punic war (218 B.C.) the Ligurian tribes had different attitudes. Some, like the tribes of the west Riviera and the
Apuani 200px, Location of the Alpi Apuane in Italy The Apuani were one of the most formidable and powerful of the Ligures, Ligurian tribes who lived in ancient north-western Italy, mentioned repeatedly by Livy. From the circumstances related by him, it a ...
, allied with the Carthaginians, providing soldiers to Hannibal's troops when he arrived in Northern Italy, hoping that the Carthaginian general would free them from the neighbouring Romans. Others, like the Genuates,
BagienniThe Bagienni (or Vegenni or Vagienni) were an ancient Ligurian people of north-western Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental ...
and the Taurini, took sides in support of the Romans. The pro-carthaginian Ligurians took part in the
Battle of the Trebia The Battle of the Trebia (or Trebbia) was the first major battle of the Second Punic War, fought between the Carthaginian Empire, Carthaginian forces of Hannibal and a Roman Republic, Roman army under Tiberius Sempronius Longus (consul 218 BC ...
, which the Carthaginians won. Other Ligurians enlisted in the army of
Hasdrubal Barca Hasdrubal Barca (245– 22June 207BC), a latinization of ʿAzrubaʿal ( xpu, 𐤏𐤆𐤓‬‬𐤁‬𐤏𐤋‬) son of Hamilcar Barca, was a Carthaginian general in the Second Punic War The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second ...
, when he arrived in Cisalpine Gaul (207 BC), in an attempt to rejoin the troops of his brother Hannibal. In the port of Savo (modern-day
Savona Savona (; local lij, Sann-a , lij, label=Genoese Genoese may refer to: * a person from Genoa * Genoese dialect, a dialect of the Ligurian language * Republic of Genoa (–1805), a former state in Liguria See also * Genovese, a surname * ...

Savona
), then capital of the Ligures Sabazi,
triremes A trireme (, ; derived from Latin: ''trirēmis'' "with three banks of oars"; grc, τριήρης ''triērēs'', literally "three-rower") was an Ancient Navies and Vessels, ancient vessel and a type of galley that was used by the ancient maritim ...
of the Carthaginian fleet of
Mago Barca Mago Barca ( xpu, 𐤌𐤂‬𐤍 𐤁𐤓𐤒‬, ; 243–203BC), was a Barcid upCarthaginian coin depicting Hasdrubal Barca (245-207 BC), younger brother of Hannibal Barca (247-c.182 BC) The Barcid ( phn, 𐤁𐤓𐤒, barqa) family was a n ...
, brother of Hannibal, which were intended to cut the Roman trade routes in the Tyrrhenian Sea, found shelter. In the early stages of the war, the pro-Roman Ligurians suffered. The Taurini were on the path of
Hannibal Hannibal (; xpu, 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋, ''Ḥannibaʿl''; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman who commanded the forces of Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern ...

Hannibal
's march into Italy, and in 218 BC, they were attacked by him, as he had allied with their long-standing enemies, the
Insubres The Insubres or Insubri were an ancient Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time perio ...
. The Taurini chief town of Taurasia (modern-day
Turin Turin ( , Piedmontese Piedmontese (autonym: or , in it, piemontese) is a language spoken by some 700,000 people mostly in Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = ...

Turin
) was captured by Hannibal's forces after a three-day siege. In 205 BC, Genua (modern-day
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived ...

Genoa
) was attacked and razed to the ground by Mago. Near the end of the Second Punic War, Mago was among the
Ingauni The Ingauni were a Ligurian tribe dwelling on the Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterrane ...
, trying to block the Roman advance. At the Battle of Insubria, he suffered a defeat, and later, died of wounds sustained in the battle. Genua was rebuilt in the same year. Ligurian troops were present at the
Battle of Zama The Battle of Zama was fought in 202 BC near Zama, now in Tunisia ) , image_map = Tunisia location (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = Location of Tunisia in northern Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and ...

Battle of Zama
in 202 BC, which marked the final end of Carthage as a great power.


Roman conquest of Ligurians

In 200 BC, the Ligures and
Boii The Boii (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman ...
sacked and destroyed the Roman colony of Placentia, effectively controlling the most important ford of the Po Valley. During the same period, the Romans were at war with the Apuani. Serious Roman efforts began in 182, when both consular armies and a proconsular army were sent against the Ligurians. The wars continued into the 150s, when victorious generals celebrated two triumphs over the Ligurians. Here too, the Romans drove many natives off their land and settled colonies in their stead (''e.g.'', Luna and Luca in the 170s). During the same period, the Romans were at war with the Ligurian tribes of the northern Apennines. By the end of the Second Punic War, however, hostilities were not over yet. Ligurian tribes, Gauls and Carthaginian holdouts operating from the mountain territories continued to fight with guerrilla tactics. Thus, the Romans were forced into continuous military operations in northern Italy. In 201 BC, the Ingauni signed a peace treaty with Rome. It was only in 197 BC that the Romans, under the leadership of Minucius Rufus, succeeded in regaining control of the Placentia area by subduing the Celelates, Cerdicates, Ilvati and the Boii Gauls and occupying the
oppidum An ''oppidum'' (plural ''oppida'') is a large fortified Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of Homo sapiens, humanity. It was preceded by the Stone Age (Pal ...

oppidum
of Clastidium. Genua was rebuilt by the proconsul Spurius Lucretius in the same year. Having defeated Carthage, Rome sought to expand northwards, and used Genua as a support base for raids, between 191 and 154 BC, against the Ligurian tribes of the hinterland, allied for decades with Carthage. A second phase of the conflict followed (197-155 BC), characterized by the fact that the Apuani Ligurians entrenched themselves on the Apennines, from where they periodically descended to plunder the surrounding territories. The Romans, for their part, organized continuous expeditions to the mountains, hoping to snide, surround and defeat the Ligurians (taking care not to be destroyed by ambushes). In the course of these wars, the Romans celebrated fifteen triumphs and at suffered least one serious defeat. Historically, the beginning of the campaign dates back to 193 BC on the initiative of the Ligurian conciliabula (federations), who organized a major raid going as far as the right bank of the river Arno. Roman campaigns followed (191, 188 and 187 BC); these were victorious, but not decisive. In the campaign of 186 BC, the Romans were beaten by the Ligurians in the Magra valley. In this battle, which took place in a narrow and precipitous place, the Romans lost about 4000 soldiers, three eagle insignia of the second legion and eleven banners of the Latin allies. In addition, the consul Quintus Martius was also killed in the battle. It is thought that the place of the battle and the death of the consul gave rise to the place-name of Marciaso, or that of the Canal of March on Mount Caprione in the town of Lerici (near the ruins of the city of Luni), which was later founded by the Romans. This mountain had a strategic importance because it controlled the valley of Magra and the sea. In 185 BC, the Ingauni and the
Intimilii The Intimilii or Intemelii were a Ligures, Ligurian tribe dwelling on the Mediterranean coast, around present-day Ventimiglia, during the Iron Age Europe, Iron Age and the Roman period. Name They are mentioned as ''Intimilii'' by Caelius Rufus (4 ...
also rebelled and managed to resist the Roman legions for the next five years, before capitulating in 180 BC. The Apuani, and those of hinterland side still resisted. However, the Romans wanted to permanently pacify Liguria to facilitate further conquests in Gaul. To that end, they prepared a large army of almost 36,000 soldiers, under the command of
proconsul A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose wo ...

proconsul
s Publius Cornelius Cethegus and
Marcus Baebius Tamphilus Marcus Baebius Tamphilus was a consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, ...
, with the aim of putting an end to Ligurian independence. In 180 BC, the Romans inflicted a serious defeat on the Apuani Ligures, and deported 40,000 of them to the regions of
Samnium Samnium ( it, Sannio) is a Latin language, Latin exonym for a region of Southern Italy anciently inhabited by the Samnites. Their own endonyms were ''Safinim'' for the country (attested in one inscription and one coin legend) and ''Safineis'' ...

Samnium
. This deportation was followed by another one of 7,000 Ligurians in the following year. These were one of the few cases in which the Romans
deported Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country. The term ''expulsion'' is often used as a synonym for deportation, though expulsion is more often used in the context of international law, while deportation is ...
defeated populations in such a high number. In 177 BC other groups of Apuani Ligures surrendered to the Roman forces, and were eventually assimilated into Roman culture during the 2nd century BC, while the military campaign continued further north. The surviving Ligurian tribes, now isolated and in absolute inferiority, continued to fight. The Frinatiates surrendered in 175 BC, followed by the
StatielliThe Statielli, Statiellātes, or Statiellenses were a small Ligures, Ligurian tribe which inhabited an area south of the river Po (river), Padus (today the Po). Their chief town was Aquae Statiellae (Acqui Terme), on the road from Vada Sabatia, near ...
(172 BC) and the Velleiates (158 BC). The last Apuani resistance was subdued in 155 BC by consul
Marcus Claudius Marcellus Marcus Claudius Marcellus (; 270 – 208 BC), five times elected as consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spo ...
.


Subjugation of "transalpine" and "Capillati" Ligures

The subjugation of the coastal Ligures and the annexation of the Alpes Maritimae took place in 14 BC, closely following the occupation of the central Alps in 15 BC. The last Ligurian tribes (e.g. Vocontii and Salluvi) still autonomous, who occupied Provence, were subdued in 124 BC.


Under Roman rule


The Roman province of Cisalpine Gaul

The Cisalpine Gaul was the part of modern Italy inhabited by
Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European peoples The Indo-European languages ar ...

Celts
during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. Conquered by the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
in the 220s BC, it was a
Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled ...
from c. 81 BC until 42 BC, when it was merged into
Roman Italy (the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repub ...
as indicated in Caesar's will (''Acta Caesaris''). Until that time, it was considered part of
Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rat ...

Gaul
, precisely that part of Gaul on the "hither side of the
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt ...

Alps
" (from the perspective of the Romans), as opposed to
Transalpine Gaul Gallia Narbonensis can be seen in the south of modern-day France as a Roman province. Gallia Narbonensis (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin w ...
("on the far side of the Alps"). Gallia Cisalpina was further subdivided into ''Gallia Cispadana'' and ''Gallia Transpadana'', i.e. its portions south and north of the
Po River The Po ( , ; la, Padus or ; grc, Πάδος, Pádos, or , ; Ancient Ligurian: or ) is the longest river in Italy. It is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy starting from the Cottian Alps; it, Alpi Cozie , photo=Monviso_Cottian ...
, respectively. The Roman province of the 1st century BC was bounded on the north and west by the Alps, in the south as far as Placentia by the river Po, and then by the
Apennines The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (; grc-gre, links=no, Ἀπέννινα ὄρη or Ἀπέννινον ὄρος; la, Appenninus or  – a singular with plural meaning;''Apenninus'' (Greek or ) has the form of an adjective, which wou ...

Apennines
and the river
Rubicon The Rubicon ( la, Rubico; it, Rubicone ; rgn, Rubicôn ) is a shallow river in northeastern Italy, just north of Rimini. It was known as Fiumicino until 1933, when it was identified with the ancient river Rubicon, Crossing the Rubicon, famou ...

Rubicon
, and in the east by the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest ...

Adriatic Sea
. In 49 BC all inhabitants of Cisalpine Gaul received
Roman citizenship Citizenship Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its ci ...
Cassius Dio XLI, 36.


The Regio IX Liguria

Around 7 BC,
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
divided Italy into eleven ''regiones'', as reported by
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
in his ''
Naturalis Historia The ''Natural History'' ( la, Naturalis Historia) is a work by Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, ...
.'' The ex-province of Gallia cisalpina was divided among four of the eleven
regions of Italy In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic re ...
: ''Regio VIII Gallia Cispadana'', ''Regio IX Liguria'', ''Regio X Venetia et Histria'' and ''Regio XI Gallia Transpadana''. One of this was The Regio IX Liguria, in 6 A.D. Genoa became the centre of this region and the Ligurian populations moved towards the definitive Romanisation. The official historical name did not have the Liguria apposition, due to the contemporary academic use of naming the Augustan regions according to the populations they understood. Royal IX included only the Ligurian territory. This territory extended from the Maritime and Cottian Alps and the Var river (to the west) to the Trebbia and the Magra bordering Regio VIII Aemilia and Regio VII Etruria (to the east), and the Po to North. The description of the IX regio Italiae goes back to Pliny: "patet ora Liguriae inter amnes Varum et Macram XXXI Milia passuum. Haec regio ex descriptione Augusti nona est". This region was smaller than the original area occupied by the Ligurians in more ancient times: it was probably that in this province the purest Ligurian ethnicity was still preserved, while in nearby Regio XI Transpadana (North of Po river) and in Provence the tribes were heavy celticised. People with Ligurian names were living south of Placentia, in Italy, as late as 102 AD. In 126 A.D. the Liguria region was the birthplace of
Pertinax Publius Helvius Pertinax (; 1 August 126 – 28 March 193) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of ...

Pertinax
, Roman soldier and politician who became
Roman Emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Politica ...
.


The Kingdom of Cottius

The area of the
Alpes Cottiae The Alpes Cottiae (; English: 'Cottian Alps') were a small province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnationa ...
province, named after
Cottius Marcus Julius Cottius was king of the Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: ...
t, the local king of Ligurian tribe of Segusini, who initially resisted Augustus' imperialism but eventually submitted and became the emperor's ally and personal friend. His territory, together with that of the other Alpine tribes, was annexed to the Roman empire in 15 BC - although Cottius, and his son after him, were accorded the unusual privilege of continuing to govern the region, with the title of ''
praefectus Prefect (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...
'' i.e. Roman governor.CAH X 170 In 8 BC, Cottius showed his gratitude for this reprieve from dynastic oblivion by erecting a triumphal arch to Augustus in his capital, ''Segusio'' (
Susa Susa (; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronze Age until the beginning of the ...
, Piedmont, Italy), which still stands. After the death of Cottius' son, the emperor
Nero Nero ( ; full name: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December AD 37 – 9 June AD 68) was the fifth emperor of Rome. He was Adoption in Ancient Rome, adopted by the Roman emperor Claudius at the age of 13 and s ...

Nero
(ruled 54-68) appointed a regular equestrian procurator to govern the province.


Ancient source

Aeschylus Aeschylus (, ; grc-gre, Αἰσχύλος ''Aiskhylos'', ; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kin ...
, in a fragment of '' Prometheus Unbound'', represents Hercules as contending with the Ligures on the stony plains, near the mouths of the Rhone, and
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an Classical Greece, ancient Greek writer, geographer, and historian born in the Greek city of Halicarnassus, part of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire (now Bodrum, Turkey). He ...
speaks of Ligures inhabiting the country above
Massilia Massalia (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as o ...
(modern
Marseilles Marseille ( , , ; also spelled in English as Marseilles; oc, Marselha ) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languag ...
, founded by the
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...

Greeks
).
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc-gre, Θουκυδίδης ; BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the app ...
also speaks of the Ligures having expelled the
Sicanians The Sicani (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million a ...
, an
Iberian Iberian refers to Iberia (disambiguation), Iberia. Most commonly Iberian refers to: *Someone or something originating in the Iberian Peninsula, namely from Spain, Portugal and Andorra. The term ''Iberian'' is also used to refer to anything pertain ...
tribe, from the banks of the river Sicanus, in Iberia. The
Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax The ''Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax'' is an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speake ...
describes the Ligyes (Ligures) as living along the
Mediterranean coast The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
from
Antion Antion (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). Ancient Gree ...
(
Antibes Antibes (, also , ; oc, label= Provençal, Antíbol) is a coastal city in the Alpes-Maritimes Alpes-Maritimes (; oc, Aups Maritims; it, Alpi Marittime, "Maritime Alps") is a department of France In the administrative divisions of Fra ...

Antibes
) as far as the mouth of the and then intermingled with the Iberians from the Rhone to Emporion in Spain.


Modern theories on origins

In the 19th century, the origins of the Ligures drew renewed attention from scholars.
Amédée Thierry Amédée Simon Dominique Thierry (2 August 1797, Blois, Loir-et-Cher27 March 1873, Paris), French journalist and historian, was the younger brother of Jacques Nicolas Augustin Thierry, Augustin. Biography Amédée Thierry began life as a journal ...
, a French historian and journalist, linked them to the
Iberians The Iberians ( la, Hibērī, from el, Ἴβηρες, ''Iberes'') were a set of people that Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic ...
. The historian of the
Bourgogne Burgundy (; french: link=no, Bourgogne ) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of east-central France. It is named for the Burgundians The Burgundians ( la, Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; on, Burgundar; ang, Burgendas; ...
and specialist in its Gallic culture, Dominique-François-Louis Roget, Baron de Belloguet, would later claim a " Gallic" origin of the Ligurians. During the Iron Age the spoken language, the main divinities and the workmanship of the artifacts unearthed in the area of Liguria (such as the numerous
torc A torc, also spelled torq or torque, is a large rigid or stiff neck ring Neck rings, or neck-rings, are any form of stiff jewellery worn as an ornament around the neck of an individual, as opposed to a loose necklace. Many cultures and per ...
s found) were similar to those of Celtic culture in both style and type.
Karl Müllenhoff Karl Viktor Müllenhoff (born September 8, 1818, in Marne, Germany, Marne, Duchy of Holstein; died February 19, 1884, in Berlin) was a German philologist who specialized in Germanic studies. Biography He was born in Marne, Germany, Marne, Holstein ...

Karl Müllenhoff
, professor of Germanic antiquities at the Universities of Kiel and Berlin, studying the sources of the ''Ora maritima'' by
Avienius Postumius Rufius Festus Avienius (sometimes erroneously Avienus) was a Latin writer of the 4th century AD. He was a native of Volsinii Volsinii or Vulsinii ( Etruscan: Velzna or Velusna; Greek: Ouolsinii, ; ), is the name of two ancient citie ...
(a
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
poet who lived in the 4th century AD, but who used as a source for his own work a
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3 ...
n Periplum of the 6th century BC), held that the name 'Ligurians' generically referred to various peoples who lived in
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical r ...

Western Europe
, including the Celts, but thought the "real Ligurians" were a Pre-Indo-European population. Italian geologist and paleontologist considered Ligurians to be direct descendants of the
Cro-Magnon Early European modern humans (EEMH) or Cro-Magnons were the first early modern human Early modern human (EMH) or anatomically modern human (AMH) are terms used to distinguish ''Homo sapiens'' (the only extant Hominina species) that are an ...

Cro-Magnon
people that lived throughout
Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rat ...

Gaul
from the
Mesolithic The Mesolithic (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

Mesolithic
period. Those in favor of an
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation ...
origin included , a 19th-century French historian, who argued in ''Les Premiers habitants de l'Europe'' (1877) that the Ligurians were the earliest Indo-European speakers of Western Europe. Jubainville's "Celto-Ligurian hypothesis", as it later became known, was significantly expanded in the second edition of his initial study. It inspired a body of contemporary
philological Philology is the study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed o ...
research, as well as some archaeological work. The Celto-Ligurian hypothesis became associated with the
Funnelbeaker culture The Funnel(-neck-)beaker culture, in short TRB or TBK (german: Trichter(-rand-)becherkultur, nl, Trechterbekercultuur; da, Tragtbægerkultur; ) was an archaeological culture An archaeological culture is a recurring Assemblage (archaeology), ass ...

Funnelbeaker culture
and "expanded to cover much of Central Europe".
Julius Pokorny Julius Pokorny (12 June 1887 – 8 April 1970) was an Austrian-Czech linguist and scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly Irish, and a supporter of Irish nationalism. He held academic posts in Austrian and German universities. Early life a ...
adapted the Celto-Ligurian hypothesis into one linking the Ligures to the
Illyrians The Illyrians ( grc, Ἰλλυριοί, ''Illyrioi''; la, Illyrii) were a group of Indo-European languages, Indo-European speaking peoples, who inhabited the western Balkan Peninsula in ancient times. They constituted one of the three main Paleo ...

Illyrians
, citing an array of similar evidence from Eastern Europe. Under this theory the "Ligures-Illyrians" became associated with the prehistoric
Urnfield The Urnfield culture ( 1300 BC – 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urba ...
peoples. Today some accounts suggest that the Ligures represented the northern branch of an ethno-linguistic layer older than and very different from the
proto-Italic The Proto-Italic language is the ancestor of the Italic languages The Italic languages form a branch of the Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of t ...
peoples. It was believed that a "Ligurian-
Sicani The Sicani (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximatel ...
an" culture occupied a wide area of southern Europe, stretching from Liguria to Sicily and Iberia. However, while any such area would be broadly similar to that of the paleo-European " Tyrrhenian culture" hypothesized by later modern scholars, there are no known links between the Tyrrenians and Ligurians. There are others such as Dominique Garcia, who question whether the Ligures can be considered a distinct ethnic group or culture from the surrounding cultures.


Society

The Ligurians never formed a centralized state, they were in fact divided into independent tribes, in turn organized in small villages or castles. Rare were the Oppidum, oppidas, to which corresponded the federal capitals of the individual tribes or important commercial emporiums. The territory of a tribe was almost entirely public property, only a small percentage of the land (the cultivated) was "private", in the sense that, against payment of a small tax, was given in concession. Only late in life did the concept of private, heritable or marketable property develop. Reflecting the decentralized character of the ethnic group, the Ligurians did not have a centralized political structure. Each tribe decided for itself, even in contrast with the other tribes; as evidence of this, are the opposing alliances that over time Ligurian tribes made against Greeks,
Etruscans The Etruscan civilization () of ancient Italy The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Magna Graecia, Greeks, Etruscan civilization, Etruscans, and Celts ha ...
and Romans. Within the tribes, an egalitarian and communal spirit prevailed. If there was also a noble class, this was tempered by "tribal rallies" in which all the classes participated; there does not seem to have been any pre-organized magistracy. There were no dynastic leaders either: the Ligurian "king" was elected as leader of a tribe or a federation of tribes; only in late period did a real dynastic aristocratic class begin to emerge. Originally there was no slavery: Prisoner of war, prisoners of war were massacred or Human sacrifice, sacrificed. The stories of the foundation of Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul, Massalia, give us some interesting information: * they had a strong sense of hospitality; * the women chose each other's husbands, demonstrating an emancipation unknown to the eastern peoples. Diodorus Siculus, in the first century B.C., writes that women take part in the work of toil alongside men.


Clothing

Diodorus Siculus reports the use of a tunic tightened at the waist by a leather belt and closed by a clasp generally bronze; the legs were naked. Other garments used were cloaks "sagum", and during the winter animal skins to shelter from the cold.Diodorus Siculus, ''Bibliotheca historica'', V, 39, 1-8. Characteristic element was the fibula, used to close the clothes and the cloaks, made of amber (imported from the Baltic Sea, Baltic) and glass paste, enriched with ornamental elements in bone or stone.


Physical appearance

Lucan in his Pharsalia (c. 61 AD) described Ligurian tribes as being long-haired, and their hair a shade of auburn (a reddish-brown):


Warfare

Diodorus Siculus describes the Ligurians as very fearsome enemies: although not particularly impressive from the physical point of view, strength, will and tenacity makes them the most dangerous warriors than the gauls. As proof of this, the Ligurian warriors were very much in demand as Mercenary, mercenaries and several times the Mediterranean powers like Carthage and Syracuse, went to Liguria to recruit armies for their expeditions (for example, the elite troops of
Hannibal Hannibal (; xpu, 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋, ''Ḥannibaʿl''; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman who commanded the forces of Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern ...

Hannibal
were made up of a contingent of Ligurians).


Tactics, unit types and equipment

The armament varied according to the class and the comfort of the owner, in general however the great mass of the Ligurian warriors was substantially light infantry, armed in a poor way The main weapon was the spear, with cusps that could exceed a cubit (about 45 cm, or one and half foot ), followed by the sword, of Iron Age sword, Gallic shape (sometimes cheap because made with soft metals), very rarely the warriors were equipped with Bow and arrow, bows and arrows. The protection was entrusted to an oblong shield of wood, always of Celtic typology (but to difference of this last one without metallic boss) and a simple helmet, of Montefortino helmet, Montefortino type. The horned helmets, recovered in the Apuani tribe area, were probably used only for ceremonial purpose and they were worn by warchief, to underline their virility and military skills. The use of Armour, armor is not known: the seated warrior from the Roquepertuse, site of Roquepertuse seems to wears a leather armor, although the statue is attributable to the 5th century A.D. and the armor maybe was used only in this period. Even if it is possible that the richer warriors used Leather armor, armor in organic material like the Gauls or the Greek linothorax . The infantry was good both close combat as skirmishes but could fight hand-to-hand when necessary.


Cavalry

Strabo and Diodorus Siculus say they fought almost on foot, because of the nature of their territory, but their phrasing implies that cavalry were not entirely unknown, and two recently discovered Ligurian graves have included harness fittings. Strabo says that the Salyes tribe located north of Massalia, have a substantial cavalry force, but, they were one of the several Celto-Ligurian tribes, and probably the cavalry reflect the Celtic element ''Armies of the Macedonian and Punic Wars'', Duncan Head, 2012 Page 296 (https://books.google.it/books?id=-7n8CwAAQBAJ&pg=PA294&lpg=PA294&dq=ligures+warrior&source=bl&ots=1gcz-CPca-&sig=ACfU3U2IWz3f6FlupTDzRSNtwjrDZQvaRg&hl=it&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjF9dWTpurlAhUDKewKHfQvA1YQ6AEwBnoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=ligures%20warrior&f=false)


Mercenaries

The Ligures seem to have been ready to engage as mercenary troops in the service of others. Ligurian auxiliaries are mentioned in the army of the Carthaginian general Hamilcar I of Carthage, Hamilcar I in 480 BC. Greek leaders in Sicily continued to recruit Ligurian mercenary forces from the same quarter as late as the time of Agathocles of Syracuse, Agathocles. The mercenary trade was a particular form of trade and income: as the Greek and Roman sources attest, from very ancient times the Ligurians served as mercenaries in the armies of the western Mediterranean. The enlistment took place by contingents (obviously not for individual soldiers), as it was essential to have well-functioning units. Centuries of war experiences in the wars between Massaliotes, Etruscans, Carthaginians, Gauls, provided the Ligurians with war skills such as to keep the Roman armies in check for several decades.


Piracy

In ancient times, a side activity to the seafaring was piracy, and the Ligurians were no exception. If they thought it was appropriate, they attacked and plundered ships sailing along the coast. The thing is not surprising: even in ancient times the fastest way to obtain goods is to steal them. After all, the continuous raids of the Ligurian tribes in the territories of the neighbouring peoples are well documented, and constitute an important voice in their economy. The
Ingauni The Ingauni were a Ligurian tribe dwelling on the Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterrane ...
, a tribe of sailors located around Albingaunum (nowadays Albenga) were famous to engage trade and piracy, hostiles to Roman Republic, Rome, they were subdued by Roman consul, consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus, Lucius Emilius Paullus Macedonicus in 181 BC.


Under Roman service

After the Roman conquest, in the 171-168 some of them combated with the Romans against Macedonia, by the time of Gaius Marius they became commoner in Roman army. According to Plutarch the Battle of Pydna, the decisive battle of Third Macedonian War, started in the afternoon, for an artifice devised by Roman consul L.Emillius Paullus. In order to make the enemies move in battle first, he pushed before a horse without reins the Romans threw him against them, and the pursuit of the horse began the attack. According to another theory instead, the Thracians in Macedonian service, attacked some Roman foragers getting a little too close to enemy lines, and in response there was the immediate charge of 700 Ligurian auxiliaries. Before Battle of Pydna, Pydna the Romans used their Ligurian auxiliares with the velites for chasing off the Peltast, Macedonian skirmishers (the peltasts) Sallust, Sallustius and Plutarch say that during the Jugurthine War (from 112 to 105 BC) and the Cimbrian War (from 104 to 101 BC) the Ligurians served as auxiliary troops in the Roman army. In the course of this last conflict they played an important role in the Battle of Aquae Sextae. ''Ligures'' in its broad sense included all the
Liguria it, Ligure , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Liguria
n peoples of north western Italy, south eastern Gaul and the western Alps, however because Regio Liguria was annexed to Roman Italy, Italia, the inhabitants of this region became Roman citizens, and would have been recruited into the legions. Therefore, the Alpine ''Ligures'', who were ''peregrini'' (non-citizens) i.e. the inhabitants of the Alpes Cottiae and Alpes Maritimae, were recruited like Roman auxiliaries in the ''Ligurum'' cohorts.


Religion

Among the most important testimonies, the sacred mountain sites (Mont Bégo, Mont Bègo, Monte Beigua) and the development of megalithicism (statues-stelae of Lunigiana) are worth mentioning. The spectacular Mont Bégo in Vallée des merveilles is the most representative site of the numerous sacred sites covered with rock carvings, and in particular with cupels, gullies and ritual basins. The latter would indicate that a fundamental part of the rites of the ancient Ligurians, provided for the use of water (or milk, blood?). The site of Mont Bégo has an extension and spectacularity comparable to the sites of Val Camonica. Another important sacred centre is Monte Beigua, Mount Beigua, but the reality is that many promontories in Northwest Italy, North-west Italy and the
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt ...

Alps
present these types of sacred centres. Among the more considerable Ligurian monuments are rock engravings and anthropomorphic sculptures analogous to those of southern France, found in Lunigiana and Corsica. Some of these artistic manifestations are repeated in territories farther east The other important evidence is the proliferation of megalithic events, the most spectacular and original of which is that of the stele statues in the Lunigiana. These particular oblong stones, stuck in the ground of the woods, ended with stylized human heads, and could be equipped with arms, sexual attributes and significant objects (e.g. daggers). Their real meaning has been lost in memory, today it is assumed that they represented: * gods; * ancestors and divinized heroes; * the birth from the womb to symbolize the origin of their race originated directly from the womb of the earth and nature. The heads, so represented, for the Ligurians were the seat of the soul, the center of emotions and the point of the body where all the senses were concentrated, consequently the essence of the divine and hence its cult. In general, it is believed that the Ligurian religion was rather primitive, addressed to supernatural tutelary gods, representing the great forces of nature, and from which you could get help and protection through their divination. The proliferation of sacred centers near the peaks, would indicate the cult of majestic celestial numes, represented by the high peaks: in fact Beg- (from which Baginus and Baginatie), Penn- (later transformed by Romanization in Iuppiter Poeninus and in the Apenninus pater) and Alb- (from which Albiorix) are indicated as tutelary numes of the Ligurian peaks. Numbers such as Belenus and Borvo, linked to the cult of water, and the cult of Matronae (hence the sanctuary of Mons Matrona, now Montgenèvre) are also mentioned. Among the many engravings, significant is the presence of the figure of the bull, even if only stylized through the symbol of the horns, this would indicate the cult of a deity taurine, male and fertilizer, already known to Anatolian and Semitic cultures. Another important deity was Cicnu (the swan), which perhaps represents the divinization of a mythical ancient king or, as for many northern cultures, the totemic animal associated with the cult of the sun. Thanks to the long contact with the Celtic populations, probably the Ligurians acquired beliefs and myths coming from that world. Surely, starting from the seventh century BC, the funerary outfits are similar to those found in populations of Celtic culture.


Economy

The Ligurian economy was based on primitive agriculture, sheep farming, hunting and the exploitation of forests. Diodorus Siculus writes about the Ligurians: "''Since their country is mountainous and full of trees, some of them use all day to cut wood, using strong and heavy dark; others, who want to cultivate the land, must deal with breaking stones, because it is so dry soil that you can not pick tools remove a sod, that with it do not rise stones. However, even if they have to fight with so many misfortunes, by means of stubborn work they go beyond nature [...] they often give themselves to hunting, and finding quantities of savage, with it they make up for the lack of bladders; and so it comes, that flowing through their snow-covered mountains, and getting used to practicing then more difficult places of the thickets, they harden their bodies, and strengthen their muscles admirably. Some of them, due to the famine of food, drink water, and live of meat of domestic and wild animals.''(Diodorus Siculus, in Luca Ponte, Le genovesi) Thanks to the contact with the bronze "metal seekers", the Ligurians also dedicated themselves to the extraction of mineralsExamples of mining activities are witnessed in the Labiola mine. and metallurgy, even if most of the metal in circulation is of central European origin. The commercial activity is important. Already in ancient times the Ligurians were known in the Mediterranean for the trade of the precious Baltic amber. With the development of the Celtic populations, the Ligurians found themselves controlling a crucial access to the sea, becoming (sometimes in spite of themselves) custodians of an important way of communication. Although they were not renowned navigators, they came to have a small maritime fleet, and their attitude to navigation is described as follows: ''"They sail for reason of shops on the sea of Sardinia and Libya, spontaneously exposing themselves to extreme dangers; they use smaller hulls than vulgar boats for this; nor are they practical of the comfort of other ships; and what is surprising is that they are not afraid to sustain the serious risks of storms''.


Tribes


See also

* List of ancient Ligurian tribes * Ancient peoples of Italy * Mont Bégo, Mont Bègo * Golasecca culture, Golasecca Culture * Cisalpine Gaul * Torrean civilization


References


Bibliography

* ARSLAN E. A. 2004b, LVI.14 Garlasco, in ''I Liguri. Un antico popolo europeo tra Alpi e Mediterraneo'', Catalogo della Mostra (Genova, 23.10.2004-23.1.2005), Milano-Ginevra, pp. 429–431. * ARSLAN E. A. 2004 c.s., ''Liguri e Galli in Lomellina'', in ''I Liguri. Un antico popolo europeo tra Alpi e Mediterraneo'', Saggi Mostra (Genova, 23.10.2004–23.1.2005). * Raffaele De Marinis, Giuseppina Spadea (a cura di), ''Ancora sui Liguri. Un antico popolo europeo tra Alpi e Mediterraneo'', De Ferrari editore, Genova 2007
scheda sul volume
. * John Patterson, ''Sanniti,Liguri e Romani'',Comune di Circello;Benevento * Giuseppina Spadea (a cura di), ''I Liguri. Un antico popolo europeo tra Alpi e Mediterraneo" (catalogo mostra, Genova 2004–2005), Skira editore, Genova 2004


Further reading

* Berthelot, André. "LES LIGURES." Revue Archéologique 2 (1933): 245-303. www.jstor.org/stable/41750896. {{Ligurian peoples Ligures, Indo-European peoples History of Italy Ancient history of France History of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur History of Piedmont History of Europe History of Liguria History of Lombardy Historical Celtic peoples Transhumant ethnic groups Ancient peoples of Italy Ancient peoples of France Ancient peoples of Spain Ancient peoples of Sardinia Ancient peoples of Europe