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In
linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. It is called a scientific study because it entails a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise analysis of all aspects of language, particularly its nature and structure. Linguis ...

linguistics
, language death occurs when a
language Language is a structured system of communication. The structure of a language is its grammar and the free components are its vocabulary. Languages are the primary means by which humans communicate, and may be conveyed through a variety of met ...

language
loses its
last A last is a mechanical form shaped like a human foot. It is used by Shoemaking, shoemakers and cordwainers in the manufacture and repair of shoes. Lasts typically come in pairs and have been made from various materials, including hardwoods, cas ...
native speaker. By extension, language extinction is when the language is no longer known, including by second-language speakers. Other similar terms include linguicide, the death of a language from natural or political causes, and rarely glottophagy, the absorption or replacement of a minor language by a major language. Language death is a process in which the level of a speech community's linguistic competence in their language variety decreases, eventually resulting in no native or fluent speakers of the variety. Language death can affect any language form, including
dialect The term dialect (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) arou ...
s. Language death should not be confused with language attrition (also called language loss), which describes the loss of proficiency in a
first language A first language, native tongue, native language, mother tongue or L1 is the first language or dialect that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period hypothesis, critical period. In some countries, the term ''native ...
of an individual.Crystal, David (2000) ''Language Death''. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 19 In the modern period (–present; following the rise of
colonialism Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colonies and generally with the aim of economic dominance. In the process of colonisation, colonisers may impose their relig ...
), language death has typically resulted from the process of
cultural assimilation Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble a society's Dominant culture, majority group or assume the values, behaviors, and beliefs of another group whether fully or partially. The different types ...
leading to
language shift Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a speech community shifts to a different language, usually over an extended period of time. Often, languages that are perceiv ...
and the gradual abandonment of a native language in favour of a foreign
lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a Natural language, language systematically used to make communication possib ...
, largely those of
European countries The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the regions of Europe, various common definitions of Europe, geographical or political. Fifty generally recognised sovereign states, Kosovo with limited, but substantial, ...
. As of the 2000s, a total of roughly 7,000 natively spoken languages existed worldwide. Most of these are minor languages in danger of extinction; one estimate published in 2004 expected that some 90% of the currently spoken languages will have become extinct by 2050.


Types

Language death is typically the outcome of
language shift Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a speech community shifts to a different language, usually over an extended period of time. Often, languages that are perceiv ...
and may manifest itself in one of the following ways: * Gradual language death: the most common way that languages die. Generally happens when the people speaking that language interact with speakers of a language of higher prestige. This group of people first becomes bilingual, then with newer generations the level of proficiency decreases, and finally no native speakers exist. * Bottom-to-top language death: occurs when the language starts to be used for only religious, literary, ceremonial purposes, but not in casual context. (As in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around present-day Rome, but through ...
or
Avestan Avestan (), or historically Zend, or by the speakers as Upastavakaena ( pas.taˈvakˈaeːna is an umbrella term for two Old Iranian languages: Old Avestan (spoken in the 2nd millennium BCE) and Younger Avestan (spoken in the 1st millennium B ...
.) * Top-to-bottom language death: happens when language shift begins in a high-level environment such as the government, but still continues to be used in casual context. * Radical language death: the disappearance of a language when all speakers of the language cease to speak the language because of threats, pressure, persecution, or colonisation. * Linguicide (also known as sudden death, language genocide, physical language death, and biological language death): occurs when all or almost all native speakers of that language die because of natural disasters, wars etc. * Language attrition: the loss of proficiency in a language at the individual level. The most common process leading to language death is one in which a community of speakers of one
language Language is a structured system of communication. The structure of a language is its grammar and the free components are its vocabulary. Languages are the primary means by which humans communicate, and may be conveyed through a variety of met ...

language
becomes
bilingual Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a group of speakers. It is believed that multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population. More than half of all E ...
with another language, and gradually shifts allegiance to the second language until they cease to use their original,
heritage language A heritage language is a minority language (either Immigrant language, immigrant or Indigenous language, indigenous) learned by its speakers at home as children, and difficult to be fully developed because of insufficient input from the social e ...
. This is a process of assimilation which may be voluntary or may be forced upon a population. Speakers of some languages, particularly regional or minority languages, may decide to abandon them because of economic or utilitarian reasons, in favor of languages regarded as having greater utility or prestige. Languages with a small, geographically isolated population of speakers can die when their speakers are wiped out by
genocide Genocide is the intentional destruction of a people—usually defined as an Ethnic group, ethnic, nationality, national, race (classification of humans), racial, or Religion, religious group—in whole or in part. Raphael Lemkin coined the term ...
,
disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function (biology), function of all or part of an organism, and that is not immediately due to any external injury. Diseases are often known to be medica ...
, or
natural disaster A natural disaster is "the negative impact following an actual occurrence of natural hazard in the event that it significantly harms a community". A natural disaster can cause loss of life or damage property, and typically leaves some econo ...
.


Definition

A language is often declared to be dead even before the last native speaker of the language has died. If there are only a few elderly speakers of a language remaining, and they no longer use that language for communication, then the language is effectively dead. A language that has reached such a reduced stage of use is generally considered moribund. Half of the spoken languages of the world are not being taught to new generations of children. Once a language is no longer a native language—that is, if no children are being socialized into it as their primary language—the process of transmission is ended and the language itself will not survive past the current generations. Language death is rarely a sudden event, but a slow process of each generation learning less and less of the language until its use is relegated to the domain of traditional use, such as in poetry and song. Typically the transmission of the language from adults to children becomes more and more restricted, to the final setting that adults speaking the language will raise children who never acquire fluency. One example of this process reaching its conclusion is that of the
Dalmatian language Dalmatian () or Dalmatic (; dlm, langa dalmata, link=no or simply ; it, lingua dalmatica, dalmatico; sh, dalmatski) was a Romance language that was spoken in the Dalmatia region of present-day Croatia , image_flag = Flag of ...
.


Consequences on grammar

During language loss—sometimes referred to as ''obsolescence'' in the linguistic literature—the language that is being lost generally undergoes changes as speakers make their language more similar to the language to which they are shifting. This process of change has been described by Appel (1983) in two categories, though they are not mutually exclusive. Often speakers replace elements of their own language with something from the language they are shifting toward. Also, if their heritage language has an element that the new language does not, speakers may drop it. * overgeneralization; * undergeneralization; * loss of
phonological Phonology is the branch of linguistics that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds or, for sign languages, their constituent parts of signs. The term can also refer specifically to the sound or sign system of a ...
contrasts; * variability; * changes in
word order In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. It is called a scientific study because it entails a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise analysis of all aspects of language, particularly its nature and ...
; * morphological loss, such as was seen in
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European language family) native to the Gaels of Scotland. As a Goid ...
in East Sutherland, Scotland (Dorian: 1978) as fluent speakers still used the historic plural formation, whereas semi-speakers used simple suffixation or did not include any plural formation at all; * synthetic
morphosyntax In linguistics, morphology () is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language. It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words such as stem (linguistics), stems, root (linguistics), roo ...
may become increasingly analytic; *
syntactic In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. It is called a scientific study because it entails a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise analysis of all aspects of language, particularly its nature an ...
loss (i.e. lexical categories, complex constructions); * relexification; * loss of word-formation
productivity Productivity is the efficiency of production of goods or services expressed by some measure. Measurements of productivity are often expressed as a ratio of an aggregate output to a single input or an aggregate input used in a production proc ...
; * style loss, such as the loss of ritual speech; * morphological leveling; * analogical leveling.


Health consequences for Indigenous communities

When a language dies, a complex loss occurs beyond speech, including connection to identity and well-being particularly in Indigenous communities, as many Indigenous peoples' identity, autonomy, and spiritual sovereignty are highly interwoven with their connection to their traditional language.Sivak, L., Westhead, S., Richards, E., Atkinson, S., Richards, J., Dare, H., Zuckermann, G., Gee, G., Wright, M., Rosen, et al. (2019). "Language Breathes Life" – Barngarla Community Perspectives on the Wellbeing Impact of Reclaiming a Dormant Australian Aboriginal Language.''International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16''(20) Given that cultural identity, language, and social traditions are deeply interwoven, language loss can be a fundamental factor of ill health in Indigenous communities.Khawaja, M. (2021). Consequences and Remedies of Indigenous Language Loss in Canada. ''Societies, 11'', 89. The National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organization (NACCHO) defines health as not merely the physical well-being of an individual but also as social, emotional, and cultural well-being of the whole community. For Aboriginal communities in
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. With an area of , Australia is the largest country by ...
, language loss, as part of broad colonial attempts at culturicide, is part of a cultural loss that plays a key role in ongoing intergenerational trauma reinforcing health inequity. Linguicide plays an active role in ongoing intergenerational trauma of the
Stolen Generations The Stolen Generations (also known as Stolen Children) were the children of Aboriginal Australians, Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, Torres Strait Islander descent who were removed from their families by the Australian Gover ...
, which is known to negatively impact mental health, and is implicated in high suicide rates. Similar forced assimilation practices instrumental in colonial linguicide such as removal of children to residential schools have created language loss in Indigenous communities around the world. As a consequence Indigenous peoples experience heightened negative mental health effects, such as substance abuse, trauma, and depression. A study conducted on Aboriginal youth suicide rates in Canada found that Indigenous communities in which a majority of members speak the traditional language exhibit low suicide rates. Contrary, suicide rates were six times higher in groups where less than half of its members communicate in their ancestral language. Many Indigenous communities take on a holistic view of health, in which a connection to culture and language is essential to well-being. Together, culture and language build the foundation of a collective identity. Thus, language death can have severe effects on health.


Language revitalization

Language revitalization is an attempt to slow or reverse language death. Revitalization programs are ongoing in many languages, and have had varying degrees of success. The
revival of the Hebrew language The revival of the Hebrew language took place in Europe and Palestine (region), Palestine toward the end of the 19th century and into the 20th century, through which the language's usage changed from the sacred language of Judaism to a spoken lan ...
in
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, ; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, ), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a country in Western Asia. It is situated ...
is the only example of a language's acquiring new
first language A first language, native tongue, native language, mother tongue or L1 is the first language or dialect that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period hypothesis, critical period. In some countries, the term ''native ...
speakers after it became extinct in everyday use for an extended period, being used only as a
liturgical language A sacred language, holy language or liturgical language is any language that is literary language, cultivated and used primarily in church service or for other religion, religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their da ...
. Even in the case of
Hebrew Hebrew (; ; ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is one of the spoken languages of the Israelites and their longest-surviving descendants, ...
, there is a theory that argues that "the Hebrew revivalists who wished to speak pure Hebrew failed. The result is a fascinating and multifaceted Israeli language, which is not only multi-layered but also multi-sourced. The revival of a clinically dead language is unlikely without cross-fertilization from the revivalists' mother tongue(s)." Other cases of language revitalization which have seen some degree of success are Irish, Welsh, Basque, Hawaiian,
Cherokee The Cherokee (; chr, ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯᎢ, translit=Aniyvwiyaʔi or Anigiduwagi, or chr, ᏣᎳᎩ, links=no, translit=Tsalagi) are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, th ...
and
Navajo The Navajo (; British English: Navaho; nv, Diné or ') are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultur ...
. Reasons for language revitalization vary: they can include physical danger affecting those whose language is dying, economic danger such as the
exploitation of natural resources The exploitation of natural resources is the use of natural resources for economic growth, sometimes with a negative connotation of accompanying environmental degradation. It started to emerge on an Industrial Revolution, industrial scale in the ...
, political danger such as
genocide Genocide is the intentional destruction of a people—usually defined as an Ethnic group, ethnic, nationality, national, race (classification of humans), racial, or Religion, religious group—in whole or in part. Raphael Lemkin coined the term ...
, or cultural danger such as assimilation. During the past century, it is estimated that more than 2,000 languages have already become extinct. The
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization whose stated purposes are to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be ...
(UN) estimates that more than half of the languages spoken today have fewer than 10,000 speakers and that a quarter have fewer than 1,000 speakers; and that, unless there are some efforts to maintain them, over the next hundred years most of these will become extinct. These figures are often cited as reasons why language revitalization is necessary to preserve linguistic diversity. Culture and identity are also frequently cited reasons for language revitalization, when a language is perceived as a unique "cultural treasure". A community often sees language as a unique part of their culture, connecting them with their ancestors or with the land, making up an essential part of their history and self-image. According to
Ghil'ad Zuckermann Ghil'ad Zuckermann ( he, גלעד צוקרמן, ; ) is an Israeli-born language revitalization, language revivalist and linguistics, linguist who works in Language contact, contact linguistics, lexicology and the study of language, culture and i ...
, "language reclamation will become increasingly relevant as people seek to recover their cultural autonomy, empower their spiritual and intellectual sovereignty, and improve wellbeing. There are various ethical, aesthetic, and utilitarian benefits of language revival—for example, historical justice, diversity, and employability, respectively."


Factors that prevent language death

Google launched the Endangered Languages Project aimed at helping preserve languages that are at risk of extinction. Its goal is to compile up-to-date information about endangered languages and share the latest research about them. Anthropologist Akira Yamamoto has identified nine factors that he believes will help prevent language death: # There must be a dominant culture that favors linguistic diversity # The endangered community must possess an ethnic identity that is strong enough to encourage language preservation # The creation and promotion of programs that educate students on the endangered language and culture # The creation of school programs that are both bilingual and bicultural # For native speakers to receive teacher training # The endangered speech community must be completely involved # There must be language materials created that are easy to use # The language must have written materials that encompass new and traditional content # The language must be used in new environments and the areas the language is used (both old and new) must be strengthened


Dead languages

Linguists distinguish between language "death" and the process where a language becomes a "dead language" through normal
language change Language change is variation over time in a language's features. It is studied in several subfields of linguistics: historical linguistics, sociolinguistics, and evolutionary linguistics. Traditional theories of historical linguistics identify ...
, a linguistic phenomenon analogous to pseudoextinction. This happens when a language in the course of its normal development gradually morphs into something that is then recognized as a separate, different language, leaving the old form with no native speakers. Thus, for example,
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, with its earliest forms spoken by the inhabita ...
may be regarded as a "dead language" although it changed and developed into
Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) is a form of the English language that was spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest of 1066, until the late 15th century. The English language underwent distinct variations and developments ...
,
Early Modern English Early Modern English or Early New English (sometimes abbreviated EModE, EMnE, or ENE) is the stage of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, with its ear ...
and
Modern English Modern English (sometimes New English or NE (ME) as opposed to Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) is a form of the English language that was spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest of 1066, until the lat ...
. Dialects of a language can also die, contributing to the overall language death. For example, the
Ainu language Ainu (, ), or more precisely Hokkaido Ainu, is a language spoken by a few elderly members of the Ainu people on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. It is a member of the Ainu languages, Ainu language family, itself considered a language i ...
is slowly dying: "The UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger lists Hokkaido Ainu as critically endangered with 15 speakers ... and both
Sakhalin Sakhalin ( rus, Сахали́н, r=Sakhalín, p=səxɐˈlʲin; ja, 樺太 ''Karafuto''; zh, c=, p=Kùyèdǎo, s=库页岛, t=庫頁島; Manchu language, Manchu: ᠰᠠᡥᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠨ, ''Sahaliyan''; Orok language, Orok: Бугата ...
and Kuril Ainu as extinct."


Language change

The process of language change may also involve the splitting up of a language into a family of several
daughter language In historical linguistics, a daughter language, also known as descendant language, is a language descended from another language, its mother language, through a process of Genetic (linguistics), genetic descent. If more than one language has devel ...
s, leaving the common parent language "dead". This has happened to
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around present-day Rome, but through ...
, which (through
Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is the range of non-formal registers of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was ori ...
) eventually developed into the
Romance languages The Romance languages, sometimes referred to as Latin languages or Neo-Latin languages, are the various modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin. They are the only extant subgroup of the Italic languages in the Indo-European languages, I ...
, and to
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor languages had Trans-cul ...
, which (through
Prakrit The Prakrits (; sa, prākṛta; psu, 𑀧𑀸𑀉𑀤, ; pka, ) are a group of vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan languages that were used in the Indian subcontinent The Indian subcontinent is a list of the physiographic regions of the w ...
) developed into the New Indo-Aryan languages. Such a process is normally not described as "language death", because it involves an unbroken chain of normal transmission of the language from one generation to the next, with only minute changes at every single point in the chain. Thus with regard to Latin, for example, there is no point at which Latin "died"; it evolved in different ways in different geographic areas, and its modern forms are now identified by a plethora of different names such as French, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, etc.


Measuring language vitality

Except in case of linguicide, languages do not suddenly become extinct; they become moribund as the community of speakers gradually shifts to using other languages. As speakers shift, there are discernible, if subtle, changes in language behavior. These changes in behavior lead to a change of linguistic vitality in the community. There are a variety of systems that have been proposed for measuring the vitality of a language in a community. One of the earliest is the GIDS (Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale) proposed by Joshua Fishman in 1991. A noteworthy publishing milestone in measuring language vitality is an entire issue of '' Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development'' devoted to the study of ethnolinguistic vitality, Vol. 32.2, 2011, with several authors presenting their own tools for measuring language vitality. A number of other published works on measuring language vitality have been published, prepared by authors with varying situations and applications in mind. These include works by Arienne Dwyer, Martin Ehala, M. Lynne Landwehr, Mark Karan, András Kornai, and Paul Lewis and Gary Simons.Lewis, M. Paul & Gary F. Simons. 2010. Assessing endangerment: Expanding Fishman's GIDS. ''Revue Roumaine de Linguistique'' 55(2). 103–120.


See also

*
Classical language A classical language is any language with an independent literary tradition and a large and ancient body of written literature. Classical languages are typically Extinct language, dead languages, or show a high degree of diglossia, as the spoken ...
*
Cultural genocide Cultural genocide or cultural cleansing is a concept which was proposed by lawyer Raphael Lemkin in 1944 as a component of genocide. Though the precise definition of ''cultural genocide'' remains contested, the Tsitsernakaberd, Armenian Genocide ...
*
Cultural hegemony In Marxist philosophy, cultural hegemony is the Dominance hierarchy, dominance of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class who manipulate the culture of that society—the beliefs and explanations, perceptions, Value system, values, and ...
* Directorate of Language Planning and Implementation *
Endangered language An endangered language or moribund language is a language that is at risk of disappearing as its speakers Language death, die out or language shift, shift to speaking other languages. Language loss occurs when the language has no more native spea ...
** Lists of endangered languages *
Ethnocide Ethnocide is the cultural genocide, extermination of cultures. Reviewing the legal and the academic history of the usage of the terms genocide and ethnocide, Bartolomé Clavero differentiates them by stating that "Genocide kills people while ethn ...
*
Extinct language An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living Genetic relationship (linguistics), descendants. In contrast, a dead language is one that is no longer the native language of any commun ...
** Lists of extinct languages *
International auxiliary language An international auxiliary language (sometimes acronymized as IAL or contracted as auxlang) is a language meant for communication between people from all different nations, who do not share a common first language. An auxiliary language is primaril ...
*
Language contact Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or Variety (linguistics), varieties interact and influence each other. The study of language contact is called contact linguistics. When speakers of different languages interact closely ...
* Language movement *
Language policy Language policy is an interdisciplinary academic field. Some scholars such as Joshua Fishman and Ofelia García consider it as part of sociolinguistics Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any or all aspects of society, ...
*
Language revitalization Language revitalization, also referred to as language revival or reversing language shift, is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one. Those involved can include linguists, cultural or community groups, o ...
*
Language shift Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a speech community shifts to a different language, usually over an extended period of time. Often, languages that are perceiv ...
* Lingua Libre * Linguistic discrimination * Linguistic imperialism * Linguistic purism *
Linguistic rights Linguistic rights are the human rights, human and civil rights concerning the individual and collective right to choose the language or languages for communication in a private or public atmosphere. Other parameters for analyzing linguistic right ...
* List of last known speakers of languages *
Minority language A minority language is a language spoken by a minority group, minority of the population of a territory. Such people are termed linguistic minorities or language minorities. With a total number of 196 sovereign states recognized internationally ( ...
* Native Tongue Title *
Prestige language Prestige refers to a good reputation or high esteem; in earlier usage, ''prestige'' meant "showiness". (19th c.) Prestige may also refer to: Arts, entertainment and media Films * ''Prestige'' (film), a 1932 American film directed by Tay Garnet ...
*
Regional language * A regional language is a language spoken in a region of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federated state or province or some wider area. Internationally, for the purposes of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Lan ...
* Rosetta Project *''
The Linguists ''The Linguists'' is an Independent film, independent 2008 American documentary film produced by Ironbound Films about language extinction and language documentation. It follows two linguists, Gregory Anderson (linguist), Greg Anderson of the Liv ...
'' (documentary film)


References


Further reading

* Abley, Mark. (2003). ''Spoken here: Travels among threatened languages''. London: Heinemann. * Aitchinson, Jean. (1991). ''Language change: progress or decay?'' Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Bastardas-Boada, Albert (2007)
"Linguistic sustainability for a multilingual humanity"
Glossa. An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 2, num. 2. * Batibo, Herman M. (2005). ''Language decline and death in Africa: Causes, consequences, and challenges''. Multilingual Matters. * Brenzinger, Matthias (Ed.). (1992). ''Language death: Factual and theoretical explorations with special reference to East Africa''. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. * Brenzinger, Matthais (Ed.). (1998). ''Endangered languages in Africa''. Cologne: Rüdiger Köper Verlag. * Broderick, George. (1999). ''Language Death in the Isle of Man''. Tübingen: Niemeyer. . * Calvet, Louis-Jean. (1998). ''Language wars and linguistic politics''. Oxford: Oxford University Press. * Campbell, Lyle. (1994). Language death. In R. E. Asher (Ed.), ''The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics'' (pp. 1960–1968). Oxford: Pergamon Press. * Campbell, Lyle; & Muntzel, M. (1989). The structural consequences of language death. In N. C. Dorian (Ed.). * Cantoni-Harvey, Gina (Ed.). (1997). ''Stabilizing indigenous languages''. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University, Center for Excellence in Education. * Crystal, David. (2000). ''Language death''. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. . * Crystal, David. (2004). ''Language revolution''. Cambridge: Polity Press. * Cyr, Christine. (2008).
How Do You Learn a Dead Language?
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External links


Lost Tongues and the Politics of Language Endangerment



Language endangerment: What have pride & prestige got to do with It?
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Language birth & death
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Globalization & the Myth of Killer Languages: What's Really Going on?
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International Symposium on "Linguistic Rights in the World: The current situation"
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, 24 April 2008 {{DEFAULTSORT:Language Death Sociolinguistics Historical linguistics Education policy Linguistic rights Cultural assimilation