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The Kingdom of Tungning (), also known as Tywan by the British at the time, pp. 347–348. was a dynastic maritime state that ruled part of southwestern Formosa (
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
) and
Penghu islands The Penghu (Hokkien Hokkien (; , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ''Hok-kiàn-ōe'', ) or Minnan (閩南語/闽南语), known as Quanzhang or Tsuan-Tsiang (泉漳) in linguistics, is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Standard Chinese, Mandarin pronun ...

Penghu islands
between 1661 and 1683, and regarded as the first predominantly
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
state in Taiwanese history. At its peak the kingdom's maritime power dominated varying extents of coastal regions of southeastern China, and its vast trade network stretched from Japan to Southeast Asia. The kingdom was founded by
Koxinga Zheng Chenggong, Prince of Yanping (27 August 1624 – 23 June 1662), better known internationally as Koxinga () or Cheng Ch'eng-kung, was a Ming loyalist who resisted the Qing conquest of China The transition from Ming to Qing, Ming–Qin ...
(Zheng Chenggong) after seizing control of Taiwan from Dutch rule. Zheng hoped to restore
Ming dynastic rule
Ming dynastic rule
on the
Chinese mainland Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland Area of the Republic of China is the geopolitics, geopolitical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC) since Proclamation of ...

Chinese mainland
, when
the Ming remnants' rump state in southern China
the Ming remnants' rump state in southern China
was progressively conquered by the
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in ...

Manchu
-led
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
. Zheng dynasts used the newly owned island as part of the loyalist movement. They aimed to reclaim mainland China from the Qing, mainly as a base of military operations, but also to deepen the process of
Sinicization Sinicization, sinofication, sinification, or sinonization (from the prefix , 'Chinese, relating to China') is the process by which non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture Chinese culture () is one of the world's ...
on Taiwan in an effort to consolidate the last stronghold of
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
resistance against the invading Manchus."Historical and Legal Aspects of the International Status of Taiwan (Formosa)" by Ng Yuzin Chiautong, published on August 28, 1971, WUFI
/ref> Until its annexation by the Qing dynasty in 1683, the kingdom was ruled by Koxinga's heirs, the
House of Koxinga The House of Koxinga or the Zheng dynasty was the reigning family of the Kingdom of Tungning The Kingdom of Tungning (), also known as Tywan by the British at the time, pp. 347–348. was a dynastic Thalassocracy, maritime state that ruled p ...
, and the period of rule is sometimes referred to as the Koxinga dynasty.


Names

In reference to its reigning
house of Koxinga The House of Koxinga or the Zheng dynasty was the reigning family of the Kingdom of Tungning The Kingdom of Tungning (), also known as Tywan by the British at the time, pp. 347–348. was a dynastic Thalassocracy, maritime state that ruled p ...
, the Kingdom of Tungning is sometimes known as the Zheng dynasty (), Zheng clan Kingdom () or Yanping Kingdom (), named after Koxinga's
hereditary title Hereditary titles, in a general sense, are nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often be ...
of "Prince of Yanping" () that bestowed by the Yongli emperor of the South Ming. Taiwan was referred to by Koxinga as Tungtu (). In Britain, it was known as Tywan (Taiwan), named after the King's residence at the city of "Tywan" in present-day
Tainan Tainan, officially Tainan City, is a special municipality in southern Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and ...

Tainan
. The period of rule is sometimes referred to as the Koxinga dynasty.


History


Capture of Taiwan and establishment of Zheng Kingdom

Following the defeat of the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
in 1644, the Manchu Qing offered several high-ranking Ming officials and military leaders positions in the
Qing The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
court in exchange for cessation of resistance activities.
Zheng Zhilong Zheng Zhilong, Marquis of Tong'an and Nan'an (; 1604–1661), baptised as Nicholas Iquan Gaspard, was a merchant, pirate, political and military leader in the late Ming dynasty#REDIRECT Ming dynasty {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move ...
, a Ming admiral and father of Koxinga, accepted the Qing offer, but was later arrested and executed for not ceding control of his
military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media L ...
to the Qing cause when asked to do so. After learning of this whilst pursuing studies overseas, Koxinga pledged to assume his father's position and control of his remaining forces in order to re-establish Ming control of China. With most of China controlled by the Qing, Koxinga discovered the situational strategic advantages provided by a retreat and occupation of Taiwan from the translator who was working for the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
. Supplied by Ho-Bin with maps of the island, Koxinga marshalled his forces, estimated at 400 ships and 25,000 soldiers, and seized the Pescadores (also known as
Penghu Islands The Penghu (Hokkien Hokkien (; , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ''Hok-kiàn-ōe'', ) or Minnan (閩南語/闽南语), known as Quanzhang or Tsuan-Tsiang (泉漳) in linguistics, is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Standard Chinese, Mandarin pronun ...

Penghu Islands
) so as to utilize them as a strategic staging point from which to invade Taiwan, at the time controlled by the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

Dutch
. In 1661, Koxinga's fleet forced an entry to ' and made landing around
Fort Provintia Fort Provintia or Providentia, also known as Chihkan Tower (), was a Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ...

Fort Provintia
. In less than a year, he captured Fort Provintia and besieged Fort Zeelandia; with no external help coming,
Frederick Coyett Frederick Coyett (), born in Stockholm c. 1615 or 1620, buried in Amsterdam on 17 October 1687, was a Sweden, Swedish nobleman and the last colonial governor for the Taiwan under Dutch rule, Dutch colony of Formosa. He was the first Swede to travel ...

Frederick Coyett
, the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
governor negotiated a treaty, where the Dutch surrendered the fortress and left all the goods and property of the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
behind. In return, most Dutch officials, soldiers and civilians were allowed to leave with their personal belongings and supplies and return to Batavia (present-day
Jakarta Jakarta (; ), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta ( id, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta), is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the lette ...

Jakarta
,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
), ending the 38 years of Dutch colonial rule on Taiwan. Koxinga did, however, detain some Dutch "women, children, and priests" as prisoners. He then proceeded on a tour of inspection with a contingent of nearly 100,000 soldiers to "see with his own eyes the extent and condition of his new domain." Realizing that developing his forces in
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...
into a large enough threat to unseat the Qing would not be achieved in the short term,
Koxinga Zheng Chenggong, Prince of Yanping (27 August 1624 – 23 June 1662), better known internationally as Koxinga () or Cheng Ch'eng-kung, was a Ming loyalist who resisted the Qing conquest of China The transition from Ming to Qing, Ming–Qin ...
began transforming Taiwan into a practically proper, albeit preferably temporary, seat of power for the
Southern Ming The Southern Ming (), also known as the Later Ming (), officially the Great Ming (), was a series of dynastic rump state A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatu ...

Southern Ming
loyalist movement. Replacing the Dutch system of government previously used in Taiwan, Koxinga instituted a Ming-style administration, the first Chinese governance in Taiwan. This system of government was divided into six departments: civil service, revenue, rites, war, punishment, and public works. Great care was taken to symbolise support for the Ming legitimacy, an example being the use of the term ''guan'' instead of ''bu'' to name departments, since the latter is reserved for central government, whereas Taiwan was to be a regional office of the rightful Ming rule of China. Zheng Jing dutifully complied with the prescribed procedures for Ming officials by regularly presenting reports and paying tribute to the absent Ming emperor. Formosa (
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...
) was also renamed by Koxinga as ''Tungtu'', though this name was later changed by his son,
Zheng Jing Zheng Jing, Prince of Yanping (; 25 October 1642 – 17 March 1681), courtesy names Xianzhi () and Yuanzhi (), pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assu ...
, to ''Tungning''.


Development

The most immediate problem Koxinga faced after the successful invasion of Taiwan was a severe shortage of food. It is estimated that prior to Koxinga's invasion the population of Taiwan was no greater than 100,000 people, yet the initial Zheng army with family and retainers that settled in Taiwan is estimated to be 30,000 at minimum. To address the food shortage, Koxinga instituted a
tuntian The tuntian system was a state-promoted system of agriculture which originated in the Western Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), es ...
policy in which soldiers served the dual role of farmer when not assigned active duty in a guard battalion. No effort was spared to ensure the successful implementation of this policy to develop Taiwan into a self-sufficient island, and a series of land and taxation policies were established to encourage the expansion and cultivation of fertile lands for increased food production capabilities. Lands held by the Dutch were immediately reclaimed and ownership distributed amongst Koxinga's trusted staff and relatives to be rented out to peasant farmers, whilst properly developing other farmlands in the south and the claiming, clearing, and cultivating of Aborigine lands to the east was also aggressively pursued. To further encourage expansion into new farmlands, a policy of varying taxation was implemented wherein fertile land newly claimed for the Zheng regime would be taxed at a much lower rate than those reclaimed from the Dutch, considered "official land". Koxinga, at one point, declared his intention to conquer the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...
in retaliation for the Spanish mistreatment of the
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different count ...
settlers there. His originally stated intentions for conquering Taiwan from the Dutch also included the desire to protect Chinese settlers in Taiwan from maltreatment by the Dutch. Following the death of Koxinga in 1662 due to
malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms Signs and symptoms are the observed or detectable signs, and experienced symptoms of an illness, injury, or condition. A sign fo ...

malaria
, his son
Zheng Jing Zheng Jing, Prince of Yanping (; 25 October 1642 – 17 March 1681), courtesy names Xianzhi () and Yuanzhi (), pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assu ...
took over the Zheng regime, leading the remaining 7,000 Ming loyalist troops to Taiwan. Differing from Koxinga, it seems Jing attempted to reconcile peacefully with the Qing by travelling to
Peking Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by ...

Peking
and bidding for Taiwan to become an
autonomous state An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division or territory, internal territory of a sovereign state that has a degree of ...
, but refusing to accept the conditions of compulsory Manchu hairstyle and regular tributes of currency and soldiers. In response to raids by Zheng Jing and in an effort to starve out the forces in Taiwan, the Qing decreed to relocate all of the southern coastal towns and ports that had been the targets of raids by the Zheng fleet and thus provided supplies for the resistance. This to a large extent backfired and from 1662 to 1664 six major waves of immigration occurred from these areas to Taiwan due to the severe hardships incurred from this relocation policy. In a move to take advantage of this Qing misstep, Zheng Jing promoted immigration to Taiwan by promising the opportunity for free eastern land cultivation and ownership for peasants in exchange for compulsory military service by all males in case the island should need to be defended against Qing invaders. About 1,000 previous Ming government officials moved to Taiwan fleeing Qing persecution. Zheng Jing also recruited his early tutor, Chen Yonghua, and passed to him most official government affairs. This saw the establishment of many important developmental policies for Taiwan in education, agriculture, trade, industry and finance, in addition to a tax system almost as harsh as that of the Dutch colonials. Taiwan soon saw the establishment of
Chinese language Chinese ( or also , especially for the written language) is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic lan ...
schools for both the Chinese and indigenous populations and a concerted effort to break Dutch and Indigenous religious, language, and other cultural influences, and promotion of Chinese socio-cultural hegemony along with further expansion of towns and farmland into the south and east. This was realised in the eventual closure of all European and therefore Christian schools and churches in Taiwan, the opening of
Confucian Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is a system of thought and behavior originating in ancient China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC ...

Confucian
temples and the institution of the Confucian civil service exams to coincide with the implemented Confucian education system. Chen Yong-hua is credited for the introduction of new agricultural techniques, such as water-storage for annual dry periods and the deliberate cultivation of
sugar cane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, ...

sugar cane
as a cash crop for trade with the Europeans, in addition to the cooperative unit machinery for mass refining of sugar. The island became more economically self-sufficient with Chen's introduction of mass
salt Salt is a mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure fo ...

salt
drying by evaporation, creating much higher quality salt than by rock deposits which were found to be very rare in Taiwan. The Dutch had previously maintained a
monopoly A monopoly (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...

monopoly
of trade of certain goods with the
Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, including: ***Aboriginal Australians ****Australian Aboriginal identity ...
tribes across Taiwan, and this monopoly of trade was not only maintained under the Zheng regime, but was actively turned into a quota-tribute system of exploitation of the native tribes to aid in international trade. Trade with the British occurred from 1670 through until the end of the Zheng regime, though for the most part limited because of the Zheng monopoly on sugar cane and deer hide, as well as the inability of the British to match the price of East Asian goods for resale. Throughout its existence, Tungning was subject to the Qing
sea ban The () or sea ban was a series of related isolationist Isolationism is a category of foreign policy, foreign policies institutionalized by leaders who assert that nations' best interests are best served by keeping the affairs of other countries ...
(''haijin''), limiting its trade with mainland China to smugglers. Aside from the British, Zheng major trade occurred with the Japanese and Dutch, though evidence of trade with many Asian countries exists.
Zheng Jing Zheng Jing, Prince of Yanping (; 25 October 1642 – 17 March 1681), courtesy names Xianzhi () and Yuanzhi (), pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assu ...
's navy defeated a combined Qing-Dutch fleet commanded by Han Banner general Ma Degong in 1664 and Ma was killed in the battle. The Dutch looted relics and killed monks after attacking a Buddhist complex at Putuoshan on the Zhoushan islands in 1665. Zheng Jing's navy executed thirty four Dutch sailors and drowned eight Dutch sailors after ambushing, looting and sinking the Dutch fluyt ship Cuylenburg in 1672 on northeastern Taiwan. Only twenty one Dutch sailors escaped to Japan. The ship was going from Nagasaki to Batavia on a trade mission. On a constant war footing, and denied maritime trade by the hostile Dutch-Qing alliance, the Kingdom of Tungning intensively exploited these lands to feed their vast army. This resulted in a number of brutally suppressed rebellions by the indigenous population and a gradual weakening of the competing
Kingdom of Middag The Kingdom of Middag () was a supra-tribal alliance located in the central western plains of Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of ...
. A series of major conflicts between the Kingdom of Tungning and the
Saisiyat people The Saisiyat (; "true people"), also spelled Saisiat, are an Taiwanese indigenous peoples, indigenous people of Taiwan. In 2000 the Saisiyat numbered 5,311, which was approximately 1.3% of Taiwan's total indigenous population, making them one of ...
left the Saisiyat decimated and with much of their land in the hands of the Kingdom. The details of the conflicts remain mysterious however historians agree that the outcome was negative for the Saisiyat.


Collapse

Following the death of Zheng Jing in 1681, the lack of an official heir meant rule of Taiwan would pass to his illegitimate son. This caused great division in the government and military powers, resulting in an exceptionally destructive struggle for the succession. Seizing the advantage presented by the infighting, the Qing dispatched their navy with
Shi Lang Shi Lang (1621–1696), Marquis Jinghai, also known as Secoe or Sego, was a Chinese admiral who served under the Ming The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collaps ...
at its head, destroying the Zheng fleet led by Liu Guoxuan at the
Penghu Islands The Penghu (Hokkien Hokkien (; , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ''Hok-kiàn-ōe'', ) or Minnan (閩南語/闽南语), known as Quanzhang or Tsuan-Tsiang (泉漳) in linguistics, is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Standard Chinese, Mandarin pronun ...

Penghu Islands
. In 1683, after the
Battle of Penghu The Battle of Penghu () was a naval battle fought in 1683 between the Kingdom of Tungning based in Taiwan and the Manchu people, Manchu-led Qing dynasty of China. The Qing admiral Shi Lang led a fleet to attack the Tungning forces in Penghu. Eac ...
, Qing troops landed in Taiwan,
Zheng Keshuang Zheng Keshuang, Prince of Yanping ( zh, 鄭克塽; 13 August 1670 – 22 September 1707), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice i ...
gave in to the Qing dynasty's demand for surrender after being convinced by the "surrender" faction led by Feng Xifan and Liu Guoxuan. His kingdom was incorporated into the Qing dynasty as part of Fujian province, ending more than two decades of rule by the Zheng family. Zheng Keshuang was taken to Beijing, where he was ennobled by the Qing emperor as Duke of Hanjun (漢軍公); together with his family and leading officers, he was also inducted into the
Eight Banners The Eight Banners (in Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and Chi ...
. Junior members of the House of Koxinga acquired the hereditary style of Sia (舍). The Qing sent the 17 Ming princes still living on Taiwan back to mainland China where they spent the rest of their lives. Troops who specialized at fighting with rattan shields and swords, Tengpaiying (藤牌營), were recommended to the
Kangxi Emperor The Kangxi Emperor (Xuanye; 4 May 1654– 20 December 1722) was the third Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Wester ...

Kangxi Emperor
. Kangxi was impressed by a demonstration of their techniques and ordered 500 of them to reinforce the siege of
Albazin Albazino (russian: Албазино́; ) is a village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to t ...

Albazin
against the Russians, under Ho Yu, a former Koxinga follower, and Lin Hsing-chu, a former General of Wu. Attacking from the water using only the rattan shields and swords, these troops cut down Russian forces traveling by rafts on the river, without suffering a single casualty.


Rulers


Reigning family


See also

*
Kingdom of Middag The Kingdom of Middag () was a supra-tribal alliance located in the central western plains of Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of ...
*
Spanish Formosa Spanish Formosa ( es, Hermosa Española) was a small colony of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, ...
*
Taiwan under Dutch rule The island of Taiwan, also commonly known as ''Formosa'', was partly under colonial rule by the Dutch Republic from 1624 to 1662 and from 1664 to 1668. In the context of the Age of Discovery, the Dutch East India Company established its presen ...


References


Citations


Sources

*


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Kingdom of Tungning Hokkien royalty House of Koxinga History of Taiwan 1660s in Taiwan 1670s in Taiwan 1680s in Taiwan Former countries in Chinese history Former countries in East Asia Tungning Tungning Southern Ming Qing dynasty 1661 establishments in China 1680s disestablishments in China 1661 establishments in Asia 1683 disestablishments in Asia 17th-century establishments in Taiwan 17th-century disestablishments in Taiwan States and territories established in 1661 States and territories disestablished in 1683