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Khan ''khan/qan''; tr, han;
Azerbaijani Azerbaijani may refer to: * Something of, or related to Azerbaijan * Azerbaijanis * Azerbaijani language See also

* Azerbaijan (disambiguation) * Azeri (disambiguation) * Azerbaijani cuisine * Culture of Azerbaijan * {{Disambig Language a ...
: ''xan'';
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
: ''han'';
Old Turkic Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD to the 13th century. It is the oldest attested member of th ...
: ''kan'';
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
: 汗 ''hán'';
Goguryeo Goguryeo (; , 37 BC–668 AD), also called Goryeo (; ), was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the and the southern and central parts of . At its peak of power, Goguryeo controlled most of the Korean peninsula, lar ...
: 皆 ''key'';
Buyeo Buyeo, Puyŏ or Fuyu/Fuyo (Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, worl ...
: 加 ''ka'';
Silla Silla or Shilla (57 BCE57 BCE according to the '' Samguk Sagi''; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo may be traced ...
: 干 ''kan''; Gaya: 旱 ''kan'';
Baekje Baekje (; (also Paekche); 18 BC"Korea, 1–500 A.D.". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/?period=05®ion=eak (October 2000) – 660 AD) was a kingdom ...
: 瑕 ''ke'';
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...
: ;
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
: خان;
Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a ge ...
: ਖ਼ਾਨ;
Hindustani Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms are Hindi and Urdu * Fiji Hindi, a variety of Eastern Hindi spoken in Fiji, and i ...
: ख़ान or ख़ां (
Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida An abugida (, from : አቡጊዳ), sometimes ...

Devanagari
)
, or (
Nastaleeq in a Naskh (script), Naskh styled typeface: Nastaʼlīq (; fa, , ) is one of the main calligraphic hands used to write the Perso-Arabic script in the Persian language, Persian and Urdu languages, and traditionally the predominant style in ...
)
; Balochi: خان;
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...
: хан, ''khan''; Chuvash: хун, ''hun'';
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
: خان; bn, খান or ) () is a historic title originating among nomadic tribes in the
Central and Eastern Eurasian Steppe
Central and Eastern Eurasian Steppe
to refer to a chief or ruler. It first appears among the
Rouran The Rouran Khaganate, also Juan-Juan Khaganate (), was a tribal confederation and later state founded by a people of Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the M ...
and then the
Göktürks The Göktürks, Celestial Turks or Blue Turks ( otk, 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣, Türük Bodun; zh, 突厥 ''Tūjué''; Wade-Giles: ''T'u-chüeh'') were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia. The Göktürks, un ...
as a variant of
khagan Khagan or Qaghan ( otk, 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Kaɣan, mn, Xаан or ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, Khaan, ota, خواقين, Ḫākan, or خان ''Ḫān'', tr, Kağan or ''Hakan'', ug, قاغان, Qaghan) ''Khāqān'', alternatively spelled Kağan, Kagan, Kha ...
(sovereign, emperor) and implied a subordinate ruler. In the
Seljuk Empire The Great Seljuk Empire or the Seljuk Empire, was a high medieval The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that lasted from around AD 1000 to 1250. The High Middle Ages In the history of Eu ...

Seljuk Empire
, it was the highest noble title, ranking above
malik Malik, Melik, Malka, Malek, Maleek, Malick, or Melekh ( phn, 𐤌𐤋𐤊; ar, ملك Malik, Melik, Malka, Malek, Malick, or Melekh ( phn, 𐤌𐤋𐤊; ar, ملك; he, מֶלֶךְ) is the Semitic term translating to "king of th ...

malik
(king) and
emir Emir (; ar, أمير ' ), sometimes transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus '' trans-'' + '' liter-'') in predictable ways, such as Greek → , Cyr ...

emir
(prince). In the
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
it signified the ruler of a horde (''ulus''), while the ruler of all the Mongols was the khagan or great khan. The title subsequently declined in importance. In
Safavid Persia Safavid Iran or Safavid Persia (), also referred to as the Safavid Empire, '. was one of the greatest Persian Empire, Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Persia, ruled from 1501 to 1736 by the Safavid dynasty. It is often co ...
it was the title of a provincial governor, and in
Mughal India The Mughal Empire, Mogul or Moghul Empire, was an Early modern period, early modern empire in South Asia. Quote: "Although the first two Timurid emperors and many of their noblemen were recent migrants to the subcontinent, the dynasty and the ...
it was a high noble rank restricted to courtiers. After the downfall of the Mughals it was used promiscuously and became
a surname A, or a, is the first Letter (alphabet), letter and the first vowel letter of the English alphabet, modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is English alphabet#Letter names, ''a'' (pronounced ), plural En ...
. Khan and its female forms occur in many personal names, generally without any nobiliary of political relevance, although it remains a common part of noble names as well.


Etymology

The origin of the term is disputed and unknown, possibly a loanword from the
Ruanruan language Ruanruan (; also called Rouran) is an unclassified extinct language of Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian language, Mongolian: , Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: ') is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is roughly equivalent ...
. According to Vovin (2007, 2010) the term comes from ''qaγan'' (meaning
emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to ''commander'' under the Roma ...

emperor
or supreme ruler) and was later used in several languages, especially in Turkic and Mongolic. A
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...

Turkic
and
Para-Mongolic The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Western Europe and Asia. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the te ...
origin has been suggested by a number of scholars including Ramstedt, Shiratori, Sinor and Doerfer, and was reportedly first used by the
Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mongol language, the language spoken at the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empir ...
. According to Vovin, the word ''*qa-qan'' "great-qan" (*qa- for "great" or "supreme") is of non-Altaic origin, but instead linked to
Yeniseian The Yeniseian languages (sometimes known as Yeniseic or Yenisei-Ostyak;"Ostyak" is a concept of areal rather than genetic linguistics. In addition to the Yeniseian languages it also includes the Uralic languages The Uralic languages (; some ...
*''qεʔ'' "big" or "great". The origin of ''qan'' itself is harder according to Vovin. He says that the origin for the word ''qan'' is not found in any reconstructed proto-language and was used widely by Turkic, Mongolic, Chinese and Korean people with variations from ''kan, qan, han and hwan.'' A relation exists possibly to the Yeniseian words *''qij'' or ''*qaj'' meaning "ruler". It may be impossible to prove the ultimate origin of the title, but Vovin says: "Thus, it seems to be quite likely that the ultimate source of both ''qaγan'' and ''qan'' can be traced back to Xiong-nu and Yeniseian"."ONCE AGAIN ON THE ETYMOLOGY OF THE TITLE qaγan"
Alexander Vovin Alexander Vladimirovich Vovin (russian: Александр Владимирович Вовин; born 27 January 1961) is an American linguist and philologist, born in Russia (Soviet Union), currently director of studies at the School for Advanced S ...
, Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia vol. 12 Kraków 2007 (http://ejournals.eu/sj/index.php/SEC/article/viewFile/1100/1096)


History

"Khan" is first encountered as a title in the
Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mongol language, the language spoken at the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empir ...
confederationHenning, W. B., 'A Farewell to the Khagan of the Aq-Aqataran',"Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African studies – University of London", Vol 14, No 3, pp. 501–522 for their chief between 283 and 289. The
Rouran The Rouran Khaganate, also Juan-Juan Khaganate (), was a tribal confederation and later state founded by a people of Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the M ...
s may have been the first people who used the titles ''
khagan Khagan or Qaghan ( otk, 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Kaɣan, mn, Xаан or ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, Khaan, ota, خواقين, Ḫākan, or خان ''Ḫān'', tr, Kağan or ''Hakan'', ug, قاغان, Qaghan) ''Khāqān'', alternatively spelled Kağan, Kagan, Kha ...
'' and ''khan'' for their emperors. However, Russian linguist
Alexander Vovin Alexander Vladimirovich Vovin (russian: Александр Владимирович Вовин; born 27 January 1961) is an American linguist and philologist, born in Russia (Soviet Union), currently director of studies at the School for Advanced S ...
(2007) believes that the term ''qaγan'' originated among the
Xiongnu The Xiongnu (, ) were a tribal confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty A treaty is a formal ...

Xiongnu
people, who were
Yeniseian The Yeniseian languages (sometimes known as Yeniseic or Yenisei-Ostyak;"Ostyak" is a concept of areal rather than genetic linguistics. In addition to the Yeniseian languages it also includes the Uralic languages The Uralic languages (; some ...
-speaking (according to Vovin), and then it diffused across language families. Subsequently, the
Göktürks The Göktürks, Celestial Turks or Blue Turks ( otk, 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣, Türük Bodun; zh, 突厥 ''Tūjué''; Wade-Giles: ''T'u-chüeh'') were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia. The Göktürks, un ...
adopted the title and brought it to the rest of Asia. In the middle of the sixth century the Iranians knew of a "Kagan – King of the Turks". Various Mongolic and Turkic peoples from Central Asia gave the title new prominence after period of the
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
(1206–1368) in the Old World and later brought the title "khan" into Northern Asia, where locals later adopted it.
Khagan Khagan or Qaghan ( otk, 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Kaɣan, mn, Xаан or ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, Khaan, ota, خواقين, Ḫākan, or خان ''Ḫān'', tr, Kağan or ''Hakan'', ug, قاغان, Qaghan) ''Khāqān'', alternatively spelled Kağan, Kagan, Kha ...
is rendered as ''Khan of Khans''. It was the title of Chinese Emperor
Emperor Taizong of Tang Emperor Taizong of Tang (28January 59810July 649), previously Prince of Qin, personal name Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled fr ...
('' Heavenly Khagan'', reigned 626 to 649) and
Genghis Khan Genghis Khan (August 18, 1227), born Temüjin, was the founder and first () of the , which became the in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the s of , and, after being proclaimed the universal , or ''Genghis Khan'', he ...

Genghis Khan
's successors selected to rule the Mongol Empire starting from 1229. Genghis Khan himself was referred as ''qa'an'' (khagan) only posthumously.http://altaica.ru/LIBRARY/rachewiltz/Rachewiltz_Qan.pdf For instance
Möngke Khan Möngke ( mn, ' / Мөнх '; ; 11 January 1209 – 11 August 1259) was the fourth khagan-Emperor of China, emperor of the Mongol Empire, ruling from 1 July 1251, to 11 August 1259. He was the first Khagan from the Tolui#Toluid, Toluid line, ...
(reigned 1251–1259) and Ogedei Khan (reigned 1229–1241) would be "Khagans" but not
Chagatai Khan Chagatai Khan ( mn, Цагадай, translit=Tsagadai; Middle Mongol: ''Čaɣatay''; ug, چاغاتايخان, ''Chaghatay-Xan''; zh, 察合台, ''Chágětái''; tr, Çağatay; fa, , ''Joghatai''; 22 December 1183 – 1 July 1242) was the se ...
, who was not proclaimed ruler of the Mongol Empire by the
Kurultai Kurultai ( Mongolian: , Хуралдай, ''Khuraldai''; Turkic: ''Kurultay'') Kazakh: Құрылтай, ''Qurıltay''; tt, Корылтай, ; ba, Ҡоролтай, ; az, Qurultay; tk, Gurultaý was a political and military council of ancie ...
.


Khanate rulers and dynasties


Ruling Khans

Originally khans headed only relatively minor tribal entities, generally in or near the vast Mongolian and North Chinese steppe, the scene of an almost endless procession of nomadic people riding out into the history of the neighbouring sedentary regions. Some managed to establish principalities of some importance for a while, as their military might repeatedly proved a serious threat to such empires as China and kingdoms in Central Asia. One of the earliest notable examples of such principalities in Europe was Danube Bulgaria (presumably also
Old Great Bulgaria Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Medieval Greek: Παλαιά Μεγάλη Βουλγαρία, ''Palaiá Megálē Voulgaría''), also often known by the Latin names ''Magna Bulgaria'' and ''Patria Onoguria'' ("Onoğurs, Onogur land"), wa ...

Old Great Bulgaria
), ruled by a ''khan'' or a ''kan'' at least from the 7th to the 9th century. The title "khan" is not attested directly in inscriptions and texts referring to Bulgar rulers – the only similar title found so far, ''
KanasubigiKanasubigi ( el, ΚΑΝΑΣΥΒΙΓΙ), possibly read as ''Kanas Ubigi'' or ''Kanas U Bigi'' was a title of the early rulers of the Bulgars. The title ''khan'' for early Bulgar rulers is an assumed one, as only the form ''kanasubigi'' or "kanasybigi ...
'', has been found solely in the inscriptions of three consecutive Bulgarian rulers, namely
Krum Krum ( bg, Крум, el, Κρούμος/Kroumos), often referred to as ''Krum the Fearsome'' ( bg, Крум Страшни) was the Khan (title), Khan of First Bulgarian Empire, Bulgaria from sometime between 796 and 803 until his death in 814. ...

Krum
,
Omurtag Omurtag (or Omortag) ( bg, Омуртаг; original gr, Μορτάγων and Ομουρτάγ', Inscription No.64. Retrieved 10 April 2012.) was a Great Khan Khagan or Qaghan ( otk, 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Kaɣan, mn, Xаан or ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, Khaa ...

Omurtag
and Malamir (a grandfather, son and grandson). Starting from the compound, non-ruler titles that were attested among Bulgarian noble class such as ''kavkhan'' (vicekhan), ''tarkhan'', and ''boritarkhan'', scholars derive the title ''khan'' or ''kan'' for the early Bulgarian leader – if there was a vicekhan (''kavkhan'') there was probably a "full" ''khan'', too. Compare also the rendition of the name of early Bulgarian ruler
Pagan Paganism (from classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin, Latin language recognized as a Literary language, literary standard language, standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. It was used from 75 BC ...
as (''Kampaganos''), likely resulting from a misinterpretation of "Kan Pagan", in Patriarch Nicephorus's so-called Breviarium In general, however, the inscriptions as well as other sources designate the supreme ruler of Danube Bulgaria with titles that exist in the language in which they are written – ''archontes'', meaning 'commander or magistrate' in
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
, and ''
knyaz or () is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands. It is usually translated into English as prince A prince is a Monarch, male ruler (ranked below a k ...
e'', meaning "duke" or "prince" in . Among the best known Bulgar khans were: Khan Kubrat, founder of
Great Bulgaria Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria ( Medieval Greek: Παλαιά Μεγάλη Βουλγαρία, ''Palaiá Megálē Voulgaría''), also often known by the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic language ...
;
Khan Asparukh Asparuh (also ''Ispor''; bg, Аспарух, Asparuh or (rarely) bg, Исперих, Isperih) was а ruler of Bulgars in the second half of the 7th century and is credited with the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 681. Early life ...
, founder of ''Danubian Bulgaria'' (today's
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...

Bulgaria
); Khan Tervel, who defeated the
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
invaders in 718
Siege of Constantinople (718) The following is a list of sieges of Constantinople, a historic city located in an area which is today part of Istanbul, Turkey. The city was built on the land that links Europe to Asia through Bosporus and connects the Sea of Marmara and the Blac ...
, thus stopped the Arab invasion in Southeast Europe; Khan Krum, "the Fearsome". "Khan" was the official title of the ruler until 864 AD, when (known also as ) adopted the
Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also cal ...
faith. The title Khan rose to unprecedented prominence with the Mongol
Temüjin ''Chinggis Khaan'' ͡ʃiŋgis xa:nongol script: ''Chinggis Qa(gh)an/ Chinggis Khagan'' , birth_name = Temüjin ; xng, Temüjin, script=Latn; ., name=Temujin , successor = Ögedei Khan , spouse = , issue = , house = Borjigin , dynas ...

Temüjin
's creation of the
Mongol empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
, the largest contiguous land empire in history, which he ruled as
Genghis Khan Genghis Khan (August 18, 1227), born Temüjin, was the founder and first () of the , which became the in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the s of , and, after being proclaimed the universal , or ''Genghis Khan'', he ...

Genghis Khan
. Before 1229 the title was used to designate leaders of important tribes as well as tribal confederations (the Mongol Empire considered the largest one), and rulers of non-Mongol countries. Shortly before the death of the Genghis Khan, his sons became khans in different dominions (ulus) and the title apparently became unsuitable for the supreme ruler of the empire, needing a more exalted one. Being under Uighur cultural influence, Mongols adopted ancient Turkish title of khagan starting with
Ögedei Khan Ögedei (also Ogodei; mn, Өгэдэй, translit=Ögedei, Mongolian language, Mongolian: ''Ögedei'', ''Ögüdei''; ''Wōkuòtái''; – 11 December 1241) was the third son of Genghis Khan and second khagan-Emperor of China, emperor of the M ...
in 1229. Ming Dynasty Chinese Emperors also used the term Xan to denote brave warriors and rulers. The title Khan was used to designate the greatest rulers of the
Jurchens Jurchen (Manchu language, Manchu: ''Jušen'', ; zh, 女真, ''Nǚzhēn'', ) is a term used to collectively describe a number of East Asian people, East Asian Tungusic languages, Tungusic-speaking peoples, descended from the Donghu people. They ...
, who, later when known as the
Manchus The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...
, founded the Manchu
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
. Once more, there would be numerous khanates in the steppe in and around Central Asia, often more of a people than a territorial state, e.g.: * of the
Kazakhs The Kazakhs (also spelled Qazaqs; Kazakh: , , , , , ; the English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medi ...

Kazakhs
(founded 1465; since 1601 divided into three geographical ''
Jüz A ''Zhuz'' ( kz, Жүз, translit=Jüz, ٴجۇز, , also translated as "Orda (organization), horde" or "Hundred (county division), hundred") is one of the three main territorial and tribal divisions in the Desht-i Kypchak, Kypchak Plain area that co ...
'' or Hordes, each under a
bey "Bey" ( ota, بك “''Beik''”, chg, بك “''Bek''”, tk, beg, uz, bek, kz, бек, tt, bäk, sq, beu, bs, beg, fa, بیگ “''Beigh''” or “''Beg''”, tg, бе, ar, بيه “''Beyeh''”) is a Turkic title for a chieftai ...
; in 1718 split into three different khanates; eliminated by the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical that extended across and from 1721, succeeding the following the that ended the . The Empire lasted until the was proclaimed by the that took power after the ...
by 1847) * in present
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi), is a landlocked country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land ...

Uzbekistan
, the main khanate, named after its capital
Bukhara Bukhara (; Uzbek language, Uzbek: /; Tajik language, Tajik: Бухоро, ) is the List of cities in Uzbekistan, fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, with a population of 247,644 , and the capital of Bukhara Region. People have inhabited the region ...

Bukhara
, was founded in 1500 and restyled
emirate An emirate is a territory ruled by an emir Emir (; ar, أمير ' ), sometimes Romanization of Arabic, transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is a word of Arabic language, Arabic origin that can refer to a male monarch, aristocratic, aristoc ...
in 1753 (after three Persian governors since 1747); the
Ferghana Fergana ( uz, Fargʻona/Фарғона, russian: Фергана́), or Ferghana, is the capital of Fergana Region in eastern Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi), ...
(valley's) khanate broke way from it by 1694 and became known as the
Khanate of Kokand The Khanate of Kokand ( fa, ; ''Khānneshin-e Khoqand'', chg, ''Khoqand Khānligi'') was a Central Asia, Central Asian polity in Fergana Valley, Central Asia that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of eastern Uzbekistan, modern Kyrg ...
after its capital
Kokand Kokand ( uz, Qo‘qon, ''Қўқон'', قوقان; russian: Кока́нд; fa, خوقند, Xuqand; Chagatai language, Chagatai: خوقند, ''Xuqand''; ky, Кокон, Kokon; tg, Хӯқанд, Xökand) is a city in Fergana Region in eastern U ...
from its establishment in 1732; the khanate of
Khwarezm Khwarazm , or Chorasmia (Old Persian Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan language, Avestan) and it is the ancestor of Middle Persian (the language of Sasanian Empire). Like other ...
, dating from c.1500, became the
Khanate of Khiva The Khanate of Khiva ( chg, ''Khivâ Khânligi'', fa, ''Khânât-e Khiveh'', uz, Xiva xonligi, tk, Hywa hanlygy) was a Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia ...
in 1804 but fell soon under Russian protectorate;
Karakalpakstan Karakalpakstan ( uz, Qoraqalpogʻiston; kaa, Qaraqalpaqstan / ), officially the Republic of Karakalpakstan ( kaa, Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası / ; uz, Qoraqalpogʻiston Respublikasi), is an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan. It occupies t ...

Karakalpakstan
had its own rulers (khans?) since c. 1600. While most Afghan principalities were styled emirate, there was a khanate of ethnic Uzbeks in
Badakhshan Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region File:Badakhshan in Afghanistan.svg, Afghanistan Badakhshan Province Badakhshan is a historic region comprising parts of what is now northeastern Afghanistan, eastern Tajikistan, and the Taxkorgan Tajik Auton ...

Badakhshan
since 1697. Khan was also the title of the rulers of various break-away states and principalities later in
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
, e.g. 1747–1808 Khanate of
Ardabil Ardabil (, fa, اردبیل, az, اردبیل , also romanize Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as ...

Ardabil
(in northwestern Iran east of Sarab and west of the southwest corner of the Caspian Sea), 1747–1813 Khanate of
Khoy Khoy ( fa, خوی; az, خوی, ; also Romanize Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for st ...

Khoy
(northwestern Iran, north of Lake Urmia, between Tabriz and Lake Van), 1747–1829 Khanate of Maku (in extreme northwestern Iran, northwest of Khoy, and 60 miles south of Yerevan, Armenia), 1747–1790s Khanate of Sarab (northwestern Iran east of Tabriz), 1747 – c.1800 Khanate of
Tabriz Tabriz ( fa, تبریز ; ) is a city in northwestern Iran, serving as the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. It is the List of largest cities of Iran, fifth-most-populous city in Iran. In the Quri Chay, Quru River valley in Iran's historic Azer ...

Tabriz
(capital of Iranian Azerbaijan). There were various small khanates in and near
Transcaucasia The South Caucasus, also known as Transcaucasia, is a geographical region on the border of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term ...
and Ciscaucasia established by the
Safavids Safavid Iran or Safavid Persia (), also referred to as the Safavid Empire, '. was one of the greatest Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Persia The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, le ...

Safavids
, or their successive
Afsharid The Afsharid dynasty ( fa, افشاریان) was an Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is borde ...
and Qajar dynasties outside their territories of
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
proper. For example, in present
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
and nearby territories to the left and right, there was the khanate of
Erivan Yerevan ( , , hy, Երևան , sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country located in the Ar ...
(sole incumbent 1807–1827 Hosein Quli Khan Qajar). Diverse khanates existed in
Dagestan village of Grar File:Сулакский каньон.jpg, Kara-Koysu River Canyon Dagestan (; russian: Дагеста́н), officially the Republic of Dagestan (russian: Респу́блика Дагеста́н), is a republics of Russia, rep ...

Dagestan
(now part of Russia),
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
, including
Baku Baku (, ; az, Bakı, ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and s ...
(present capital),
Ganja Ganja is one of the oldest and most commonly used synonyms for Marijuana (word), marijuana in the English language. Its usage in English dates to before 1689. Etymology Ganja is borrowed from Hindi ''gāñjā'' (IPA: Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu, ...
, Jawad,
Quba Quba () is a city and the administrative centre of the Quba District of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus regi ...
(Kuba), Salyan, Shakki ( Sheki, ruler style ''Bashchi'' since 1743) and Shirvan=
Shamakha Shamakhi District ( az, Şamaxı rayonu) is one of the 66 districts of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus regio ...
(1748–1786 temporarily split into Khoja Shamakha and Yeni Shamakha),
TalyshTalysh may refer to: *Talysh people *History of Talysh *Talysh language *Talysh Khanate, in existence from 1747 to 1828 *Talysh-Mughan Autonomous Republic, a self-declared autonomy, which existed briefly in the south of Azerbaijan in 1993 *Talysh Mo ...
(1747–1814); Nakhichevan and (Nagorno)
Karabakh Karabakh ( az, Qarabağ ; hy, Ղարաբաղ, Gharabagh ) is a geographic region in present-day southwestern Azerbaijan and eastern Armenia, extending from the highlands of the Lesser Caucasus down to the lowlands between the rivers Kura (Caspia ...

Karabakh
. As hinted above, the title Khan was also common in some of the polities of the various – generally Islamic – peoples in the territories of the Mongol
Golden Horde The Golden Horde, self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. ...
and its successor states, which, like the Mongols in general, were commonly called by Europeans and Russians, and were all eventually subdued by Muscovia which became the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical that extended across and from 1721, succeeding the following the that ended the . The Empire lasted until the was proclaimed by the that took power after the ...
. The most important of these states were: *
Khanate of Kazan The Khanate of Kazan ( tt, Qazan Xanlığı; Russian language, Russian: Казанское ханство, Romanization of Russian, Romanization: ''Kazanskoye khanstvo'') was a medieval Tatar Turkic state that occupied the territory of former Vo ...
(the Mongol term khan became active since Genghizide dynasty was settled in Kazan Duchy in 1430s). * Khanate (giving its name to Siberia as the first significant conquest during Russia's great eastern expansion across the Ural range) *
Astrakhan Khanate The Khanate of Astrakhan, also referred to as the Xacitarxan Khanate, was a Tatar The Tatars (; tt, , , , crh, tatarlar; otk, 𐱃𐱃𐰺, Tatar) is an umbrella term for different Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic groups bearing the name "Tata ...

Astrakhan Khanate
*
Crimean Khanate The Crimean Khanate ( crh, , or ), own name — Great Horde and Desht-i Kipchak (), in old European historiography and geography — Little Tartary ( la, Tartaria Minor) was a Crimean Tatars, Crimean Tatar state existing from 1441 to 1783, the ...

Crimean Khanate
. Further east, in
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
(East Turkestan) flank: * Khanate of Kashgaria founded in 1514; 17th century divided into several minor khanates without importance, real power going to the so-called
Khwaja Khawaja (Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian ...

Khwaja
, Arabic Islamic religious leaders; title changed to
Amir Emir (; ar, أمير ' ), sometimes amir, amier, or ameer, is a word of origin that can refer to a male , , holder of high-ranking or political office, or other person possessing actual or ceremonial authority. The title has a long history o ...
Khan in 1873, annexed by China in 1877.


Compound and derived princely titles

The higher, rather imperial title
Khaqan Khagan or Qaghan ( otk, 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Kaɣan, mn, Xаан or ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, Khaan, ota, خواقين, Ḫākan, or خان ''Ḫān'', tr, Kağan or ''Hakan'', ug, قاغان, Qaghan) ''Khāqān'', alternatively spelled Kağan, Kagan, Kha ...
("''Khan of Khans''") applies to probably the most famous rulers known as ''Khan'': the
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. The Mongols are the principal member of the large family of . The in Western Mongolia as well as the ...

Mongol
imperial dynasty of
Genghis Khan Genghis Khan (August 18, 1227), born Temüjin, was the founder and first () of the , which became the in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the s of , and, after being proclaimed the universal , or ''Genghis Khan'', he ...

Genghis Khan
(his name was Temüjin, ''Genghis'' Khan a never fully understood unique title), and his successors, especially grandson
Kublai Khan Kublai (; also spelled Qubilai or Kübilai; mn, Хубилай, Khubilai ; ; 23 September  1215 – 18 February 1294), also known by his as Emperor Shizu of Yuan, was the fifth - of the , reigning from 1260 to 1294, although after the this ...

Kublai Khan
: the former founded the
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
and the latter founded the
Yuan Dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succe ...
in
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
. The ruling descendants of the main branch of Genghis Khan's dynasty are referred to as the ''Great Khans''. The title ''Khan of Khans'' was among numerous titles used by the
Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phone ...

Sultan
s of the
Ottoman empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
as well as the rulers of the
Golden Horde The Golden Horde, self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. ...
and its descendant states. The title ''Khan'' was also used in the
Seljuk Turk The Seljuk dynasty, or Seljuks ( ; fa, آل سلجوق ''Al-e Saljuq'', alternatively spelled as Seljuqs or Saljuqs), also known as Seljuk Turks, Seljuk Turkomans "The defeat in August 1071 of the Byzantine emperor Romanos Diogenes by the Turkom ...
dynasties of the near-east to designate a head of multiple tribes, clans or nations, who was below an
Atabeg Atabeg, Atabek, or Atabey is a hereditary title of nobility of Turkic language, Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a monarch and charged with raising the crown prince. The first instance of the title ...
in rank.
JurchenJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people, Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century ** Haixi Jurchens, a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty ** Jianzhou Jurchens, a grouping of t ...
and
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...

Manchu
rulers also used the title Khan (''Han'' in
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...
); for example,
Nurhaci Nurhaci (1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen people, Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. He was a member of the House of Aisin-Gioro, and reigned as the founding Khan (title), khan of the Later J ...

Nurhaci
was called Genggiyen Han. Rulers of the
Göktürks The Göktürks, Celestial Turks or Blue Turks ( otk, 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣, Türük Bodun; zh, 突厥 ''Tūjué''; Wade-Giles: ''T'u-chüeh'') were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia. The Göktürks, un ...
,
Avars Avar(s) or AVAR may refer to: Peoples and states * Avars (Caucasus), a modern Northeast Caucasian-speaking people in the North Caucasus, Dagestan, Russia **Avar language, the modern Northeast Caucasian language spoken by the Avars of the North Ca ...
and
Khazars The Khazars; he, כוזרים, Kuzarim; la, Gazari, or ; zh, 突厥曷薩 ; 突厥可薩部 ''Tūjué Kěsà bù'' () were a semi-nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixe ...

Khazars
used the higher title Kaghan, as rulers of distinct nations. * Gur Khan, meaning supreme or universal Khan, was the ruler of the Khitan Kara-Kitai, and has occasionally been used by the Mongols as well *
Ilkhan The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate ( fa, ایل خانان, ''Ilxānān''), known to the Mongols as ''Hülegü Ulus'' ( mn, Хүлэгийн улс, , ''Hu’legīn Uls'') was a khanate established from the southwestern sector of the Mo ...
, both a generic term for a 'provincial Khan' ''and'' traditional royal style for one of the four khanates in Genghis's succession, based in Persia. See the main article for more details. * Khan-i-Khanan ( fa, خان خانان, "Lord of Lords") was a title given to the commander-in-chief of the army of the
Mughals The Mughal Empire, Mogul or Moghul Empire, was an early modern empire in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of th ...
, an example being
Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana Khanzada Mirza Khan (title), Khan Abdul Rahim Khan-i-Khanan (17 December 1556 – 1 October 1627), popularly known as simply Rahim, was a poet who lived in India during the rule of Mughal Empire, Mughal emperor Akbar, who was his mentor, also. H ...
of the great
Mughal emperor The Mughal (or Moghul) emperors built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. The Mughals began to rule parts of India from 1526, and b ...
,
Akbar Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated ...

Akbar
's (and later his son Jahangir's) army. * Khan Sahib
Shri Shri (; Devanagari: श्री, ISO 15919, ISO: , , ), also transliterated as Shree, Sri, or Sree, is a Sanskrit term denoting resplendence, wealth and prosperity, primarily used as an honorific. The word is widely used in languages of South A ...

Shri
Babi was the complex title of the ruler of the
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
n
princely state A princely state, also called a native state, feudatory state or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a under a local or indigenous or regional ruler in a with the and after 1858 with the . Though the history of the pri ...
of Bantva-Manavadar (state founded 1760; September 1947 acceded to Pakistan, but 15 February 1948 forced to rescind accession to Pakistan, to accede to India after Khan Sahib's arrest). * In southern
Korea Korea is a region in East Asia. Since 1945, it has been divided between two countries at or near the 38th parallel north, 38th parallel, North Korea (the Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and South Korea (the Republic of Korea). Korea co ...

Korea
n states, the word ''Han'' or ''Gan'', meaning "leader", could be origin of word ''khan'' according to Turkic history textbook. ''Geoseogan'' or ''Geoseulhan'', the title of
Hyeokgeose of Silla Hyeokgeose of Silla (69 BC – 4 AD, r. 57 BC–4 AD), also known by his personal full name as Bak (Park, Pak) Hyeokgeose (朴赫居世), was the founding monarch of Silla Silla or Shilla (57 BCE57 BCE according to the '' Samguk Sa ...
means "leader of leaders" and "king" in language of
Jinhan confederacy Jinhan () was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the 1st century BC to the 4th century AD in the southern Korean Peninsula Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been ...
. He was leader of Saro State, one of the chiefdoms of the
Jinhan confederacy Jinhan () was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the 1st century BC to the 4th century AD in the southern Korean Peninsula Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been ...
in 37 BC. After
Silla Silla or Shilla (57 BCE57 BCE according to the '' Samguk Sagi''; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo may be traced ...

Silla
, one of the
Three Kingdoms of Korea The Three Kingdoms of Korea () refers to the three kingdoms of Goguryeo Goguryeo (; , 37 BC–668 AD), also called Goryeo (; ), was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the and the southern and central parts of ...
, totally united them under a now hereditary king, titled
Maripgan Silla or Shilla (57 BC57 BC according to the '' Samguk Sagi''; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo may be traced bac ...
, meaning the 'head of kings' (e.g. King Naemul Maripgan). *
Khatun Khatun ( otk, 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Katun, ota, خاتون, Hatun or قادین ''Kadın'', uz, xotin, fa, ''khātūn''; : , ''khatun'', хатан ''khatan''; ; hi, ख़ातून '; bn, খাতুন; tr, ; az, xatun) is a female title of ...
, or Khatan ( fa, خاتون) – a title of European Sogdian originCarter Vaughn Findley, "Turks in World History", Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 45: "... Many elements of non-Turkic origin also became part of Türk statecraft ..for example, as in the case of khatun ..and beg ..both terms being of Sogdian origin and ever since in common use in Turkish. ..."Fatima Mernissi, "The Forgotten Queens of Islam", University of Minnesota Press, 1993. pg 21: ''"... Khatun 'is a title of Sogdian origin borne by the wives and female relatives of the Tu-chueh and subsequent Turkish Rulers ..."'' – is roughly equal to a
King King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ...

King
's
queen Queen may refer to: Monarchy * Queen regnant, a female monarch of a Kingdom ** List of queens regnant * Queen consort, the wife of a reigning king * Queen dowager, the widow of a king * Queen mother, a queen dowager who is the mother of a reigni ...
in and
Turkic languages The Turkic languages are a language family of at least 35 documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe and Southern Europe to Central Asia, East Asia, North Asia (Siberia), and Western Asia. The Turkic langu ...

Turkic languages
, as by this title a ruling Khan's Queen-consort (wife) is designated with similar respect after their proclamation as Khan and Khatun. Also used in
Khazar The Khazars (, ; he, כוזרים, ''Kuzarim''; tr, Hazarlar; az, Xəzərlər; ba, Хазарҙар; tt, Хәзәрләр, ''Xäzärlär''; ''Xazar''; fa, خزر; uk, Хоза́ри, ''Khozáry''; rus, Хаза́ры, ''Khazáry''; ...
(instead of Khanum). Famous Khatuns include: **
Töregene Khatun Töregene Khatun (also Turakina, , ) (d. 1246) was the Khatun, Great Khatun and regent of the Mongol Empire from the death of her husband Ögedei Khan in 1241 until the election of her eldest son Güyük Khan in 1246. Background Töregene was bor ...
**
Habba Khatun Habba Khatoon (born Zoon; 1554 – 1609; sometimes spelled Khatun), also known by the honorary title ''The Nightingale of Kashmir'', was a Kashmiri Muslim poet and ascetic. She was the wife of Yousuf Shah Chak, the last Emperor of Kashmir. Bio ...
*
Khanum Khanum, Khanom, or Khanoum ( kz, Hanym, ar, هانم, uz, Xonim, az, Xanım, tr, Hanım, fa, خانم, hi, ख़ानुम, bn, খাঁনম/খানম, ur, خانم, sq, Hanëm) is a female royal and aristocratic title that was ...

Khanum
( tr, Hanım; az, Xanım; fa, خانم) is another female derivation of Khan, notably in
Turkic languages The Turkic languages are a language family of at least 35 documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe and Southern Europe to Central Asia, East Asia, North Asia (Siberia), and Western Asia. The Turkic langu ...

Turkic languages
, for a Khan's Queen-consort, or in some traditions extended as a courtesy title (a bit like Lady for women not married to a Lord, which is the situation modern
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
) to the wives of holders of various other (lower) titles; in Afghanistan, for example, it ended up as the common term for 'Miss', any unmarried woman. In the modern
Kazakh language File:WIKITONGUES- Mereinur speaking Kazakh.webm, A Kazakh speaker, recorded in Kazakhstan Kazakh or Qazaq (Kazakh alphabets, Latin: or , Kazakh alphabets, Cyrillic: or , Kazakh alphabets, Arabic: or , , ), is a Turkic languages, Turkic langua ...
, Khatun is a derogatory term for women, while Khanum has a respectful meaning. *
Khan Bahadur (title) Khan Bahadur ( bn, খান বাহাদুর, ur, خان بہادُر, hi, ख़ान बहादुर) – a compound of khan (leader) and bahadur (brave) – was a formal title of respect and honour, which was conferred exclusively on ...
- a compound of khan (leader) and Bahadur (Brave) - was a formal title of respect and honour, which was conferred exclusively on Muslim subjects of the British Indian Empire. It was a title one degree higher than the title of Khan Sahib. ** The compound Galin Khanum – literally, "lady bride" – was the title accorded to the principal noble wife of a
Qajar Qajar Iran (), also referred to as Qajar Persia, the Qajar Empire, '. officially the Sublime State of Iran ( fa, دولت علیّه ایران ') and also known then as the Guarded Domains of Iran ( fa, ممالک محروسه ایران '), ...
*
Khanzada The Khanzada or Khan Zadeh are a community of Muslim Rajputs found in the Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh, India. This community is distinct from the Rajasthani Khanzada Rajput, the descendants of Wali-e-Mewat Raja Naher Khan, who are a su ...
( ur, ) is a title conferred to princes of the dynasties of certain princely states of
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
. The word also transliterates to "''prince''" in the and Kazakh languages and was used by these Central Asian peoples to honor their princes. ** Sardargarh-Bantva ''(Muslim Babi dynasty, fifth class state in
Kathiawar Kathiawar () is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is usually under ...

Kathiawar
'',
Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Gujarat
) in front of the personal name,
Shri Shri (; Devanagari: श्री, ISO 15919, ISO: , , ), also transliterated as Shree, Sri, or Sree, is a Sanskrit term denoting resplendence, wealth and prosperity, primarily used as an honorific. The word is widely used in languages of South A ...

Shri
in between; the ruler replaces Khanzada by khan. *
KanasubigiKanasubigi ( el, ΚΑΝΑΣΥΒΙΓΙ), possibly read as ''Kanas Ubigi'' or ''Kanas U Bigi'' was a title of the early rulers of the Bulgars. The title ''khan'' for early Bulgar rulers is an assumed one, as only the form ''kanasubigi'' or "kanasybigi ...
or ''Kana subigi'', as it is written in Bulgarian Greek inscriptions, was a title of the
Bulgars The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic–Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century. They became known as nomadi ...

Bulgars
. Among the proposed translations for the phrase ''kanasubigi'' as a whole are ''lord of the army'', from the reconstructed
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...

Turkic
phrase ''*sü begi'', paralleling the attested
Old Turkic Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD to the 13th century. It is the oldest attested member of th ...
''sü baši'', and, more recently, "(ruler) from God", from the
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau. Some European languages of ...
''*su-'' and ''baga-'', i.e. ''*su-baga'' (an equivalent of the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
phrase , ''ho ek Theou archon'', which is common in Bulgar inscriptions) *
KavhanThe kavhan ( el, καυχανος; bg, Кавхан; according to some historians it should be read as kaphan, others pay attention to the fact that in most Byzantine sources it is written as KaukhanMoravcsik, G. Byzantinoturcica II. Sprachreste der ...
Moravcsik, G. Byzantinoturcica II. Sprachreste der Türkvölker in den byzantinischen Quellen. Leiden 1983, , c. 156 or Kaukhan was one of the most important officials in the
First Bulgarian Empire The First Bulgarian Empire ( cu, блъгарьско цѣсарьствиѥ, blagarysko tsesarystviye) was a medieval Bulgar- Slavic and later Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

First Bulgarian Empire
. According to the generally accepted opinion, he was the second most important person in the state after the Bulgarian ruler. Owais Khan was also believed a Great Khan but no evidences about him are founded. *
Beg KhanBeg Khan is a concatenation of '' Baig'', and '' Khan'' titles originally used in Central Asia and the Middle East to indicate nobility or high rank. It is used as part of the name or title by the following: * Öz Beg Khan, the longest-reigning ...
(a concatenation of
Baig Baig, also commonly spelled Beigh, Beg, Bey, Baeg or Begh (Persian language, Persian: بیگ, ''Bay'', Turkish language, Turkish: ''Bey'') was a title which is today used as a name to identify lineage. It means ''Chief'' or ''Commander'' and is com ...
and Khan) is a title used by some
Mughals The Mughal Empire, Mogul or Moghul Empire, was an early modern empire in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of th ...
and
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") ...

Mongols
.


Other khans


Noble and honorary titles

In imperial
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
, Khan (female form ''Khanum'' in Persia) was the title of a nobleman, higher than Beg (or
bey "Bey" ( ota, بك “''Beik''”, chg, بك “''Bek''”, tk, beg, uz, bek, kz, бек, tt, bäk, sq, beu, bs, beg, fa, بیگ “''Beigh''” or “''Beg''”, tg, бе, ar, بيه “''Beyeh''”) is a Turkic title for a chieftai ...
) and usually used after the given name. At the Qajar court, precedence for those not belonging to the dynasty was mainly structured in eight classes, each being granted an honorary rank title, the fourth of which was Khan, or in this context synonymously Amir, granted to commanders of armed forces, provincial tribal leaders; in descending order. In neighboring
Ottoman Turkey The Ottoman Empire (; ota, دولت عليه عثمانيه ', literally "The Sublime Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: ' or '; french: Empire ottoman) (''Osmanean Têrut´iwn'', meaning "Ottoman Authority/Governance/Rule"), Օսմանյան ...
and subsequently the Republic of Turkey, the term ''Khanum'' was and is still written as Hanım in
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
/
Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Turkish ( ota, لِسانِ عُثمانى, , ; tr, Osmanlı Türkçesi) was the standardized register (sociolinguistics), register of the Turkish language used in the Ottoman Empire (14th to 20th centuries CE). It borrowed extensively, ...
language. The Ottoman title of Hanımefendi (lit translated; ''lady of the master''), is also a derivative of this. The titles Khan and Khan Bahadur (from the Altaic root ''
baghatur Baghatur ( mn, ''Baγatur'', Khalkha Mongolian The Khalkha dialect (Mongolian script The classical or traditional Mongolian script, also known as the , was the first Mongolian alphabet, writing system created specifically for the Mongolian lan ...
''), related to the
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...

Turkic
''batyr'' or ''batur'' and
Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1924 * Mongolian language * Mongolian alphabet * Mongo ...

Mongolian
''baatar'' ("brave, hero"); were also bestowed in feudal India by the
Mughals The Mughal Empire, Mogul or Moghul Empire, was an early modern empire in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of th ...
, who although Muslims were of Turkic origin upon Muslims and awarded this title to Hindus generals in army particularly in Gaud or Bengal region during Muslim rulers, and later by the
British Raj The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the In ...

British Raj
, as an honor akin to the ranks of nobility, often for loyalty to the crown.
Khan Sahib Khan Sahib is a compound of khan (leader) and sahib Sahib or Saheb (, traditionally ; Arabic script, Perso-Arab: , Devanagari: साहिब, Gurmukhi: ਸਾਹਿਬ, Bengali alphabet, Bengali: সাহেব) is a word of Arabic origin ...
was another title of honour. In the major
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
n Muslim state of
Hyderabad Hyderabad ( , , ) is the capital and largest city of the n of and the ' capital of . It occupies on the along the banks of the , in the northern part of . With an average altitude of , much of Hyderabad is situated on hilly terrain aroun ...
, Khan was the lowest of the aristocratic titles bestowed by the ruling
Nizam The Nizams were the rulers of Hyderabad from 18th-through-20th-century. Nizam of Hyderabad (Niẓām ul-Mulk, also known as Asaf Jah) was the title of the monarch of the Hyderabad State Hyderabad State (), also known as Hyderabad De ...

Nizam
upon Muslim retainers, ranking under ''Khan Bahadur'',
Nawab Nawab ( ar, نواب; bn, নবাব/নওয়াব; hi, नवाब; Punjabi language, Punjabi : ਨਵਾਬ; Persian language, Persian, Punjabi language, Punjabi , Sindhi language, Sindhi, Urdu: نواب), also spelt Nawaab, Nava ...

Nawab
(homonymous with a high Muslim ruler's title), Jang, Daula, , ,
Jah Jah or Yah ( he, , ''Yāh'') is a short form of (YHWH), the four letters that form the , : , which the ancient used. The conventional Christian English pronunciation of ''Jah'' is , even though the letter here transliterates the (Hebrew י ). ...
. The equivalent for the courts Hindu retainers was
Rai Rai or RAI may refer to: Title of royalty and nobility * Rai (title) ''Rai'' ( ur, , ; bn, রায়) is a historical title of royalty and nobility in the Indian subcontinent used by rulers and chieftains of many princely states. It is deri ...
. In
Swat In the United States, a SWAT (''special weapons and tactics'') team is generic term for a law enforcement unit that uses specialized or military equipment and tactics. Although they were first created in the 1960s to handle riot control o ...
, a Pakistani Frontier State, it was the title of the secular elite, who together with the
Mullah Mullah (; ) is an honorific title for Sunni Muslim Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, ...

Mullah
s (Muslim clerics), proceeded to elect a new Amir-i-Shariyat in 1914. It seems unclear whether the series of titles known from the Bengal sultanate are merely honorific or perhaps relate to a military hierarchy.


Other uses

Like many titles, the meaning of the term has also extended southwards into
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri La ...

South Asia
n countries, and
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area ...

Central Asia
n nations, where it has become a common surname. Khan and its female forms occur in many personal names, generally without any nobiliary of political relevance, although it remains a common part of noble names as well. Notably in
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri La ...

South Asia
it has become a part of many South Asian Muslim names, especially when
Pashtun Pashtuns (, or ; ps, پښتانه, ; Pakhtuns or Pathans), historically known as Afghans Afghan (Pashto language, Pashto/Persian language, Persian: ) refers to someone or something from Afghanistan, in particular a citizen of that countr ...

Pashtun
(also known as
Afghan Afghan (Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iran ...
) descent is claimed. It is also used by many
Muslim Rajputs Muslim Rajputs are the descendants of Rajputs of Northern regions of the Indian subcontinent who are followers of Islam. They converted from Hinduism to Islam during the medieval India, medieval period in India, retaining their surnames such as Ch ...
of Indian subcontinent who were awarded this surname by
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...
Mughals The Mughal Empire, Mogul or Moghul Empire, was an early modern empire in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of th ...
for their bravery.


Khan-related terms

* Khanzadeh ( tt, Xanzadä) – a
prince A prince is a Monarch, male ruler (ranked below a king, grand prince, and grand duke) or a male member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. ''Prince'' is also a title of nobility (often highest), often hereditary title, hereditary, in so ...

prince
, khan's son * Khanbikeh ( tt, Xanbikä) – a queen, khan's wife *
Khanbaliq Khanbaliq or Dadu of Yuan () was the winter capital Some countries have multiple capitals. In some cases, one city is the capital for some purposes, and one or more others are capital for other purposes, without any being considered an offic ...
(or Dadu) – Yuan capital which later developed into modern
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
. *
Ilkhan (title)In Turkic languages The Turkic languages are a language family of at least 35 documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Western Asia, North Asia (particularly in ...
*
Khatun Khatun ( otk, 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Katun, ota, خاتون, Hatun or قادین ''Kadın'', uz, xotin, fa, ''khātūn''; : , ''khatun'', хатан ''khatan''; ; hi, ख़ातून '; bn, খাতুন; tr, ; az, xatun) is a female title of ...
- female equivalent of Khan


See also

*
Turco-Mongol The Turko-Mongol tradition was an ethnocultural An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that dis ...
*
List of Mongol rulers The following is a list of Mongol rulers. The list of states is chronological but follows the development of different dynasties. Khamag Mongol (1120s–1206) * Kaidu – the first Khan to unite the Mongol clans * Khabul Khan – the fir ...
*
Aga Khan ar, آغا خان , border = , coatofarms = , coatofarms_article = , type = other3 , his/her = His , image = His Highness the Aga Khan (15760993697) (cropped).jpg , caption = ...
* Azmatkhan *
Jirga A jirga (originally jərga or jərgah; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic langu ...
*
Khagan Khagan or Qaghan ( otk, 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Kaɣan, mn, Xаан or ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, Khaan, ota, خواقين, Ḫākan, or خان ''Ḫān'', tr, Kağan or ''Hakan'', ug, قاغان, Qaghan) ''Khāqān'', alternatively spelled Kağan, Kagan, Kha ...
*
Chanyu Chanyu () or Shanyu (), short for Chengli Gutu Chanyu (), was the title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academi ...
*
Archon ''Archon'' ( gr, ἄρχων, árchōn, plural: ἄρχοντες, ''árchontes'') is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office. It is the masculine present participle of the verb stem αρχ-, meanin ...

Archon
*
King King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ...

King
*
Bey "Bey" ( ota, بك “''Beik''”, chg, بك “''Bek''”, tk, beg, uz, bek, kz, бек, tt, bäk, sq, beu, bs, beg, fa, بیگ “''Beigh''” or “''Beg''”, tg, бе, ar, بيه “''Beyeh''”) is a Turkic title for a chieftai ...
*
Beg KhanBeg Khan is a concatenation of '' Baig'', and '' Khan'' titles originally used in Central Asia and the Middle East to indicate nobility or high rank. It is used as part of the name or title by the following: * Öz Beg Khan, the longest-reigning ...
* Elteber *
Tsar Tsar ( or ), also spelled ''czar'', ''tzar'', or ''csar'', is a Royal and noble ranks, title used to designate Orthodox Slavs, East and South Slavic monarchs. In this last capacity it lends its name to a system of government, tsarist autocra ...

Tsar
*
Kaiser ''Kaiser'' is the German word for "emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, m ...

Kaiser
*
Crimean Khanate The Crimean Khanate ( crh, , or ), own name — Great Horde and Desht-i Kipchak (), in old European historiography and geography — Little Tartary ( la, Tartaria Minor) was a Crimean Tatars, Crimean Tatar state existing from 1441 to 1783, the ...

Crimean Khanate
*
Khong Tayiji Khong Tayiji ( mn, , хун тайж; ), also spelled Qong Tayiji, was a title of the Mongols, derived from the Chinese language, Chinese term ''Huangtaizi'' (皇太子; "crown prince"). At first it also meant crown prince in the Mongolian language ...


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

*
Etymology OnLine


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Khan (Title) Monarchy Feudalism Heads of state Military ranks Royal titles
Noble titles This category works on a broad definition of nobility, including ruling houses of true monarchies, peerage or equivalents and lower aristocracy or gentry. Please note that this page is unlikely ever to list ''all'' 'noble' titles discussed in Wikipe ...
Chinese royal titles Titles in Afghanistan Titles in Bangladesh Titles in India Titles in Pakistan Titles in Azerbaijan Titles in Iran Turkish titles Titles of national or ethnic leadership Turkic words and phrases Men's social titles Mongolian nobility Ottoman titles