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The Kazakhs (also spelled Qazaqs; Kazakh: , , , , , ; the
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
name is
transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of ha ...

transliterated
from
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
; russian: Казахи) are a
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...
ethnic group who mainly inhabit the
Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (; rus, Ура́льские го́ры, r=Uralskiye gory, p=ʊˈralʲskʲɪjə ˈgorɨ; ba, Урал тауҙары, ''Ural tauźarı'') or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south ...
and northern parts of
Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions and generalised locations * Central Africa, a region in the centre of Africa ...

Central
and
East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both Geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The modern State (polity), states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. ...

East Asia
(largely
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
, but also parts of
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
,
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi), is a landlocked country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land ...

Uzbekistan
,
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
and
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
) in Eurasia. Kazakh identity is of medieval origin and was strongly shaped by the foundation of the
Kazakh Khanate The Kazakh Khanate ( kk, Қазақ Хандығы, , ) was a successor of the Golden Horde The Golden Horde ( tt, , , ), self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongols, Mongol and later Turkicized khan ...

Kazakh Khanate
between 1456 and 1465, when several tribes under the rule of the sultans Janibek and Kerey departed from the Khanate of
Abu'l-Khayr Khan Abu'l-Khayr Khan (1412–1468) was a Khan of the Uzbek Khanate which united the nomadic Central Asian tribes
in hopes of forming a powerful khanate of their own. Other notable Kazakh khans include
Ablai Khan Wali-ullah Abul-Mansur Khan better known as Abylai Khan ( kk, Абылай (Әбілмансұр) хан, Abylaı (Ábilmansur) han) (May 23, 1711 — May 23, 1781) was a Kazakhs, Kazakh Khan (title), khan of the Middle Kazakh jüz of Kazakhstan K ...
and
Abul Khair Khan Image:Abulkhair khan.jpg, 200px, Postage stamp, Stamp of Kazakhstan devoted to Abul Khair Khan, 2001 (Michel 316) Abulhair Khan, Abul Khair Khan ( kz, Әбілқайыр хан, Ábilqaıyr han) (1693–1748) was leader of the Kazakhs, Kazakh Littl ...
. The Kazakhs are descendants of ancient Turkic tribes –
Kipchaks The Kipchaks, also known as Kipchak Turks, Qipchaq or Polovtsians, were a Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alpha ...
and medieval Mongolic or Turco-Mongol tribes –
Dughlats The Dughlat clan ( kk, Дулат, Dulat, lit=ruthless or fierce warrior; Mongolian: ''Dolood/sevens, Doloo/seven; Middle Mongolian Middle Mongol or Middle Mongolian, was a Mongolic languages, Mongolic koiné language spoken in the Mongol Empire. ...
,
Jalairs Jalair ( mn, Жалайр; ; ), also Djalair, Yyalair, Jalayir, is one of the Darliqin Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian langu ...
,
Keraits The Keraites (also ''Kerait, Kereit, Khereid''; ; ) were one of the five dominant Mongol or Turco-Mongol tribal confederations (khanates) in the Altai-Sayan region during the 12th century. They had converted to the Church of the East (Nestorian ...
. ''Kazakh'' is used to refer to ethnic Kazakhs, while the term ''Kazakhstani'' usually refers to all inhabitants or citizens of Kazakhstan, regardless of ethnicity.


Etymology

The Kazakhs likely began using that name during the 15th century. There are many theories on the origin of the word Kazakh or Qazaq. Some speculate that it comes from the Turkish verb ("wanderer, vagabond, warrior, free, independent") or that it derives from the
Proto-Turkic The Proto-Turkic language is the linguistic reconstruction Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages. There are two kinds of reconstruction: * Inter ...
word (a wheeled cart used by the Kazakhs to transport their
yurt A traditional yurt (from the ) or ger () is a portable, round tent covered with skins or and used as a dwelling by several distinct in the . The structure consists of an angled assembly or latticework of wood or for walls, a door frame, rib ...

yurt
s and belongings). Another theory on the origin of the word Kazakh (originally ) is that it comes from the ancient
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...

Turkic
word , first mentioned on the 8th century Turkic monument of Uyuk-Turan. According to Turkic linguist
Vasily Radlov Vasily Vasilievich Radlov or Friedrich Wilhelm Radloff (russian: Васи́лий Васи́льевич Ра́длов; in Berlin Berlin ( , ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany b ...
and
Orientalist Orientalist may refer to: *A scholar of Oriental studies *A person or thing relating to the Western intellectual or artistic paradigm known as Orientalism (as in 'an Orientalist painting' or '-painter') *''The Orientalist'', a biography of author L ...
Veniamin Yudin, the noun ' derives from the same root as the verb ' ("to obtain", "to gain"). Therefore, ' defines a type of person who seeks profit and gain.


History

Kazakh was a common term throughout medieval Central Asia, generally with regard to individuals or groups who had taken or achieved independence from a figure of authority.
Timur Timur ; chg, ''Aqsaq Temür'', 'Timur the Lame') or as ''Sahib-i-Qiran'' ( 'Lord of the Auspicious Conjunction'), his epithet. ( chg, ''Temür'', 'Iron'; 9 April 133617–19 February 1405), later Timūr Gurkānī ( chg, ''Temür Kür ...

Timur
described his own youth without direct authority as his ("freedom", "Qazaq-ness"). In
Turko-Persian The composite Turco-Persian tradition
''Turko-Persia in historical perspective'', Cambridge University Press, 1991
sources, the term ''Özbek-Qazaq'' first appeared during the middle of the 16th century, in the ''Tarikh-i-Rashidi'' by
Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat Beg (born 1499 or 1500, died 1551) was a Chagatai Turco-Mongol military general, ruler of Kashmir, and a historical writer. He was a Turkic languages, Turkic speaking Dughlats, Dughlat prince who wrote in the Persian ...
, a Chagatayid prince of
Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr () is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley The Kashmir Valley, also known as the ''Vale ...

Kashmir
. In this manuscript, the author locates Kazakh in the eastern part of '' Desht-i Qipchaq''. According to Tarikh-i-Rashidi, the first Kazakh union was created 1465/1466 AD. The state was formed by nomads who settled along the border of
Moghulistan Moghulistan (Mughalistan, Moghul Khanate) (from fa, , ''Moqulestân/Moġūlistān''), also called the Eastern Chagatai Khanate (), was a Mongol breakaway khanate of the Chagatai Khanate and a historical geographic area north of the Tian Shan, ...

Moghulistan
, and was called ''Uzbeg-Kazák''. At the time of the Uzbek conquest of Central Asia,
Abu'l-Khayr Khan Abu'l-Khayr Khan (1412–1468) was a Khan of the Uzbek Khanate which united the nomadic Central Asian tribes
, a descendant of
Shiban Shiban (Sheiban) or Shayban ( mn, Шибан, ''Shiban''; uz, Shaybon / Шайбон) was a prince of the early Golden Horde The Golden Horde ( tt, , , ), self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongols, Mo ...
, had disagreements with the Kazakh sultans Kerei and Janibek, descendants of
Urus Khan Urus Khan (also known as Muhammad-Urus, Orys, Arys, Yrys, Orys Khan) was the eighth Khan of the White Horde and a disputed Khan of the Blue Horde; he was a direct descendant of Genghis Khan ''Chinggis Khaan'' ͡ʃiŋgis xa:nongol script: ' ...
. These disagreements probably resulted from the crushing defeat of Abu'l-Khayr Khan at the hands of the Qalmaqs. Kirey and Janibek moved with a large following of nomads to the region of
Zhetysu Zhetysu, or Jeti-Suu ( kk, , Жетісу, pronounced ; ky, ''Jeti-Suu'', (), meaning "seven rivers"; also transcribed ''Zhetisu'', ''Jetisuw'', ''Jetysu'', ''Jeti-su'', ''Jity-su'', ''Жетысу'',, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agen ...
on the border of Moghulistan and set up new pastures there with the blessing of the Chagatayid khan of
Moghulistan Moghulistan (Mughalistan, Moghul Khanate) (from fa, , ''Moqulestân/Moġūlistān''), also called the Eastern Chagatai Khanate (), was a Mongol breakaway khanate of the Chagatai Khanate and a historical geographic area north of the Tian Shan, ...

Moghulistan
, Esen Buqa II, who hoped for a buffer zone of protection against the expansion of the
Oirats Oirats ( mn, Ойрад, ''Oirad'', or , Oird; ; xal-RU, Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East ...
. Regarding these events, Haidar Dughlat in his ''Tarikh-i-Rashidi'' reports: In the 17th century, Russian convention seeking to distinguish the Qazaqs of the steppes from the
Cossacks The Cossacks * russian: казаки́ or * be, казакi * pl, Kozacy * cs, kozáci * sk, kozáci * hu, kozákok, cazacii * fi, Kasakat, cazacii * et, Kasakad, cazacii are a group of predominantly East Slavic East Slavic may refer ...

Cossacks
of the
Imperial Russian Army The Imperial Russian Army (russian: Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия, tr. ) was the land armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily in ...

Imperial Russian Army
suggested spelling the final consonant with "kh" instead of "q" or "k", which was officially adopted by the USSR in 1936. * Kazakh – * Cossack – The Ukrainian term Cossack probably comes from the same Kypchak etymological root: wanderer, brigand, independent free-booter.


Oral history

Their
nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation who regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherer A hunter-gatherer is a human Humans (''Homo ...

nomad
ic pastoral lifestyle made Kazakhs keep an epic tradition of
oral history Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interview conducted with a member of the public F ...
. The nation, which amalgamated nomadic tribes of various Kazakh origins, managed to preserve the distant memory of the original founding clans. It was important for Kazakhs to know their genealogical tree for no less than seven generations back (known as ', from the
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
word ' – "tree").


Three Kazakh Zhuz (Hordes)

In modern Kazakhstan,
tribalism Tribalism is the state of being organized by, or advocating for, tribes or tribal lifestyles. Human evolution has primarily occurred in small groups, as opposed to people's cooperation in society as a whole. With a negative connotation and in a ...
is fading away in business and government life. Still it is common for Kazakhs to ask each other the tribe they belong to when they become acquainted with one another. Now, it is more of a tradition than necessity, and there is no hostility between tribes. Kazakhs, regardless of their tribal origin, consider themselves one nation. Those modern-day Kazakhs who yet remember their tribes know that their tribes belong to one of the three
Zhuz A ''Zhuz'' ( kz, Жүз, translit=Jüz, ٴجۇز, , also translated as "Orda (organization), horde") is one of the three main territorial and tribal divisions in the Desht-i Kypchak, Kypchak Plain area that covers much of the contemporary Kazakhsta ...
(juz, roughly translatable as "horde" or "hundred"): * The Senior Horde (also called Elder or Great) (Uly juz) * The Middle (also called Central) (Orta juz) * The Junior (also called Younger or Lesser) (Kishi juz)


History of the Hordes

There is much debate surrounding the origins of the Hordes. Their age is unknown so far in extant historical texts, with the earliest mentions in the 17th century. The Turkologist Velyaminov-Zernov believed that it was the capture of the important cities of
Tashkent russian: Ташкент , other_name = , settlement_type = Capital city, Capital , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top: Skyline of Tashkent, Hilton ...
, Yasi, and Sayram in 1598 by Tevvekel (Tauekel/Tavakkul) Khan that separated the Qazaqs, as they possessed the cities for only part of the 17th century. The theory suggests that the Qazaqs then divided among a wider territory after expanding from
Zhetysu Zhetysu, or Jeti-Suu ( kk, , Жетісу, pronounced ; ky, ''Jeti-Suu'', (), meaning "seven rivers"; also transcribed ''Zhetisu'', ''Jetisuw'', ''Jetysu'', ''Jeti-su'', ''Jity-su'', ''Жетысу'',, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agen ...
into most of the Dasht-i Qipchaq, with a focus on the trade available through the cities of the middle
Syr Darya uz, Sirdaryo, Сирдарё tg, Сирдарё , name_native_lang = , name_other = Jaxartes, Seyhun , name_etymology = unknown , image = Syr Darya.jpg , image_size = 290px , image_caption = Syr Dary ...

Syr Darya
, to which Sayram and Yasi belonged. The Junior juz originated from the
Nogais The Nogais ( Nogai: Ногай, , Ногайлар, ) are a Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disam ...
of the
Nogai Horde The Nogai Horde was a confederation founded by the Nogais that occupied the Pontic–Caspian steppe from about 1500 until they were pushed west by the Kalmyks and south by the Russians in the 17th century. The Mongol tribe called the Manghud, Mang ...
.


Language

The Kazakh language is a member of the
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...

Turkic
language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions b ...
, as are
Uzbek
Uzbek
,
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...
,
Tatar The Tatars (; tt, , , , crh, tatarlar; otk, 𐱃𐱃𐰺, Tatar) is an umbrella term for different Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic groups bearing the name "Tatar." Initially, the ethnonym ''Tatar'' possibly referred to the Tatar confederation ...
,
UyghurUyghur may refer to: * Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia * Uyghur language, a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Uyghurs ** Uyghur alphabets, any of four systems used to write the language * Uyghur Khaganate, a T ...

Uyghur
, Turkmen, modern
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
,
Azeri Azerbaijanis (; az, Azərbaycanlılar) or Azeris (), also known as Azerbaijani Turks ( az, Azərbaycan Türkləri, ), are a Turkic ethnic group, living mainly in the sovereign Republic of Azerbaijan A republic ( la, res publica ''R ...

Azeri
and many other living and historical languages spoken in
Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical reg ...

Eastern Europe
,
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
,
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
, and
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
. Kazakh belongs to the Kipchak (Northwestern) group of the Turkic language family. Kazakh is characterized, in distinction to other Turkic languages, by the presence of in place of reconstructed proto-Turkic and in place of ; furthermore, Kazakh has where other Turkic languages have . Kazakh, like most of the Turkic language family lacks phonemic
vowel length In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langua ...
, and as such there is no distinction between long and short vowels. Kazakh was written with the Arabic script until the mid-19th century, when a number of educated Kazakh poets from Muslim madrasahs incited a revolt against Russia. Russia's response was to set up secular schools and devise a way of writing Kazakh with the Cyrillic alphabet, which was not widely accepted. By 1917, the Arabic script for Kazakh was reintroduced, even in schools and local government. In 1927, a Kazakh nationalist movement sprang up against the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
but was soon suppressed. As a result, the Arabic script for writing Kazakh was banned and the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
alphabet was imposed as a new writing system. In an effort to Russianize the Kazakhs, the Latin alphabet was in turn replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet in 1940 by Soviet interventionists. Today, there are efforts to return to the Latin script. Kazakh is a state (official) language in
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
. It is also spoken in the
Ili Ili, ILI, Illi may refer to: Abbreviations * Irish Life International, part of Irish Life and Permanent * Intuitive Logical Introvert, a personality type in socionics * Influenza-like illness * Iran Language Institute, a state-owned, non-profit o ...
region of the
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
Uyghur Autonomous Region in the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
, where the Arabic script is used, and in western parts of
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
( Bayan-Ölgii and
Khovd province Khovd ( mn, Ховд, Howd) is one of the 21 Aimags of Mongolia, aimags (provinces) of Mongolia, located in the west of the country. Its capital is also named Khovd (city), Khovd. The Khovd province is approximately 1,580 km from Ulaanbaatar ...
), where Cyrillic script is in use. European Kazakhs use the Latin alphabet.


Religion

Almost all ethnic Kazakhs today are
Sunni Muslims Sunni Islam () is by far the largest Islamic schools and branches, branch of Islam, followed by 85–90% of the world's Muslims. Its name comes from the word ''Sunnah'', referring to the behaviour of Muhammad. The differences between Sunni and ...
of the
Hanafi The Hanafi school ( ar, حَنَفِي, translit=Ḥanafī) is one of the four traditional major Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree b ...
school. Their ancestors, however, believed in
Shamanism Shamanism is a religious practice that involves a practitioner (shaman) interacting with what they believe to be a spirit world through Altered state of consciousness, altered states of consciousness, such as trance. The goal of this is usually ...

Shamanism
and
Tengrism Tengrism (also known as Tengriism, Tengerism, or Tengrianism) is an ancient ethnic and state Turko- Mongolic religion originating in the Eurasian steppes The Eurasian Steppe, also simply called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast ste ...
, then
Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism or Mazdayasna is an Iranian religions, Iranian religion and one of the world's oldest continuously-practiced organized faiths, based on the teachings of the Iranian peoples, Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster (also known as ''Za ...
,
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
and
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
including
Church of the East The Church of the East ( syc, , ''ʿĒḏtā d-Maḏenḥā''), also called the Persian Church, East Syrian Church, Babylonian Church, Seleucian Church, Edessan Church, Chaldean Church, or the Nestorian Church, was an church of the , based ...
.
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
was first introduced to ancestors of modern Kazakhs during the 8th century when the
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
missionaries entered Central Asia. Islam initially took hold in the southern portions of
Turkestan Turkestan, also spelled Turkistan ( fa, ترکستان, Torkestân, lit=Land of the Turks), is a historical region in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the ...

Turkestan
and thereafter gradually spread northward. Islam also took root because of the missionary work of
Samanid The Samanid Empire ( fa, سامانیان, Sāmāniyān) also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid amirate, or simply Samanids) was a Sunni Islam, Sunni Iranian peoples, Iranian empire, from 819 to 999. The empire was centred in G ...

Samanid
rulers, notably in areas surrounding
Taraz Taraz ( kz, Тараз, translit=Taraz ; known to Europeans as Talas) is a city and the administrative center of Jambyl Region in Kazakhstan, located on the Talas (river), Talas (Taraz) River in the south of the country near the border with Kyrgy ...
where a significant number of Turks accepted Islam. Over time, most ethnic Kazakhs became devout Muslims, with many performing the
Hajj The Hajj (; ar, حَجّ ' "wikt:pilgrimage, ''pilgrimage''"; sometimes also spelled Hadj, Hadji or Haj in English) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city for Muslims. Hajj is a Far ...
to
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
and others choosing to perform the pilgrimage in the closer city of
Turkistan (city) Turkistan ( kz, Түркістан, ''Türkıstan'', تٷركئستان), is a city and the administrative center of Turkistan Region Turkistan Region ( kk, Түркістан облысы, translit=Túrkistan oblysy; russian: Туркеста ...
, which was considered to be the “Mecca of the East”. Additionally, in the late 14th century, the
Golden Horde The Golden Horde, self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. ...
propagated Islam among Kazakhs and other tribes. Islam in Kazakhstan peaked during the era of the
Kazakh Khanate The Kazakh Khanate ( kk, Қазақ Хандығы, , ) was a successor of the Golden Horde The Golden Horde ( tt, , , ), self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongols, Mongol and later Turkicized khan ...

Kazakh Khanate
, especially under rulers such as
Ablai Khan Wali-ullah Abul-Mansur Khan better known as Abylai Khan ( kk, Абылай (Әбілмансұр) хан, Abylaı (Ábilmansur) han) (May 23, 1711 — May 23, 1781) was a Kazakhs, Kazakh Khan (title), khan of the Middle Kazakh jüz of Kazakhstan K ...
and Kasym Khan. Another wave of conversions among the Kazakhs occurred during the 15th and 16th centuries via the efforts of Sufi orders. During the 18th century, Russian influence toward the region rapidly increased throughout
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
. Led by
Catherine Katherine, Catherine, and Catherina, other variations are feminine Given name, names. They are popular in Christian countries because of their derivation from the name of one of the first Christian saints, Catherine of Alexandria. The earliest ...
, the Russians initially demonstrated a willingness in allowing
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
to flourish as Muslim clerics were invited into the region to preach to the Kazakhs, whom the Russians viewed as "savages" and "ignorant" of morals and ethics.Ember, Carol R. and Melvin Ember. ''Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender: Men and Women in the World's Cultures'', pg. 572 However, Russian policy gradually changed toward weakening Islam by introducing pre-Islamic elements of
collective consciousness Collective consciousness, collective conscience, or collective conscious (french: conscience collective) is the set of shared beliefs, ideas, and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society.''Collins Dictionary of Sociolog ...
.Hunter, Shireen. "Islam in Russia: The Politics of Identity and Security", pg. 14 Such attempts included methods of eulogizing pre-Islamic historical figures and imposing a sense of inferiority by sending Kazakhs to highly elite
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
n military institutions. In response, Kazakh religious leaders attempted to bring in
pan-Turkism Pan-Turkism is a political movement that emerged during the 1880s among Turkic intellectuals of the Russian region of Baku Governorate (modern-day Azerbaijan) and the Ottoman Empire (modern-day Turkey), with its aim being the cultural and poli ...
, though many were persecuted as a result. During the
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovere ...
era,
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
institutions survived only in areas that Kazakhs significantly outnumbered non-Muslims, such as non-indigenous Russians, by everyday Muslim practices. In an attempt to conform Kazakhs into
Communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

Communist
ideologies, gender relations and other aspects of Kazakh culture were key targets of social change. In more recent times, however, Kazakhs have gradually employed a determined effort in revitalizing Islamic religious institutions after the fall of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
. Most Kazakhs continue to identify with their Islamic faith, and even more devotedly in the countryside. Those who claim descent from the original
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
soldiers and missionaries of the 8th-century command substantial respect in their communities. Kazakh political figures have also stressed the need to sponsor Islamic awareness. For example, the Kazakh Foreign Affairs Minister,
Marat Tazhin Marat Mukhanbetkazyuly Tazhin ( kk, Марат Мұханбетқазыұлы Тәжин, ''Marat Muhanbetqazyuly Tájın''; born 8 April 1960) is a Kazakh politician. He served as the Foreign Minister A foreign affairs minister or minister of f ...
, recently emphasized that Kazakhstan attaches importance to the use of "positive potential Islam, learning of its history, culture and heritage." Pre-Islamic beliefs, such as worship of the sky, the ancestors, and fire, continued to a great extent to be preserved among the common people, however. Kazakhs believed in the supernatural forces of good and evil spirits, of wood goblins and giants. To protect themselves from them and from the evil eye, Kazakhs wore protection beads and talismans. Shamanic beliefs are still widely preserved among Kazakhs, as well as the belief in the strength of the bearers of that worship, the shamans, which Kazakhs call ''bakhsy''. Unlike the Siberian shamans, who used drums during their rituals, Kazakh shamans, who could also be men or women, played (with a bow) on a stringed instrument similar to a large violin. At present both Islamic and pre-Islamic beliefs continue to be found among Kazakhs, especially among the elderly. According to 2009 national census 39,172 Kazakhs are
Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of ...

Christians
.


Origin and ethnogenesis

Recent linguistic, genetic and archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest
Turkic peoples The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups of Central Asia, Central, East Asia, East, North Asia, North and West Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa, who speak Turkic languages.. "Turkic peoples, any of various peoples w ...
descended from agricultural communities in
Northeast Asia Northeast Asia or Northeastern Asia is a geographical subregion of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Eart ...
and
Northeast China Northeast China () is a geographical region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth ...

Northeast China
who moved westwards into
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
in the late 3rd millennium BC, where they adopted a pastoral lifestyle. By the early 1st millennium BC, these peoples had become
equestrian nomads The Eurasian nomads were a large group of nomadic peoples from the Eurasian Steppe, who often appear in history as invaders of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by conv ...
. In subsequent centuries, the steppe populations of
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
appear to have been progressively replaced and
Turkified Turkification, Turkization, or Turkicization ( tr, Türkleştirme), describes both a cultural and language shift whereby populations or states were forcefully assimilated or adopted a historical Turkic people, Turkic culture, such as in the Ottom ...
by
East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and ...
nomadic Turks, moving out of Mongolia.. "These results suggest that Turkic cultural customs were imposed by an East Asian minority elite onto central steppe nomad populations... The wide distribution of the Turkic languages from Northwest China, Mongolia and Siberia in the east to Turkey and Bulgaria in the west implies large-scale migrations out of the homeland in Mongolia.. "Both Chinese histories and modern dna studies indicate that the early and medieval Turkic peoples were made up of heterogeneous populations. The Turkicisation of central and western Eurasia was not the product of migrations involving a homogeneous entity, but that of language diffusion."


Genetic studies

According to mitochondrial DNA studies (where sample consisted of only 246 individuals), the main maternal lineages of Kazakhs are: D (17.9%), C (16%), G (16%), A (3.25%), F (2.44%) of Eastern Eurasian origin (58%), and haplogroups H (14.1), T (5.5), J (3.6%), K (2.6%), U5 (3%), and others (12.2%) of western Eurasian origin (41%). An analysis of ancient Kazakhs found that East Asian haplogroups such as A and C did not begin to move into the Kazakh steppe region until around the time of the
Xiongnu The Xiongnu (, ) were a tribal confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty A treaty is a formal ...

Xiongnu
(1st millennia BCE), which is around the onset of the Sargat Culture as well . Gokcumen ''et al.'' (2008) tested the mtDNA of a total of 237 Kazakhs from
Altai Republic The Altai Republic (; russian: Респу́блика Алта́й, Respúblika Altáy, ; Altai language, Altai: , ''Altay Respublika'', also known as Gorno-Altai Republic) is a republics of Russia, republic of Russia located in southern Siberia. ...

Altai Republic
and found that they belonged to the following haplogroups: D(xD5) (15.6%), C (10.5%), F1 (6.8%), B4 (5.1%), G2a (4.6%), A (4.2%), B5 (4.2%), M(xC, Z, M8a, D, G, M7, M9a, M13) (3.0%), D5 (2.1%), G2(xG2a) (2.1%), G4 (1.7%), N9a (1.7%), G(xG2, G4) (0.8%), M7 (0.8%), M13 (0.8%), Y1 (0.8%), Z (0.4%), M8a (0.4%), M9a (0.4%), and F2 (0.4%) for a total of 66.7% mtDNA of Eastern Eurasian origin or affinity and H (10.5%), U(xU1, U3, U4, U5) (3.4%), J (3.0%), N1a (3.0%), R(xB4, B5, F1, F2, T, J, U, HV) (3.0%), I (2.1%), U5 (2.1%), T (1.7%), U4 (1.3%), U1 (0.8%), K (0.8%), N1b (0.4%), W (0.4%), U3 (0.4%), and HV (0.4%) for a total of 33.3% mtDNA of Western Eurasian origin or affinity.Omer Gokcumen, Matthew C. Dulik, Athma A. Pai, Sergey I. Zhadanov, Samara Rubinstein, Ludmila P. Osipova, Oleg V. Andreenkov, Ludmila E. Tabikhanova, Marina A. Gubina, Damian Labuda, and Theodore G. Schurr, "Genetic Variation in the Enigmatic Altaian Kazakhs of South-Central Russia: Insights into Turkic Population History." ''American Journal of Physical Anthropology'' 136:278–293 (2008). DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20802 Comparing their samples of Kazakhs from Altai Republic with samples of Kazakhs from Kazakhstan and Kazakhs from Xinjiang, the authors have noted that "haplogroups A, B, C, D, F1, G2a, H, and M were present in all of them, suggesting that these lineages represent the common maternal gene pool from which these different Kazakh populations emerged." In every sample of Kazakhs, D (predominantly northern East Asian, such as Japanese, Okinawan, Korean, Manchu, Mongol, Han Chinese, Tibetan, ''etc.'', but also having several branches among
indigenous peoples of the Americas The Indigenous peoples of the Americas, also known as Amerindians or Indians, are the inhabitants of the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the fo ...
) is the most frequently observed haplogroup (with nearly all of those Kazakhs belonging to the D4 subclade), and the second-most frequent haplogroup is either H (predominantly European) or C (predominantly indigenous Siberian, though some branches are present in the Americas, East Asia, and eastern and northern Europe). In a sample of 54 Kazakhs and 119 Altaian Kazakh, the main paternal lineages of Kazakhs are: C (66.7% and 59.5%), O (9% and 26%), N (2% and 0%), J (4% and 0%), R (9% and 1%). In another sample of 3 ethnic Kazakhs the detected paternal lineages of Kazakhs are C, R, and , Q. According to a large-scale Kazakhstani study (1294 persons) published in 2017, Kazakh males belong to the following Y-DNA haplogroups : The distribution was inhomogeneous for some Y-DNA haplogroups: because of that lack of homogeneity among Kazakhs in regard to Y-chromosome DNA, the real percentage of present-day Kazakhs who belong to each Y-DNA haplogroup may differ from the percentages found in the study, depending on the proportion of each tribe in the total population of Kazakhs.


Population

Historical population of Kazakhs: Huge drop in population of Ethnic Kazakhs between 1897 and 1959 years caused by colonial politics of Russian Empire, then genocide which occurred during Stalin Regime. Sarah Cameron (Associate Professor of University of Maryland) described this genocide on her book, "The Hungry Steppe: Famine, Violence, and the Making of Soviet Kazakhstan".


Kazakh minorities


Russia

In
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
, the Kazakh population lives primarily in the regions bordering Kazakhstan. According to latest census (2002) there are 654,000 Kazakhs in Russia, most of whom are in the
Astrakhan Astrakhan ( rus, Астрахань, p=ˈastrəxənʲ), is the largest city and administrative centreAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of p ...

Astrakhan
,
Volgograd Volgograd (russian: Волгогра́д, Volgográd, a=ru-Volgograd.ogg, p=vəɫɡɐˈɡrat), geographical renaming, formerly Tsaritsyn (russian: Цари́цын, Tsarítsyn) (1589–1925), and Stalingrad (russian: Сталингра́д, Sta ...
,
Saratov Saratov (, ; rus, Сара́тов, a=Ru-Saratov.ogg, p=sɐˈratəf) is the largest city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Sc ...
,
Samara Samara ( rus, Сама́ра, p=sɐˈmarə), known from 1935 to 1991 as Kuybyshev (; ), is the largest city and administrative centre of Samara Oblast. The city is located at the confluence of the Volga and the Samara (Volga), Samara rivers, with ...
,
Orenburg Orenburg (russian: Оренбург, p=ərʲɪnˈburk) is the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast, Russia. It lies on the Ural River, southeast of Moscow. Orenburg is also very close to the Kazakhstan-Russia border, border with Kazakhstan. ...
,
Chelyabinsk Chelyabinsk ( rus, Челя́бинск, p=tɕɪˈlʲæbʲɪnsk, a=Ru-Chelyabinsk.ogg) is the administrative center and largest types of inhabited localities in Russia, city of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia. It is the List of cities and towns in Russ ...

Chelyabinsk
,
Kurgan A kurgan (russian: link=no, курга́н, uk, link=no, курга́н, висока могила) is a type of tumulus A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound A mound is a heaped pile of earth Earth is the third planet fr ...
,
Tyumen Tyumen ( ; rus, Тюмень, p=tʲʉˈmʲenʲ, a=Ru-Tyumen.ogg) is the largest types of inhabited localities in Russia, city and the administrative center of Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located on the Tura River east of Moscow. Tyumen was the first ...
,
Omsk Omsk (; rus, Омск, p=omsk) is the administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In ...
,
Novosibirsk Novosibirsk (, also ; rus, Новосиби́рск, p=nəvəsʲɪˈbʲirsk, a=ru-Новосибирск.ogg) is the largest city and administrative centre of Novosibirsk Oblast and Siberian Federal District in Russia. It has a population of&n ...
,
Altai Krai Altai Krai ( rus, Алта́йский край, r=Altaysky kray, p=ɐlˈtajskʲɪj kraj) is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Россий ...
and
Altai Republic The Altai Republic (; russian: Респу́блика Алта́й, Respúblika Altáy, ; Altai language, Altai: , ''Altay Respublika'', also known as Gorno-Altai Republic) is a republics of Russia, republic of Russia located in southern Siberia. ...

Altai Republic
regions. Though ethnically Kazakh, after the
dissolution of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal political, ...
in 1991, those people acquired Russian citizenship.


China

Kazakhs migrated into
Dzungaria Dzungaria (; also transliterated as Zungaria; Dzungharia or Zungharia; Dzhungaria or Zhungaria; Djungaria or Jungaria; or literally züüngar, Mongolian for "left hand") is a geographical subregion in Northwest China that corresponds to th ...

Dzungaria
in the 18th century after the
Dzungar genocide The Dzungar genocide () was the mass extermination of the Mongol Dzungar people, at the hands of the Qing dynasty. The Qianlong Emperor ordered the genocide due to the rebellion in 1755 by Dzungar leader Amursana against Qing rule, after the dynas ...
resulted in the native Buddhist Dzungar Oirat population being massacred. Kazakhs, called "" in Chinese () are among 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
. According to the census data of 2010, Kazakhs had a population of 1.462 million, ranking 17th among all ethnic groups in China. Thousands of Kazakhs fled to China during the 1932–1933 famine in Kazakhstan. In 1936, after
Sheng Shicai Sheng Shicai (; 3 December 189513 July 1970) was a Chinese warlord A warlord is a strong leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state because of their ability to mob ...

Sheng Shicai
expelled 30,000 Kazakhs from Xinjiang to Qinghai,
Hui The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the origina ...
led by General
Ma Bufang Ma Bufang (1903 – 31 July 1975) (, Xiao'erjing: ) was a Chinese Islamism, Islamist who was a prominent Muslim Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China era, ruling the province of Qinghai. His rank ...

Ma Bufang
massacred their fellow Muslim Kazakhs, until there were 135 of them left. From Northern Xinjiang over 7,000 Kazakhs fled to the Tibetan-Qinghai plateau region via Gansu and were wreaking massive havoc so Ma Bufang solved the problem by relegating Kazakhs to designated pastureland in Qinghai, but Hui, Tibetans, and Kazakhs in the region continued to clash against each other. Tibetans attacked and fought against the Kazakhs as they entered Tibet via Gansu and Qinghai. In northern Tibet, Kazakhs clashed with Tibetan soldiers, and the Kazakhs were sent to Ladakh. Tibetan troops robbed and killed Kazakhs east of Lhasa at Chamdo when the Kazakhs were entering Tibet. In 1934, 1935, and from 1936–1938 Qumil Elisqan led approximately 18,000 Kerey Kazakhs to migrate to Gansu, entering Gansu and Qinghai. In China there is one Kazakh
autonomous prefecture Autonomous prefectures () are one type of autonomous administrative divisions of China, existing at the Administrative divisions of China#Prefectural level (2nd), prefectural level, with either list of ethnic groups in China and Taiwan, ethnic m ...
, the
Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture (Kazakh: Іле Қазақ автономиялық облысы) (also as Yili) is an autonomous prefecture for Kazakhs, Kazakh people in Northern Xinjiang, China, one of five autonomous prefectures in Xinjiang. ...
in the
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
Uyghur Autonomous Region and three Kazakh autonomous counties:
Aksai Kazakh Autonomous County Aksay Kazakh Autonomous County is an autonomous county under the prefecture-level city of Jiuquan in Gansu, Gansu Province, China. The county borders Qinghai, Qinghai Province to the south and Xinjiang, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region to the west ...
in
Gansu Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Gansu
, Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County and Mori Kazakh Autonomous County in the
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
Uyghur Autonomous Region. Many Kazakhs in China are not fluent in
Standard Chinese Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bri ...
, instead speaking the
Kazakh language File:WIKITONGUES- Mereinur speaking Kazakh.webm, A Kazakh speaker, recorded in Kazakhstan Kazakh or Qazaq (Kazakh alphabets, Latin: or , Kazakh alphabets, Cyrillic: or , Kazakh alphabets, Arabic: or , , ), is a Turkic languages, Turkic langua ...
. " In that place wholly faraway", based on a Kazakh
folk song Folk music is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all hu ...

folk song
, is very popular outside the Kazakh regions, especially in the
Far East The Far East is a term to refer to the geographical regions that includes East and Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nati ...

Far East
ern countries of China,
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
and
Korea Korea is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental ...

Korea
. At least one million
Uyghurs The Uyghurs ( or ; ; ; zh, s=, t=, p=Wéiwú'ěr, IPA: ), alternatively spelled Uighurs, Uyghers, Uygurs or Uigurs, are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group originating from and culturally affiliated with the general region of Central Asi ...
, Kazakhs and other ethnic
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslims
in Xinjiang have been detained in mass detention camps, termed " reeducation camps", aimed at changing the political thinking of detainees, their identities, and their religious beliefs.


Mongolia

In the 19th century, the advance of the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
troops pushed Kazakhs to neighboring countries. In around 1860, part of the Middle Jüz Kazakhs came to
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
and were allowed to settle down in Bayan-Ölgii, Western Mongolia and for most of the 20th century they remained an isolated, tightly knit community. Ethnic Kazakhs (so-called Altaic Kazakhs or Altai-Kazakhs) live predominantly in Western Mongolia in Bayan-Ölgii Province (88.7% of the total population) and
Khovd Province Khovd ( mn, Ховд, Howd) is one of the 21 Aimags of Mongolia, aimags (provinces) of Mongolia, located in the west of the country. Its capital is also named Khovd (city), Khovd. The Khovd province is approximately 1,580 km from Ulaanbaatar ...
(11.5% of the total population, living primarily in Khovd city, Khovd sum and Buyant sum). In addition, a number of Kazakh communities can be found in various cities and towns spread throughout the country. Some of the major population centers with a significant Kazakh presence include
Ulaanbaatar Ulaanbaatar (; mn, Улаанбаатар, , "Red Hero"), previously anglicised as Ulan Bator, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that ar ...

Ulaanbaatar
(90% in
khoroo A khoroo ( mn, хороо) is an administrative subdivision of Ulaanbaatar Ulaanbaatar (; mn, Улаанбаатар, , "Red Hero"), previously anglicised as Ulan Bator, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter ...
#4 of
Nalaikh Nalaikh () is one of nine Düüregs (districts) of the Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian language, Mongolian: , Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: ') is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is roughly equivalent with the historic ...
düüreg Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as, Ulan Bator ( mn, Улаанбаатар, , literally "Red Hero"), is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters ...
, Töv and Selenge provinces,
Erdenet Erdenet ( mn, Эрдэнэт, literally "with treasure") is the second-largest city in Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian language, Mongolian: , Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: ') is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is rough ...
, Darkhan, Bulgan, Sharyngol (17.1% of population total) and Berkh, Khentii, Berkh cities.


Uzbekistan

400,000 Kazakhs live in Karakalpakstan and 100,000 in Tashkent province. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the vast majority of Kazakhs are returning to Kazakhstan, mainly to Mangystau Province, Manghistau Oblast. Most Kazakhs in Karakalpakstan are descendants of one of the branches of "Junior juz" (''Kişi juz'') – Adai people, Adai tribe.


Iran

During the Qajar period, Iran bought Kazakh slaves who were falsely masqueraded as Kalmyks by slave dealers from the Khiva and Turkmens. Kazakhs of the Mangystau Region, Aday tribe inhabited the border regions of the Russian Empire with Iran since the 18th century. The Kazakhs made up 20% of the population of the Transcaspian Oblast, Trans-Caspian region according to the 1897 census. As a result of the Fort-Shevchenko, Kazakhs' rebellion against the Russian Empire in 1870, a significant number of Kazakhs became refugees in Iran. Iranian Kazakhs live mainly in Golestan Province in northern Iran. According to ethnologue.org, in 1982 there were 3000 Kazakhs living in the city of Gorgan. Since the fall of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
, the number of Kazakhs in Iran decreased because of emigration to their historical motherland.


Afghanistan

Kazakhs fled to Afghanistan in the 1930s escaping Bolshevik persecution. Kazakh historian Gulnar Mendikulova cites that there were between 20,000 to 24,000 Kazakhs in Afghanistan as of 1978. Some assimilated locally and cannot speak the Kazakh language. As of 2021, there are about 200 Kazakhs remaining in Afghanistan according to Kazakhstan's foreign ministry. Locals claim that many live in Kunduz and others in Takhar Province, Baghlan Province, Mazar-i-Sharif and Kabul. Afghan Kypchaks are Aimak (Taymani) tribe of Kazakh origin that can be found in Obe District to the east of the western Afghan province of Herat Province, Herat, between the rivers Farah Rud River, Farāh Rud and Hari Rud. There are approximately 440,000 Afghan Kipchaks.


Turkey

Turkey received refugees from among the Pakistan-based Kazakhs, Turkmen, Kirghiz, and Uzbeks numbering 3,800 originally from Afghanistan during the Soviet–Afghan War. Kayseri, Van, Amasya, Çiçekdağ, Gaziantep, Tokat, Urfa, and Serinyol received via Adana the Pakistan-based Kazakh, Turkmen, Kirghiz, and Uzbek refugees numbering 3,800 with UNHCR assistance. In 1954 and 1969 Kazakhs migrated into Anatolia's Salihli, Develi and Altay regions. Turkey became home to refugee Kazakhs. The Kazakh Turks Foundation (Kazak Türkleri Vakfı) is an organization of Kazakhs in Turkey.


Culture


Music

One of the most commonly used traditional musical instruments of the Kazakhs is the ''dombra'', a plucked lute with two strings. It is often used to accompany solo or group singing. Another popular instrument is ''kobyz'', a bow instrument played on the knees. Along with other instruments, both instruments play a key role in the traditional Kazakh orchestra. A notable composer is Kurmangazy Sagyrbayuly, Kurmangazy, who lived in the 19th century. After studying in Moscow, Gaziza Zhubanova became the first woman classical composer in Kazakhstan, whose compositions reflect Kazakh history and folklore. A notable singer of the Soviet epoch is Roza Rymbaeva, she was a star of the trans-Soviet-Union scale. A notable Kazakh rock band is Urker, performing in the genre of ethno-rock, which synthesises rock music with the traditional Kazakh music.


Notable Kazakhs


See also

* Chala Kazakh * Kazakh Americans * Kazakhs in Canada * Kazakhs in Russia *
Turkic peoples The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups of Central Asia, Central, East Asia, East, North Asia, North and West Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa, who speak Turkic languages.. "Turkic peoples, any of various peoples w ...
* List of Kazakhs


References


External links


World Association of the Kazakhs

Kazakh tribes
* ‘Contemporary Falconry in Altai-Kazakh in Western Mongolia’''The International Journal of Intangible Heritage (vol.7)'', pp. 103–111. 2012

* ‘Ethnoarhchaeology of Horse-Riding Falconry’, ''The Asian Conference on the Social Sciences 2012 – Official Conference Proceedings'', pp. 167–182. 2012

* ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage of Arts and Knowledge for Coexisting with Golden Eagles: Ethnographic Studies in “Horseback Eagle-Hunting” of Altai-Kazakh Falconers’, ''The International Congress of Humanities and Social Sciences Research'', pp. 307–316. 2012

* ‘Ethnographic Study of Altaic Kazakh Falconers’, ''Falco: The Newsletter of the Middle East Falcon Research Group 41'', pp. 10–14. 2013

* ‘Ethnoarchaeology of Ancient Falconry in East Asia’, ''The Asian Conference on Cultural Studies 2013 – Official Conference Proceedings'', pp. 81–95. 2013

* Soma, Takuya. 2014. 'Current Situation and Issues of Transhumant Animal Herding in Sagsai County, Bayan Ulgii Province, Western Mongolia', E-journal GEO 9(1): pp. 102–119

* Soma, Takuya. 2015. Human and Raptor Interactions in the Context of a Nomadic Society: Anthropological and Ethno-Ornithological Studies of Altaic Kazakh Falconry and its Cultural Sustainability in Western Mongolia. University of Kassel Press, Kassel (Germany) . {{Authority control