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The was the
feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society ...
military government {{Systems of government A military government is generally any government that is administered by military forces, whether or not this government is legal under the laws of the jurisdiction at issue, and whether this government is formed by natives ...
of
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
during the
Kamakura period#REDIRECT Kamakura period The is a period of History of Japan, Japanese history that marks the governance by the Kamakura shogunate, officially established in 1192 in Kamakura, Kanagawa, Kamakura by the first ''shōgun'', Minamoto no Yoritomo. Th ...
from 1185 to 1333. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005)
"''Kamakura-jidai''"
in ''Japan Encyclopedia'', p. 459.
The Kamakura shogunate was established by
Minamoto no Yoritomo was the founder and the first shogun , officially , was the title of the military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Lati ...

Minamoto no Yoritomo
after victory in the
Genpei War The (1180–1185) was a national civil war between the Taira clan, Taira and Minamoto clan, Minamoto clans during the late-Heian period of Japan. It resulted in the downfall of the Taira and the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate unde ...
and appointing himself as ''
Shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns were usually the ''de facto'' rulers of th ...
''. Yoritomo governed Japan as
military dictator A military dictatorship is a dictatorship in which the military exerts complete or substantial control over political authority, and the dictator is often a high-ranked military officer. The reverse situation is to have civilian control of the m ...
from the eastern city of
Kamakura is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be ...

Kamakura
with the
Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of state He or HE may re ...
and his
Imperial CourtAn imperial court is the royal court of an empire. Imperial Court may also refer to: *Imperial court (Holy Roman Empire) *Imperial Court in Kyoto, pre-Meiji period in Japan *Imperial Court System, a non-profit organization in North America *Imperial ...
in the official capital city of
Heian-kyō Heian-kyō was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the official capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180. Emperor Kanmu established it as the capital in 794, mov ...
(
Kyoto Kyoto (; Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Kyōto'' ), officially , is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture in Japan. Located in the Kansai region on the island of Honshu, Kyoto forms a part of the Keihanshin, Keihanshin metropolitan area along w ...

Kyoto
) as
figurehead In politics, a figurehead is a person who ''de jure In law and government, ''de jure'' ( ; , "by law") describes practices that are legally recognized, regardless of whether the practice exists in reality. In contrast, ("in fact") descri ...

figurehead
s. The Kamakura ''Shōguns'' were members of the
Minamoto clan was one of the surnames bestowed by the Emperors of Japan An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female e ...
until 1226, the
Fujiwara clan #REDIRECT Fujiwara clan #REDIRECT Fujiwara clan#REDIRECT Fujiwara clan was a powerful family of regents in Japan, holding the title of ''Ason'', descending from the Nakatomi clan and through them Ame-no-Koyane, Ame-no-Koyane-no-Mikoto. The Fujiw ...
until 1252, and the last six were minor
prince A prince is a Monarch, male ruler (ranked below a king, grand prince, and grand duke) or a male member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. ''Prince'' is also a title of nobility (often highest), often hereditary title, hereditary, in so ...

prince
s of the Imperial family.Nussbaum
"Minamoto"
at pp. 632–633.
The
Hōjō clan The in the history of Japan The first human inhabitants of the Japanese archipelago The Japanese archipelago (Japanese: 日本列島, ''Nihon rettō'') is a group of 6,852 islands that form the country of Japan , image_flag ...
were the ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with ''de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
'' rulers of Japan as ''
shikken The was a titular post held by a member of the Hōjō clan, officially a regent of the shogunate, from 1199 to 1333, during the Kamakura period, and so he was head of the ''bakufu'' (shogunate). It was part of the era referred to as . During rou ...
'' (
regent A regent (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...
) of the ''Shōgun'' from 1203.Nussbaum
"Fujiwara"
at pp. 200–201.
The Kamakura shogunate saw the
Jōkyū War , also known as the Jōkyū Disturbance or the Jōkyū Rebellion, was fought in Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct terri ...
in 1221 and the
Mongol invasions of Japan The , which took place in 1274 and 1281, were major military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict betwee ...
under
Kublai Khan Kublai (; also spelled Qubilai or Kübilai; mn, Хубилай, Khubilai ; ; 23 September  1215 – 18 February 1294), also known by his temple name as Emperor Shizu of Yuan, was the fifth khagan-Emperor of China, emperor of the Mongol Empir ...

Kublai Khan
in 1274 and 1281. The Kamakura shogunate was overthrown in the
Kenmu Restoration The was a three-year period of Imperial Court in Kyoto, Imperial rule in Japanese history between the Kamakura period and the Muromachi period from 1333 to 1336. The Kenmu Restoration was an effort made by Emperor Go-Daigo to overthrow the ru ...
under
Emperor Go-Daigo Emperor Go-Daigo (後醍醐天皇 ''Go-Daigo-tennō'') (26 November 1288 – 19 September 1339) was the 96th emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is ...

Emperor Go-Daigo
in 1333, re-establishing Imperial rule until
Ashikaga Takauji was the founder and first ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns we ...

Ashikaga Takauji
overthrew the Imperial government and founded the
Ashikaga shogunate The , also known as the , was the feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly ...
in 1336.


History


Establishment

Historically in
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
, the power of
civilian government Civil authority or civil government is the practical implementation of a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspape ...
was primarily held by the ruling
Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of state He or HE may re ...
and their
regent A regent (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...
s, typically appointed from the ranks of the
Imperial CourtAn imperial court is the royal court of an empire. Imperial Court may also refer to: *Imperial court (Holy Roman Empire) *Imperial Court in Kyoto, pre-Meiji period in Japan *Imperial Court System, a non-profit organization in North America *Imperial ...
and the
aristocratic Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: A ...
clans that vied for influence there. Military affairs were handled under the auspices of the civil government. From 1180 to 1185, the
Genpei War The (1180–1185) was a national civil war between the Taira clan, Taira and Minamoto clan, Minamoto clans during the late-Heian period of Japan. It resulted in the downfall of the Taira and the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate unde ...
was fought between the
Taira The Taira was one of the four most important Japanese clans, clans that dominated Japanese politics during the Heian Period, Heian, Kamakura period, Kamakura and Muromachi period, Muromachi Periods of History of Japan, Japanese history – the ...
and
Minamoto was one of the surnames bestowed by the Emperors of Japan An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female e ...
clans as part of a longstanding violent rivalry for influence over the Emperor and his court.
Minamoto no Yoritomo was the founder and the first shogun , officially , was the title of the military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Lati ...

Minamoto no Yoritomo
defeated the Taira clan, but in his victory seized power from the civil aristocracy, politically relegating the Emperor and his court to symbolic
figurehead In politics, a figurehead is a person who ''de jure In law and government, ''de jure'' ( ; , "by law") describes practices that are legally recognized, regardless of whether the practice exists in reality. In contrast, ("in fact") descri ...

figurehead
s. In 1192, Yoritomo and the Minamoto clan established a military government in
Kamakura is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be ...

Kamakura
.


The Hōjō Regency

Yoritomo unexpectedly died in an accident in 1199, leaving the Minamoto clan weakened.
Hōjō Tokimasa was the first Hōjō ''shikken'' (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate, Kamakura bakufu and head of the Hōjō clan. He was ''shikken'' from 1203 until his abdication in 1205. Background The Hōjō clan was, ironically, descended from the Taira cl ...

Hōjō Tokimasa
, the father of Yoritomo's widow,
Hōjō Masako was a politician, political leader who exercised significant power in the early years of the Kamakura period, which was reflected by her contemporary sobriquet of the "nun shogun". She was the eldest daughter of Hōjō Tokimasa and sister of Hōj ...
, and former guardian of Yoritomo, claimed the title of regent (
shikken The was a titular post held by a member of the Hōjō clan, officially a regent of the shogunate, from 1199 to 1333, during the Kamakura period, and so he was head of the ''bakufu'' (shogunate). It was part of the era referred to as . During rou ...
) to Yoritomo's son
Minamoto no Yoriie was the second ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns were usually t ...

Minamoto no Yoriie
, eventually making that claim hereditary to the
Hōjō clan The in the history of Japan The first human inhabitants of the Japanese archipelago The Japanese archipelago (Japanese: 日本列島, ''Nihon rettō'') is a group of 6,852 islands that form the country of Japan , image_flag ...
. At the same time, Hōjō Masako maneuvered herself into such a powerful, albeit informal, position that people began calling her the "nun shogun" in the place of her son Yoriie. As Minamoto no Yoriie grew older, however, he attempted to exert real power, resulting in a power struggle with his own mother. These conflicts caused considerable tensions within the shogunate. In 1201, the Jo clan unsuccessfully attempted to overthrow the Minamoto clan in the Kennin Rebellion. Eventually, Tokimasa deposed Yoriie, backed up his younger brother,
Minamoto no Sanetomo was the third ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns were usually th ...

Minamoto no Sanetomo
, as a new shōgun, and assumed the post of
shikken The was a titular post held by a member of the Hōjō clan, officially a regent of the shogunate, from 1199 to 1333, during the Kamakura period, and so he was head of the ''bakufu'' (shogunate). It was part of the era referred to as . During rou ...
. Sanetomo was only twelve at this point, and accordingly power factually rested with his mother Hōjō Masako. The Minamoto remained the titular shōguns, with the Hōjō holding the real power. In 1204, loyalists of Yoriie attempted an uprising to topple the Hōjō domination, but the latter defeated the rebels and assassinated Yoriie. In 1205, Hōjō Tokimasa attempted to depose Sanetomo, hoping to install his son-in-law as new shogun. However, his daughter Hōjō Masako saw this as threat to her own status; she arranged the pretender's murder and banished her father to a monastery. In 1219, Sanetomo was assassinated by his nephew
Kugyō is the collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji period, Meiji eras. The kugyō was broadly divided into two groups: * the , comprising the Chancellor of the Realm, the Minist ...
. Since Sanetomo died childless, the line of shōguns from the Minamoto clan ended with him. From this point onwards, the Hōjō were in total control. With Sanetomo's death in 1219, his mother Hōjō Masako continued to serve as the shogunate's real center of power. As long as she lived, regents and shōguns would come and go, while she stayed at the helm. Since the Hōjō family did not have the rank to nominate a shōgun from among its members, Masako had to find a convenient puppet. The problem was solved choosing Kujo Yoritsune, a distant relation of the Minamoto, who would be the fourth shōgun and figurehead, while Hōjō Yoshitoki would take care of day-to-day business. However powerless, future shōguns would always be chosen from either
Fujiwara Fujiwara (, written: 藤原 lit. "''Wisteria'' field") is a Japanese surname. (In English conversation it is likely to be rendered as .) Notable people with the surname include: ; Families * The Fujiwara clan and its members ** Fujiwara no Kamatari ...
or imperial lineage to keep the bloodline pure and give legitimacy to the rule. This succession proceeded for more than a century. As a result, the Kamakura shogunate rested on a unusual pyramid of regents and ''de facto'' usurpation: The true rulers, namely the Hōjō regents, had usurped power from the Minamoto, who had usurped it from the Emperor, descending from
Emperor Kōkō was the 58th emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 ...
, who usurped it from the children of
Emperor Seiwa was the 56th emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to ''c ...

Emperor Seiwa
. At the same time, the regents, shoguns, and emperors all still maintained their nominal positions and existed alongside each other. The regime nonetheless proved to be stable enough to last a total of 135 years, 9 shōguns and 16 regents. In 1221
Emperor Go-Toba was the 82nd emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 ...

Emperor Go-Toba
tried to regain power in what would be called the , but the attempt failed. The power of the Hōjō remained unchallenged until 1324, when
Emperor Go-Daigo Emperor Go-Daigo (後醍醐天皇 ''Go-Daigo-tennō'') (26 November 1288 – 19 September 1339) was the 96th emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is ...

Emperor Go-Daigo
orchestrated a plot to overthrow them, but the plot was discovered almost immediately and foiled.


Mongol invasions

The Mongols under
Kublai Khan Kublai (; also spelled Qubilai or Kübilai; mn, Хубилай, Khubilai ; ; 23 September  1215 – 18 February 1294), also known by his temple name as Emperor Shizu of Yuan, was the fifth khagan-Emperor of China, emperor of the Mongol Empir ...

Kublai Khan
attempted sea-borne invasions in 1274 and 1281. Fifty years before, the shogunate had agreed to Korean demands that the
Wokou ''Wokou'' (; Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct terr ...

Wokou
be dealt with to stop their raids, and this bit of good diplomacy had created a cooperative relationship between the two states, such that the Koreans, helpless with a Mongol occupation army garrisoning their country, had sent much intelligence information to Japan, so that along with messages from Japanese spies in the Korean peninsula, the shogunate had a good picture of the situation of the pending Mongol invasion. The shogunate had rejected Kublai's demands to submit with contempt. The Mongol landings of 1274 met with some success, however there was no rout of the Japanese defenders, who in any case greatly outnumbered the 40,000 combined invasion force of Mongols and Korean conscripts. Noting an impending storm, the Korean admirals advised the Mongols to re-embark so that the fleet could be protected away from shore; however, the typhoon was so destructive that one-third of the Mongol force was destroyed. After the surviving forces returned to Mongol territory, Kublai was not dissuaded from his intentions on bringing Japan under Mongol control, and once again sent a message demanding submission, which infuriated the Hōjō leadership, who had the messengers executed. They responded with decisive action for defense—a wall was built to protect the hinterland of Hakata Bay, defensive posts were established, garrison lists were drawn up, regular manning of the home provinces was redirected to the western defenses, and ships were constructed to harass the invaders' fleet when they appeared. The Mongols returned in 1281 with a force of some 50,000 Mongol-Korean-Chinese along with some 100,000 conscripts from the defeated
Song A song is a musical composition Musical composition can refer to an piece or work of , either or , the of a musical piece or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music. People who create new compositions are called s ...
empire in south China. This force embarked and fought the Japanese for some seven weeks at several locations in Kyushu, but the defenders held, and the Mongols made no strategic headway. Again, a typhoon approached, and the Koreans and Chinese re-embarked the combined Mongol invasion forces in an attempt to deal with the storm in the open sea. At least one-third of the Mongol force was destroyed, and perhaps half of the conscripted Song forces to the south over a two-day period of August 15–16. Thousands of invading troops were not able to embark in time and were slaughtered by the samurai. Such losses in men, material, and the exhaustion of the Korean state in provisioning the two invasions put an end to the Mongol's attempts to conquer Japan. The "divine wind," or ''
kamikaze , officially , were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units of military aviation, military aviators who flew suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan against Allies of World War II, Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific ...
'', was credited for saving Japan from foreign invasion. For two further decades the Kamakura shogunate maintained a watch in case the Mongols attempted another invasion. However, the strain on the military and the financial expenditures weakened the regime considerably. Additionally, the defensive war left no gains to distribute to the warriors who had fought it, leading to discontent. Construction of defensive walls added further expenses to the strained regime.


Decline and fall

In 1331, Emperor Go-Daigo took arms against Kamakura, but was defeated by Kamakura's
Ashikaga Takauji was the founder and first ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns we ...

Ashikaga Takauji
and exiled to Oki Island, in today's
Shimane Prefecture is a Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan located in the Chūgoku region of Honshu. Shimane Prefecture is the List of Japanese prefectures by population, second-least populous prefecture of Japan at 665,205 (February 1, 2021) and has a geo ...
. A warlord then went to the exiled emperor's rescue, and in response the Hōjō sent forces again commanded by Takauji to attack Kyoto.Kamakura: History & Historic Sites - The Kamakura Period
the Kamakura Citizen Net, accessed on April 27, 2008
Once there, however, Takauji decided to switch sides and support Go-Daigo. At the same time another warlord loyal to the emperor,
Nitta Yoshisada was the head of the Nitta clan in the early fourteenth century, and supported the Southern Court of Emperor Go-Daigo in the Nanboku-chō period. He famously marched on Kamakura, besieging and capturing it from the Hōjō clan in 1333. Later he ...

Nitta Yoshisada
, attacked Kamakura and took it. About 870 Hōjō clan, including the last three Regents, committed suicide at their family temple, Tōshō-ji, whose ruins were found in today's Ōmachi. In 1336, Ashikaga Takauji assumed the position of shōgun himself, establishing the
Ashikaga shogunate The , also known as the , was the feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly ...
.


Institutions

The Kamakura shogunate functioned within the framework of the Heian system of Imperial rule. Yoritomo established a chancellery, or '' mandokoro'', as his principal organ of government. Later, under the Hōjō, a separate institution, the ''hyōjōshū'' became the focus of government. The shogunate appointed new military governors (''
shugo , commonly translated as “(military) governor,” “protector,” or “constable,” was a title given to certain officials in feudal Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is ...
'') over the provinces. These were selected mostly from powerful families in the different provinces, or the title was bestowed upon a general and his family after a successful campaign. Although they managed their own affairs, in theory they were still obliged to the central government through their allegiance to the shōgun. The military governors paralleled the existing system of governors and vice-governors ('' kokushi'') appointed by the civil government in Kyoto. Kamakura also appointed stewards, or ''
jitō were medieval territory stewards in Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entit ...
'', to positions in the manors (''
shōen A was a field or manor in Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...
''). These stewards received revenues from the manors in return for their military service. They served along with the holders of similar office, '' gesu'', who delivered dues from the manor to the proprietor in Kyoto. Thus the dual governmental system reached to the manor level.


List of Kamakura shōguns

#
Minamoto no Yoritomo was the founder and the first shogun , officially , was the title of the military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Lati ...

Minamoto no Yoritomo
, r. 1192–1199 #
Minamoto no Yoriie was the second ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns were usually t ...

Minamoto no Yoriie
, r. 1202–1203 #
Minamoto no Sanetomo was the third ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns were usually th ...

Minamoto no Sanetomo
, r. 1203–1219 # Fujiwara no Yoritsune, r. 1226–1244 #
Fujiwara no YoritsuguFujiwara (, written: 藤原 lit. "''Wisteria'' field") is a Japanese surname. (In English conversation it is likely to be rendered as .) Notable people with the surname include: ; Families * The Fujiwara clan and its members ** Fujiwara no Kamatari ...
, r. 1244–1252 #
Prince Munetaka was the sixth ''shōgun'' of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan who reigned from 1252 to 1266.Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Munetaka shinnō" in . He was the first son of the Emperor Go-Saga and replaced the deposed Fujiwara no Yoritsugu as ' ...
, r. 1252–1266 #
Prince Koreyasu , also known as , was the seventh ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fr ...
, r. 1266–1289 #
Prince Hisaaki , also known as Prince Hisaakira, was the eighth ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan ...
, r. 1289–1308 #
Prince Morikuni was the ninth ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns were usually t ...
, r. 1308–1333


List of Kamakura shikken

#
Hōjō Tokimasa was the first Hōjō ''shikken'' (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate, Kamakura bakufu and head of the Hōjō clan. He was ''shikken'' from 1203 until his abdication in 1205. Background The Hōjō clan was, ironically, descended from the Taira cl ...

Hōjō Tokimasa
, r. 1203–1205 # Hōjō Yoshitoki, r. 1205–1224 #
Hōjō Yasutoki Hōjō Yasutoki (; 1183 – July 14, 1242) was the third shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate in Japan. He strengthened the political system of the Hōjō regency. He was the eldest son of second shikken Hōjō Yoshitoki, Yoshitoki. Accordin ...

Hōjō Yasutoki
, r. 1224–1242 # Hōjō Tsunetoki, r. 1242–1246 #
Hōjō Tokiyori Hōjō Tokiyori (, June 29, 1227 – December 24, 1263) was the fifth shikken The was a titular post held by a member of the Hōjō clan The in the history of Japan was a family who controlled the hereditary title of ''shikken'' (regent) of ...

Hōjō Tokiyori
, r. 1246–1256 # , r. 1268–1284 # , r. 1284–1301 # Hōjō Morotoki, r. 1301–1311 # , r. 1316–1326


Genealogy


Patrilineal descent

* Emperor Ninmyō, 54th Emperor (808–850; r. 833–850) ** Emperor Montoku, 55th Emperor (826–858; r. 850–858) *** Emperor Seiwa, 56th Emperor (850–878; r. 858–876) **** Imperial Prince Sadasumi (873–916) *****
Minamoto no Tsunemoto was a samurai were the hereditary military nobility and officer caste of History of Japan#Medieval Japan (1185–1573/1600), medieval and Edo period, early-modern Japan from the late 12th century to their abolition in 1876. They were the ...

Minamoto no Tsunemoto
(894–961) ******
Minamoto no Mitsunaka , was born as Myoomaru (明王丸) son of Minamoto no Tsunemoto 270px, Minamoto no Tsunemoto drawn by Kikuchi Yosai was a samurai were the hereditary military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan from the 12th cen ...
(912–997) *******
Minamoto no Yorinobu was a samurai were the hereditary military nobility and officer caste of History of Japan#Medieval Japan (1185–1573/1600), medieval and Edo period, early-modern Japan from the late 12th century to their abolition in 1876. They were the w ...
(968–1048) ********
Minamoto no Yoriyoshi was a head of Japan's Minamoto clan. Along with his son Minamoto no Yoshiie, he led the Imperial forces against rebellious forces in the north. This campaign would be called the Zenkunen War, and would be followed some years later by the Gosannen ...
(988–1075) *********
Minamoto no Yoshiie Minamoto No Yoshiie (源 義家; 1039 – 4 August 1106), also known as Hachimantarō, was a Minamoto clan was one of the surnames bestowed by the Emperors of Japan upon members of the imperial family who were excluded from the line of succes ...

Minamoto no Yoshiie
(1039–1106) **********
Minamoto no Tameyoshi was head of the Minamoto clan during his lifetime, and son of Minamoto no Yoshiie Minamoto No Yoshiie (源 義家; 1039 – 4 August 1106), also known as Hachimantarō, was a Minamoto clan was one of the surnames bestowed by the Emperors of ...

Minamoto no Tameyoshi
(1096–1156) ***********
Minamoto no Yoshitomo (1123 – 11 February 1160) was the head of the Minamoto clan was one of the surnames bestowed by the Emperors of Japan An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of ...

Minamoto no Yoshitomo
(1123–1160) ************ I. Minamoto no Yoritomo, 1st Kamakura ''shōgun'' (1147–1199; r. 1192–1199) ************* II. Minamoto no Yoriie, 2nd Kamakura ''shōgun'' (1182–1204; r. 1202–1203) ************** III. Minamoto no Sanetomo, 3rd Kamakura ''shōgun'' (1192–1219; r. 1203–1219) ********** Minamoto no Yoshikuni (1091–1155) *********** Minamoto (Ashikaga) no Yoshiyasu (1127–1157) ************ Ashikaga Yoshikane (c. 1154–1199) ************* Ashikaga Yoshiuji (1189–1255) ************** Ashikaga Yasuuji (1216–1270) *************** Ashikaga Yoshiuji (1240–1262) **************** Ashikaga Ietoki (1260–1284) ***************** Ashikaga Sadauji (c. 1277–1331) ******************
Ashikaga Takauji was the founder and first ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns we ...

Ashikaga Takauji
, founder of the
Ashikaga shogunate The , also known as the , was the feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly ...
** Emperor Kōkō, 58th Emperor (830–887; r. 884–887) *** Emperor Uda, 59th Emperor (867–931; r. 887–897) **** Emperor Daigo, 60th Emperor (884–930; r. 897–930) ***** Emperor Murakami, 62nd Emperor (926–967; r. 946–967) ****** Emperor En'yū, 64th Emperor (959–991; r. 969–984) ******* Emperor Ichijō, 66th Emperor (980–1011; r. 986–1011) ******** Emperor Go-Suzaku, 69th Emperor (1009–1045; r. 1036–1045) ********* Emperor Go-Sanjō, 71st Emperor (1034–1073; r. 1068–1073) ********** Emperor Shirakawa, 72nd Emperor (1053–1129; r. 1073–1087) *********** Emperor Horikawa, 73rd Emperor (1078–1107; r. 1087–1107) ************ Emperor Toba, 74th Emperor (1103–1156; r. 1107–1123) ************* Emperor Go-Shirakawa, 77th Emperor (1127–1192; r. 1155–1158) ************** Emperor Takakura, 80th Emperor (1161–1181; r. 1168–1180) *************** Emperor Go-Toba, 82nd Emperor (1180–1239; r. 1183–1198) **************** Emperor Tsuchimikado, 83rd Emperor (1196–1231; r. 1198–1210) ***************** Emperor Go-Saga, 88th Emperor (1220–1272; r. 1242–1246) ****************** VI. Imperial Prince Munetaka, 6th Kamakura ''shōgun'' (1242–1274; r. 1252–1266) ******************* VII. Imperial Prince Koreyasu, 7th Kamakura ''shōgun'' (1264–1326; r. 1266–1289) ****************** Emperor Go-Fukakusa, 89th Emperor (1243–1304; r. 1246–1260) ******************* VIII. Imperial Prince Hisaaki, 8th Kamakura ''shōgun'' (1276–1328; r. 1289–1308) ******************** IX. Imperial Prince Morikuni, 9th Kamakura ''shōgun'' (1301–1333; r. 1308–1333) ****************** Emperor Kameyama, 90th Emperor (1249–1305; r. 1259–1274) ******************* Emperor Go-Uda, 91st Emperor (1267–1324; r. 1274–1287) ******************** Emperor Go-Daigo, 96th Emperor (1288–1339; r. 1318–1339) ********************* Imperial Prince Moriyoshi, 1st Kenmu ''shōgun'' (1308–1335; r. 1333) ********************* Imperial Prince Narinaga, 2nd Kenmu ''shōgun'' (1326–1338?/1344?; r. 1334–1336)


Family Tree

Fujiwara-Ichijō genealogy (jp)
/ref>


See also

*
Rensho The was the assistant to the ''shikken The was a titular post held by a member of the Hōjō clan The in the history of Japan was a family who controlled the hereditary title of ''shikken'' (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate between 1203 and ...
*
Rokuhara Tandai was the post of the chiefs of the Kamakura shogunate in Kyoto whose agency, the , kept responsibility for security in Kinai and judicial affairs on western Japan, and negotiated with the Imperial Court in Kyoto, imperial court. Despite keeping s ...
*
History of Japan The first human inhabitants of the Japanese archipelago The Japanese archipelago (Japanese: 日本列島, ''Nihon rettō'') is a group of 6,852 islands that form the country of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg ...
*
Lists of incumbents These are lists of incumbents (individuals holding offices or positions), including Head of state, heads of states or of Administrative division, subnational entities. A historical discipline, archontology, focuses on the study of past and curre ...
*''
Azuma Kagami is a Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the north toward the and in the south. Japan is a part of the , and spa ...
'' *
Mongol invasions of Japan The , which took place in 1274 and 1281, were major military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict betwee ...
*
Goryeo military regime The Goryeo military regime () was the government of the Goryeo, Goryeo dynasty from the time of the military coup d'état of 1170 to the Sambyeolcho Rebellion of 1270 and the Korea under Yuan rule, definitive subordination of Korea to the Yuan dyn ...


Notes


References


Works cited

*


Further reading

* Mass, Jeffrey P. (1976). ''The Kamakura bakufu : a study in documents.'' Stanford: Stanford University Press. * __________. (1974). ''Warrior government in early medieval Japan : a study of the Kamakura Bakufu, shugo and jitō.'' New Haven: Yale University Press. * Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005)
''Japan encyclopedia.''
Cambridge:
Harvard University Press Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distrib ...
.
OCLC 58053128
* Ōyama Kyōhei. ''Kamakura bakufu'' 鎌倉幕府. Tokyo: Shōgakkan 小学館, 1974. {{DEFAULTSORT:Kamakura Shogunate Kamakura shōguns 1185 establishments in Asia 1333 disestablishments States and territories established in 1185