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Kaifeng () is a
prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It ...
in east-central
Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked province of China The provincial level administrative divisions () are the highest-level administrative divisions of China. There are 34 such divisions claimed by the People's Republic of ...

Henan
province, China. It is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China, having been the capital seven times in history, and is best known for having been the Chinese capital during the
Northern Song dynasty #REDIRECT Northern Song Dynasty #REDIRECT Northern Song Dynasty#REDIRECT Northern Song Dynasty The Northern Song (北宋; 4 February 960 – 20 March 1127) is an era during the Song dynasty, Song Dynasty. It came to an end when its capital city, t ...
. Around 4,465,000 million people as of 31 December 2018 estimation lived in Kaifeng's Prefecture, of whom 1,652,000 live in the built-up (or metro) area made of Xiangfu, Longting, Shunhe Hui, Gulou and Yuwantai Districts. Located along the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
's southern bank, it borders the provincial capital of
Zhengzhou Zhengzhou (; ), also spelt Zheng Zhou and Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Chengchow, is the Capital (political), capital and largest city of Henan, Henan Province in the Central China, central part of the China, People's ...

Zhengzhou
to the west,
Xinxiang Xinxiang ( ; postal: Sinsiang) is a prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the Peop ...

Xinxiang
to the northwest,
Shangqiu Shangqiu (), alternately romanized as Shangkiu, is a city in eastern Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked province of China Provincial-level administrative divisions () or first-level administrative divisions (), are ...

Shangqiu
to the east,
Zhoukou Zhoukou (; postal: Chowkow) is a prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People ...

Zhoukou
to the southeast,
Xuchang Xuchang (; Postal romanization, postal: Hsuchang) is a prefecture-level city in central Henan province of China, province in Central China. It borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the northwest, Kaifeng to the northeast, Zhoukou to the ...

Xuchang
to the southwest, and
Heze Heze, formerly known as Caozhou, is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A pr ...

Heze
of
Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subn ...

Shandong
to the northeast. Kaifeng is also a major city in the world by scientific research outputs as tracked by the
Nature IndexThe Nature Index is a database, that tracks institutions and countries and their scientific output since its introduction in 2016. Each year, Nature Index ranks the leading institutions (which can be companies, universities, government agencies, rese ...
. The city is home to a campus of
Henan University Henan University () is one of the oldest public and key university, universities in China. It was founded in 1912. In the beginning, its name was the Preparatory School for Further Study in Europe and America. In 1942, its name was changed to Natio ...
, one of the national key universities in the
Project 211 Project 211 () was a project of National Key UniversitiesNational Key Universities () previously referred to universities recognized as prestigious and which received a high level of support from the central government of the People's Republic ...
.


Names

The
postal romanization Postal romanization was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by postal authorities in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. For many cities, the corresponding postal romanization was the most common English-language form ...
for the city is "Kaifeng". Its official one-character abbreviation in Chinese is (''Biàn''). Historically it has also been known as: *''Dàliáng'' () *''Biànliáng'' () *''Biànzhōu'' () *''
Nánjīng
Nánjīng
'' () *''Dōngjīng'' () *''Biànjīng'' () The area was named "Kaifeng" after the
QinQin may refer to: Dynasties and states * Qin (state) (秦), a major state during the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China * Qin dynasty (秦), founded by the Qin state in 221 BC and ended in 206 BC * Daqin (大秦), ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empi ...

Qin
's conquest of China in the second century BC. The name literally means "opening the border" and figuratively "hidden" and "vengeance". Its name was originally Qifeng (), but the syllable ''qi'' (Baxter-Sagart: /*kʰˤijʔ/) was changed to the essentially synonymous ''kai'' (/*Nə- ˤəj/, /* ˤəj/) to avoid the
naming taboo A naming taboo is a cultural taboo against speaking or writing the given names of exalted persons, for example in China and within the Chinese cultural sphere. It was enforced by several laws throughout Imperial China, but its cultural and possib ...
of Liu Qi (
Emperor Jing of Han Emperor Jing of Han (Liu Qi 劉啟; 188 BC – 9 March 141 BC) was the sixth emperor of China, emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty from 157 to 141 BC. His reign saw the limiting of the power of the feudal kings/princes which resulted in the Rebel ...
).


Administration

The
prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It ...
of Kaifeng administers five
districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic ...
and four
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
: * Gulou District () * Longting District () * Yuwangtai District () * Xiangfu District () *
Shunhe Hui District Shunhe Hui Chinese, Hui District () is a district of the city of Kaifeng, Henan province, China. Administrative divisions As 2012, this district is divided to 6 subdistricts and 2 towns. ;Subdistricts ;Towns *Dongjiao Township () *Tubaigang Townsh ...
() * Weishi County () * Qi County () * Tongxu County () *
Lankao County Lankao County () is a county of Kaifeng, Henan, China. It has an area of and a population of 760,000. It was the site of the Battle of Lanfeng during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Administrative divisions As 2012, this county is divided to 5 tow ...
()


History

Kaifeng is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China. As with Beijing, there have been many reconstructions during its history. In 364 BC during the
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period#REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period The Spri ...
, the
State of Wei Wei (; ; Old Chinese: *') was one of the seven major State (Ancient China), states during the Warring States period of ancient China. It was created from the three-way Partition of Jin, together with Han (state), Han and Zhao (state), Zhao. Its t ...
founded a city called Daliang () as its capital in this area. During this period, the first of many canals in the area was constructed linking a local river to the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
. When the
State of Qin Qin () was an ancient Chinese state Ancient Chinese states () were typified by variously sized city-states and territories that existed in China prior to its unification by Qin Shi Huang Qin Shi Huang (, ; 18 February 25910 September 210) ...
conquered the State of Wei, Kaifeng was destroyed and abandoned except for a mid-sized market town, which remained in place. During the Han Dynasty, the city underwent some reconstruction. Kaifeng became the capital of Liu Wu (son of Han emperor Wen) when he was given the title of ''Liang Xiao Wang''. Liu Wu restored and constructed many buildings and old city walls. Kaifeng became a center of music, art, a refuge for artists, and of splendid gardens despite the trivial political importance of the city at this period. Early in the 7th century, Kaifeng was transformed into a major commercial hub when it was connected to the
Grand CanalGrand Canal can refer to multiple waterways: * Grand Canal (China) in eastern China * Grand Canal (Ireland), between the River Shannon and Dublin in Ireland * Grand Canal (Venice) in Venice, Italy * Grand Canal d'Alsace in eastern France *Grand Cana ...
as well as through the construction of a canal running to western
Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subn ...

Shandong
. In 781 during the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
, a new city was reconstructed and named Bian (). Bian was the capital of the Later Jin (936–946), Later Han (947–950), and
Later Zhou The Later Zhou (; ) was the last in a succession of five dynasties A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (b ...

Later Zhou
(951–960) of the
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (), from 907 to 979 was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century history of China, Imperial China. Five states quickly succeeded one another in the Central Plain (China), Central Plain ...
. The
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
made Bian its capital when it overthrew the Later Zhou in 960. Shortly afterwards, the city underwent further expansion. During the Song, when it was known as Dongjing or Bianjing, Kaifeng, then the largest and most prosperous city in China, was the capital, with a population of over 400,000 living both inside and outside the city wall.
Typhus Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases An infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents ...
was an acute problem in the city. The historian Jacques Gernet provides a lively picture of life in this period in his ''Daily Life in China on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250-1276,'' which often draws on ''
Dongjing Meng Hua LuDongjing meng Hua lu () or ''The Eastern Capital: A Dream of Splendor'', is a memoir written by Meng Yuanlao () (). In 1126, Meng was made a refugee from Kaifeng, the thriving capital of the Northern Song Dynasty after Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jurc ...
'', a nostalgic memoir of the city of Kaifeng. In 1049, the Youguosi Pagoda () – or Iron Pagoda as it is called today – was constructed measuring in height. It has survived the vicissitudes of war and floods to become the oldest landmark in this ancient city. Another Song-dynasty pagoda, , dating from 974, has been partially destroyed. Another well-known sight was the
astronomical Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It uses mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Gr ...
clock tower A clock towerA clock tower is an architectural structure housing a turret clock. Clock Tower may also refer to: Buildings * Clock Tower, Anantapur * Clock Tower of Ateca The Clock Tower of Ateca is a structure in Ateca, Spain. A leaning towe ...

clock tower
of the engineer, scientist, and statesman
Su Song Su Song (; courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere, including China, Japan, K ...
(1020–1101 AD). It was crowned with a rotating
armillary sphere An armillary sphere (variations are known as spherical astrolabe, armilla, or armil) is a model of astronomical object, objects in the sky (on the celestial sphere), consisting of a spherical framework of rings, centered on Earth or the Sun, that ...

armillary sphere
that was hydraulically-powered (i.e. by
water wheel A water wheel is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine A molecular machine, nanite, or nanomachine i ...

water wheel
and a
water clock A water clock or clepsydra (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populati ...
), yet it incorporated an
escapement An escapement is a mechanical linkage in mechanical watches and clocks that gives impulses to the timekeeping element and periodically releases the gear train to move forward, advancing the clock's hands. The impulse action transfers energy to ...

escapement
mechanism two hundred years before they were found in the clockworks of
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
and featured the first known endless power-transmitting
chain drive Chain drive is a way of transmitting mechanical power from one place to another. It is often used to convey power to the wheels of a vehicle, particularly bicycle A bicycle, also called a bike or cycle, is a human-powered transport, huma ...
. Kaifeng reached its peak importance in the 11th century as a commercial and industrial center at the intersection of four major canals. During this time, the city was surrounded by three rings of city walls and probably had a population of between 600,000 and 700,000. It is believed that Kaifeng was the largest city in the world from 1013 to 1127. This period ended in 1127 when the city fell to
JurchenJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people, Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century ** Haixi Jurchens, a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty ** Jianzhou Jurchens, a grouping of t ...
invaders during the Jingkang Incident. It subsequently came under the rule of the Jurchen Jin dynasty, which had conquered most of
North China North China, or Huabei ( ) is a geographical region of China, consisting of the provinces of Beijing Beijing ( ; ; ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Rep ...

North China
during the
Jin–Song Wars The Jin–Song Wars were a series of conflicts between the JurchenJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people, Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century ** Haixi Jurchens, a grouping of the Jurchens as identifi ...
. While it remained an important administrative center, only the area inside the inner city wall of the early Song remained settled and the two outer rings were abandoned. As the imperial capital of the Song, Kaifeng was conveniently situated along the
Grand CanalGrand Canal can refer to multiple waterways: * Grand Canal (China) in eastern China * Grand Canal (Ireland), between the River Shannon and Dublin in Ireland * Grand Canal (Venice) in Venice, Italy * Grand Canal d'Alsace in eastern France *Grand Cana ...
for logistics supply but militarily vulnerable due to its position on the
floodplain A floodplain or flood plain or bottomlands is an area of land adjacent to a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows int ...
s of the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
. Kaifeng served as the Jurchen "southern capital" from 1157 (other sources say 1161) and was reconstructed during this time. The Jurchen kept their main capital further north until 1214 when they were forced to move the imperial court southwards to Kaifeng in order to flee from the onslaught of the
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian people, East Asian ethnic group indigenous peoples, native to the Inner Mongolia, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, Mongolia an ...

Mongols
. In 1232 they succumbed to the combined Mongol and Song forces in the
Mongol siege of Kaifeng In the Mongol siege of Kaifeng from 1232 to 1233, the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, seco ...
. The Mongols captured the city and in 1279
conquered all of China
conquered all of China
. During the Yuan dynasty Bianliang became the capital of Henan Jiangbei Province, which was established in 1277. The city was briefly captured around the mid-fourteenth century by the Red Turban rebels who made it their capital for ten years. They were crushed by the early Ming forces. At the beginning of the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
in 1368, Kaifeng was made the capital of Henan province. In 1642, Kaifeng was flooded by the Ming army with water from the Yellow River to prevent the peasant rebel
Li Zicheng Li Zicheng (22 September 1606 – 1645), born Li Hongji, also known by the nickname, Dashing King, was a Chinese peasant rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty ...
from taking over. After this disaster, the city was abandoned again. In 1662, during the reign of the
Kangxi Emperor The Kangxi Emperor (Xuanye; 4 May 1654– 20 December 1722) was the third Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Wester ...

Kangxi Emperor
in the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
, Kaifeng was rebuilt. Another reconstruction in 1843 followed flooding in 1841, shaping Kaifeng as it stands today. On 6 June 1938, the city was occupied by the invading
Japanese Imperial Army The was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan The was a historical nation-state A nation state is a state in which a great majority shares the same culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompa ...
. Kaifeng is also known for having the oldest extant Jewish community in China, the Kaifeng Jews. Kaifeng remained the capital of Henan province until 1954, when it was moved to
Zhengzhou Zhengzhou (; ), also spelt Zheng Zhou and Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Chengchow, is the Capital (political), capital and largest city of Henan, Henan Province in the Central China, central part of the China, People's ...

Zhengzhou
. In 1969, the former
President of the People's Republic of China The president of the People's Republic of China is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public imag ...
,
Liu Shaoqi Liu Shaoqi ( ; 24 November 189812 November 1969) was a Chinese revolutionary, politician, and theorist. He was Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee The chairperson (also chair, chairman, or chairwoman) is the presiding officer of an organiz ...

Liu Shaoqi
, died from
medical neglect In the context of caregiving, neglect is a form of abuse where the perpetrator, who is responsible for caring for someone who is unable to care for themselves, fails to do so. It can be a result of carelessness, indifference, or unwillingness and ...
while under house arrest in Kaifeng.


Climate

Kaifeng has a
monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology ...

monsoon
-influenced
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitude In geography Geograp ...
( Köppen ''Cwa'') that borders on a humid continental climate, with four distinct seasons. Winters are cool and mostly dry while summers are hot and humid; spring is warm and sees some, but not much rainfall, while autumn weather is crisp and drier. Precipitation mainly occurs from June to September.


Transportation


Air

Downtown Kaifeng is about away from
Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport is the principal airport An airport is an aerodrome An aerodrome (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic ...
(
IATA The International Air Transport Association (IATA ) is a trade association A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association, sector association or industry body, is an organization founded and funded by busi ...
: CGO,
ICAO The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialized and funding agency of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international s ...
: ZHCC), which is the busiest airport in
central China Central China () is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region that includes the provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivisio ...
in terms of both passenger and cargo traffic (2017 statistics). With the completion of Zhengzhou–Kaifeng intercity railway and Zhengzhou–Xinzheng Airport intercity railway, fast train connections to
Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport is the principal airport An airport is an aerodrome An aerodrome (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic ...
from Kaifeng became available. As of August 2018, there are 12 pairs of intercity trains running between and Songchenglu every day, with a travel time of 53 min.


Rail

Kaifeng railway station is on the east–west
Longhai Railway The Longhai railway (), postal romanization, formerly romanized as the is a major arterial east–west railway in China. It runs from Lianyungang, Jiangsu on the Yellow Sea to Lanzhou, Gansu through the provinces of Jiangsu, Anhui, Henan, Shaanxi ...
mainline and provides convenient access to many cities around China, including Beijing West,
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the sou ...

Shanghai
, Shanghai Hongqiao,
Tianjin Tianjin (; ; Mandarin: ), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality and a coastal metropolis in North China, Northern China on the shore of the Bohai Sea. It is ...
, Xi'an, Jinan,
Hangzhou Hangzhou (, , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua franca A lingua franca (; ...
. Services to
Zhengzhou Zhengzhou (; ), also spelt Zheng Zhou and Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Chengchow, is the Capital (political), capital and largest city of Henan, Henan Province in the Central China, central part of the China, People's ...

Zhengzhou
,
Luoyang Luoyang is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin Chinese, Jin: uə xɔ Standard Beijing Mandarin, Mandarin: ''Huáng hé'' ) is the second-longest river in China, afte ...

Luoyang
and
Qingdao Qingdao (, also spelled Tsingtao; , Mandarin: ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative ...

Qingdao
are also frequent and convenient. Direct long-distance services to
Shenzhen Shenzhen (; ; ), also known as Sham Chun, is a major sub-provincial A sub-provincial division () (or deputy-provincial divisions) in China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the Lis ...
,
Guangzhou Guangzhou (, ; ; or ; ), also known as Canton and alternatively romanized as Kwongchow or Kwangchow, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the ...
,
Chengdu Chengdu (, ; simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representa ...
, Chongqing North,
Harbin Harbin (; ) is a sub-provincial city A sub-provincial division () in China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most ...

Harbin
,
Ürümqi Ürümqi or Urumchi (, ; ug, ئۈرۈمچى, CTA: ''Ürümçi'', ; zh, s=乌鲁木齐, zh, p=Wūlǔmùqí), abbreviated Wushi ( zh, s=乌市, links=no, zh, p=Wūshì, links=no, labels=no), formerly known as Dihua or Tihwa ( zh, s=迪化, l ...
,
Fuzhou Fuzhou (; , Fuzhounese The Fuzhou dialect (, FR: ), also Foochow, Hokchew, Hok-chiu, or Fuzhounese, is the prestige Prestige refers to a good reputation or high esteem; in earlier usage, ''prestige'' meant "showiness". (19th c.) Prest ...
,
Dalian Dalian is a major sub-provincial A sub-provincial division () (or deputy-provincial divisions) in China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies ...
and
Wuhan Wuhan (, ; ; ) is the capital of Hubei Province Hubei (; ; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name ...

Wuhan
are also available. The Zhengzhou–Kaifeng intercity railway () started operation on 28 December 2014, connecting the provincial capital
Zhengzhou Zhengzhou (; ), also spelt Zheng Zhou and Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Chengchow, is the Capital (political), capital and largest city of Henan, Henan Province in the Central China, central part of the China, People's ...

Zhengzhou
and Kaifeng. The railway currently terminates at Songchenglu, and is planned to be extended to Kaifeng railway station. The designed top speed is . Kaifeng North railway station of the
Xuzhou–Lanzhou high-speed railway The Eurasia Continental Bridge corridor () is a high-speed rail corridor connecting Lianyungang, a port in northern Jiangsu Jiangsu (; Postal romanization, formerly romanized Kiangsu) is an eastern-central coastal Provinces of the People's Rep ...
is the main high-speed railway station of the city. It started operation on 10 September 2016.


Coach

There are 4 main
coach station A bus station is a structure where city bus, city or intercity bus, intercity buses stop to pick up and drop off passengers. While the term bus depot can also be used to refer to a bus station, it generally refers to a bus garage. A bus stati ...
s in Kaifeng: * Kaifeng West Coach Station () * Kaifeng Long-Distance Coach Station () * Kaifeng Jinming Coach Station () * Kaifeng Xiangguosi Coach Station () There are frequent services to many neighboring counties, other provincial cities and long-distance services to other provinces.


Road transport

*
G30 Lianyungang–Khorgas Expressway The Lianyungang–Khorgas Expressway (), commonly referred to as the ''Lianhuo Expressway'' (), is
*
G45 Daqing–Guangzhou Expressway The Daqing–Guangzhou Expressway (), commonly referred to as the ''Daguang Expressway'' () is an expressway that connects the cities of Daqing, Heilongjiang, and Guangzhou, Guangdong. When fully complete, it will be in length. Route Once comple ...
* S82 Zhengzhou–Minquan Expressway * S83 Lankao–Nanyang Expressway *
China National Highway 106 China National Highway 106 (G106; , 106 Guo Dao) is a road from Beijing Beijing ( ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's List ...
*
China National Highway 220 China National Highway 220 (G220) runs from Binzhou, Shandong Shandong (; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China and is part of the Ea ...
* China National Highway 310


Culture


Religion

Kaifeng is known for having the oldest extant Jewish community in China, the Kaifeng Jews. It also has a significant
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
enclave and is notable for its many women's mosques (''nǚsì''), including the oldest ''nǚsì'' in China: Wangjia Hutong Women's Mosque, which dates to 1820.NPR
/ref> There are also some active Christian churches, like Sacred-Heart of Kaifeng cathedral ().


Cuisine

Kaifeng cuisine plays a dominant part in forming Henan cuisine. Kaifeng offers a wide range of food specialties such as steamed pie and dumplings. Particularly famous is Kaifeng's five-spice bread (''wǔxiāng shāobǐng''), which, like
pita Pita ( or ) or pitta (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of gram ...

pita
, can be opened and filled. In the evening, Kaifeng's streets turn into restaurants while hundreds open their stands and begin selling their food in the famous
night market Night markets or night bazaars are street market fa:بازار A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods. In different parts of the world, a mark ...
. People from nearby
Zhengzhou Zhengzhou (; ), also spelt Zheng Zhou and Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Chengchow, is the Capital (political), capital and largest city of Henan, Henan Province in the Central China, central part of the China, People's ...

Zhengzhou
often come to Kaifeng to visit family members and to enjoy the atmosphere. The
Ma Yu Ching's Bucket Chicken House Ma Yu Ching's Bucket Chicken House, or Ma Yuxing, (), is a historic restaurant in Kaifeng, Henan, China, said to be originally established in 1153, during the Jin dynasty (1115–1234). The Ma family began trading in bucket chicken in Nanjing, in ...
(), located in Kaifeng, is by some accounts the world's oldest restaurant.


Chrysanthemums

The
chrysanthemum Chrysanthemums (), sometimes called mums or chrysanths, are flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Gree ...

chrysanthemum
is the city flower of Kaifeng. The tradition of cultivating varieties of chrysanthemums extends back 1600 years, and the scale of cultivation reached its height during the Song dynasty until its loss to the Jürchens in 1126. The city has held the Kaifeng Chrysanthemum Cultural Festival since 1983 (renamed China Kaifeng Chrysanthemum Cultural Festival in 1994). The festival has since taken place between 18 October and 18 November of every year. The festival reached another milestone on 18 October 2012, when it celebrated its 30th birthday. The opening ceremony was broadcast live during the evening prime slot on
Henan Television Henan Television, () commonly abbreviated as HNTV, a provincial television broadcaster is headquartered in Zhengzhou Zhengzhou is the capital and largest city of Henan Province in the central part of the People's Republic of China. Located in ...
(HNTV), which broadcasts to all Chinese cities at or above the prefecture level. During the festival, hundreds of chrysanthemums breeds are on show at festival venues, and the flower becomes a common features around the city. Kaifeng has been dubbed the "city of chrysanthemums".


Sporting events


Zheng-Kai International Marathon

The China Zheng-Kai International Marathon (, ''Zheng-Kai'' stands for "
Zhengzhou Zhengzhou (; ), also spelt Zheng Zhou and Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Chengchow, is the Capital (political), capital and largest city of Henan, Henan Province in the Central China, central part of the China, People's ...

Zhengzhou
-Kaifeng", also abbreviated "ZK") is a sporting event hosted jointly by the Chinese Athletic Association, the general sport administration of Henan province, Zhengzhou municipal government, and the Kaifeng municipal government. It is the premier international sports competition in Henan province and one of the biggest sports competitions in the Central-West of China. ZK International Marathon is held at the end of March or beginning of April each year. The main part of the event occurs along the famous Zhengkai Express Way (). At its launch in 2007, 5600 athletes competed. By 2012, almost 25000 athletes from 28 countries and regions have participated in the ZK International Marathon.


Military

Kaifeng is the headquarters of the 20th Group Army of the
People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between St ...
, one of three group armies that comprise the
Jinan Military Region The Jinan Military Region was a PLA Military Region The People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the regular army, regular armed forces of the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) and the armed wing of the PRC's ...

Jinan Military Region
responsible for the defense of the
Yellow River Plain Zhongyuan (), Chungyuan in Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a Romanization of Chinese, romanization system for Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Francis Wade, during the mid-19th century, and w ...
. Kaifeng Air Base is a military airfield in the southern suburb of Kaifeng City. It does not provide civilian aviation service.


Gallery


Twin towns – sister cities

Kaifeng is twinned with: *
Kiryat Motzkin Kiryat Motzkin ( he, קִרְיַת מוֹצְקִין) is a city in the Haifa District of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل), officially known as the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂ ...
, Israel *
Omsk Omsk (; rus, Омск, p=omsk) is the administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In ...
, Russia * Toda, Japan *
Wichita Wichita ( ) may refer to: People *Wichita people, a Native American tribe *Wichita language, the language of the tribe Places in the United States * Wichita, Kansas, a city * Wichita County, Kansas, a county in western Kansas (city of Wichita is ...
, United States * Wingecarribee, Australia *
Yeongcheon Yeongcheon () is a Administrative divisions of South Korea, city in North Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. Yeongcheon is located southeast of Seoul, in the southeast of North Gyeongsang Province. It is on the Gyeongbu Expressway linking Seoul ...
, South Korea


Colleges and universities


Public

*
Henan University Henan University () is one of the oldest public and key university, universities in China. It was founded in 1912. In the beginning, its name was the Preparatory School for Further Study in Europe and America. In 1942, its name was changed to Natio ...
() (founded 1912) * Kaifeng University () (founded 1980) * Kaifeng Institute of Education () * Yellow River Conservancy Technical Institute () (founded 1929)


See also

*
Historical capitals of China This is a list of historical capitals of China. Four Great Ancient Capitals There are traditionally four major historical capitals of China referred to as the "Four Great Ancient Capitals of China" (). The four are Beijing Beijing ( ), ...
* 1642 Yellow River flood * Kaifeng Jews


References


Further reading

* * ''The Origin of the Kaifeng Jews'', in S. Shaked, ed., ''Irano-Judaica'', Jerusalem, 1982, pp. 101–11


External links


Government website of Kaifeng
(in Simplified Chinese)
Kaifeng City Portal
(in Simplified Chinese) * Notes o

from the Papers of Charles Daniel Tenney {{Authority control 360s BC establishments 364 BC Historic Jewish communities Populated places established in the 4th century BC History of the Jews in Asia Chinese Jews