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The KGB ( rus, links=no, Комитет государственной безопасности (КГБ), a=ru-KGB.ogg, p=kəmʲɪˈtʲet ɡəsʊˈdarstvʲɪn(ː)əj bʲɪzɐˈpasnəsʲtʲɪ, Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti), translated in English as the Committee for State Security, was the main
security agency A security agency is a governmental organization A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administra ...
for the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
from 13 March 1954 until 3 December 1991. As a direct successor of preceding agencies such as the
Cheka The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission ( rus, Всеросси́йская чрезвыча́йная коми́ссия, r=Vserossíyskaya chrezvycháynaya komíssiya, p=fsʲɪrɐˈsʲijskəjə tɕrʲɪzvɨˈtɕæjnəjə kɐˈmʲisʲɪjə), a ...
,
GPU A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit File:PExdcr01CJC.jpg, 200px, A circuit built on a printed circuit board (PCB). An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transis ...
,
OGPU The Joint State Political Directorate (OGPU; russian: Объединённое государственное политическое управление) was the intelligence service An intelligence agency is a government agency responsibl ...
,
NKGB The People's Commissariat for State Security (russian: Народный комиссариат государственной безопасности) or NKGB, was the name of the Soviet secret police, intelligence and counter-intelligence f ...
,
NKVD The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (: ''Naródnyy komissariát vnútrennikh del''; ), abbreviated NKVD ( ), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union. Established in 1917 as NKVD of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republi ...
and
MGBMGB may refer to: * Game Boy#Game Boy Pocket, Game Boy Pocket (product code MGB-001) and Game Boy#Game Boy Light, Game Boy Light (product code MGB-101), portable gaming devices by Nintendo * Matematička Gimnazija, Mathematical Gymnasium Belgrade ('' ...
, it was attached to the
Council of MinistersThe Council of Ministers is a traditional name given to the supreme executive organ in some governments. The term is usually equivalent to the word " cabinet" ( Council of State is a similar term that also may refer to a Cabinet. However, the terms ...
. It was the chief government agency of "union-republican jurisdiction", carrying out internal security,
intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction, logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, critical thinking, and problem-solving. More generally, it can be des ...
and secret police functions. Similar agencies operated in each of the
republics of the Soviet Union The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the Union Republics ( rus, Сою́зные Респу́блики, r=Soyúznye Respúbliki) were National delimitation in the Soviet Union, ethnically based administrative units of ...
aside from the
Russian SFSR The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links=no, Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya ...
, with many associated ministries, state committees and state commissions. The agency was a
military service Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia A militia () is generally an army or some other Military organization, fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a country, or subject ...
governed by army laws and regulations, in the same fashion as the
Soviet Army The Soviet Ground Forces (russian: Советские сухопутные войска, Sovetskiye sukhoputnye voyska, SSV) was the main of the from 1946 to 1992. Until 25 February 1946, it was known as the , established by decree on 15 (28) ...
or the
MVD The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (MVD, russian: Министерство внутренних дел (МВД), ''Ministerstvo vnutrennikh del'') is the interior ministry of Russia. The MVD is responsible for law enfor ...
Internal Troops The Internal Troops, full name Internal Troops of the Ministry for Internal Affairs (MVD) (russian: Внутренние войска Министерства внутренних дел, Vnutrenniye Voiska Ministerstva Vnutrennikh Del; abbreviated ...
. While most of the KGB archives remain classified, two online documentary sources are available.JHU.edu
, archive of documents about the
Communist Party of the Soviet Union The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). Abbreviated in Russian as КПСС or ''KPSS''. was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union. The CPSU was the One-party state, sole governing party of the Soviet Union until 19 ...
and the KGB, collected by
Vladimir Bukovsky Vladimir Konstantinovich Bukovsky (; russian: link=no, Влади́мир Константи́нович Буко́вский; 30 December 1942 – 27 October 2019) was a Russian-born British human rights activist and writer. From the late 195 ...
.
Its main functions were
foreign intelligence Intelligence assessment is the development of behavior forecasts or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organisation, based on wide ranges of available overt and covert information. Assessments develop in response to leadership d ...

foreign intelligence
, counter-intelligence, operative-investigative activities, guarding the state border of the USSR, guarding the leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the
Soviet Government The Government of the Soviet Union ( rus, Прави́тельство СССР, p=prɐˈvʲitʲɪlʲstvə ɛs ɛs ɛs ˈɛr, r=Pravítelstvo SSSR, lang=no), formally the All-Union Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, commonly abbr ...
, organization and security of government communications as well as combating
nationalist Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a in-group and out-group, group of people),Anthony D. Smith, Smith, Anthony. ''Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History''. Polity (publisher), Polity, ...
,
dissident A dissident is a person who actively challenges an established Political system, political or Organized religion, religious system, doctrine, belief, policy, or institution. In a religious context, the word has been used since the 18th century, and ...
,
religious Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain v ...
and
anti-Soviet Anti-Sovietism, anti-Soviet sentiment, called by Soviet authorities ''antisovetchina'' (russian: антисоветчина), refers to persons and activities actually or allegedly aimed against the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. official ...
activities. On 3 December 1991, the KGB was officially dissolved. It was later succeeded in Russia by the Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR) and what would later become the
Federal Security Service The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB RF; rus, Федеральная служба безопасности Российской Федерации (ФСБ), Federal'naya sluzhba bezopasnosti Rossiyskoy Federatsii, fʲɪdʲ ...
(FSB). Following the
1991–1992 South Ossetia War The 1991–1992 South Ossetia War (also known as the First South Ossetia War) was fought as part of the Georgian–Ossetian conflict between Georgia (country), Georgian government forces and ethnic Georgian militia on one side and the forces of ...
, the self-proclaimed
Republic of South Ossetia South Ossetia (, less commonly ), officially the Republic of South Ossetia – the State of Alania, or the Tskhinvali Region, is a '' de facto'' state in the South Caucasus recognised by most countries as part of Georgia. It has an officially ...
established its own KGB, keeping the unreformed name. In addition,
Belarus , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Minsk Minsk ( be, Мінск , russian: link=no, Минск) is the capital and the largest city of Belarus, located on the Svislach (Berezina), Svislach and the now subterranean Nyamiha, Niam ...

Belarus
established its own national security agency in 1991, the
State Security Committee of the Republic of Belarus The State Security Committee of the Republic of Belarus (russian: Комитет государственной безопасности Республики Беларусь, КГБ, KGB; be, Камітэт дзяржаўнай бяспекі, К ...
, keeping the unreformed name.


History

Restructuring Restructuring is the corporate management term for the act of reorganizing the legal, ownership, operational, or other structures of a company (law), company for the purpose of making it more profitable, or better organized for its present need ...
in the MVD following the fall of Beria in June 1953 resulted in the formation of the KGB under
Ivan Serov Ivan Alexandrovich Serov (russian: Ива́н Алекса́ндрович Серóв; 13 August 1905 – 1 July 1990) was a Russian Soviet intelligence officer who served as the head of the KGB between March 1954 and December 1958, as well as head ...
in March 1954. Secretary
Leonid Brezhnev Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (; rus, links= no, Леонид Ильич Брежнев, p= lʲɪɐˈnʲit ɨˈlʲjidʑ ˈbrʲeʐnʲɪf, a= Ru-Leonid Ilich Brezhnev.ogg; uk, links= no, Леонід Ілліч Брежнєв, 19 December 1906  ...
overthrew Premier
Nikita Khrushchev Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (– 11 September 1971) served as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 and as Premier of the Soviet Unio ...
in 1964. Brezhnev (in power: 1964-1982) was concerned about ambitious spy-chiefs - the communist party had managed Serov's successor, the ambitious KGB Chairman,
Aleksandr Shelepin Alexander Nikolayevich Shelepin (; 18 August 1918 – 24 October 1994) was a Soviet Union, Soviet politician and security and intelligence officer. A long-time member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, he served a ...
(in office: 1958–1961), but Shelepin carried out Brezhnev's palace ''coup d'état'' against Khrushchev in 1964 (despite Shelepin not then being in the KGB). Brezhnev sacked Shelepin's successor and protégé,
Vladimir Semichastny
Vladimir Semichastny
(in office: 1961–1967) as KGB Chairman and re-assigned him to a sinecure in the
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR, UkrSSR or UkSSR; uk, Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, translit=Ukrainska Radianska Sotsialistychna Respublika, abbreviated ...
. Shelepin found himself demoted from chairman of the Committee of Party and State Control in 1965 to Trade Union Council chairman (in office 1967-1975). In the 1980s, Soviet Union
glasnost In the Russian language Russian (, tr. ''russkiy yazyk'') is an East Slavic language The East Slavic languages constitute one of the three regional subgroups of Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic langu ...
provoked KGB Chairman
Vladimir Kryuchkov Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov (russian: Влади́мир Алекса́ндрович Крючко́в, link=no; 29 February 1924 – 23 November 2007) was a Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Repu ...

Vladimir Kryuchkov
(in office: 1988–1991) to lead the August 1991 Soviet ''coup d'état'' in an attempt to depose President
Mikhail Gorbachev Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician, lawyer, and statesman. The List of leaders of the Soviet Union, eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union, he was the General Secretary of the ...

Mikhail Gorbachev
. The failed ''coup d'état'' and the collapse of the USSR heralded the end of the KGB on 3 December 1991. The KGB's main successors are the FSB (
Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB RF; rus, Федеральная служба безопасности Российской Федерации (ФСБ), Federal'naya sluzhba bezopasnosti Rossiyskoy Federatsii, fʲɪd ...
) and the SVR ( Foreign Intelligence Service) .


In the US


Between the World Wars

The
GRU The Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, abbreviated G.R.U., rus, Гла́вное разведывательное управле́ние Генера́льного шта́ба Воо ...

GRU
(military intelligence) recruited the ideological agent
Julian WadleighJulian Wadleigh (1904–1994) was an American economist and a Department of State official in the 1930s and 1940s. He was a key witness in the Alger Hiss trials. Background Henry Julian Wadleigh was born in 1904. He went to an English "public" sc ...
, who became a State Department diplomat in 1936. The
NKVD The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (: ''Naródnyy komissariát vnútrennikh del''; ), abbreviated NKVD ( ), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union. Established in 1917 as NKVD of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republi ...
's first US operation was establishing the legal residency of
Boris Bazarov Boris Yakovlevich Bazarov (russian: Борис Яковлевич Базаров; 1893 - 1939) was a Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia ...
and the illegal residency of
Iskhak Akhmerov Iskhak Abdulovich Akhmerov (russian: italic=yes, Исха́к Абду́лович Ахме́ров, tt, italic=yes, Исхак Габдулла улы Әхмәров, İsxaq Ğabdulla ulı Əxmərov) (1901–1976) was a highly decorated OGPU/N ...
in 1934. Throughout, the
Communist Party USA The Communist Party USA, officially the Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA), is a communist party in the United States established in 1919 after a split in the Socialist Party of America following the Russian Revolution. Th ...
(CPUSA) and its General Secretary
Earl Browder Earl Russell Browder (May 20, 1891 – June 27, 1973) was an American political activist and leader of the Communist Party USA (CPUSA). Browder was the General Secretary of the CPUSA during the 1930s and first half of the 1940s. During World War ...
, helped NKVD recruit Americans, working in government, business, and industry. Other important, low-level and high-level ideological agents were the diplomats Laurence Duggan and
Michael Whitney Straight Michael Whitney Straight (September 1, 1916 – January 4, 2004) was an American magazine publisher, novelist, patron of the arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a p ...
in the State Department, the statistician
Harry Dexter White Harry Dexter White (October 29, 1892 – August 16, 1948) was a senior U.S. Treasury department official. Working closely with the Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau, Jr., he helped set American financial policy toward the Allies of Wo ...
in the
Treasury Department A treasury is either *A government department related to finance and taxation, a Finance minister, finance ministry. *A place or location where treasure, such as currency or precious items are kept. These can be state or royal property, church va ...
, the economist
Lauchlin Currie Lauchlin Bernard Currie (October 8, 1902 – December 23, 1993) worked as White House The White House is the official residence and workplace of the president of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Wa ...
(an FDR advisor), and the "Silvermaster Group", headed by statistician
Greg Silvermaster Nathan Gregory Silvermaster (November 27, 1898 – October 7, 1964), an economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and con ...
, in the Farm Security Administration and the Board of Economic Warfare. Moreover, when
Whittaker Chambers Whittaker Chambers (born Jay Vivian Chambers; April 1, 1901 – July 9, 1961) was an American writer-editor, who, after early years as a Communist Party A communist party is a political party A political party is an organization t ...

Whittaker Chambers
, formerly Alger Hiss's courier, approached the Roosevelt Government—to identify the Soviet spies Duggan, White, and others—he was ignored. Hence, during the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
(1939–45)—at the
Tehran Tehran (; fa, تهران ) is the Capital city, capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the List of largest cities o ...

Tehran
(1943),
Yalta Yalta (: Я́лта) is a resort town, resort city on the south coast of the Crimean Peninsula surrounded by the Black Sea. It serves as the administrative center of Yalta Municipality, one of the regions within Crimea. The population as of the ...
(1945), and
Potsdam Potsdam () is the capital and largest city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Brandenburg. It directly borders the German capital, Berlin, and is part of the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region. It is situated on the Havel, Ri ...

Potsdam
(1945) conferences—Big Three Ally Joseph Stalin of the USSR, was better informed about the war affairs of his US and UK allies than they were about his. Soviet espionage was at its most successful in collecting scientific and technological intelligence about advances in
jet propulsion Jet propulsion is the propulsion Propulsion is the action or process of pushing or pulling to drive an object forward. The term is derived from two Latin words: '' pro'', meaning'' before'' or ''forward''; and '' pellere'', meaning ''to drive'' ...

jet propulsion
,
radar Radar (radio detection and ranging) is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the distance (''ranging''), angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, Marine radar, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor ...

radar
and
encryption In cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logy, -logia'', "study", respectively), is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in ...

encryption
, which impressed Moscow, but stealing atomic secrets was the capstone of NKVD espionage against Anglo–American science and technology. To wit, British
Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was a research and development Research and development (R&D, R+D), known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), is the set of innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in ...
team physicist
Klaus Fuchs Klaus Emil Julius Fuchs (29 December 1911 – 28 January 1988) was a German theoretical physicist and atomic spy Klaus Fuchs, arguably the most important of the identified "atomic spies" for his extensive access to high-level scientific ...

Klaus Fuchs
(GRU 1941) was the main agent of the Rosenberg spy ring. In 1944, the New York City residency infiltrated top secret
Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or ...
in New Mexico by recruiting
Theodore Hall Theodore Alvin Hall (October 20, 1925 – November 1, 1999) was an American physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science ...
, a 19-year-old Harvard physicist.


During the Cold War

The KGB failed to rebuild most of its US illegal resident networks. The aftermath of the Second
Red Scare A Red Scare is the promotion of a widespread fear of a potential rise of communism Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Lati ...
(1947–57) and the crisis in the CPUSA hampered recruitment. The last major illegal resident,
Rudolf Abel Rudolf Ivanovich Abel (russian: Рудольф Иванович Абель), real name William August Fisher (11 July 1903 – 15 November 1971), was a Soviet Union, Soviet intelligence officer. He adopted his alias when arrested on charges of ...
(Vilyam Genrikhovich Fisher/"Willie" Vilyam Fishers), was betrayed by his assistant,
Reino Häyhänen Reino Häyhänen (; 14 May 1920 – 17 February 1961) was a Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, somet ...

Reino Häyhänen
, in 1957. Recruitment then emphasised mercenary agents, an approach especially successful in scientific and technical espionage, since private industry practised lax internal security, unlike the US Government. One notable KGB success occurred in 1967, with the walk-in recruitment of
US Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = "Anchors Aweigh "Anchors Aweigh" is the fight song of the United States Naval A ...
Chief Warrant Officer Chief warrant officer is a military rank used by the United States Armed Forces The United States Armed Forces are the of the . The armed forces consists of six : the , , , , , and . The is the of the armed forces and forms military po ...
John Anthony Walker
John Anthony Walker
. Over eighteen years, Walker enabled Soviet Intelligence to decipher some one million US Navy messages, and track the US Navy. In the late Cold War, the KGB was successful with intelligence coups in the cases of the mercenary walk-in recruits FBI
counterspy ''CounterSpy'' was an United States, American magazine that published articles on covert operations, especially those undertaken by the American government.Peake, Hayden B"The Intelligence Officer's Bookshelf"(Note 18). ''Studies in Intelligence'', ...
Robert Hanssen Robert Philip Hanssen (born April 18, 1944) is an American former Federal Bureau of Investigation The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States and its principal federal ...

Robert Hanssen
(1979–2001) and CIA Soviet Division officer
Aldrich Ames Aldrich Hazen "Rick" Ames (; born May 26, 1941) is a former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) officer turned KGB double agent, who was convicted of espionage in 1994. He is serving a life sentence, without the possibility of parole, in the Feder ...

Aldrich Ames
(1985–1994).


In the Soviet Bloc

It was Cold War policy for the KGB of the Soviet Union and the secret services of the
satellite state A satellite state is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutiona ...
s to extensively monitor public and private opinion, internal subversion and possible revolutionary plots in the
Soviet Bloc The Eastern Bloc, also known as the Communist Bloc, the Socialist Bloc and the Soviet Bloc, was the group of socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' ...
. In supporting those Communist governments, the KGB was instrumental in crushing the
Hungarian Revolution of 1956 The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 (also the Hungarian Uprising, 23 October – 10 November 1956; hu, 1956-os forradalom), was a countrywide revolution against the Stalinist government of the (1949–1989) and the Hungarian domestic policies imp ...
and the
Prague Spring#REDIRECT Prague Spring The Prague Spring ( cs, Pražské jaro, sk, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization and mass protest in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic ( Czech and sk, Česk ...
of "
Socialism with a Human Face Socialism with a human face ( cs, socialismus s lidskou tváří, sk, socializmus s ľudskou tvárou) is a slogan A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, political slogan, political, Advertising slogan, commercial, religious ...
" in Czechoslovakia, 1968. During the Hungarian revolt, KGB chairman
Ivan Serov Ivan Alexandrovich Serov (russian: Ива́н Алекса́ндрович Серóв; 13 August 1905 – 1 July 1990) was a Russian Soviet intelligence officer who served as the head of the KGB between March 1954 and December 1958, as well as head ...
personally supervised the post-invasion "normalization" of the country. Consequently, the KGB monitored the satellite state populations for occurrences of "harmful attitudes" and "hostile acts"; yet, stopping the Prague Spring, deposing a nationalist Communist government, was its greatest achievement. The KGB prepared the Red Army's route by infiltrating
Czechoslovakia , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918–19391945–1992 , p1 = Austria-Hungary , image_p1 = , s1 = Czech Re ...

Czechoslovakia
with many illegal residents disguised as Western tourists. They were to gain the trust of and spy upon the most outspoken proponents of
Alexander Dubček Alexander Dubček (; 27 November 1921 – 7 November 1992) was a Slovaks, Slovak politician who served as the First Secretary of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) (''de facto'' leader of Czech ...
's new government. They were to plant subversive evidence, justifying the USSR's invasion, that right-wing groups—aided by Western intelligence agencies—were going to depose the Communist government of Czechoslovakia. Finally, the KGB prepared
hardline In politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of social scie ...
, pro-USSR members of the
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia ( and : ''Komunistická strana Československa'', KSČ) was a and political party in that existed between 1921 and 1992. It was a member of the . Between 1929 and 1953, it was led by . The KSČ was the so ...

Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
(CPC), such as
Alois Indra Alois (Latinized ''Aloysius'') is an Old Occitan form of the name Louis (given name), Louis. Modern variants include ''Aloys'' (German), ''Alois'' (Czech, German), ''Aloïs'' (French), ''Alajos'' (Hungarian), ''Aloísio'' (Italian, Spanish, Portugu ...
and Vasiľ Škultéty, to assume power after the Red Army's invasion. The KGB's Czech success in the 1960s was matched with the failed suppression of the
Solidarity Solidarity is an awareness of shared interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies creating a psychological sense of unity of groups or classes, which rejects the class conflict Class conflict, also referred to as class struggle and clas ...
labour movement in 1980s Poland. The KGB had forecast political instability consequent to the election of Archbishop of Kraków
Karol Wojtyla Pope John Paul II ( la, Ioannes Paulus II; it, Giovanni Paolo II; pl, Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła ; 18 May 19202 April 2005) was the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City, Vatican City State from 19 ...

Karol Wojtyla
as the first Polish Pope, John Paul II, whom they had categorised as "subversive" because of his anti-Communist sermons against the one-party régime of the
Polish United Workers' Party The Polish United Workers' Party ( pl, Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza; ), commonly abbreviated to PZPR, was the communist party which ruled the Polish People's Republic as a one-party state from 1948 to 1990. Ideologically, it was based ...
(PUWP). Despite its accurate forecast of crisis, the PUWP hindered the KGB's destroying the nascent Solidarity-backed political movement, fearing explosive civil violence if they imposed the KGB-recommended martial law. Aided by their Polish counterpart, the Służba Bezpieczeństwa (SB), the KGB successfully infiltrated spies to Solidarity and the Catholic Church, and in Operation X co-ordinated the declaration of martial law with Gen.
Wojciech Jaruzelski Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (; 6 July 1923 – 25 May 2014) was a Polish military officer, politician and ''de facto'' dictator of the Polish People's Republic from 1981 until 1989. He was the First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Part ...

Wojciech Jaruzelski
and the Polish Communist Party; however, the vacillating, conciliatory Polish approach blunted KGB effectiveness—and Solidarity then fatally weakened the Communist Polish government in 1989.


Suppressing internal dissent

During the Cold War, the KGB actively sought to combat "ideological subversion" –
anti-communist Anti-communism is a political movement A political movement is a collective attempt by a group of people to change government policy or social values. Political movements are usually in opposition to an element of the status quo  and are o ...

anti-communist
political and religious ideas and the
dissidents A dissident is a person who actively challenges an established political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and politi ...
who promoted them – which was generally dealt with as a matter of national security in discouraging influence of hostile foreign powers. After denouncing
Stalinism Stalinism is the means of governing and policies which were implemented in the Soviet Union from 1927 to 1953 by Joseph Stalin. It included the creation of a one-party totalitarian police state; rapid industrialization; the theory of socialis ...
in his secret speech
On the Personality Cult and its Consequences "On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences" (russian: «О культе личности и его последствиях», «''O kul'te lichnosti i yego posledstviyakh''»), popularly known as the "Secret Speech" (russian: секре ...
in 1956, head of state
Nikita Khrushchev Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (– 11 September 1971) served as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 and as Premier of the Soviet Unio ...
lessened suppression of "ideological subversion". As a result, critical literature re-emerged, including the novel ''
One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich ''One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich'' ( rus, links=no, Один день Ивана Денисовича, Odin den' Ivana Denisovicha, ɐˈdʲin ˈdʲenʲ ɪˈvanə dʲɪˈnʲisəvʲɪtɕə) is a short novel by the Russian writer and Nobel lau ...
'' (1962), by
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn. (11 December 1918 – 3 August 2008) was a Russian novelist, philosopher, historian, short story writer and political prisoner. One of the most famous Soviet dissidents, Solzhenitsyn was an outspoken critic of ...
, who was code-named PAUK ("spider") by the KGB. After Khrushchev's deposition in 1964, Leonid Brezhnev reverted the State and KGB to actively harsh suppression; house searches to seize documents and the continual monitoring of dissidents became routine again. To wit, in 1965, such a search-and-seizure operation yielded Solzhenitsyn manuscripts of "slanderous fabrications", and the subversion trial of the novelists
Andrei Sinyavsky Andrei Donatovich Sinyavsky (russian: Андре́й Дона́тович Синя́вский; 8 October 1925 – 25 February 1997) was a Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning E ...
and
Yuli Daniel Yuli Markovich Daniel ( rus, Ю́лий Ма́ркович Даниэ́ль, p=ˈjʉlʲɪj ˈmarkəvʲɪtɕ dənʲɪˈelʲ, a=Yuliy Markovich Daniel'.ru.vorb.oga; 15 November 1925 — 30 December 1988) was a Russian writer and Soviet dissident kn ...

Yuli Daniel
; Sinyavsky (alias "Abram Tertz"), and Daniel (alias "Nikolai Arzhak"), were captured after a Moscow literary-world
informant An informant (also called an informer) is a person who provides privileged information about a person or organization to an agency. The term is usually used within the law enforcement world, where they are officially known as confidential human ...
told KGB when to find them at home. In 1967, the campaign of this suppression increased under new KGB Chairman
Yuri Andropov Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (; rus, links=no, Юрий Владимирович Андропов, r=Yuriy Vladimirovich Andropov, p=ˈjʉrʲɪj vlɐˈdʲimʲɪrəvʲɪtɕ ɐnˈdropəf;  – 9 February 1984) was the sixth list of leaders o ...
. After suppressing the Prague Spring, KGB Chairman Andropov established the Fifth Directorate to monitor dissension and eliminate dissenters. He was especially concerned with
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn. (11 December 1918 – 3 August 2008) was a Russian novelist, philosopher, historian, short story writer and political prisoner. One of the most famous Soviet dissidents, Solzhenitsyn was an outspoken critic of ...
and
Andrei Sakharov Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov ( rus, Андре́й Дми́триевич Са́харов, p=ɐnˈdrʲej dmʲiˈtrʲɪjevʲɪtɕ ˈsaxərəf; 21 May 192114 December 1989) was a Russian nuclear physicist Nuclear physics is the field of physic ...
, "Public Enemy Number One". Andropov failed to expel Solzhenitsyn before 1974; but did internally exile Sakharov to
Gorky
Gorky
in 1980. The KGB failed to prevent Sakharov's collecting his
Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 Decemb ...
in 1975, but did prevent
Yuri Orlov Yuri Fyodorovich Orlov (russian: Ю́рий Фёдорович Орло́в, 13 August 1924 – 27 September 2020) was a particle accelerator physicist, human rights activist, Soviet dissident Soviet dissidents were people who disagreed with c ...
collecting his Nobel Prize in 1978; Chairman Andropov supervised both operations. KGB dissident-group infiltration featured ''agents provocateurs'' pretending "sympathy to the cause", smear campaigns against prominent dissidents, and show trials; once imprisoned, the dissident endured KGB interrogators ''and'' sympathetic informant cell-mates. In the event,
Mikhail Gorbachev Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician, lawyer, and statesman. The List of leaders of the Soviet Union, eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union, he was the General Secretary of the ...

Mikhail Gorbachev
's
glasnost In the Russian language Russian (, tr. ''russkiy yazyk'') is an East Slavic language The East Slavic languages constitute one of the three regional subgroups of Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic langu ...
policies lessened persecution of dissidents; he was effecting some of the policy changes they had been demanding since the 1970s.


Notable operations

*With the Trust Operation (1921–1926), the OGPU successfully deceived some leaders of the right-wing, counter-revolutionary White movement, White Guards back to the USSR for execution. *NKVD infiltrated and destroyed Trotskyist groups; in 1940, the Spain, Spanish agent Ramón Mercader assassinated Leon Trotsky in Mexico City. *KGB favoured active measures (e.g. disinformation), in discrediting the USSR's enemies. *For war-time, KGB had ready sabotage operations arms caches in target countries. According to declassified documents, the KGB aggressively recruited former German (mostly Abwehr) intelligence officers after the war. The KGB used them to penetrate the Gehlen Organization, West German intelligence service. In the 1960s, acting upon the information of KGB defector Anatoliy Golitsyn, the CIA counter-intelligence chief James Jesus Angleton believed KGB had mole (espionage), moles in two key places—the counter-intelligence section of CIA and the FBI's counter-intelligence department—through whom they would know of, and control, US counter-espionage to protect the moles and hamper the detection and capture of other Communist spies. Moreover, KGB counter-intelligence vetted foreign intelligence sources, so that the moles might "officially" approve an anti-CIA double agent as trustworthy. In retrospect, the captures of the moles
Aldrich Ames Aldrich Hazen "Rick" Ames (; born May 26, 1941) is a former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) officer turned KGB double agent, who was convicted of espionage in 1994. He is serving a life sentence, without the possibility of parole, in the Feder ...

Aldrich Ames
and
Robert Hanssen Robert Philip Hanssen (born April 18, 1944) is an American former Federal Bureau of Investigation The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States and its principal federal ...

Robert Hanssen
proved that Angleton, though ignored as over-aggressive, was correct, despite the fact that it cost him his job at CIA, which he left in 1975. In the mid-1970s, the KGB tried to secretly buy three banks in northern California to gain access to high-technology secrets. Their efforts were thwarted by the CIA. The banks were Peninsula National Bank in Burlingame, the First National Bank of Fresno, and the Tahoe National Bank in South Lake Tahoe. These banks had made numerous loans to advanced technology companies and had many of their officers and directors as clients. The KGB used the Moscow Narodny Bank Limited to finance the acquisition, and an intermediary, Singaporean businessman Amos Dawe, as the frontman.


Bangladesh

On 2 February 1973, the Politburo, which was led by Yuri Andropov at the time, demanded that KGB members influence Bangladesh (which was then newly formed) where Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was scheduled to win parliamentary elections. During that time, the Soviet secret service tried very hard to ensure support for his party and his allies and even predicted an easy victory for him. In June 1975, Mujib formed a new party called BAKSAL and created a one-party state. Three years later, the KGB in that region increased from 90 to 200, and by 1979 printed more than 100 newspaper articles. In these articles, the KGB officials accused Ziaur Rahman, popularly known as "Zia", and his regime of having ties with the United States. In August 1979, the KGB accused some officers who were arrested in Dhaka in an overthrow attempt, and by October, Andropov approved the fabrication of a letter in which he stated that Muhammad Ghulam Tawab, an Air Vice-Marshal at the time, was the main plotter, which led the Bangladesh, Indian and Sri Lankan press to believe that he was an American spy. Under Andropov's command, Service A, a KGB division, falsified the information in a letter to Moudud Ahmed in which it said that he was supported by the American government and by 1981 even sent a letter accusing the Reagan administration of plotting to overthrow President Zia and his regime. The letter also mentioned that after Mujib was assassinated the United States contacted Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad to replace him as a short-term President. When the election happened in the end of 1979, the KGB made sure that the Bangladesh Nationalist Party would win. The party received 207 out of 300 seats, but the Zia regime did not last long, falling on 29 May 1981 when after numerous escapes, Zia was assassinated in Chittagong.


Afghanistan

The KGB started infiltrating Afghanistan as early as 27 April 1978. During that time, the Afghan Communist Party was planning the overthrow of the imperially appointed Prime Minister of Afghanistan, Prime Minister Mohammed Daoud Khan. Under the leadership of Major General Sayed Mohammad Gulabzoy and Muhammad Raficode named Mammad and Niruz respectivelythe Soviet secret service learned of the imminent uprising. Two days after the uprising, Nur Muhammad Taraki, leader of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, issued a notice of concern to the Soviet ambassador Alexander Puzanov and the resident of Kabul-based KGB embassy Viliov Osadchy that they could have staged a coup three days earlier hence the warning. On that, both Puzanov and Osadchy dismissed Taraki's complaint and reported it to Moscow, which broke a 30-year contract with him soon after. The centre then realized that it was better for them to deal with a more competent agent, which at the time was Babrak Karmal, who later accused Nur Muhammad Taraki of taking bribes and even of having secretly contacted the United States embassy in Kabul. On that, the centre again refused to listen and instructed him to take a position in the Kabul residency by 1974. On 30 April 1978, Taraki, despite being cut off from any support, led the coup which later became known as Saur Revolution, and became the country's leader, with Hafizullah Amin as Vice-Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Afghanistan), Council of Ministers and Vice-Chairman of the Revolutionary Council (Afghanistan), Revolutionary Council. On 5 December 1978, Taraki compared the April revolt to the Russian Revolution, which struck
Vladimir Kryuchkov Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov (russian: Влади́мир Алекса́ндрович Крючко́в, link=no; 29 February 1924 – 23 November 2007) was a Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Repu ...

Vladimir Kryuchkov
, the FCD chief of that time. On 27 March 1979, after losing the city of Herat, Amin became the next Prime Minister, and by 27 July became Minister of Defence as well. The centre though was concerned of his powers since the same month he issued them a complaint about lack of funds and demanded US$400,000,000. Furthermore, it was discovered that Amin had a master's degree from Columbia University, and that he preferred to communicate in English instead of Russian. Unfortunately for Moscow's intelligence services, Amin succeeded Taraki and by 16 September Radio Kabul announced that the PDPA received a fake request from Taraki concerning health issues among the party members. On that, the centre accused him of "terrorist" activities and expelled him from the Communist Party. The following day General Boris Ivanov, who was behind the mission in Kabul along with General Lev Gorelov and Deputy Defense Minister Ivan Pavlovsky, visited Amin to congratulate him on his election to power. On the same day the KGB decided to imprison Sayed Gulabzoy as well as Muhammad Watanjar and Asadullah Sarwari but while in captivity and under an investigation all three denied the allegation that the current Minister of Defence was an American secret agent. The denial of claims was passed on to
Yuri Andropov Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (; rus, links=no, Юрий Владимирович Андропов, r=Yuriy Vladimirovich Andropov, p=ˈjʉrʲɪj vlɐˈdʲimʲɪrəvʲɪtɕ ɐnˈdropəf;  – 9 February 1984) was the sixth list of leaders o ...
and
Leonid Brezhnev Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (; rus, links= no, Леонид Ильич Брежнев, p= lʲɪɐˈnʲit ɨˈlʲjidʑ ˈbrʲeʐnʲɪf, a= Ru-Leonid Ilich Brezhnev.ogg; uk, links= no, Леонід Ілліч Брежнєв, 19 December 1906  ...
, who as the main chiefs of the KGB proposed operation Raduga (operation), Raduga to save the life of Gulabzoy and Watanjar and send them to Tashkent from Bagram airbase by giving them fake passports. With that and a sealed container in which an almost breathless Sarwari was laying, they came to Tashkent on 19 September. During the continued investigation in Tashkent, the three were put under surveillance in one of the rooms for as long as four weeks where they were investigated for the reliability of their claims by the KGB. Soon after, they were satisfied with the results and sent them to Bulgaria for a secret retreat. On 9 October, the Soviet secret service had a meeting in which Bogdanov, Gorelov, Pavlonsky and Puzanov were the main chiefs who were discussing what to do with Amin who was very harsh at the meeting. After the two-hour meeting they began to worry that Amin will establish an Islamic Republic in Afghanistan and decided to seek a way to put Karmal back in. They brought him and three other ministers secretly to Moscow during which time they discussed how to put him back in power. The decision was to fly him back to Bagram airbase by 13 December. Four days later, Amin's nephew, Asadullah Amin, Asadullah, was taken to Moscow by the KGB for acute food poisoning treatment. On 19 November 1979, the KGB had a meeting on which they discussed Operation Cascade, which was launched earlier that year. The operation carried out bombings with the help of Glavnoye Razvedyvatel'noye Upravleniye, GRU and First Chief Directorate, FCD. On 27 December, the centre received news that KGB Special Forces Alpha and Zenith Group, supported by the 154th OSN GRU, also known as ''Muslim battalion'' and paratroopers from the 345th Guards Airborne Regiment stormed the Tajbeg Palace in Afghanistan and killed Afghan leader Hafizullah Amin and his 100–150 personal guards. His 11-year-old son died due to shrapnel wounds. The Soviets installed Babrak Karmal as Amin's successor. Several other government buildings were seized during the operation, including the Ministry of Interior building, the Internal Security (KHAD) building, and the General Staff building (Darul Aman Palace). Out of the 54 KGB operators that assaulted the palace, 5 were killed in action, including Colonel Grigori Boyarinov, and 32 were wounded. Alpha Group veterans call this operation one of the most successful in the group's history. In June 1981, there were 370 members in the Afghan-controlled KGB intelligence service throughout the nation which were under the command of Ahmad Shah Paiya and had received all the training they need in the Soviet Union. By May 1982 the Ministry of Internal Affairs was set up in Afghanistan under the command of KHAD. In 1983 Boris Voskoboynikov became the next head of the KGB while Leonid Kostromin became his Deputy Minister.


August 1991 coup

On 18 August 1991, Chairman of the KGB
Vladimir Kryuchkov Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov (russian: Влади́мир Алекса́ндрович Крючко́в, link=no; 29 February 1924 – 23 November 2007) was a Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Repu ...

Vladimir Kryuchkov
, along with seven other Soviet leaders, formed the State Committee on the State of Emergency and attempted to 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, overthrow the government of the Soviet Union. The purpose of the attempted coup d'état was to preserve the integrity of the Soviet Union and the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR, constitutional order. President
Mikhail Gorbachev Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician, lawyer, and statesman. The List of leaders of the Soviet Union, eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union, he was the General Secretary of the ...

Mikhail Gorbachev
was arrested and ineffective attempts were made to seize power. Within two days, the attempted coup collapsed. The KGB was succeeded by the Federal Counterintelligence Service (FSK) of Russia, which was succeeded by the
Federal Security Service The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB RF; rus, Федеральная служба безопасности Российской Федерации (ФСБ), Federal'naya sluzhba bezopasnosti Rossiyskoy Federatsii, fʲɪdʲ ...
of the Russian Federation (FSB).


Organization

The Committee for State Security was a militarized organization adhering to military discipline and regulations. Its operational personnel held army style ranks, except for the maritime branch of the Border troops, which held navy style ranks. The KGB consisted of two main components - organs and troops. The organs included the services directly involved in the committee's main roles - intelligence, counter-intelligence, military counter-intelligence etc. The troops included military units within the KGB's structure, completely separate from the Soviet armed forces - the Soviet Border Troops, Border Troops, the Governmental Signals Troops (which in addition to providing communications between the central government and the lower administrative levels, also provided the communications between the Soviet General Staff, General Staff and the military districts), the Special Service Troops (which provided Electronic warfare, EW, ELINT, ELINT, SIGINT and cryptography) as well as the Spetsnaz of the KGB (the Kremlin Regiment, Alpha Group, Vympel, etc.). At the time of the Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 the KGB had the following structure: * Secretariat (office of the Chairman of the KGB) (''Секретариат'') * Group of Consultants to the Chairman of the KGB (''Группа консультантов при Председателе КГБ'') * Center for Public Relations (''Центр общественных связей'') * 1st Main Directorate (External Intelligence) (''1-е Главное управление'' (''внешняя разведка'')) * 2nd Main Directorate (Counter-Intelligence) (''2-е Главное управление'' (''контрразведка'')) * 3rd Main Directorate (Military Counter-Intelligence) (''3-е Главное управление'' (''военная контрразведка'')) * 4th Directorate (Counter-Intelligence Support for the transport and communications infrastructure) (''4-е Управление'' (''контрразведывательное обеспечение объектов транспорта и связи'')) * 5th Directorate (Political police) * 6th Directorate (Counter-Intelligence Support for the economy) (''6-е Управление'' (''контрразведывательное обеспечение экономики'')) * 7th Directorate (External Surveillance) (''7-е Управление'' (''наружное наблюдение'')) * 8th Main Directorate (Cryptography) (''8-е Главное управление'' (''шифровальное'')) * 9th Directorate (Protection of High level party members) * 10th Department (Inventory and Archive) (''10-й отдел'' (''учётно-архивный'')) * 12th Department (Wiretapping and surveillance in enclosed spaces) (''12-й отдел'' (''прослушивание телефонов и помещений'')) * 15th Main Directorate (Wartime government command centers) (''15-е Главное управление'' (''обслуживание запасных пунктов управления'')) * 16th Directorate (ELINT) (''16-е Управление'' (''электронная разведка'')) * Close Protection Service (Close protection, perimeter protection, transport and catering for high-ranking government officials) (''Служба охраны'') * Directorate "Z" (Protection of the constitutional order) (''Управление «З»'' (''защита конституционного строя'')) * Directorate "OP" (Combat against the organized crime) (''Управление «ОП»'' (''борьба с организованной преступностью'') * Directorate "SCh" (Spetsnaz of the KGB) (''Управление «СЧ»'' (''руководство спецчастями'')) * Main Directorate of the Border Troops (''Главное управление пограничных войск'') * Analytical Directorate (''Аналитическое управление'') * Inspection Directorate (''Инспекторское управление'') * Operational Technical Directorate (R&D of special equipment and procedures) (''Оперативно-техническое управление'') * Investigative Department (''Следственный отдел'') * Directorate of Government Communications (''Управление правительственной связи'') * Personnel Directorate (''Управление кадров'') * Supply Directorate (''Хозяйственное управление'') * Military Construction Directorate (''Военно-строительное управление'') * Military Medical Directorate (''Военно-медицинское управление'') * Department of Financial Planning (''Финансово-плановый отдел'') * Mobilization Department (''Мобилизационный отдел'') * Legal Department and Arbitration (''Юридический отдел с арбитражем'')


Republican affiliations

The Soviet Union was a federal state, consisting of 15 constituent Soviet Socialist Republics, each with its own government closely resembling the central government of the USSR. The republican affiliation offices almost completely duplicated the structural organization of the main KGB. *Committee for State Security of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic, KGB of Belarusian SSR / KDB of Belarus (see
State Security Committee of the Republic of Belarus The State Security Committee of the Republic of Belarus (russian: Комитет государственной безопасности Республики Беларусь, КГБ, KGB; be, Камітэт дзяржаўнай бяспекі, К ...
) *KGB of Ukraine / KDB of Ukraine (see Committee for State Security (Ukraine)) *Committee for State Security of the Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic, KGB of Moldovan SSR / CSS of Moldova *Committee for State Security of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, KGB of Estonian SSR / RJK of Estonia *Committee for State Security of the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, KGB of Latvian SSR / LPSR (VDK) *Committee for State Security of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, KGB of Lithuanian SSR / VSK of Lithuania *Committee for State Security of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, KGB of Georgian SSR / KSU of Georgia *Committee for State Security of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, KGB of Armenian SSR *Committee for State Security of the Azerbaijani Soviet Socialist Republic, KGB of Azerbaijan SSR / DTK of Azerbaijan *Committee for State Security of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, KGB of Kazakh SSR *Committee for State Security of the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic, KGB of Kyrgyz SSR *Committee for State Security of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, KGB of Uzbek SSR *Committee for State Security of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic, KGB of Turkmen SSR *Committee for State Security of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, KGB of Tajik SSR *State Security Committee of the RSFSR, KGB of Russian SFSR (created in 1991; see
Federal Security Service The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB RF; rus, Федеральная служба безопасности Российской Федерации (ФСБ), Federal'naya sluzhba bezopasnosti Rossiyskoy Federatsii, fʲɪdʲ ...
)


Leadership

The List of chairmen of the KGB, Chairman of the KGB, First Deputy Chairmen (1–2), Deputy Chairmen (4–6). Its policy Collegium (ministry), Collegium comprised a chairman, deputy chairmen, directorate chiefs, and republican KGB chairmen.


Directorates

* First Chief Directorate (Foreign Operations) – foreign espionage (now the Foreign Intelligence Service or SVR in Russian). * Second Chief Directorate – counter-intelligence, internal political control. * Military counterintelligence of the Soviet Army, Third Chief Directorate (Armed Forces) – military counter-intelligence and armed forces political surveillance. * Fourth Directorate (Transportation security) * Fifth Chief Directorate – censorship and internal security against artistic, political, and religious dissension; renamed "Directorate Z", protecting the Constitutional order, in 1989. * Sixth Directorate (Economic Counter-intelligence, industrial security) * Seventh Directorate (Surveillance) – of Soviet nationals and foreigners. * Eighth Chief Directorate – monitored-managed national, foreign, and overseas communications, cryptologic equipment, and research and development. * Ninth Directorate (Guards and KGB Protection Service) – The 40,000-man uniformed bodyguard for the CPSU leaders and families, guarded critical government installations (nuclear weapons, etc.), operated the Metro-2, Moscow VIP subway, and secure Government–Party telephony. President Yeltsin transformed it to the Federal Protective Service (Russia), Federal Protective Service (FPS). * Fifteenth Directorate (Security of Government Installations) * Sixteenth Directorate (SIGINT and communications interception) – operated the national and government telephone and telegraph systems. * Border Guards Directorate responsible for the Soviet Border Troops. *Operations and Technology Directorate – research laboratories for recording devices and Poison laboratory of the Soviet secret services, Laboratory 12 for poisons and drugs.


Other units

* KGB Personnel Department * Secretariat of the KGB * KGB Technical Support Staff * KGB Finance Department * KGB Archives * KGB Irregulars * Administration Department of the KGB, and * The Communist Party of the Soviet Union, CPSU Committee * KGB Spetsnaz (special operations) units such as: :* Alpha Group :* Vympel Group :* Zenith Group * Kremlin Regiment, Kremlin Guard Force for the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, Presidium, et al., then became the FSO


Mode of operation

A ''Time (magazine), Time'' magazine article in 1983 reported that the KGB was the world's most effective information-gathering organization. It operated Resident spy, legal and illegal espionage residencies in target countries where a ''legal resident'' gathered intelligence while based at the Soviet embassy or consulate, and, if caught, was protected from prosecution by diplomatic immunity. At best, the compromised spy was either returned to the Soviet Union or was declared ''persona non grata'' and expelled by the government of the target country. The ''illegal resident'' spied, unprotected by diplomatic immunity, and worked independently of Soviet diplomatic and trade missions, (''cf.'' the non-official cover CIA officer). In its early history, the KGB valued illegal spies more than legal spies, because illegal spies infiltrated their targets with greater ease. The KGB residency executed four types of espionage: (i) political, (ii) economic, (iii) military-strategic, and (iv) disinformation, effected with "active measures" (PR Line), counter-intelligence and security (KR Line), and scientific–technological intelligence (X Line); quotidian duties included Signal intelligence, SIGINT (RP Line) and illegal support (N Line). The KGB classified its spies as: * ''agents'' (a person who provides intelligence) and * ''controllers'' (a person who relays intelligence). The false-identity (or ''legend'') assumed by a USSR-born ''illegal'' spy was elaborate, using the life of either: * a "live double" (a participant to the fabrications) or * a "dead double" (whose identity is tailored to the spy). The agent then substantiated his or her false-identity by living in a foreign country, before emigrating to the target country. For example, the KGB would send a US-bound illegal resident via the Soviet embassy in Embassy of Russia in Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada. Tradecraft included stealing and photographing documents, code-names, contacts, targets, and Dead drop, dead letter boxes, and working as a "friend of the cause" or as ''agent provocateur, agents provocateurs'', who would infiltrate the target group to sow dissension, influence policy, and arrange kidnappings and assassinations.


List of chairmen


Commemorative and award badges

Source: Image:Znak5 GPU.GIF, 5 years
Cheka The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission ( rus, Всеросси́йская чрезвыча́йная коми́ссия, r=Vserossíyskaya chrezvycháynaya komíssiya, p=fsʲɪrɐˈsʲijskəjə tɕrʲɪzvɨˈtɕæjnəjə kɐˈmʲisʲɪjə), a ...
-OGPU, Honored Worker of
Cheka The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission ( rus, Всеросси́йская чрезвыча́йная коми́ссия, r=Vserossíyskaya chrezvycháynaya komíssiya, p=fsʲɪrɐˈsʲijskəjə tɕrʲɪzvɨˈtɕæjnəjə kɐˈmʲisʲɪjə), a ...
-OGPU, 1923 Image:Znak15 OGPU.GIF, 15 years
Cheka The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission ( rus, Всеросси́йская чрезвыча́йная коми́ссия, r=Vserossíyskaya chrezvycháynaya komíssiya, p=fsʲɪrɐˈsʲijskəjə tɕrʲɪzvɨˈtɕæjnəjə kɐˈmʲisʲɪjə), a ...
-OGPU, Honored Worker of
Cheka The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission ( rus, Всеросси́йская чрезвыча́йная коми́ссия, r=Vserossíyskaya chrezvycháynaya komíssiya, p=fsʲɪrɐˈsʲijskəjə tɕrʲɪzvɨˈtɕæjnəjə kɐˈmʲisʲɪjə), a ...
-OGPU, 1932 Image:NKVD 1940 honored officer badge.gif, Honored Worker of
NKVD The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (: ''Naródnyy komissariát vnútrennikh del''; ), abbreviated NKVD ( ), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union. Established in 1917 as NKVD of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republi ...
, 1940 Image:Kgb 50years 1967.gif, 50 years
Cheka The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission ( rus, Всеросси́йская чрезвыча́йная коми́ссия, r=Vserossíyskaya chrezvycháynaya komíssiya, p=fsʲɪrɐˈsʲijskəjə tɕrʲɪzvɨˈtɕæjnəjə kɐˈmʲisʲɪjə), a ...
-KGB, 1967 Image:Kgb 60years 1977.gif, 60 years
Cheka The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission ( rus, Всеросси́йская чрезвыча́йная коми́ссия, r=Vserossíyskaya chrezvycháynaya komíssiya, p=fsʲɪrɐˈsʲijskəjə tɕrʲɪzvɨˈtɕæjnəjə kɐˈmʲisʲɪjə), a ...
-KGB, 1977 Image:Kgb 70years 1987.gif, 70 years
Cheka The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission ( rus, Всеросси́йская чрезвыча́йная коми́ссия, r=Vserossíyskaya chrezvycháynaya komíssiya, p=fsʲɪrɐˈsʲijskəjə tɕrʲɪzvɨˈtɕæjnəjə kɐˈmʲisʲɪjə), a ...
-KGB, 1987 Image:Kgb member honour 1957.gif, Honored Worker of State Security, 1957 Image:OGPU 10 years, 1927.gif, Anniversary Badge 10 years OGPU, 1927 Image:Excellent KGB Border Troop 1st class CCCP.jpg, Excellent Border Troop 1st class, 1969 Image:Excellent KGB Border Troop 2nd class CCCP.jpg, Excellent Border Troop 2nd class, 1969 Image:70letpv.jpg, 70 years Border Troops KGB, 1988 Image:Знак 70 лет Комсомолу ВЛКСМ ВЧК-КГБ.JPG, 70 years Komsomol
Cheka The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission ( rus, Всеросси́йская чрезвыча́йная коми́ссия, r=Vserossíyskaya chrezvycháynaya komíssiya, p=fsʲɪrɐˈsʲijskəjə tɕrʲɪzvɨˈtɕæjnəjə kɐˈmʲisʲɪjə), a ...
-KGB


See also

*Central Department of Social Affairs *Chronology of Soviet secret police agencies *United States Department of Homeland Security, Department of Homeland Security *Dirección de Inteligencia *Eastern Bloc politics *FAPSI, Federal Agency of Government Communications and Information *Federal Investigation Agency, FIA *History of Soviet espionage *Index of Soviet Union-related articles *Intelligence Bureau (Pakistan), IB *Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence, ISI *Ministry of Internal Affairs (Russia), Ministry of Internal Affairs *Ministry of Public Security (Laos), Ministry of Public Security of Laos *Ministry of Public Security (Vietnam), Ministry of Public Security of Vietnam *Ministry of State Security (China), Ministry of State Security *Mitrokhin Archive *National Directorate of Security (KHAD successor in Afghanistan) *Numbers station *Research and Analysis Wing, RAW *SMERSH *Sbornik KGB SSSR *Security Service of Ukraine *Ministry of State Security (North Korea), State Security Department *Venona project *World Peace Council


References


Sources

*Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, ''The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West'', Gardners Books (2000) ; Basic Books (1999) ; trade (2000) *Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, ''The World Was Going Our Way: The KGB and the Battle for the Third World'', Basic Books (2005) *John Barron, ''KGB: The Secret Work of Soviet Secret Agents'', Reader's Digest Press (1974) *Amy Knight, ''The KGB: Police and Politics in the Soviet Union'', Unwin Hyman (1990) *Richard C.S. Trahair and Robert Miller, ''Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage, Spies, and Secret Operations'', Enigma Books (2009)


Further reading

* * * * * * *Солженицын, А.И. (1990). Архипелаг ГУЛАГ: 1918 - 1956. Опыт художественного исследования. Т. 1 - 3. Москва: Центр "Новый мир". (in Russian) *Yevgenia Albats and Catherine A. Fitzpatrick, ''The State Within a State: The KGB and Its Hold on Russia — Past, Present, and Future'' Farrar Straus Giroux (1994) . *John Barron, ''KGB: The Secret Works of Soviet Secret Agents'' Bantam Books (1981) *Vadim J. Birstein. ''The Perversion of Knowledge: The True Story of Soviet Science.'' Westview Press (2004) *John Dziak ''Chekisty: A History of the KGB'', Lexington Books (1988) * * * Бережков, Василий Иванович (2004). Руководители Ленинградского управления КГБ : 1954–1991. Санкт-Петербург: Выбор, 2004. *Кротков, Юрий (1973). «КГБ в действии». Published in «Новый журнал» No.111, 1973 (in Russian) *Рябчиков, С. В. (2004). Размышляя вместе с Василем Быковым // Открытый міръ, No. 49, с. 2–3. (in Russian)(ФСБ РФ препятствует установлению мемориальной доски на своем здании, в котором ВЧК - НКВД совершала массовые преступления против человечности. Там была установлена "мясорубка", при помощи которой трупы сбрасывались чекистами в городскую канализацию.
Razmyshlyaya vmeste s Vasilem Bykovym
*Рябчиков, С. В. (2008). Великий химик Д. И. Рябчиков // Вiсник Мiжнародного дослiдного центру "Людина: мова, культура, пiзнання", т. 18(3), с. 148–153. (in Russian) (об организации КГБ СССР убийства великого русского ученого) *Рябчиков, С. В. (2011). Заметки по истории Кубани (материалы для хрестоматии) // Вiсник Мiжнародного дослiдного центру "Людина: мова, культура, пiзнання", 2011, т. 30(3), с. 25–45. (in Russian
Zametki po istorii Kubani (materialy dlya khrestomatii)


External links

* For Cold War KGB activity in the US, see Alexander Vassiliev's Notebook
from the Cold War International History Project (CWIHP)

The Chekist Monitor Blog
English Translation of Russian Publications on Soviet Intelligence
Soviet Technospies
from th
Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives


at GlobalSecurity.org (organization) * Viktor M. Chebrikov et al., eds. ''Istoriya sovetskikh organov gosudarstvennoi bezopasnosti'' ("History of the Soviet Organs of State Security"). (1977)

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by Yuri Shchekochikhin {{DEFAULTSORT:Kgb KGB, 1954 establishments in the Soviet Union 1991 disestablishments in the Soviet Union Cold War history of the Soviet Union Cold War in popular culture Eastern Bloc Foreign relations of the Soviet Union Government agencies disestablished in 1991 Government agencies established in 1954 Law enforcement agencies of the Soviet Union Law enforcement in communist states National security institutions Political repression in the Soviet Union Secret police Soviet intelligence agencies State Committees of the Soviet Union