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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience. Image:Janko Kral.jpg, 200px, Postmortal fictional ...

poet
,
playwright A playwright or dramatist is a person who writes play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work of drama Play may refer also to: Computers and technology * Google Play, a digital co ...
,
novelist A novelist is an author An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is also considered a writer or poet. More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and ...
,
scientist A scientist is a person who conducts scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves ...

scientist
, statesman,
theatre director A theatre director or stage director is a professional in the theatre field who oversees and orchestrates the mounting of a theatre production such as a play, opera, dance,drama, musical theatre performance etc. by unifying various endeavors and ...
, and
critic A critic is a person who communicates an assessment and an opinion of various forms of creative works such as Art criticism, art, Literary criticism, literature, Music journalism, music, Film criticism, cinema, Theater criticism, theater, Fash ...
. His works include
plays Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work of drama Play may refer also to: Computers and technology * Google Play, a digital content service * Play Framework, a Java framework * Play ...
,
poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre (poetry), metre—to ...

poetry
,
literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definition has expan ...

literature
, and aesthetic criticism as well as
treatise A treatise is a formal Formal, formality, informal or informality imply the complying with, or not complying with, some set theory, set of requirements (substantial form, forms, in Ancient Greek). They may refer to: Dress code and events * For ...
s on
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
,
anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of concerned with the study of the structure of s and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things. It is an old scie ...

anatomy
, and
colour Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English ...

colour
. He is considered to be the greatest German literary figure of the
modern era Human history, or world history, is the narrative of humanity Humanity most commonly refers to: * Human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, ...
. Goethe took up residence in
Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''St ...

Weimar
in November 1775 following the success of his first novel, ''
The Sorrows of Young Werther ''The Sorrows of Young Werther'' (german: Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) is a 1774 epistolary novel An epistolary novel is a novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of rel ...
'' (1774). He was
ennobled Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
by the Duke of
Saxe-Weimar Saxe-Weimar (german: Sachsen-Weimar) was one of the History of Saxony, Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine duchies, Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin, Wettin dynasty in present-day Thuringia. The chief town and capital was Weimar. The Weimar ...
, Karl August, in 1782. He was an early participant in the ''
Sturm und Drang ''Sturm und Drang'' (, ; literally "storm and drive", though usually translated as "storm and stress") was a proto- Romantic movement in German literature and music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition t ...
'' literary movement. During his first ten years in Weimar, Goethe became a member of the Duke's
privy council A privy council is a body that advises the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of state He or HE may refer to: ...
, sat on the war and highway commissions, oversaw the reopening of silver mines in nearby
Ilmenau Ilmenau () is a town in Thuringia, Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, Ger ...
, and implemented a series of administrative reforms at the
University of Jena The University of Jena, officially the Friedrich Schiller University Jena (german: Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, abbreviated FSU, shortened form ''Uni Jena'') is a public university, public research university located in Jena, Thuringia, ...
. He also contributed to the planning of Weimar's botanical park and the rebuilding of its . Goethe's first major scientific work, the ''
Metamorphosis of Plants ''Versuch die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erklären'', known in English as ''Metamorphosis of Plants'', was published by German poet and philosopher Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in 1790. In this work, Goethe essentially discovered the (serially) hom ...
'', was published after he returned from a 1788 tour of
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the centre of th ...

Italy
. In 1791 he was made managing director of the theatre at Weimar, and in 1794 he began a friendship with the
dramatist A playwright or dramatist is a person who writes play (theatre), plays. Etymology The word "play" is from Middle English pleye, from Old English plæġ, pleġa, plæġa ("play, exercise; sport, game; drama, applause"). The word wikt:w"wright" i ...
,
historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are con ...
, and
philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, ...

philosopher
Friedrich Schiller Johann Christoph Friedrich (von) Schiller (, short: ; 10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller developed a productive, i ...

Friedrich Schiller
, whose plays he premiered until Schiller's death in 1805. During this period Goethe published his second novel, ''
Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship ''Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship'' ( ger, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre) is the second novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, published in 1795–96. Plot The eponymous hero undergoes a journey of self-realization. The story centers upon Wilhelm's a ...
''; the verse epic ''
Hermann and Dorothea ''Hermann and Dorothea'' is an epic poem, an idyll, written by Germany, German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe between 1796 and 1797, and was to some extent suggested by Johann Heinrich Voss's ''Luise'', an idyll in hexameters, which was first pub ...
'', and, in 1808, the first part of his most celebrated drama, ''
Faust Faust is the protagonist 200px, Shakespeare's ''Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.'' William Morris Hunt, oil on canvas, c. 1864 A protagonist (from grc, πρωταγωνιστής, translit=prōtagōnistḗs, lit=one who plays the first part, chief ...
''. His conversations and various shared undertakings throughout the 1790s with Schiller,
Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gottlieb Fichte (; ; 19 May 1762 – 29 January 1814) was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant ...

Johann Gottlieb Fichte
,
Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (; ; 25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. He is associated with the Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment, ''Sturm und Drang'', and Weimar Classic ...

Johann Gottfried Herder
,
Alexander von Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a , , , , and proponent of philosophy and . He was the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher, and (1767–1835). Humboldt's quantitative work ...

Alexander von Humboldt
,
Wilhelm von Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt (, also , ; ; 22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835) was a philosopher, , , diplomat, and founder of the , which was named after him in 1949 (and also after his younger brother, , a ). He is espe ...

Wilhelm von Humboldt
, and
August August is the eighth month of the year in the and s, and the fifth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. It was originally named ' in because it was the sixth month in the original ten-month under in 753 BC, with being the first ...
and
Friedrich Schlegel Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (after 1814: von) Schlegel (; ; 10 March 1772 – 12 January 1829) was a German poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a ...
have come to be collectively termed
Weimar Classicism Weimar Classicism (german: Weimarer Klassik) was a German literary Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, dra ...
. The German philosopher
Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (; ; 22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a Germans, German philosopher. He is best known for his 1818 work ''The World as Will and Representation'' (expanded in 1844), which characterizes the Phenomenon, phenomena ...
named ''Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship'' one of the four greatest novels ever written, while the American philosopher and essayist
Ralph Waldo Emerson Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803April 27, 1882), who went by his middle name Waldo, was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, abolitionism, abolitionist and poet who led the Transcendentalism, transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th c ...

Ralph Waldo Emerson
selected Goethe as one of six "representative men" in his work of the same name (along with
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the ...

Plato
,
Emanuel Swedenborg Emanuel Swedenborg (, ; born Emanuel Swedberg; 29 March 1772) was a -Christian , , and . He became best known for his book on the , (1758). Swedenborg had a prolific career as an and . In 1741, at 53, he entered into a phase in which he be ...

Emanuel Swedenborg
,
Montaigne 270px, The coat of arms of Michel Eyquem, Lord of Montaigne Michel Eyquem de Montaigne ( ; ; 28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592), also known as Lord of Montaigne, was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissanc ...

Montaigne
,
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
, and
Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's national po ...

Shakespeare
). Goethe's comments and observations form the basis of several biographical works, notably
Johann Peter Eckermann Johann Peter Eckermann Johann Peter Eckermann (21 September 1792 – 3 December 1854), German poet and author, is best known for his work '' Conversations with Goethe'', the fruit of his association with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe during the last y ...

Johann Peter Eckermann
's '' Conversations with Goethe'' (1836). His poems were set to music by many composers including
Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 17565 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical period. Born in Salzburg, in the Holy Roman Empire Th ...

Mozart
, ,
Schubert Franz Peter Schubert (; 31 January 179719 November 1828) was an Austrian composer of the late Classical period (music), Classical and early Romantic music, Romantic eras. Despite his short lifetime, Schubert left behind a vast oeuvre, includin ...

Schubert
,
Berlioz Louis-Hector Berlioz (11 December 1803 – 8 March 1869) was a French Romantic music, Romantic composer and conductor. His output includes orchestral works such as the ''Symphonie fantastique'' and ''Harold en Italie, Harold in Italy'', ...
,
Liszt Franz Liszt (; hu, Liszt Ferencz, link=no, in modern usage ''Liszt Ferenc'' ; 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a Hungarian composer, virtuoso A virtuoso (from Italian ''virtuoso'' or , "virtuous", Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas ...

Liszt
,
Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner ( ; ; 22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemic A polemic () is contentious rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic ( ...
and Mahler.


Life


Early life

Goethe's father, Johann Caspar Goethe, lived with his family in a large house (today the Goethe House) in
Frankfurt Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main (; Hessian A Hessian is an inhabitant of the German state of Hesse. Hessian may also refer to: Named from the toponym *Hessian (soldier), eighteenth-century German regiments in service with the Brit ...

Frankfurt
, then a
free imperial city In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (german: Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (', la, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that h ...
of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
. Though he had studied
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundari ...
in
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
and had been appointed Imperial Councillor, Johann Caspar Goethe was not involved in the city's official affairs.
Herman Grimm Herman Grimm (6 January 1828 in Kassel16 June 1901 in Berlin) was a Germany, German academic and writer. Grimm's father was Wilhelm Grimm (1786–1859), and his uncle Jakob Grimm (1785–1863), the philologist compilers of indigenous folk tales (" ...
: ''Goethe. Vorlesungen gehalten an der Königlichen Universität zu Berlin.'' Vol. 1. J.G. Cotta'sche Buchhandlung Nachfolger, Stuttgart / Berlin 1923, p. 36
Johann Caspar married Goethe's mother, Catharina Elizabeth Textor, at Frankfurt on 20 August 1748, when he was 38 and she was 17. All their children, with the exception of Johann Wolfgang and his sister Cornelia Friederica Christiana (born in 1750), died at early ages. His father and private tutors gave the young Goethe lessons in common subjects of their time, especially languages (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
,
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
,
Biblical Hebrew Biblical Hebrew ( ''Ivrit Miqra'it'' or ''Leshon ha-Miqra''), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew language, Hebrew, a language in the Canaanite languages, Canaanite branch of Semitic languages, Semitic languages, spoken b ...
(briefly), French, Italian, and English). Goethe also received lessons in dancing, , and
fencing Fencing is a group of three related combat sports. The three disciplines in modern fencing are the foil (fencing), foil, the épée, and the sabre (fencing), sabre (also ''saber''); winning points are made through the weapon's contact with an ...

fencing
. Johann Caspar, feeling frustrated in his own ambitions, was determined that his children should have all those advantages that he had not. Although Goethe's great passion was drawing, he quickly became interested in literature;
Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (; 2 July 1724 – 14 March 1803) was a German poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or may ...

Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock
(1724–1803) and
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was the presumed author of the ''Iliad'' and the ''Odyssey'', two epic poems that are the foundational works of ancient Greek literature. The ''Iliad'' is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year s ...

Homer
were among his early favorites. He had a devotion to theater as well, and was greatly fascinated by
puppet A puppet is an object, often resembling a human, animal or mythical figure, that is animated or manipulated by a person called a puppeteer A puppeteer is a person who manipulates an inanimate object, called a puppet A puppet is an ...

puppet
shows that were annually arranged in his home; this became a recurrent theme in his literary work ''
Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship ''Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship'' ( ger, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre) is the second novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, published in 1795–96. Plot The eponymous hero undergoes a journey of self-realization. The story centers upon Wilhelm's a ...
''. He also took great pleasure in reading works on history and religion. He writes about this period: Goethe also became acquainted with Frankfurt actors. In early literary attempts he showed an infatuation with ''Gretchen'', who would later reappear in his ''Faust'', and the adventures with whom he would concisely describe in ''
Dichtung und Wahrheit ''Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit'' (''From my Life: Poetry and Truth''; 1811–1833) is an autobiography by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German poet, playwright, novel ...
''. He adored Caritas Meixner (1750–1773), a wealthy
Worms The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) is a taxonomic database that aims to provide an authoritative and comprehensive list of names of marine organisms. Content The content of the registry is edited and maintained by scientific specialists ...
trader's daughter and friend of his sister, who would later marry the merchant G. F. Schuler.


Legal career

Goethe studied law at
Leipzig University Leipzig University (german: Universität Leipzig), in Leipzig Leipzig (, also , ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1  ...
from 1765 to 1768. He detested learning age-old judicial rules by heart, preferring instead to attend the poetry lessons of . In Leipzig, Goethe fell in love with and wrote cheerful verses about her in the
Rococo Rococo (, also ), less commonly Roccoco or Late Baroque, is an exceptionally ornamental and theatrical style of architecture, art and decoration which combines asymmetry, scrolling curves, gilding, white and pastel colors, sculpted molding, ...
genre. In 1770, he anonymously released ''Annette'', his first collection of poems. His uncritical admiration for many contemporary poets vanished as he became interested in
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (; ; 22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781) was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and an outstanding representative of the Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment era. His plays and theoretical ...

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
and
Christoph Martin Wieland 1805 portrait of Christoph Martin Wieland by Ferdinand Jagemann Christoph Martin Wieland (; 5 September 1733 – 20 January 1813) was a German poet and writer. He is best-remembered for having written the first ''Bildungsroman'' (''Geschichte des A ...

Christoph Martin Wieland
. By this time, Goethe had already written a great deal, but he discarded nearly all of these works except for the comedy ''Die Mitschuldigen''. The restaurant
Auerbachs Keller Auerbachs Keller (, Auerbach's Cellar in English) is the best known and second oldest restaurant in Leipzig Leipzig (, also , ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a populatio ...

Auerbachs Keller
and its legend of Faust's 1525 barrel ride impressed him so much that Auerbachs Keller became the only real place in his
closet drama A closet drama is a play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work of drama Play may refer also to: Computers and technology * Google Play, a digital content service * Play Framework ...
''
Faust Part One ''Faust: A Tragedy'' (german: Faust. Eine Tragödie, links=no, , or retrospectively ) is the first part of the tragic play '' Faust'' by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German po ...
''. As his studies did not progress, Goethe was forced to return to Frankfurt at the close of August 1768. Goethe became severely ill in Frankfurt. During the year and a half that followed, because of several relapses, the relationship with his father worsened. During convalescence, Goethe was nursed by his mother and sister. In April 1770, Goethe left Frankfurt in order to finish his studies at the
University of Strasbourg The University of Strasbourg (french: Université de Strasbourg, Unistra) is a Public university, public research university located in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, with over 52,000 students and 3,300 researchers. The French university traces it ...
. In
Alsace Alsace (, also ; Low Alemannic German Low Alemannic German (german: Niederalemannisch) is a branch of Alemannic German Alemannic, or rarely Alemannish (''Alemannisch'', ), is a group of High German dialects. The name derives from the ancie ...

Alsace
, Goethe blossomed. No other landscape has he described as affectionately as the warm, wide Rhine area. In Strasbourg, Goethe met
Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (; ; 25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. He is associated with the Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment, ''Sturm und Drang'', and Weimar Classic ...

Johann Gottfried Herder
. The two became close friends, and crucially to Goethe's intellectual development, Herder kindled his interest in
Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's national po ...

Shakespeare
,
Ossian Ossian (; Irish Gaelic/ Scottish Gaelic: ''Oisean'') is the narrator and purported author of a cycle of epic poem An epic poem is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary ...
and in the notion of ''Volkspoesie'' (folk poetry). On 14 October 1772 Goethe held a gathering in his parental home in honour of the first German "Shakespeare Day". His first acquaintance with Shakespeare's works is described as his personal awakening in literature. On a trip to the village
Sessenheim Sessenheim is a Communes of France, commune in the Bas-Rhin Departments of France, department in Grand Est in northeastern France. Culture Sessemheim was the setting for Johann Wolfgang Goethe's first love affair with Friederike Brion, a priest's ...

Sessenheim
, Goethe fell in love with
Friederike Brion Friederike Elisabeth BrionKarl Robert Mandelkow, Bodo Morawe: ''Goethes Briefe''. 2nd edition, vol. 1: ''Briefe der Jahre 1764–1786'' (Hamburg: Christian Wegner, 1968, p. 571. (probably 19 April 1752 – 3 April 1813) was a parson's dau ...

Friederike Brion
, in October 1770, but terminated the relationship in August 1771. Several of his poems, like "", "" and "", originate from this time. At the end of August 1771, Goethe acquired the academic degree of the ''Lizenziat'' ( Licentia docendi) in Frankfurt and established a small legal practice. Although in his academic work he had expressed the ambition to make
jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of the propriety of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whol ...
progressively more humane, his inexperience led him to proceed too vigorously in his first cases, and he was reprimanded and lost further ones. This prematurely terminated his career as a lawyer after only a few months. At this time, Goethe was acquainted with the court of
Darmstadt Darmstadt (, also , , ) is a city in the States of Germany, state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Frankfurt Rhine Main Area, Rhine-Main-Area (Frankfurt Metropolitan Region). Darmstadt has around 160,000 inhabitants, m ...

Darmstadt
, where his inventiveness was praised. From this
milieu The social environment, social context, sociocultural context or milieu refers to the immediate physical and social setting in which people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has ...

milieu
came Johann Georg Schlosser (who later became Goethe's brother-in-law) and
Johann Heinrich Merck Johann Heinrich Merck (11 April 1741 – 27 June 1791), German author and critic A critic is a professional who communicates an assessment and an opinion of various forms of creative works such as Art criticism, art, Literary criticism, lite ...

Johann Heinrich Merck
. Goethe also pursued literary plans again; this time, his father did not have anything against it, and even helped. Goethe obtained a copy of the biography of a noble
highwayman A highwayman was a robber Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear. According to common law, robbery is defined as taking the property of another, wit ...

highwayman
from the
German Peasants' War The German Peasants' War, Great Peasants' War or Great Peasants' Revolt (german: Deutscher Bauernkrieg) was a widespread popular revolt in some German-speaking areas in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central ...
. In a couple of weeks the biography was reworked into a colourful drama. Entitled ''
Götz von Berlichingen Gottfried "Götz" von Berlichingen (1480 – 23 July 1562), also known as Götz of the Iron Hand, was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people o ...
,'' the work went directly to the heart of Goethe's contemporaries. Goethe could not subsist on being one of the editors of a literary periodical (published by Schlosser and Merck). In May 1772 he once more began the practice of law at
Wetzlar Wetzlar () is a city in the state of Hesse, Germany. It is the twelfth largest city in Hesse with currently 55,371 inhabitants at the beginning of 2019 (including second homes). As an important cultural, industrial and commercial center, the un ...
. In 1774 he wrote the book which would bring him worldwide fame, ''
The Sorrows of Young Werther ''The Sorrows of Young Werther'' (german: Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) is a 1774 epistolary novel An epistolary novel is a novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of rel ...
''. The outer shape of the work's plot is widely taken over from what Goethe experienced during his Wetzlar time with
Charlotte Buff Charlotte Buff (11 January 1753, Wetzlar Wetzlar is a city in the state of Hesse, Germany. A former free imperial city, it gained much of its fame as the seat of the Imperial Supreme Court (''Reichskammergericht'') of the Holy Roman Empire. L ...

Charlotte Buff
(1753–1828)Mandelkow, Karl Robert (1962). ''Goethes Briefe''. Vol. 1: ''Briefe der Jahre 1764–1786''. Christian Wegner Verlag. p. 589 and her fiancé,
Johann Christian Kestner Johann Georg Christian Kestner (28 August 1741 - 24 May 1800) was a German lawyer and archivist. He is also notable as the model for Lotte's husband Albert in ''The Sorrows of Young Werther'' by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Goethe, with Kestner's fia ...
(1741–1800), as well as from the suicide of the author's friend Karl Wilhelm Jerusalem (1747–1772); in it, Goethe made a desperate passion of what was in reality a hearty and relaxed friendship. Despite the immense success of ''Werther'', it did not bring Goethe much financial gain because copyright laws at the time were essentially nonexistent. (In later years Goethe would bypass this problem by periodically authorizing "new, revised" editions of his ''Complete Works''.)


Early years in Weimar

In 1775, Goethe was invited, on the strength of his fame as the author of ''The Sorrows of Young Werther'', to the court of Karl August, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, who would become
Grand Duke Grand Duke (feminine: Grand Duchess) is a European , used either by certain s or by members of certain monarchs' families. In status, a Grand Duke traditionally ranks in below an , or and above a sovereign or sovereign . The title is used i ...
in 1815. (The Duke at the time was 18 years of age, to Goethe's 26.) Goethe thus went to live in
Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''St ...

Weimar
, where he remained for the rest of his life and where, over the course of many years, he held a succession of offices, including superintendent of the ducal library, as the Duke's friend and chief adviser. In 1776, Goethe formed a close relationship to
Charlotte von Stein Charlotte Albertine Ernestine von Stein (also mentioned as ''Charlotta Ernestina Bernadina von Stein'' ), born von Schardt; 25 December 1742, Eisenach – 6 January 1827, Weimar, was a lady-in-waiting at the court in Weimar and a close friend t ...

Charlotte von Stein
, an older, married woman. The intimate bond with von Stein lasted for ten years, after which Goethe abruptly left for Italy without giving his companion any notice. She was emotionally distraught at the time, but they were eventually reconciled. Goethe, aside from official duties, was also a friend and confidant to the Duke, and participated in the activities of the court. For Goethe, his first ten years at Weimar could well be described as a garnering of a degree and range of experience which perhaps could be achieved in no other way. In 1779, Goethe took on the War Commission of the Grand Duchy of
Saxe-Weimar Saxe-Weimar (german: Sachsen-Weimar) was one of the History of Saxony, Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine duchies, Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin, Wettin dynasty in present-day Thuringia. The chief town and capital was Weimar. The Weimar ...
, in addition to the Mines and Highways commissions. In 1782, when the chancellor of the Duchy's Exchequer left his office, Goethe agreed to act in his place for two and a half years; this post virtually made him prime minister and the principal representative of the Duchy. Goethe was Ennoblement, ennobled in 1782 (this being indicated by the "von" in his name). As head of the Saxe-Weimar War Commission, Goethe participated in the recruitment of mercenaries into the Prussian and British military during the American Revolution. The author claims that Goethe engaged in negotiating the forced sale of vagabonds, criminals, and political dissidents as part of these activities.


Italy

Goethe's journey to the Italian peninsula and Sicily from 1786 to 1788 was of great significance in his aesthetic and philosophical development. His father had made a similar journey, and his example was a major motivating factor for Goethe to make the trip. More importantly, however, the work of Johann Joachim Winckelmann had provoked a general renewed interest in the classical Ancient Greek art, art of ancient Greece and Roman art, Rome. Thus Goethe's journey had something of the nature of a pilgrimage to it. During the course of his trip Goethe met and befriended the artists Angelica Kauffman and Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein, as well as encountering such notable characters as Emma, Lady Hamilton, Lady Hamilton and Alessandro Cagliostro (see Affair of the Diamond Necklace). He also journeyed to Sicily during this time, and wrote that "To have seen Italy without having seen Sicily is to not have seen Italy at all, for Sicily is the clue to everything." While in Southern Italy and Sicily, Goethe encountered, for the first time genuine Greek (as opposed to Roman) architecture, and was quite startled by its relative simplicity. Winckelmann had not recognized the distinctness of the two styles. Goethe's diaries of this period form the basis of the non-fiction ''Italian Journey''. ''Italian Journey'' only covers the first year of Goethe's visit. The remaining year is largely undocumented, aside from the fact that he spent much of it in Venice. This "gap in the record" has been the source of much speculation over the years. In the decades which immediately followed its publication in 1816, ''Italian Journey'' inspired countless German youths to follow Goethe's example. This is pictured, somewhat satirically, in George Eliot's ''Middlemarch''.


Weimar

In late 1792, Goethe took part in the Battle of Valmy against French Revolution, revolutionary France, assisting Duke Carl August, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Karl August of Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach during the failed invasion of France. Again during the Siege of Mainz (1793), Siege of Mainz, he assisted Carl August as a military observer. His written account of these events can be found within his ''Complete Works''. In 1794,
Friedrich Schiller Johann Christoph Friedrich (von) Schiller (, short: ; 10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller developed a productive, i ...

Friedrich Schiller
wrote to Goethe offering friendship; they had previously had only a mutually wary relationship ever since first becoming acquainted in 1788. This collaborative friendship lasted until Schiller's death in 1805. In 1806, Goethe was living in Weimar with his mistress Christiane Vulpius, the sister of Christian August Vulpius, Christian A. Vulpius, and their son August von Goethe. On 13 October,
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
's army invaded the town. The French "spoon guards", the least disciplined soldiers, occupied Goethe's house: Days afterward, on 19 October 1806, Goethe legitimized their 18-year relationship by marrying Christiane in a quiet marriage service at the . They had already had several children together by this time, including their son, Julius August Walter von Goethe (1789–1830), whose wife, Ottilie von Goethe, Ottilie von Pogwisch (1796–1872), cared for the elder Goethe until his death in 1832. August and Ottilie had three children: Walther von Goethe, Walther, Freiherr von Goethe (1818–1885), (1820–1883) and (1827–1844). Christiane von Goethe died in 1816. Johann reflected, "There is nothing more charming to see than a mother with her child in her arms, and there is nothing more venerable than a mother among a number of her children."


Later life

After 1793, Goethe devoted his endeavours primarily to literature. By 1820, Goethe was on amiable terms with Kaspar Maria von Sternberg. In 1823, having recovered from a near fatal heart illness, the 74-year-old Goethe fell in love with the teenaged Ulrike von Levetzow whom he wanted to marry, but because of the opposition of her mother he never proposed. Their last meeting in Karlovy Vary, Carlsbad on 5 September 1823 inspired his famous ''Marienbad Elegy'' which he considered one of his finest works. During that time he also developed a deep emotional bond with the Polish pianist Maria Agata Szymanowska. In 1821 Goethe's friend Carl Friedrich Zelter introduced him to the 12-year-old Felix Mendelssohn. Goethe, now in his seventies, was greatly impressed by the child, leading to perhaps the earliest confirmed comparison with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Mozart in the following conversation between Goethe and Zelter: Mendelssohn was invited to meet Goethe on several later occasions, and set a number of Goethe's poems to music. His other compositions inspired by Goethe include the overture ''Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage (Mendelssohn), Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage'' (Op. 27, 1828), and the cantata ''Die erste Walpurgisnacht'' (''The First Walpurgis Night'', Op. 60, 1832).


Death

In 1832, Goethe died in
Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''St ...

Weimar
of apparent heart failure. His last words, according to his doctor , were, ' (More light!), but this is disputed as Vogel was not in the room at the moment Goethe died. He is buried in the Weimarer Fürstengruft, Ducal Vault at Weimar's Historical Cemetery, Weimar, Historical Cemetery. Johann Peter Eckermann, Eckermann closes his famous work, '' Conversations with Goethe'', with this passage: The first production of Richard Wagner's opera ''Lohengrin (opera), Lohengrin'' took place in Weimar in 1850. The conductor was Franz Liszt, who chose the date 28 August in honour of Goethe, who was born on 28 August 1749.


Descendants

Goethe married his long-time lover Christiane Vulpius in 1806. They had 5 children, of whom only their eldest son August von Goethe managed to survive into adulthood. One was stillborn, while the others died early. August had 3 children with Ottilie von Goethe, Walther von Goethe, Wolfgang and Alma. Alma died of Typhoid fever during the outbreak in Vienna, the month before her 17th birthday. Walther and Wolfgang neither married nor had any children. Walther's gravestone states: "With him ends Goethe's dynasty, the name will last forever.", marking the end of Goethe's bloodline. While Goethe has no direct descendants, he is known to have indirect descendants through his siblings.


Literary work


Overview

The most important of Goethe's works produced before he went to Weimar were ''
Götz von Berlichingen Gottfried "Götz" von Berlichingen (1480 – 23 July 1562), also known as Götz of the Iron Hand, was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people o ...
'' (1773), a tragedy that was the first work to bring him recognition, and the novel ''
The Sorrows of Young Werther ''The Sorrows of Young Werther'' (german: Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) is a 1774 epistolary novel An epistolary novel is a novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of rel ...
'' (German: ''Die Leiden des jungen Werthers'') (1774), which gained him enormous fame as a writer in the ''
Sturm und Drang ''Sturm und Drang'' (, ; literally "storm and drive", though usually translated as "storm and stress") was a proto- Romantic movement in German literature and music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition t ...
'' period which marked the early phase of Romanticism. Indeed, ''Werther'' is often considered to be the "spark" which ignited the movement, and can arguably be called the world's first "Bestseller#Early best sellers, best-seller." During the years at Weimar before he met Schiller in 1794, he began ''
Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship ''Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship'' ( ger, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre) is the second novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, published in 1795–96. Plot The eponymous hero undergoes a journey of self-realization. The story centers upon Wilhelm's a ...
'' and wrote the dramas ''Iphigenia in Tauris (Goethe), Iphigenie auf Tauris'' (''Iphigenia in Tauris''), ''Egmont (play), Egmont'', and ''Torquato Tasso (play), Torquato Tasso'' and the fable ''Reineke Fuchs''. To the period of his friendship with Schiller belong the conception of ''Wilhelm Meister's Journeyman Years'' (the continuation of ''Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship''), the idyll of ''
Hermann and Dorothea ''Hermann and Dorothea'' is an epic poem, an idyll, written by Germany, German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe between 1796 and 1797, and was to some extent suggested by Johann Heinrich Voss's ''Luise'', an idyll in hexameters, which was first pub ...
'', the ''Roman Elegies '' and the verse drama ''The Natural Daughter''.See, generally Schiller, F. (1877). ''Correspondence between Schiller and Goethe, from 1794 to 1805'' (Vol. 1). G. Bell. In the last period, between Schiller's death, in 1805, and his own, appeared ''
Faust Part One ''Faust: A Tragedy'' (german: Faust. Eine Tragödie, links=no, , or retrospectively ) is the first part of the tragic play '' Faust'' by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German po ...
'' (1808), ''Elective Affinities'' (1809), the ''West–östlicher Divan, West-Eastern Diwan'' (an 1819 collection of poems in the Persian style, influenced by the work of Hafez), his autobiographical ''Dichtung und Wahrheit, Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit'' (''From My Life: Poetry and Truth'', published between 1811 and 1833) which covers his early life and ends with his departure for Weimar, his ''Italian Journey'' (1816–17), and a series of treatises on art. ''Faust, Part Two'' was completed before his 1832 death and published posthumously later that year. His writings were immediately influential in literary and artistic circles. Goethe was fascinated by Kalidasa's ''Abhijñānaśākuntalam'', which was one of the first works of Sanskrit literature that became known in Europe, after being translated from English to German.


Details of selected works

The short epistolary novel ''Die Leiden des jungen Werthers'', or ''
The Sorrows of Young Werther ''The Sorrows of Young Werther'' (german: Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) is a 1774 epistolary novel An epistolary novel is a novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of rel ...
'', published in 1774, recounts an unhappy romantic infatuation that ends in suicide. Goethe admitted that he "shot his hero to save himself": a reference to Goethe's own near-suicidal obsession with a young woman during this period, an obsession he quelled through the writing process. The novel remains in print in dozens of languages and its influence is undeniable; its central hero, an obsessive figure driven to despair and destruction by his unrequited love for the young Lotte, has become a pervasive literary archetype. The fact that ''Werther'' ends with the protagonist's suicide and funeral—a funeral which "no clergyman attended"—made the book deeply controversial upon its (anonymous) publication, for on the face of it, it appeared to condone and glorify suicide. Suicide is considered sinful by Christian doctrine: suicides were denied Christian burial with the bodies often mistreated and dishonoured in various ways; in corollary, the deceased's property and possessions were often confiscated by the Church. However, Goethe explained his use of ''Werther'' in his autobiography. He said he "turned reality into poetry but his friends thought poetry should be turned into reality and the poem imitated". He was against this reading of poetry. Epistolary novels were common during this time, letter-writing being a primary mode of communication. What set Goethe's book apart from other such novels was its expression of unbridled longing for a joy beyond possibility, its sense of defiant rebellion against authority, and of principal importance, its total subjectivity: qualities that trailblazed the Romantic movement. The next work, his epic
closet drama A closet drama is a play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work of drama Play may refer also to: Computers and technology * Google Play, a digital content service * Play Framework ...
''
Faust Faust is the protagonist 200px, Shakespeare's ''Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.'' William Morris Hunt, oil on canvas, c. 1864 A protagonist (from grc, πρωταγωνιστής, translit=prōtagōnistḗs, lit=one who plays the first part, chief ...
'', was completed in stages. The first part was published in 1808 and created a sensation. Goethe finished ''Faust Part Two'' in the year of his death, and the work was published posthumously. Goethe's original draft of a Faust play, which probably dates from 1773–74, and is now known as the ''Urfaust'', was also published after his death. The first operatic version of Goethe's ''Faust'', by Louis Spohr, appeared in 1814. The work subsequently inspired operas and oratorios by Robert Schumann, Schumann, Hector Berlioz, Berlioz, Charles Gounod, Gounod, Arrigo Boito, Boito, Ferruccio Busoni, Busoni and Alfred Schnittke, Schnittke, as well as symphonic works by Franz Liszt, Liszt, Richard Wagner, Wagner and Gustav Mahler, Mahler. Faust became the wikt:ur-, ur-myth of many figures in the 19th century. Later, a facet of its plot, i.e., of selling one's soul to the devil for power over the physical world, took on increasing literary importance and became a view of the victory of technology and of industrialism, along with its dubious human expenses. In 1919, the world premiere complete production of ''Faust'' was staged at the Goetheanum. Goethe's poetic work served as a model for an entire movement in German poetry termed ''Innerlichkeit'' ("introversion") and represented by, for example, Heinrich Heine, Heine. Goethe's words inspired a number of compositions by, among others, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Beethoven (who idolised Goethe), Franz Schubert, Schubert, Berlioz and Hugo Wolf, Wolf. Perhaps the single most influential piece is "Mignon's Song" which opens with one of the most famous lines in German poetry, an allusion to Italy: "'?" ("Do you know the land where the lemon trees bloom?"). He is also widely quoted. Epigrams such as "Against criticism a man can neither protest nor defend himself; he must act in spite of it, and then it will gradually yield to him", "Divide and rule, a sound motto; unite and lead, a better one", and "Enjoy when you can, and endure when you must", are still in usage or are often paraphrased. Lines from ''Faust'', such as "", "", or "" have entered everyday German usage. Some well-known quotations are often incorrectly attributed to Goethe. These include Hippocrates' "Art is long, life is short", which is echoed in Goethe's ''Faust'' and ''Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship''.


Scientific work

Although his literary work has attracted the most interest, Goethe was also keenly involved in studies of natural science. He wrote several works on morphology (biology), morphology and colour theory. In the 1790s, he undertook Galvanic experiments and studied anatomical issues together with Alexander von Humboldt. He also had the largest private collection of minerals in all of Europe. By the time of his death, in order to gain a comprehensive view in geology, he had collected 17,800 rock samples. His focus on morphology and what was later called Homology (biology), homology influenced 19th-century natural history, naturalists, although his ideas of transformation were about the continuous metamorphosis of living things and did not relate to contemporary ideas of "transformisme" or transmutation of species. Homology, or as Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire called it "analogie", was used by Charles Darwin as strong evidence of common descent and of Genetic variability, laws of variation. Goethe's studies (notably with an elephant's skull lent to him by Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring, Samuel Thomas von Soemmerring) led him to independently discover the human Incisive bone, intermaxillary bone, also known as "Goethe's bone", in 1784, which Pierre Marie Auguste Broussonet, Broussonet (1779) and Félix Vicq-d'Azyr, Vicq d'Azyr (1780) had (using different methods) identified several years earlier. While not the only one in his time to question the prevailing view that this bone did not exist in humans, Goethe, who believed ancient anatomists had known about this bone, was the first to prove its existence in all mammals. The elephant's skull that led Goethe to this discovery, and was subsequently named the Goethe Elephant, still exists and is displayed in the Ottoneum in Kassel, Germany. During his Italian journey, Goethe formulated a theory of plant metamorphosis in which the archetypal form of the plant is to be found in the ''leaf'' – he writes, "from top to bottom a plant is all leaf, united so inseparably with the future bud that one cannot be imagined without the other". In 1790, he published his ''
Metamorphosis of Plants ''Versuch die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erklären'', known in English as ''Metamorphosis of Plants'', was published by German poet and philosopher Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in 1790. In this work, Goethe essentially discovered the (serially) hom ...
''. As one of the many precursors in the history of evolutionary thought, Goethe wrote in ''Story of My Botanical Studies'' (1831): Goethe's botanical theories were partly based on his gardening in Weimar. Goethe also popularized the Goethe barometer using a principle established by Evangelista Torricelli, Torricelli. According to Hegel, "Goethe has occupied himself a good deal with meteorology; barometer readings interested him particularly... What he says is important: the main thing is that he gives a comparative table of barometric readings during the whole month of December 1822, at Weimar, Jena, London, Boston, Vienna, Töpel... He claims to deduce from it that the barometric level varies in the same proportion not only in each zone but that it has the same variation, too, at different altitudes above sea-level". In 1810, Goethe published his ''Theory of Colours'', which he considered his most important work. In it, he contentiously characterized colour as arising from the dynamic interplay of light and darkness through the mediation of a turbid medium. In 1816, Arthur Schopenhauer, Schopenhauer went on to develop his own theory in ''On Vision and Colors, On Vision and Colours'' based on the observations supplied in Goethe's book. After being translated into English by Charles Lock Eastlake, Charles Eastlake in 1840, his theory became widely adopted by the art world, most notably J. M. W. Turner. Goethe's work also inspired the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, to write his ''Remarks on Colour''. Goethe was vehemently opposed to Isaac Newton, Newton's analytic treatment of colour, engaging instead in compiling a comprehensive ''rational description'' of a wide variety of colour phenomena. Although the accuracy of Goethe's observations does not admit a great deal of criticism, his aesthetic approach did not lend itself to the demands of analytic and mathematical analysis used ubiquitously in modern Science. Goethe was, however, the first to systematically study the physiological effects of colour, and his observations on the effect of opposed colours led him to a symmetric arrangement of his colour wheel, "for the colours diametrically opposed to each other ... are those which reciprocally evoke each other in the eye." In this, he anticipated Ewald Hering's Opponent process, opponent colour theory (1872). Goethe outlines his method in the essay ''The experiment as mediator between subject and object'' (1772). In the Kurschner edition of Goethe's works, the science editor, Rudolf Steiner, presents Goethe's approach to science as phenomenological model, phenomenological. Steiner elaborated on that in the books ''The Theory of Knowledge Implicit in Goethe's World-Conception'' and ''Goethe's World View'', in which he characterizes intuition as the instrument by which one grasps Goethe's biological archetype—''The Typus''. Novalis, himself a geologist and mining engineer, expressed the opinion that Goethe was the first physicist of his time and "epoch-making in the history of physics", writing that Goethe's studies of light, of the metamorphosis of plants and of insects were indications and proofs "that the perfect educational lecture belongs in the artist's sphere of work"; and that Goethe would be surpassed "but only in the way in which the ancients can be surpassed, in inner content and force, in variety and depth—as an artist actually not, or only very little, for his rightness and intensity are perhaps already more exemplary than it would seem".


Eroticism

Many of Goethe's works, especially ''
Faust Faust is the protagonist 200px, Shakespeare's ''Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.'' William Morris Hunt, oil on canvas, c. 1864 A protagonist (from grc, πρωταγωνιστής, translit=prōtagōnistḗs, lit=one who plays the first part, chief ...
'', the ''Roman Elegies'', and the ''Venetian Epigrams'', depict erotic passions and acts. For instance, in ''Faust'', the first use of Faust's power after signing a contract with the devil is to Ephebophilia, seduce a teenage girl. Some of the ''Venetian Epigrams'' were held back from publication due to their sexual content. Goethe clearly saw human sexuality as a topic worthy of poetic and artistic depiction, an idea that was uncommon in a time when the private nature of sexuality was rigorously normative. In a conversation on April 7, 1830 Goethe stated that pederasty is an "aberration" that easily leads to "animal, roughly material" behavior. He continued, "Pederasty is as old as humanity itself, and one can therefore say, that it resides in nature, even if it proceeds against nature....What culture has won from nature will not be surrendered or given up at any price." On another occasion he wrote: "I like boys a lot, but the girls are even nicer. If I tire of her as a girl, she'll play the boy for me as well".


Religion and politics

Goethe was a freethinkers, freethinker who believed that one could be inwardly Christian without following any of the Christian churches, many of whose central teachings he firmly opposed, sharply distinguishing between Christ and the tenets of Christian theology, and criticizing its history as a "hodgepodge of fallacy and violence". His own descriptions of his relationship to the Christian faith and even to the Church varied widely and have been interpreted even more widely, so that while Goethe's secretary Johann Peter Eckermann, Eckermann portrayed him as enthusiastic about Christianity, Jesus, Martin Luther, and the Protestant Reformation, even calling Christianity the "ultimate religion," on one occasion Goethe described himself as "not anti-Christian, nor un-Christian, but most decidedly non-Christian," and in his Venetian Epigram 66, Goethe listed the symbol of the cross among the four things that he most disliked. According to Friedrich Nietzsche, Nietzsche, Goethe had "a kind of almost ''joyous'' and ''trusting fatalism''" that has "faith that only in the totality everything redeems itself and appears good and justified." Born into a Lutheranism, Lutheran family, Goethe's early faith was shaken by news of such events as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and the Seven Years' War. Goethe's preoccupation with and reverence for Baruch Spinoza, Spinoza are well known and documented in the history of Western thought. He was one of the central figures in a great flowering of a highly influential Neo-Spinozism which occurred in German philosophy and literature of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries—that was the first remarkable Spinoza revival in history. Like Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Lessing and Johann Gottfried Herder, Herder, in many respects, Goethe was a devoted Spinozist. He was also a list of pantheists, pantheist, like some other prominent Spinozists such as Gustave Flaubert, Flaubert and Albert Einstein. His later spiritual perspective incorporated elements of pantheism (heavily influenced by Spinoza's thought),Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von: ''Italian Journey, Letters from Italy'', 1786–1788. Translated from the German by W. H. Auden and Elizabeth Mayer (New York: Penguin Books, 1995). Goethe: "For many years I did not dare look into a Latin author or at anything which evoked an image of Italy. If this happened by chance, I suffered agonies. Johann Gottfried Herder, Herder often used to say mockingly that I had learned all my Latin from Spinoza, for that was Ethics (Spinoza), the only Latin book he had ever seen me reading. He did not realize how carefully I had to guard myself against the classics, and that it was sheer anxiety which drove me to take refuge in the abstractions of Spinoza."
Johann Peter Eckermann Johann Peter Eckermann Johann Peter Eckermann (21 September 1792 – 3 December 1854), German poet and author, is best known for his work '' Conversations with Goethe'', the fruit of his association with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe during the last y ...

Johann Peter Eckermann
(1831): "Goethe found such a point of view early in Spinoza, and he gladly recognizes how much the views of this great thinker have been in keeping with the needs of his youth. He found himself in him, and so he could fix himself to him in the most beautiful way." [Original in German: "Einen solchen Standpunkt fand Goethe früh in Spinoza, und er erkennet mit Freuden, wie sehr die Ansichten dieses großen Denkers den Bedürfnissen seiner Jugend gemäß gewesen. Er fand in ihm sich selber, und so konnte er sich auch an ihm auf das schönste befestigen."] (''Gespräche mit Goethe in den letzten Jahren seines Lebens'', 1831)
humanism, and various elements of Western esotericism, as seen most vividly in Faust, Part Two, part 2 of ''Faust''. Like Heinrich Heine, Nietzsche mentions in his writings frequently Goethe and Spinoza as a pair.Yirmiyahu Yovel, Yovel, Yirmiyahu, 'Nietzsche and Spinoza: Enemy-Brothers,'. In: ''Spinoza and Other Heretics, Vol. 2: The Adventures of Immanence''. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989). Yirmiyahu Yovel: "Speaking of his 'ancestors', Nietzsche at various times gives several lists, but he always mentions Spinoza and Goethe—and always as a pair. This is no accident, for Nietzsche sees Goethe as incorporating Spinoza and as anticipating his own 'Dionysian' ideal." A year before his death, in a letter to Sulpiz Boisserée, Goethe wrote that he had the feeling that all his life he had been aspiring to qualify as one of the Hypsistarians, an ancient sect of the Black Sea region who, in his understanding, sought to reverence, as being close to the Godhead, what came to their knowledge of the best and most perfect. Goethe's unorthodox religious beliefs led him to be called "the great heathen" and provoked distrust among the authorities of his time, who opposed the creation of a Goethe monument on account of his offensive religious creed. August Wilhelm Schlegel considered Goethe "a heathen who converted to Islam." Politically, Goethe described himself as a "moderate liberalism, liberal." He was critical of the radicalism of Bentham and expressed sympathy for the prudent liberalism of François Guizot. At the time of the French Revolution, he thought the enthusiasm of the students and professors to be a perversion of their energy and remained skeptical of the ability of the masses to govern.McCabe, Joseph. 'Goethe: The Man and His Character'. p. 343 Goethe sympathized with the American Revolution and later wrote a poem in which he declared "America, you're better off than our continent, the old." He did not join in the anti-Napoleonic mood of 1812, and he distrusted the strident nationalism which started to be expressed. The medievalism of the Heidelberg Romantics was also repellent to Goethe's eighteenth-century ideal of a supra-national culture. Goethe was a Freemason, joining the lodge Amalia in Weimar in 1780, and frequently alluded to Masonic themes of universal brotherhood in his work. He was also attracted to the Illuminati, Bavarian Illuminati, a secret society founded on 1 May 1776. Although often requested to write poems arousing nationalist passions, Goethe would always decline. In old age, he explained why this was so to Eckermann:


Influence

Goethe had a great effect on the nineteenth century. In many respects, he was the originator of many ideas which later became widespread. He produced volumes of poetry, essays, criticism, a theory of optics, colours and early work on evolution and linguistics. He was fascinated by mineralogy, and the mineral goethite (iron oxide) is named after him. His non-fiction writings, most of which are philosophic and aphoristic in nature, spurred the development of many thinkers, including Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel,
Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (; ; 22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a Germans, German philosopher. He is best known for his 1818 work ''The World as Will and Representation'' (expanded in 1844), which characterizes the Phenomenon, phenomena ...
, Søren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Ernst Cassirer, and Carl Gustav Jung, Carl Jung. Along with Schiller, he was one of the leading figures of
Weimar Classicism Weimar Classicism (german: Weimarer Klassik) was a German literary Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, dra ...
. Arthur Schopenhauer, Schopenhauer cited Goethe's novel ''Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship'' as one of the four greatest novels ever written, along with ''The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, Tristram Shandy'', ''Julie, or the New Heloise, La Nouvelle Héloïse'' and ''Don Quixote''. Nietzsche wrote, "Four pairs it was that did not deny themselves to my sacrifice: Epicurus and
Montaigne 270px, The coat of arms of Michel Eyquem, Lord of Montaigne Michel Eyquem de Montaigne ( ; ; 28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592), also known as Lord of Montaigne, was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissanc ...

Montaigne
, Goethe and Spinoza, Plato and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Rousseau, Blaise Pascal, Pascal and Schopenhauer. With these I must come to terms when I have long wandered alone; they may call me right and wrong; to them will I listen when in the process they call each other right and wrong." Goethe embodied many of the contending strands in art over the next century: his work could be lushly emotional, and rigorously formal, brief and epigrammatic, and epic. He would argue that Classicism was the means of controlling art, and that Romanticism was a sickness, even as he penned poetry rich in memorable images, and rewrote the formal rules of German poetry. His poetry was set to music by almost every major Austrian and German composer from Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Mozart to Gustav Mahler, Mahler, and his influence would spread to French drama and opera as well. Ludwig van Beethoven, Beethoven declared that a "Faust" Symphony would be the greatest thing for art. Franz Liszt, Liszt and Mahler both created symphonies in whole or in large part inspired by this Social influence, seminal work, which would give the 19th century one of its most paradigmatic figures: Faust, Doctor Faustus. The ''Faust'' tragedy/drama, often called ' (the drama of the Germans), written in two parts published decades apart, would stand as his most characteristic and famous artistic creation. Followers of the twentieth-century esotericist Rudolf Steiner built a theatre named the Goetheanum after him—where festival performances of ''
Faust Faust is the protagonist 200px, Shakespeare's ''Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.'' William Morris Hunt, oil on canvas, c. 1864 A protagonist (from grc, πρωταγωνιστής, translit=prōtagōnistḗs, lit=one who plays the first part, chief ...
'' are still performed. Goethe was also a cultural force. During his first meeting with
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
in 1808, the latter famously remarked: "Vous êtes un homme (You are a man)!" The two discussed politics, the writings of Voltaire, and Goethe's ''Sorrows of Young Werther'', which Napoleon had read seven times and ranked among his favorites. Goethe came away from the meeting deeply impressed with Napoleon's enlightened intellect and his efforts to build an alternative to the corrupt old regime. Goethe always spoke of Napoleon with the greatest respect, confessing that "nothing higher and more pleasing could have happened to me in all my life" than to have met Napoleon in person. Germaine de Staël, in ''On Germany, De l'Allemagne'' (1813), presented German Classicism and Romanticism as a potential source of spiritual authority for Europe, and identified Goethe as a living classic. She praised Goethe as possessing "the chief characteristics of the German genius" and uniting "all that distinguishes the German mind." Staël's portrayal helped elevate Goethe over his more famous German contemporaries and transformed him into a European cultural hero. Goethe met with her and her partner Benjamin Constant, with whom he shared a mutual admiration. In Victorian England, Goethe exerted a profound influence on George Eliot, whose partner George Henry Lewes wrote a ''Life of Goethe''. Eliot presented Goethe as "eminently the man who helps us to rise to a lofty point of observation" and praised his "large tolerance", which "quietly follows the stream of fact and of life" without passing moral judgments. Matthew Arnold found in Goethe the "Physician of the Iron Age" and "the clearest, the largest, the most helpful thinker of modern times" with a "large, liberal view of life." It was to a considerable degree due to Goethe's reputation that the city of
Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''St ...

Weimar
was chosen in 1919 as the venue for the Weimar National Assembly, national assembly, convened to draft Weimar constitution, a new constitution for what would become known as Germany's Weimar Republic. Goethe became a key reference for Thomas Mann in his speeches and essays defending the republic. He emphasized Goethe's "cultural and self-developing individualism", humanism, and cosmopolitanism. The Federal Republic of Germany's cultural institution, the Goethe-Institut, is named after him, and promotes the study of German abroad and fosters knowledge about Germany by providing information on its culture, society and politics. The literary estate of Goethe in the Goethe and Schiller Archives was inscribed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in 2001 in recognition of its historical significance. Goethe's influence was dramatic because he understood that there was a transition in European sensibilities, an increasing focus on sense, the indescribable, and the emotional. This is not to say that he was emotionalistic or excessive; on the contrary, he lauded personal restraint and felt that excess was a disease: "There is nothing worse than imagination without taste". Goethe praised Francis Bacon for his advocacy of science based on experiment and his forceful revolution in thought as one of the greatest strides forward in modern science. However, he was critical of Bacon's inductive method and approach based on pure classification. He said in ''Scientific Studies'': Goethe's scientific and aesthetic ideas have much in common with Denis Diderot, whose work he translated and studied. Both Diderot and Goethe exhibited a repugnance towards the mathematical interpretation of nature; both perceived the universe as dynamic and in constant flux; both saw "art and science as compatible disciplines linked by common imaginative processes"; and both grasped "the unconscious impulses underlying mental creation in all forms." Goethe's ''Naturanschauer'' is in many ways a sequel to Diderot's ''interprète de la nature''. His views make him, along with Adam Smith, Thomas Jefferson, and Ludwig van Beethoven, a figure in two worlds: on the one hand, devoted to the sense of taste, order, and finely crafted detail, which is the hallmark of the artistic sense of the Age of Enlightenment, Age of Reason and the Neoclassical architecture, neo-classical period of architecture; on the other, seeking a personal, intuitive, and personalized form of expression and society, firmly supporting the idea of self-regulating and organic systems. George Henry Lewes celebrated Goethe's revolutionary understanding of the organism. Thinkers such as
Ralph Waldo Emerson Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803April 27, 1882), who went by his middle name Waldo, was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, abolitionism, abolitionist and poet who led the Transcendentalism, transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th c ...

Ralph Waldo Emerson
would take up many similar ideas in the 1800s. Goethe's ideas on evolution would frame the question that Charles Darwin, Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, Wallace would approach within the scientific paradigm. The Serbian inventor and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla was heavily influenced by Goethe's Faust, Goethe's ''Faust'', his favorite poem, and had actually memorized the entire text. It was while reciting a certain verse that he was struck with the epiphany that would lead to the idea of the rotating magnetic field and ultimately, alternating current.Seifer, Marc J. (1998
"Wizard: The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla: Biography of a Genius"
Citadel Press, pp. 22, 308


Works

* Johann Wolfgang von Goethe bibliography


Books related to Goethe

* ''The Life of Goethe'' by George Henry Lewes * ''Goethe: The History of a Man'' by Emil Ludwig * ''Goethe'' by Georg Brandes. Authorized translation from the Danish (2nd ed. 1916) by Allen W. Porterfield, New York, Crown publishers, 1936. "Crown edition, 1936." Title ''Wolfgang Goethe'' * ''Goethe: His Life and Times'' by * ''Lotte in Weimar: The Beloved Returns'' by Thomas Mann * '' Conversations with Goethe'' by
Johann Peter Eckermann Johann Peter Eckermann Johann Peter Eckermann (21 September 1792 – 3 December 1854), German poet and author, is best known for his work '' Conversations with Goethe'', the fruit of his association with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe during the last y ...

Johann Peter Eckermann
* ''Goethe's World: as seen in letters and memoirs'' ed. by Berthold Biermann * ''Goethe: Four Studies'' by Albert Schweitzer * ''Goethe Poet and Thinker'' by E.M. Wilkinson and L.A. Willoughby * ''Goethe and his Publishers'' by * ''Goethe'' by T.J. Reed * ''Goethe. A Psychoanalytic Study'', by Kurt R. Eissler * ''The Life of Goethe. A Critical Biography'' by John Williams * ''Goethe: The Poet and the Age'' (2 Vols.), by Nicholas Boyle * ''Goethe's Concept of the Daemonic: After the Ancients'', by Angus Nicholls * ''Goethe and Rousseau: Resonances of their Mind'', by Carl Hammer, Jr. * ''Doctor Faustus of the popular legend, Marlowe, the Puppet-Play, Goethe, and Lenau, treated historically and critically. – A parallel between Goethe and Schiller. – An historic outline of German Literature '', by Louis Pagel * ''Goethe and Schiller, Essays on German Literature'', by Hjalmar Hjorth Boyesen * ''Goethe-Wörterbuch'' (Goethe Dictionary, abbreviated GWb). Herausgegeben von der Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen und der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften. Stuttgart. Kohlhammer Verlag; *''West-Eastern Divan: Complete, annotated new translation, including Goethe's 'Notes and Essays' & the unpublished poems'', translated by Eric Ormsby, 2019. Gingko,


See also

* ''Young Goethe in Love'' (2010) * Dora Stock – her encounters with the 16-year-old Goethe. * Goethe Basin * Johann-Wolfgang-von-Goethe-Gymnasium * W. H. Murray – author of misattributed quotation "Until one is committed ..." * Nature (Tobler essay), essay often mis-attributed to Goethe Awards named after him * Goethe Awards * Goethe Prize * Hanseatic Goethe Prize


References


Footnotes


Citations


Sources

* * *


Further reading

* Calder, Angus (1983), ''Walter Scott, Scott & Goethe: Romantiscism and Classicism'', in Hearn, Sheila G. (ed.), ''Cencrastus'' No. 13, Summer 1983, pp. 25 - 28,


External links

* * * * * *
"Goethe and the Science of the Enlightenment"
''In Our Time'', BBC Radio 4 discussion with Nicholas Boyle and Simon Schaffer (February 10, 2000). * * * At the Linda Hall Library, Goethe's: ** (1810
''Zur Farbenlehre'' (Atlas)
** (1840
''Goethe's Theory of Colours; translated from the German: with notes by Charles Lock Eastlake''

Works by and about Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in University Library JCS Frankfurt am Main: Digital Collections Judaica
*
Goethe in English
at ''Poems Found in Translation''

lieder.net
Goethe Quotes: New English translations and German originals
{{DEFAULTSORT:Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1749 births 1832 deaths 18th-century German dramatists and playwrights 18th-century German novelists 18th-century German philosophers 18th-century German poets 19th-century German dramatists and playwrights 19th-century German male writers 19th-century German novelists 19th-century German philosophers 19th-century German poets Color scientists Enlightenment philosophers German autobiographers German Freemasons Scientists from Weimar German travel writers German untitled nobility Leipzig University alumni Members of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences Natural philosophers Pantheists Writers from Frankfurt Writers from Weimar Romantic poets Sturm und Drang University of Strasbourg alumni Spinozists Neo-Spinozism German librarians