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Jesus College (in full: Jesus College in the University of Oxford of Queen Elizabeth's Foundation) is one of the constituent colleges of the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
in England. It is in the centre of the
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...

city
, on a site between
Turl Street Turl Street is a historic street in central Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) ...
, Ship Street,
Cornmarket Street Cornmarket Street (colloquially referred to as Cornmarket or historically The Corn) is a major shopping street and pedestrian zone, pedestrian precinct in Oxford, England that runs north to south between Magdalen Street and Carfax, Oxford, Carf ...
and
Market StreetMarket Street may refer to: *Market Street, Cambridge, England *Market Street, Fremantle, Western Australia, Australia *Market Street, George Town, Penang, Malaysia *Market Street, Manchester, England *Market Street, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia * ...
. The college was founded by
Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to i ...

Elizabeth I
on 27 June 1571 for the education of clergy, though students now study a broad range of secular subjects. A major driving force behind the establishment of the college was Hugh Price (or Ap Rhys), a churchman from
Brecon Brecon (; cy, Aberhonddu ), archaically known as Brecknock, is a market Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finland and S ...

Brecon
in
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
. The oldest buildings, in the first quadrangle, date from the 16th and early 17th centuries; a second quadrangle was added between about 1640 and about 1713, and a third quadrangle was built in about 1906. Further accommodation was built on the main site to mark the 400th anniversary of the college, in 1971, and student flats have been constructed at sites in north and east Oxford. The life of the college was disrupted by the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
.
Leoline Jenkins Sir Leoline Jenkins (1625 – 1 September 1685) was a Wales, Welsh academic, diplomat involved in the negotiation of international treaties (e.g. Treaties of Nijmegen, Nimègue). jurist and politician. He was a clerical lawyer who served as Judg ...
, who became principal after the war in 1661, put the college on a more stable financial footing. Little happened at the college during the 18th century, and the 19th century saw a decline in numbers and academic standards. Reforms of Oxford University after two
Royal Commission A royal commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry A tribunal of inquiry is an official review of events or actions ordered by a government body. In many common law countries, such as the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of ...
s in the latter half of the 19th century led to removal of many of the restrictions placed on the college's fellowships and
scholarship A scholarship is an award of financial aid Student financial aid in the United States is funding that is available exclusively to students attending a Higher education in the United States, post-secondary educational institution in the Unite ...

scholarship
s, such that the college ceased to be predominantly full of Welsh students and academics. Students' academic achievements rose in the early 20th century as fellows were appointed to teach in new subjects. Women were first admitted in 1974 and now form a large part of the undergraduate population. There are about 475 students at any one time; the Principal of the college is Sir Nigel Shadbolt. Former students include
Harold Wilson James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The hea ...

Harold Wilson
(who was twice
British Prime Minister The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), b ...
),
Norman Washington Manley Norman Washington Manley (4 July 1893 – 2 September 1969) was a Jamaican statesman who served as the first and only Premier of Jamaica. A Rhodes Scholar 250px, Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker">Oxford.html" ;"title=" ...
(
Chief Minister of Jamaica The prime minister of Jamaica is Jamaica's head of government, currently Andrew Holness. Holness, as leader of the governing Jamaica Labour Party (JLP), was sworn in as Prime Minister on 7 September 2020, having been re-elected as a result of th ...
),
T. E. Lawrence Colonel (UK), Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British Archaeology, archaeologist, army officer, diplomat, and writer, who became renowned for his role in the Arab Revolt (1916–1918) and the Sinai an ...

T. E. Lawrence
("Lawrence of Arabia"), Angus Buchanan (winner of the
Victoria Cross The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest and most prestigious award of the British honours system The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery, achievement, or service to the United Kingdom The United ...

Victoria Cross
), and
Viscount Sankey A viscount ( , for male) or viscountess (, for female) is a Title#Aristocratic titles, title used in certain European countries for a nobility, noble of varying status. In many countries a viscount, and its historical equivalents, was a non-here ...
(
Lord Chancellor The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest-ranking among the Great Officers of State In the United Kingdom, the Great Officers of State are traditional ministers of The Crown who either inheri ...
). The university's professorship of Celtic is attached to the college, a post held by scholars such as
Sir John Rhys Sir John Rhys, (also spelled Rhŷs; 21 June 1840 – 17 December 1915) was a Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language fam ...
,
Ellis Evans David Ellis Evans FBA (23 September 1930 – 26 September 2013) was a Welsh scholar and academic. He was born in the Towy Valley in Carmarthenshire Carmarthenshire (; cy, Sir Gaerfyrddin; or informally ') is a unitary authority A un ...
and
Thomas Charles-Edwards Thomas Mowbray Charles-Edwards (born 11 November 1943) is an emeritus academic at Oxford University Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is ...
. Past or present fellows of the college include the historians Sir Goronwy Edwards and
Niall Ferguson Niall Campbell Ferguson (; born 18 April 1964)Biography
Niall Ferguson
is a ...
, the philosopher
Galen Strawson Galen John Strawson (born 1952) is a British analytic philosopher and literary critic who works primarily on philosophy of mind, metaphysics (including free will, panpsychism, the mind-body problem, and the self (philosophy), self), John Locke, ...
, and the political philosopher John Gray.


History


Foundation

Jesus College was founded on 27 June 1571, when
Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to i ...

Elizabeth I
issued a
royal charter A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege and immunity, recognized in common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or ...

royal charter
. It was the first
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
college to be founded at the university, and it is the only Oxford college to date from Elizabeth's reign. It was the first new Oxford college since 1555, in the reign of , when
Trinity College Trinity College may refer to: Australia * Trinity Anglican College, an Anglican Church of Australia, Anglican coeducational primary and secondary school in , New South Wales * Trinity Catholic College, Auburn, a coeducational school in the inner-w ...

Trinity College
and St John's College were founded as
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...
colleges. The foundation charter named a principal (
David LewisDavid or Dave Lewis may refer to: Academics *A. David Lewis (born 1977), American comic writer and scholar of religion and literature *David Lewis (academic) (born 1960), English scholar of development *David Lewis (lawyer) ( – 1584), Welsh ...
), eight
fellowsFellows may refer to Fellow, in plural form. Fellows or Fellowes may also refer to: Places *Fellows, California, USA *Fellows, Wisconsin, ghost town, USA Other uses *Fellows Auctioneers, established in 1876. *Fellowes, Inc., manufacturer of worksp ...
, eight
scholars A scholar is a person who pursues academic and intellectual activities, particularly academics who apply their intellectualismImage:Socrates Louvre.jpg, 165px, The Life of the Mind: the philosophic pioneer, Socrates (ca.469–399 B.C.) Intellect ...

scholars
, and eight commissioners to draw up the statutes for the college.Hardy, p. 13 The commissioners included Hugh Price, who had petitioned the queen to found a college at Oxford "that he might bestow his estate of the maintenance of certain scholars of Wales to be trained up in good letters." The college was originally intended primarily for the education of clergy. The particular intention was to satisfy a need for dedicated, learned clergy to promote the
Elizabethan Religious Settlement The Elizabethan Religious Settlement is the name given to the religious and political arrangements made for England during the reign of Elizabeth I (1558–1603) that brought the English Reformation to a conclusion. The Settlement shaped the An ...
in the parishes of England, Ireland and Wales. The college has since broadened the range of subjects offered, beginning with the inclusion of medicine and law, and now offers almost the full range of subjects taught at the university. The
letters patent Letters patent ( la, litterae patentes) ( always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument ''Legal instrument'' is a legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act acco ...
issued by Elizabeth I made it clear that the education of a priest in the 16th century included more than just theology, however:Baker (1971), p. 1 Price continued to be closely involved with the college after its foundation. On the strength of a promised legacy, worth £60 a year on his death (approximately £ in present-day terms), he requested and received the authority to appoint the new college's principal, fellows and scholars. He financed early building work in the college's front quadrangle, but on his death in 1574 it transpired that the college received only a
lump sum A lump sum is a single payment of money In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any item ...
of around £600 (approximately £ in present-day terms). Problems with his bequest meant that it was not received in full for about 25 years. As the college had no other donors at this time, "for many years the college had buildings but no revenue".Baker (1954), p. 264


17th century

The main benefactor, other than the King, was Eubule Thelwall, from
Ruthin Ruthin ( ; cy, Rhuthun) is a market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately f ...
, North Wales, who became Principal in 1621; he succeeded in securing a new charter and statutes for the college from
James I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and King of Ireland, Ireland as James I from the Union of the Crowns, union of the Scottish and En ...

James I
, having spent £5,000 of his own money on the hall and chapel, which earned him the title of its second founder. Thelwall died on 8 October 1630, aged 68 and was buried in Jesus College Chapel where a monument was erected to his memory by his brother Sir Bevis Thelwall (Page of the King's Bedchamber and Clerk of the Great Wardrobe). Other benefactions in the 17th century include
Herbert Westfaling Herbert Westfaling (also spelled Westphaling, 1531/2 – 1 March 1602), was Anglicanism, Anglican Bishop of Hereford and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford. Westfaling was born in London, England, the son of Harbert Westphaling, whose ...
, the
Bishop of Hereford The Bishop of Hereford is the Ordinary (officer), ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Hereford in the Province of Canterbury. The episcopal see is centred in the Hereford, City of Hereford where the bishop's seat (''cathedra'') is in th ...
, who left enough property to support two fellowships and scholarships (with the significant proviso that "my kindred shallbe always preferred before anie others"). Sir Eubule Thelwall (principal 1621–1630) spent much of his own money on the construction of a chapel, hall and library for the college. The library, constructed above an over-weak
colonnade In classical architecture Classical architecture usually denotes architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (a ...

colonnade
, was pulled down under the principalship of Francis Mansell (1630–1649), who also built two staircases of residential accommodation to attract the sons of Welsh gentry families to the college. The
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
"all but destroyed the corporate life of the college."Baker (1954), p. 265. Mansell was removed from his position as principal and Michael Roberts was installed. After
the Restoration Restoration is the act of restoring something to its original state and may refer to: * Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage * Restoration style Film and television * ''The Restoration'' (1909 film), a film by D.W. Griffith starr ...
, Mansell was briefly reinstated as principal, before resigning in favour of
Leoline Jenkins Sir Leoline Jenkins (1625 – 1 September 1685) was a Wales, Welsh academic, diplomat involved in the negotiation of international treaties (e.g. Treaties of Nijmegen, Nimègue). jurist and politician. He was a clerical lawyer who served as Judg ...
.Baker (1954), p. 266 It was Jenkins (principal 1661–1673) who secured the long-term viability of the college. On his death, in 1685, he bequeathed a large complex of estates, acquired largely by lawyer friends from the over-mortgaged landowners of the Restoration period. These estates allowed the college's sixteen fellowships and scholarships to be filled for the first time – officially, sixteen of each had been supported since 1622, but the college's income was too small to keep all occupied simultaneously. In 1713, the bequest of Welsh clergyman and former student
Edmund Meyrick Edmund (or Edmond) Meyrick (or Meyricke) (1636 – 24 April 1713) was a Welsh cleric and benefactor of Jesus College, Oxford, where scholarships are still awarded in his name. He is a member of the Meyrick family. Life Meyrick was born at Garthl ...
e established a number of scholarships for students from north Wales, although these are now available to all Welsh students.Baker (1954), p. 267


18th and 19th centuries

The 18th century, in contrast to the disruption of the 17th century, was a comparatively quiet time for the college. A historian of the college, J. N. L. Baker, wrote that the college records for this time "tell of little but routine entries and departures of fellows and scholars". The
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
saw a reduction in the numbers of students and entries in the records for the purchase of
musket A musket is a muzzle-loaded A muzzleloader is any firearm into which the bullet, projectile and usually the propellant charge is loaded from the Muzzle (firearms), muzzle of the gun (i.e., from the forward, open end of the gun's barrel). Th ...
s and other items for college members serving in the university corps. After the war, numbers rose, to an average of twenty new students per year between 1821 and 1830. However, debts owed to the college had increased, perhaps due to the economic effects of the war – by 1832, the college was owed £986 10s 5d (approximately £ in present-day terms).Baker (1954), p. 268 During the first half of the 19th century, the academic strength of the college diminished: scholarships were sometimes not awarded because of a lack of suitable candidates, and numbers fell: there were only seven new entrants in 1842. Ernest Hardy wrote in his history of the college in 1899 that it had been becoming "increasingly evident for years... that the exclusive connection with Wales was ruining the college as a place of education." A
Royal Commission A royal commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry A tribunal of inquiry is an official review of events or actions ordered by a government body. In many common law countries, such as the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of ...
was appointed in 1852 to investigate the university. The college wished to retain its links with Wales, and initial reforms were limited despite the wishes of the commissioners: those scholarships that were limited to particular parts of Wales were opened to the whole of Wales, and half of the fellowships awarded were to remain open only to Welshmen if and so long as the Principal and Fellows shall deem it expedient for the interests of education in connection with the Principality of Wales. All the scholarships at the college, except for two, and all the
exhibitions An exhibition, in the most general sense, is an organized presentation and display of a selection of items. In practice, exhibitions usually occur within a cultural or educational setting such as a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or ...
were still restricted to students from Wales. The numbers of students at the college still fell, despite prizes being awarded for success in university examinations. Daniel Harper, principal from 1877 to 1895, noted the continuing academic decline. Speaking in 1879, he noted that fewer students from the college were reaching high standards in examinations, and that more Welsh students were choosing to study at other Oxford colleges in preference to Jesus. A further Royal Commission was appointed. This led to further changes at the college: in 1882, the fellowships reserved to Welshmen were made open to all, and only half (instead of all) of the 24 scholarships were to be reserved for Welsh candidates.Baker (1954), p. 269 Thereafter, numbers gradually rose and the non-Welsh element at the college increased, so that by 1914 only about half of the students were Welsh.


20th century

During the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
, "the college in the ordinary sense almost ceased to exist". From 129 students in the summer of 1914, numbers dropped to 36 in the spring of 1916. Some refugee students from Belgium and Serbia lodged in empty rooms in the college during 1916, and officers of the
Royal Flying Corps "Through Adversity to the Stars" , colors= , colours_label= , march= , mascot= , anniversaries= , decorations= , battle_honours= , battles_label=Wars , battles=First World War , disbanded=merged with RNAS The Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) ...
resided from August 1916 to December 1918. After the war, numbers rose and fellowships were added in new subjects: history (1919 and 1933); theology (1927); physics (1934); a second fellowship in chemistry (1924); and modern languages (lectureship 1921, fellowship 1944). The improved teaching led to greater success in university examinations and prizes.Baker (1954), p. 270 In the inter-war years (1918–1939) Jesus was seen by some as a small college and something of a backwater; it attracted relatively few pupils from the public schools traditionally seen as the most prestigious. The college did, however, attract many academically able entrants from the
grammar schools A grammar school is one of several different types of school A school is an educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-ele ...
(particularly those in
northern England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the most northern area of England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England ...

northern England
and Scotland). Among these grammar-school boys was
Harold Wilson James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The hea ...

Harold Wilson
, who would later become
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a ...
. During the Second World War, many of the fellows served in the armed forces or carried out war work in Oxford. The college remained full of students, though, as it provided lodgings for students from other colleges whose buildings had been requisitioned, and also housed officers on military courses.Baker (1954), p. 271 The college had its own science laboratories from 1907 to 1947, which were overseen (for all but the last three years) by the
physical chemist Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic scale, macroscopic and particulate phenomena in chemistry, chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as Motion (physics), motion, energy, force, time, therm ...
David Chapman, a fellow of the college from 1907 to 1944. At the time of their closure, they were the last college-based science laboratories at the university. They were named the Sir Leoline Jenkins laboratories, after a former principal of the college. The laboratories led to scientific research and tuition (particularly in chemistry) becoming an important part of the college's academic life. The brochure produced for the opening ceremony noted that the number of science students at the college had increased rapidly in recent years, and that provision of college laboratories would assist the tuition of undergraduates, as well as attracting to Jesus College graduates of the
University of Wales , latin_name = , image = , motto = cy, Goreu Awen Gwirionedd , mottoeng = The Best Inspiration is Truth , established = , , type = Confederal A confederation (also known as a confede ...

University of Wales
who wished to continue their research at Oxford. A link between one of the college science lecturers and
Imperial Chemical Industries Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) was a British chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday obje ...
(ICI) led to 17 students joining ICI between the two World Wars, some, such as John Rose, reaching senior levels in the company. The laboratories became unnecessary when the university began to provide centralised facilities for students; they were closed in 1947. The quatercentenary of the college, in 1971, saw the opening of the Old Members' Buildings in the third quadrangle. Further student accommodation has been built at the sports ground and at a site in north Oxford. In 1974, Jesus was among the first group of five men's colleges to admit women as members, the others being
Brasenose Brasenose College (BNC), officially The Principal and Scholars of the King’s Hall and College of Brasenose in Oxford, is one of the Colleges of the University of Oxford, constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ...

Brasenose
, Wadham,
Hertford Hertford ( ) is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a syn ...

Hertford
and St Catherine's; between one-third and one-half of the undergraduates are women. A long-standing
rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups A group is a number of people or things that are located, gathered, or classed together. Groups of people * Cultural group, a group whose members share the same cultural identity * Ethnic group, ...
with nearby
Exeter College Exeter () is a city in Devon, England, on the River Exe northeast of Plymouth and southwest of Bristol. It is the county town of Devon, and home to Devon County Council and the University of Exeter. In Roman Britain, Exeter was established as ...
reached a peak in 1979, with seven police vehicles and three fire engines involved in dealing with trouble in Turl Street. Sir John Habakkuk (principal 1967–1984) and Sir Peter North (principal 1984–2005) both served terms as Vice-Chancellor of the university, from 1973 to 1977 and from 1993 to 1997 respectively.


Location and buildings

The main buildings are located in the centre of Oxford, between
Turl Street Turl Street is a historic street in central Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) ...
, Ship Street,
Cornmarket Street Cornmarket Street (colloquially referred to as Cornmarket or historically The Corn) is a major shopping street and pedestrian zone, pedestrian precinct in Oxford, England that runs north to south between Magdalen Street and Carfax, Oxford, Carf ...
and
Market StreetMarket Street may refer to: *Market Street, Cambridge, England *Market Street, Fremantle, Western Australia, Australia *Market Street, George Town, Penang, Malaysia *Market Street, Manchester, England *Market Street, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia * ...
. The main entrance is on Turl Street. The buildings are arranged in three quadrangles, the first quadrangle containing the oldest college buildings and the third quadrangle the newest. The foundation charter gave to the college a site between Market Street and Ship Street (which is still occupied by the college) as well as the buildings of a defunct university academic hall on the site, called White Hall.Hardy, p. 9 The buildings that now surround the first quadrangle were erected in stages between 1571 and the 1620s; the principal's lodgings were the last to be built. Progress was slow because the new college lacked the "generous endowments" that earlier colleges enjoyed. Before new buildings were completed, the students lived in the old buildings of White Hall.Hardy, p. 17


First quadrangle

The chapel was dedicated on 28 May 1621, and extended in 1636.Baker (1954), p. 272 The architectural historian
Giles Worsley Giles Arthington Worsley (22 March 1961 – 17 January 2006) was an English architectural historian, author, editor, journalist and critic, specialising in British English country house, country houses. He was the second son of Sir Marcus Worsle ...
has described the chapel's east window (added in 1636) as an instance of
Gothic Revival Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an Architectural style, architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. The movement gained momentum and expanded in the first half of the 19th cent ...
architecture, rather than Gothic Survival, since a choice was made to use an outdated style –
classical architecture Classical architecture usually denotes architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de ...

classical architecture
had become accepted as "the only style in which it was respectable to build". (principal from 1686 to 1712) is reported to have spent £1,000 (approximately £ in present-day terms) during his lifetime on the interior of the chapel, including the addition of a screen separating the main part of the chapel from the
ante-chapel The ante-chapel is that portion of a chapel which lies on the western side of the choir screen. In some of the colleges at University of Oxford, Oxford and University of Cambridge, Cambridge the ante-chapel is carried north and south across the we ...
(at the west end) in 1693. In 1853,
stained glass The term stained glass refers to coloured glass as a material and to works created from it. Throughout its thousand-year history, the term has been applied almost exclusively to the windows of churches and other significant religious buildings ...

stained glass
by
George Hedgeland George Caleb Hedgeland (1825–1898) was a British designer of stained glass windows in the 19th century. He was the son of the architect John Pike Hedgeland and worked from a studio in London in the 1850s. His work, which was displayed at the G ...
was added to the east window. In 1863, the architect
George Edmund Street George Edmund Street (20 June 1824 – 18 December 1881), also known as G. E. Street, was an English architect, born at WoodfordWoodford may refer to: Places Australia *Woodford, New South Wales *Woodford, Queensland *Woodford, Victoria Ca ...

George Edmund Street
was appointed to renovate the chapel. The arch of the
chancel In church architecture Church architecture refers to the architecture of buildings of Christian churches. It has evolved over the two thousand years of the Christian religion, partly by innovation and partly by imitating other architectur ...

chancel
was widened, the original Jacobean woodwork was removed (save for the screen donated by Edwards and the pulpit), new seats were installed, new paving was placed in the main part of the chapel and a stone
reredos A reredos ( , , ) is a large altarpiece An altarpiece is an artwork such as a painting, sculpture ''lamassu'' gate guardian from Khorsabad, circa 800–721 BCE 's ''Moses (Michelangelo), Moses'', (c. 1513–1515), San Pietro in Vincoli, Ro ...
was added behind the altar.Baker (1954), p. 276Hardy, p. 233 Views of the changes have differed. On 21 October 1864, ''Building News'' reported that the restoration was nearing completion and was of "a very spirited character". It said that the new "handsome" arch showed the east window "to great advantage", with "other improvements" including a "handsome reredos". Ernest Hardy, principal from 1921 to 1925, said that the work was "ill-considered", described the reredos as "somewhat tawdry" and said that the Jacobean woodwork had been sold off too cheaply.Hardy, p. x In contrast, the architectural historian
Nikolaus Pevsner Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner (30 January 1902 – 18 August 1983) was a German-British history of art, art historian and history of architecture, architectural historian best known for his monumental 46-volume series of county-by-county ...
called the reredos "heavily gorgeous".Pevsner, p. 143 The principal of the college resides in the lodgings, a Grade I listed building, on the north side of the first quadrangle between the chapel (to the east) and the hall (to the west). They were the last part of the first quadrangle to be built.Hardy, p. 39 Sir Eubule Thelwall, principal from 1621 to 1630, built the lodgings at his own expense, to include (in the words of the antiquarian Anthony Wood) "a very fair dining-room adorned with wainscot curiously engraven". The shell-hood over the doorway (which Pevsner called "beautiful") was added at some point between 1670 and 1740; Pevsner dates it to about 1700. The hall has been said to be "among the most impressive of all the Oxford college halls", with its "fine panelling, austere ceiling, and its notable paintings". Like the chapel, it was largely built by Griffith Powell between 1613 and 1620, and was finally completed soon after his death in 1620. Pevsner noted the "elaborately decorated columns" of the screen (installed in 1634) and the dragons along the frieze, and said that it was one of the earliest examples in Oxford of panelling using four "L" shapes around a centre.Pevsner, p. 39 In 1741 and 1742, the oak-beamed roof was covered with plaster to make rooms in the roof space.Baker (1954), p. 275Hardy, p. 173 Pevsner described the 1741
cartouche In Egyptian hieroglyph Egyptian hieroglyphs () were the formal writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relat ...
on the north wall, which contains the college crest, as "large rich". The hall contains a portrait of Elizabeth I, as well as portraits of former principals and benefactors. There are also portraits by court artists of two other monarchs who were college benefactors:
Charles I Charles is a masculine given name predominantly found in English language, English and French language, French speaking countries. It is from the French form ''Charles'' of the Proto-Germanic, Proto-Germanic name ᚲᚨᚱᛁᛚᚨᛉ (in r ...

Charles I
(by
Anthony van Dyck Sir Anthony van Dyck (, many variant spellings; 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque painting, Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England after success in the Southern Netherlands and Italy. ...
) and (by
Sir Peter Lely Sir Peter Lely (14 September 1618 – 7 December 1680) was a painter of Netherlands, Dutch origin whose career was nearly all spent in England, where he became the dominant portrait painter to the court. Life Lely was born Pieter van der F ...

Sir Peter Lely
).Baker (1954), p. 278


Second quadrangle

In 1640, Francis Mansell (appointed principal in 1630) began construction of a second quadrangle with buildings along the north and south sides; further work was interrupted by the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
.Hardy, p. 91 Work began again in 1676, and the library (now the Fellows' Library) was completed by 1679.Hardy, p. 172Baker (1954), p. 274 Under Jonathan Edwards (principal from 1688 to 1712), further rooms were built to complete the quadrangle; the project was completed just after his death in 1712. Pevsner described the second quadrangle as "a uniform composition", noting the "regular fenestration by windows with round-arched lights, their hood-moulds forming a continuous frieze".Pevsner, p. 144 The
Dutch gables Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () Dutch may also refer to: Places * Dutch, West Virginia, a community in the United States * Pennsylvania Dutch Country People E ...
have
ogee An ogee ( ) is the name given to objects, elements, and curve In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is an object similar to a line (geometry), line, but that does not have to be Linearity, straight. Intuitively, a ...

ogee
sides and semi-circular
pediments Pediments are gablesGables may refer to: * The plural of gable, portion of walls between the lines of sloping roofs * Ken Gables (1919-1960), Major League Baseball pitcher * Gables, Nebraska, an unincorporated community in the United States * Ga ...

pediments
. The writer
Simon Jenkins Sir Simon David Jenkins (born 10 June 1943) is a British author and a newspaper columnist and editor. He was editor of the ''Evening Standard The ''Evening Standard'', formerly ''The Standard'' (1827–1904), also known as the ''Londo ...
said that the quadrangle has "the familiar Oxford Tudor windows and decorative Dutch gables, crowding the skyline like Welsh dragons' teeth and lightened by exuberant flower boxes". The Fellows' Library contains bookcases decorated with
strapwork In the history of art and design, strapwork is the use of stylised representations in ornament of ribbon-like forms. These may loosely imitate leather Leather is a strong, flexible and durable material obtained from the tanning Tanning ma ...
dating from about 1628, which were used in an earlier library in the college. Hardy's opinion was that, "if only it had an open timber roof instead of the plain ceiling, it would be one of the most picturesque College Libraries". Another author said (in 1914, after the provision of a library for undergraduates elsewhere in the quadrangle) that it was "one of the most charming of Oxford libraries, and one of the least frequented". It holds 11,000 antiquarian printed books and houses many of the college's rare texts, including a Greek bible dating from 1545 and signed by
Philipp Melanchthon Philip Melanchthon. (born Philipp Schwartzerdt; 16 February 1497 – 19 April 1560) was a German Lutheran Protestant Reformers, reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellect ...
and others, much of the library of the scholar and philosopher
Lord Herbert of Cherbury Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury (or Chirbury) KB (3 March 1583 – 5 August 1648) was an Anglo-Welsh Anglo-Welsh literature and Welsh writing in English are terms used to describe works written in the English language ...
and 17th-century volumes by
Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (; 25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish Anglo-Irish () is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a group ...

Robert Boyle
and
Sir Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Sir Isaac Newton
.


Third quadrangle

The long but narrow third quadrangle adjoins Ship Street, on the north of the site and to the west of the garden of the principal's lodgings, where the college has owned some land since its foundation. In the 18th century, this was home to the college stables. A fire in 1904 led to the demolition of the stables and the gateway to Ship Street. Replacement buildings adjoining Ship Street, effectively creating a third quadrangle for the college, were constructed between 1906 and 1908.Baker (1954), p. 277 It contained the college's science laboratories (now closed) and a new gate-tower, as well as further living accommodation and a library for students, known as the Meyricke Library, after a major donor – there had been an undergraduate library in the second quadrangle since 1865, known as the Meyricke Library from 1882 onwards. The Old Members' Building, which contains a music room, 24 study-bedrooms and some lecture rooms, was built between 1969 and 1971. It was built after a fundraising appeal to Old Members to mark the college's quatercentenary, and was opened by the
Prince of Wales Prince of Wales ( cy, Tywysog Cymru, ) is a title traditionally and ceremonially granted to the heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line o ...

Prince of Wales
in 1971. The Fellows' Garden is between the Old Members' Building and the rear of the rooms on the west side of the second quadrangle. In 2002, a two-year project to rebuild the property above the college-owned shops on Ship Street was completed. As part of the work, the bottom floor was converted from rooms occupied by students and fellows into a new Junior Common Room (JCR), to replace the common room in the second quadrangle, which was by then too small to cope with the increased numbers of students.


Fourth quadrangle

In 2019 work began on redevelopment of a commercial property, Northgate House, owned by the college on the corner of Cornmarket and Market Streets, to provide new student accommodation above retail facilities with a new quad and other teaching facilities behind, projected for completion to mark the college's 450th anniversary in 2021.


Other buildings

The college purchased of land in east Oxford (near the
Cowley Road __NOTOC__ Cowley Road is an arterial road in the city of Oxford, England, running southeast from near the city centre at The Plain, Oxford, The Plain near Magdalen Bridge, through the inner city area of East Oxford, and to the industrial subu ...
) in 1903 for use as a sports ground. Residential accommodation was first built at the sports ground in 1967 (Thelwall House, rebuilt in 1998), with additions between 1988 and 1990 (Hugh Price House and Leoline Jenkins House). A further development, known as Hazel Court (after
Alfred Hazel Alfred Ernest William Hazel (20 February 1869 – 20 August 1944) was a United Kingdom, British Liberal Party (UK), Liberal Party Member of Parliament (MP) and legal academic at the University of Oxford. Background He was educated at West Bromw ...
, principal 1925–1944), was built in 2000, bringing the total number of students who can be housed at the sports ground to 135. Donations from Edwin Stevens, an Old Member of the college, enabled the construction in 1974 of student flats at a site in north Oxford on the Woodstock Road, named "Stevens Close" in his honour. The college also owns a number of houses on Ship Street, which are used for student accommodation. It purchased a further site in Ship Street at a cost of £1.8M, which was converted at a projected cost of £5.5M to provide 31 student rooms with en-suite facilities, a 100-seat lecture theatre and other teaching rooms. The Ship Street Centre was officially opened by the
Chancellor of the University of Oxford #REDIRECT List of chancellors of the University of Oxford This is a list of chancellors of the University of Oxford , mottoeng = Psalm 27, The Lord is my light , established = , endowment = £6.1 billion (including colleges) (as of ...
,
Lord Patten of Barnes Christopher Francis Patten, Baron Patten of Barnes, (; born 12 May 1944) is a British politician who was the 28th and last Governor of Hong Kong from 1992 to 1997 and Chairman of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1992. He was made a life pe ...
, on 25 September 2010.


People associated with the college


Principals and Fellows

The college is run by the Principal and
Fellow A fellow is a broad concept whose exact meaning depends on context. In learned Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and preferences. The abil ...
s. The Principal must be "a person distinguished for literary or scientific attainments, or for services in the work of education in the University or elsewhere". The Principal has "pre-eminence and authority over all members of the College and all persons connected therewith" and exercises "a general superintendence in all matters relating to education and discipline". The current Principal, Sir Nigel Shadbolt, was appointed in 2015. Fourteen Principals have been former students of the college: Griffith Powell (elected in 1613) was the first and
Alfred Hazel Alfred Ernest William Hazel (20 February 1869 – 20 August 1944) was a United Kingdom, British Liberal Party (UK), Liberal Party Member of Parliament (MP) and legal academic at the University of Oxford. Background He was educated at West Bromw ...
(elected in 1925) was the most recent. The longest-serving principal was , from 1817 to 1857. When the college was founded in 1571, the first charter installed
David LewisDavid or Dave Lewis may refer to: Academics *A. David Lewis (born 1977), American comic writer and scholar of religion and literature *David Lewis (academic) (born 1960), English scholar of development *David Lewis (lawyer) ( – 1584), Welsh ...
as Principal and named eight others as the first Fellows of the college. The statutes of 1622 allowed for 16 Fellows. There is now no limit on the number of Fellowships that the Governing Body can create. The college statutes provide for various categories of Fellows.Statute IV, clause 1 "Classes of Fellows and qualifications" Professorial Fellows are those
Professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, hig ...

Professor
s and Readers of the university who are allocated to the college by the university. One of these professorships is the
Jesus Professor of Celtic The Jesus Chair of Celtic is a professorship in Celtic studies at the University of Oxford within the Faculty of Medieval and Modern Languages, University of Oxford, Faculty of Medieval and Modern Languages. The holder is also a Professorial Oxbridg ...
, which is the only chair in
Celtic Studies Celtic studies or Celtology is the academic discipline occupied with the study of any sort of cultural output relating to the Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunci ...
at an English university. Celtic scholars such as
Sir John Rhys Sir John Rhys, (also spelled Rhŷs; 21 June 1840 – 17 December 1915) was a Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language fam ...
and
Ellis Evans David Ellis Evans FBA (23 September 1930 – 26 September 2013) was a Welsh scholar and academic. He was born in the Towy Valley in Carmarthenshire Carmarthenshire (; cy, Sir Gaerfyrddin; or informally ') is a unitary authority A un ...
have held the position since its creation in 1877. The chair is currently vacant, having been held by
Thomas Charles-Edwards Thomas Mowbray Charles-Edwards (born 11 November 1943) is an emeritus academic at Oxford University Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is ...
until his retirement in 2011. The zoologists
Charles Godfray Sir Hugh Charles Jonathan Godfray Order of the British Empire, CBE Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS (born 27 October 1958) is a British zoologist. He is Professor of Population Biology at Balliol College, Oxford, Director of the Oxford Martin S ...
and
Paul Harvey Paul Harvey Aurandt (September 4, 1918 – February 28, 2009) was an American radio broadcaster for ABC News Radio. He broadcast ''News and Comment'' on mornings and mid-days on weekdays and at noon on Saturdays and also his famous ''The Rest o ...
are both Professorial Fellows. Official Fellows are those who hold tutorial or administrative appointments in the college. Past Official Fellows include the composer and musicologist John Caldwell, the historians Sir Goronwy Edwards and
Niall Ferguson Niall Campbell Ferguson (; born 18 April 1964)Biography
Niall Ferguson
is a ...
, the philosopher
Galen Strawson Galen John Strawson (born 1952) is a British analytic philosopher and literary critic who works primarily on philosophy of mind, metaphysics (including free will, panpsychism, the mind-body problem, and the self (philosophy), self), John Locke, ...
and the political philosopher John Gray. There are also Senior and Junior Research Fellows. Principals and Fellows who retire can be elected as
Emeritus ''Emeritus'' (; female: ''Emerita''), in its current usage, is an adjective used to designate a retired chair, professor, pastor, bishop, pope, director, president, prime minister, rabbi, emperor, or other person who has been "permitted to retai ...
Fellows. A further category is that of Welsh Supernumerary Fellows, who are, in rotation, the
Vice-Chancellor A chancellor is a leader of a college or university, usually either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system A university system is a set of multiple affiliated universities A un ...
s of
Cardiff University , latin_name = , image_name = Shield of the University of Cardiff.svg , image_size = 150px , caption = Coat of arms#REDIRECT coat of arms A coat of arms is a heraldry, heraldic communication design, visual design on an escutcheon (herald ...
,
Swansea University Swansea (; cy, Abertawe ) is a coastal city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd ...

Swansea University
,
Lampeter University University of Wales, Lampeter ( cy, Prifysgol Cymru, Llanbedr Pont Steffan) was a university in Lampeter, Wales. Founded in 1822, and incorporated by royal charter in 1828, it was the oldest Academic degree, degree awarding institution in Wale ...
,
Aberystwyth University , mottoeng = A world without knowledge is no world at all , established = 1872 (as ''The University College of Wales'') , former_names = University of Wales, Aberystwyth , type = Public In public relati ...

Aberystwyth University
,
Bangor University , former_names = University College of North Wales (1884–1996) University of Wales, Bangor (1996–2007) , image_name = File:Bangor University logo.jpg , image_size = 250px , motto = cy, Gorau Dawn Deall , mottoeng = " ...

Bangor University
and the
University of Wales College of Medicine The Cardiff University School of Medicine ( cy, Ysgol Feddygaeth Prifysgol Caerdydd) is the medical school of Cardiff University and is located in Cardiff, Wales, UK. Founded in 1893 as part of the University College of South Wales and Monmouths ...
. There is one Welsh Supernumerary Fellow at a time, holding the position for not longer than three years. The first of these was
John Viriamu Jones John Viriamu Jones, Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS (2 January 1856 in Wales, 1856 – 1 June 1901 in Wales, 1901), was a Wales, Welsh scientist, who worked on measuring the ohm, and an educationalist who was instrumental in establishing the Uni ...
in 1897.Baker (1971), pp. 62–63 The college formerly had a category of
missionary A missionary is a member of a Religious denomination, religious group sent into an area to promote their faith or provide services, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.Thomas Hale 'On Being a Missi ...

missionary
Fellows, known as Leoline Fellows after their founder,
Leoline Jenkins Sir Leoline Jenkins (1625 – 1 September 1685) was a Wales, Welsh academic, diplomat involved in the negotiation of international treaties (e.g. Treaties of Nijmegen, Nimègue). jurist and politician. He was a clerical lawyer who served as Judg ...
(a former principal). In his will in 1685, he stated that "It is but too obvious that the persons in Holy Orders employed in his Majesty's fleet at sea and foreign plantations are too few." To address this, he established two Fellowships at Jesus College, whose holders should serve as clergy "in any of his Majesty's fleets or in his Majesty's plantations" under the direction of the Lord High Admiral and the
Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary (church officer), ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers of 17 boroughs of Greater London north of the Thames, River Thames (historically the ...
respectively. The last of these, Frederick de Winton, was appointed in 1876 and held his Fellowship until his death in 1932. This category was abolished in 1877 by the Oxford and Cambridge Universities Commission, without prejudice to the rights of existing holders such as de Winton. Another category of Fellowship that was abolished in the 19th century was that of the
King Charles I of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg, Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen re ...
Fellows, founded by King Charles in 1636 and tenable by natives of the
Channel Islands The Channel Islands ( nrf, Îles d'la Manche; french: îles Anglo-Normandes or ''îles de la Manche'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island ...

Channel Islands
in an attempt by him to "reclaim the Channel Islands from the extreme Calvinism which characterised them."Hardy, p. 77 The first such Fellow was
Daniel Brevint Daniel Brevint or Brevin (baptised 11 May 1616 – 5 May 1695) was Dean of Lincoln from 1682 to 1695. Life Brevint was from the parish of Saint John, Jersey, Channel Islands and was the son and grandson of clergymen. He studied, like his fat ...
.


Honorary Fellows

The Governing Body has the ability to elect "distinguished persons" to Honorary Fellowships.Statute IV "The Fellows", clause 23 "Honorary Fellowships" Under the current statutes of the college, Honorary Fellows cannot vote at meetings of the Governing Body and do not receive financial reward. They can be called upon, however, to help decide whether to dismiss or discipline members of academic staff (including the Principal). Three former principals of the college ( John Christie, Sir John Habakkuk and Sir Peter North) have been elected Honorary Fellows on retirement. Some Honorary Fellows were formerly Fellows of the college, others were Old Members of the college, and some were in both categories. Others had no previous academic connection with the college before their election. Some of these were distinguished Welshmen – for example, the Welsh businessman was elected in 1902 and the Welsh judge Sir Samuel Evans, President of the
Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division The High Court of Justice in London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more ...
of the
High Court High court usually refers to the superior court In common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law Case law is the collection of past legal decisions written by courts and similar tribunal ...
, was elected in 1918. The Welsh politician
David Lloyd George David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman and Liberal Party The Liberal Party is any of many political parties A political party is an organization that coordinat ...

David Lloyd George
was elected to an Honorary Fellowship in 1910 when he was
Chancellor of the Exchequer The chancellor of the Exchequer, often abbreviated to the chancellor, is a senior minister of the Crown within the Government of the United Kingdom, and the chief executive officer of HM Treasury, Her Majesty's Treasury. As one of the four Grea ...
. He wrote to Sir John Rhys, the Principal at the time, to thank the college for the honour, saying: The first three Honorary Fellows, all former students of the college, were elected in October 1877: John Rhys, the first Jesus Professor of Celtic (later an Official Fellow (1881–1895) and Principal (1895–1915)); the historian
John Richard Green John Richard Green (12 December 1837 – 7 March 1883) was an English historian. Early life Green was born on 12 December 1837, the son of a tradesman in Oxford, where he was educated, first at Magdalen College School, Oxford, Magdalen Coll ...
; and the poet
Lewis Morris Lewis Morris (April 8, 1726 – January 22, 1798) was an American Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing a state. National founders are typic ...
.Baker (1954) The college noted in 1998 that the number of Honorary Fellows of the college was markedly below the average of other Oxford colleges and it adopted a more methodical approach to increase numbers. Seven Honorary Fellows were elected that year, followed by another five in 1999. The college's Honorary Fellows have included two Old Members who later became Prime Minister of their respective countries:
Norman Washington Manley Norman Washington Manley (4 July 1893 – 2 September 1969) was a Jamaican statesman who served as the first and only Premier of Jamaica. A Rhodes Scholar 250px, Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker">Oxford.html" ;"title=" ...
, who studied at Jesus College as a
Rhodes Scholar 250px, Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker">Oxford.html" ;"title="Rhodes House in Oxford">Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker The Rhodes Scholarship is an international Postgraduate education, postgraduate a ...
and who was
Chief Minister of Jamaica The prime minister of Jamaica is Jamaica's head of government, currently Andrew Holness. Holness, as leader of the governing Jamaica Labour Party (JLP), was sworn in as Prime Minister on 7 September 2020, having been re-elected as a result of th ...
from 1955 to 1962, and Harold Wilson, who was twice
British Prime Minister The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), b ...
(1964–1970 and 1974–1976). The first female honorary fellow was the journalist and broadcaster
Francine Stock Francine Stock is a British radio and television presenter A television presenter (or television host, some become a "television personality Celebrity is a condition of wikt:fame, fame and broad public recognition of an individual or group ...
.


Alumni

Notable former students of the college have included politicians, scientists, writers, entertainers and academics.
T. E. Lawrence Colonel (UK), Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British Archaeology, archaeologist, army officer, diplomat, and writer, who became renowned for his role in the Arab Revolt (1916–1918) and the Sinai an ...

T. E. Lawrence
("Lawrence of Arabia"), known for his part in the
Arab Revolt The Arab Revolt ( ar, الثورة العربية, ; tr, Arap İsyanı) or the Great Arab Revolt (, ) was a military uprising of Arab forces against the Ottoman Empire in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. On the basis of the McMahon– ...

Arab Revolt
of 1916–1918 and for his writings including ''
Seven Pillars of Wisdom ''Seven Pillars of Wisdom'' is the autobiography, autobiographical account of the experiences of British Army Colonel T. E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia"), of serving as a military advisor to Bedouin forces during the Arab Revolt against the Ot ...

Seven Pillars of Wisdom
'', studied history at the college. His thesis on
Crusader castles This is a list of castles in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean and Middle East, founded or occupied during the Crusades. For crusader castles in Poland and the Baltic states, see Ordensburg. Crusader states Geographic location on to ...
(the fieldwork for which marked the beginning of his fascination with the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
) is held in the Fellows' Library. Other former students include
Harold Wilson James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The hea ...

Harold Wilson
,
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a ...
from 1964 to 1970 and 1974–1976,
Pixley ka Isaka Seme Pixley ka Isaka Seme (c. 1881 – June 1951) was a South African lawyer and a founder and President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade ...
(a founder and president of the
African National Congress The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populo ...
), Sir William Williams (
Speaker Speaker may refer to: Roles * Speaker (politics), the presiding officer in a legislative assembly * Public speaker, one who gives a speech or lecture * A person producing speech Electronics * Loudspeaker, a device that produces sound ** Computer ...
of the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorpor ...
1680–1685), and Lord Sankey (
Lord Chancellor The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest-ranking among the Great Officers of State In the United Kingdom, the Great Officers of State are traditional ministers of The Crown who either inheri ...
1929–1935). Members of Parliament from the three main political parties in the United Kingdom have attended the college, as have politicians from Australia (
Neal Blewett Neal Blewett, Order of Australia, AC (born 24 October 1933) is an Australian Australian Labor Party, Labor Party politician and diplomat. He was the Australian House of Representatives, Member of the House of Representatives for Division of Bony ...

Neal Blewett
), New Zealand (
Harold Rushworth Harold Montague Rushworth (18 August 1880 – 25 April 1950) was a New Zealand politician of the Country Party (New Zealand), Country Party. Early life Rushworth was born in Croydon, England and was educated at Rugby School and Jesus College ...
), Sri Lanka (
Lalith Athulathmudali Lalith William Samarasekera Athulathmudali, President's Counsel (Sri Lanka), PC (; 26 November 1936 – 23 April 1993), known as Lalith Athulathmudali, was a Sri Lankan statesman. He was a prominent member of the United National Party, who ser ...

Lalith Athulathmudali
) and the United States (
Heather Wilson Heather Ann Wilson (born December 30, 1960) is an American politician, government official, and academic administrator serving as the president of the University of Texas at El Paso. She previously served as the 24th secretary of the United Stat ...

Heather Wilson
). The founders' hopes that their college would produce prominent Welsh clergy were fulfilled in no small measure when a former student, A. G. Edwards, was elected the first
Archbishop of Wales The post of Archbishop of Wales was created in 1920 when the Church in Wales The Church in Wales ( cy, Yr Eglwys yng Nghymru) is the Anglicanism, Anglican church in Wales, composed of six dioceses. The Archbishop of Wales does not have a fix ...
when the
Church in Wales The Church in Wales ( cy, Yr Eglwys yng Nghymru) is the Anglican church Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a ...
was disestablished in 1920. Two later Archbishops of Wales,
Glyn Simon William Glyn Hughes Simon (14 April 1903 – 14 June 1972) was a Welsh prelate who served as the Anglican Archbishop of Wales from 1968 to 1971. Early life Simon was born in Swansea, where his father was curate at St Gabriel's church. He was bapt ...
(Archbishop from 1968 to 1971) and Gwilym Owen Williams (Archbishop 1971–1982) were also educated at the college. Celticists associated with the college include
Sir John Rhys Sir John Rhys, (also spelled Rhŷs; 21 June 1840 – 17 December 1915) was a Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language fam ...
,
Sir John Morris-Jones ''Sir'' is a formal English language, English honorific address for men, derived from ''Sire'' in the High Middle Ages. Traditionally, as governed by law and custom, Sir is used for men titled as knights, meaning of Order of chivalry, orders of ...
, and Sir Thomas (T. H.) Parry-Williams, whilst the list of historians includes the college's first graduate,
David Powel David Powel (1549/52 – 1598) was a Wales, Welsh Church of England clergyman and historian who published the first printed history of Wales in 1584. Life Powel was born in Denbighshire and commenced his studies at the University of Oxford when he ...
, who published the first printed history of Wales in 1584, the Victorian historian J. R. Green, and the historian Richard J. Evans. Angus Buchanan won the
Victoria Cross The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest and most prestigious award of the British honours system The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery, achievement, or service to the United Kingdom The United ...

Victoria Cross
during the First World War. Record-breaking
quadriplegic Tetraplegia, also known as quadriplegia, is paralysis caused by illness or injury that results in the partial or total loss of use of all four limbs and torso; paraplegia is similar but does not affect the arms. The loss is usually sensory and ...
solo sailor Hilary Lister was also a student here, whilst from the field of arts and entertainment there are names such as
Magnus Magnusson Magnus Magnusson, Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire, KBE (; born Magnús Sigursteinsson; 12 October 1929 – 7 January 2007) was an Icelandic-born British-based journalist, translator, writer and television presenter. Born in R ...
, presenter of ''
Mastermind Mastermind, Master Mind or The Mastermind may refer to: Comics * Mastermind (Jason Wyngarde), a fictional supervillain in Marvel Comics, a title also held by his daughters Martinique Jason, ** Lady Mastermind, another daughter * Mastermind (compu ...
'', the National Poet of Wales Gwyn Thomas, and television weather presenters
Kirsty McCabe Kirsty McCabe (born 10 July 1975) is a Scottish weather forecaster A meteorologist is a scientist who studies and works in the field of meteorology. Those who study meteorological phenomena are meteorologists in research, while those using ma ...
and Siân Lloyd.
Nigel Hitchin Nigel James Hitchin Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS (born 2 August 1946) is a British mathematician working in the fields of differential geometry, gauge theory (mathematics), gauge theory, algebraic geometry, and mathematical physics. He is a ...
, the
Savilian Professor of Geometry The position of Savilian Professor of Geometry was established at the University of Oxford in 1619. It was founded (at the same time as the Savilian Professor of Astronomy, Savilian Professorship of Astronomy) by Henry Savile (Bible translator), ...
at Oxford since 1997, studied at the college, as did
Edward Hinds Edward Allen Hinds FInstP Fellowship of the Institute of Physics (FInstP) is an award granted by the Institute of Physics (IoP) for physicists which "indicates a very high level of achievement in physics and an outstanding contribution to the p ...
(a physicist who won the
Rumford Medal The Rumford Medal is an award bestowed by Britain's Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a learned society and the United Kingdom's national academy of sciences. Founded ...
in 2008),
Chris Rapley Christopher Graham Rapley (born 8 April 1947) is a British scientist. He is Professor of Climate Science at University College London, a Fellow of St Edmund's College Cambridge, a member of the Academia Europaea, Chair of the European Science Fo ...
(director of the
Science Museum A science museum is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for and displays a collection (artwork), collection of artifacts and other ...
), and the zoologists
Edward Bagnall Poulton Sir Edward Bagnall Poulton, Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS FRSE, HFRSE Linnean Society of London, FLS (27 January 1856 – 20 November 1943) was a British evolutionary biologist, a lifelong advocate of natural selection through a period in ...
and James Brontë Gatenby.


Student life

There are about 325 undergraduates and 150 postgraduates. About half of the undergraduates studied at state schools before coming to Oxford, and about 10% are from overseas. Students from the college participate in a variety of extracurricular activities. Some contribute to student journalism for ''Cherwell (newspaper), Cherwell'' or ''The Oxford Student''. The Turl Street Arts Festival (a week-long student-organised event) is held annually in conjunction with the two other colleges on Turl Street, Exeter College, Oxford, Exeter and Lincoln College, Oxford, Lincoln colleges. The festival, which takes place in Fifth Week of Hilary term, includes exhibitions, plays and concerts. Although the college does not award choral scholarships, the chapel choir is well-attended by college members and others. The choir is non-auditioning for college members, and is run by one or more undergraduate organ scholars. Every three years, the college co-organises the Somerville-Jesus Ball on the grounds of Somerville College, Oxford, Somerville College. The next ball will be held in 2019, with a capacity of 1500 people.


Library and archives

The main library at Jesus College is the Meyricke Library; older printed books are housed in the historic Fellows’ Library. The medieval manuscripts should be directed to re held at the Bodleian Libraries, where they are on deposit. The archives hold the administrative documents of the college since its foundation, as well as a large collection of documents, photographs, and printed papers. There is also an extensive Celtic Library. In 2021, the College Librarian was Owen McKnight. Medieval and early modern manuscripts owned at Jesus College date back to the 11th century and since 1886 have been deposited at the Bodleian Libraries. Some of the most important Welsh language manuscripts are at Jesus College, including the Red Book of Hergest (1285-1320). Modern manuscripts include T.E. Lawrence’s undergraduate thesis (MS. 181).


Sports

In common with many Oxford colleges, Jesus provides sporting facilities for students, including playing fields at a site in east Oxford off the Cowley Road known as Bartlemas (for its proximity to St Bartholomew's Chapel, Oxford, St Bartholomew's Chapel). Football, rugby, netball, field hockey, cricket, and tennis can be played there. Squash courts are at a separate city-centre site on St Cross Road. The college also provides students with membership of the university's gym and swimming pool on Iffley Road. Jesus College Boat Club (commonly abbreviated to JCBC) is the rowing (sport), rowing club for members of the college. The club was formed in 1835, but rowing at the college predates the foundation of the club: a boat from the college was involved in the earliest recorded races between college crews at Oxford in 1815, when it competed against a crew from Brasenose College, Oxford, Brasenose College. These may have been the only two colleges who had boats racing at that time, and the Brasenose boat was usually victorious.Hardy, p. 229 Neither the men's nor the women's Eight (rowing), 1st VIIIs have been "Head of the River" during Eights Week, the main college races, but the women's 1st VIII was Head of the River in the spring races, Torpids, between 1980 and 1983. Jesus boats have also had other successful seasons: the 1896 Jesus College boat had a reputation of being one of the faster boats in the university,Hardy, p. 230 and the women's 1st VIII of 1993 bumps race, won their "blades" in the first divisions of both Torpids and Eights Week, an achievement that led to the crew being described in the ''Jesus College Record'' as vying "not just for the College team of the decade, but perhaps for the team of the last three decades", in any sport. A number of college members have rowed for the university against Cambridge University in the Boat Race and the Henley Boat Races, Women's Boat Race. Barney Williams (rower), Barney Williams, a Canadian rower who studied at the college, won a silver medal in rowing at the 2004 Summer Olympics, and participated in the Boat Race in 2005 and 2006. Other students who rowed while at the college have achieved success in other fields, including John Sankey, who became
Lord Chancellor The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest-ranking among the Great Officers of State In the United Kingdom, the Great Officers of State are traditional ministers of The Crown who either inheri ...
, Alwyn Williams (bishop), Alwyn Williams, who became Bishop of Durham, and Maurice Jones, who became Principal of St David's College, Lampeter.Baker (1971), p. 84 Another college rower, James Page (rower), James Page, was appointed Secretary of the Amateur Rowing Association and coached both the Oxford University Boat Club, Oxford and Cambridge University Boat Club, Cambridge University boat clubs. The college boathouse, which is shared with the boat club of Keble College, Oxford, Keble College, is in Christ Church Meadow, on the Isis (river), Isis (as the River Thames is called in Oxford). It dates from 1964 and replaced a moored barge used by spectators and crew-members. The last college barge had been purchased from one of the Livery Companies of the City of London in 1911. It is now a floating restaurant further down the Thames at Richmond-upon-Thames, Richmond, and for some years was painted in the college scarf of green and white.


Welsh connection

Education in
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
had been stimulated by the foundation of schools during the reigns of Henry VIII of England, Henry VIII and Edward VI of England, Edward VI: King Henry VIII Grammar School in Abergavenny 1542 and Christ College, Brecon 1541 were established in the 1540s, and Friars School, Bangor dates from 1557. However, despite the numbers of Welsh students coming to Oxford University as a result, there was no special provision for Welshmen before 1571. Despite the links with Wales that Hugh Price and many of the founding Fellows had, neither the 1571 charter nor any of the later charters limited entry to the college to Welshmen. Nevertheless, the college students were predominantly Welsh from the outset, and the college became "the pinnacle of the academic ambition of the young men of Wales". Many of the fellows in the past were Welsh, since when new fellowships were created by benefactions (often by people of Welsh descent) there was frequently a stipulation that the recipients would be related to the donor or come from a specified part of Wales. These specific limitations were removed as part of reforms of Oxford University during the 19th century. Between 1571 and 1915, only one Principal (Francis Howell, 1657–1660) was not from Wales or of Welsh descent. Jesus still has a particular association with Wales and is often referred to as "the Welsh college". The college is home to the university's Jesus Professor of Celtic, Professor of Celtic, and a specialist Celtic languages, Celtic library in addition to the college's normal library. Meyrick scholarships, from the bequest of
Edmund Meyrick Edmund (or Edmond) Meyrick (or Meyricke) (1636 – 24 April 1713) was a Welsh cleric and benefactor of Jesus College, Oxford, where scholarships are still awarded in his name. He is a member of the Meyrick family. Life Meyrick was born at Garthl ...
in 1713, are awarded for academic merit where the student is a native of Wales (or the child of a native of Wales), able to speak Welsh language, Welsh or was educated for the last three years of secondary school in Wales. The college's undergraduate gossip sheet is entitled ''The Sheepshagger'' in allusion to an offensive joke about Welsh people's supposed Zoophilia, penchant for sheep. Furthermore, the Welshness of the college is self-perpetuating, as Welsh students will often apply to Jesus because it is seen as the Welsh college. Old members recall the college having a majority of Welsh members until well into the 20th century; today, however, around 15% of undergraduates come from Wales. For comparison, residents of Wales comprise just under 5% of the United Kingdom population (2.9 million out of a total of 58.8 million at the time of the United Kingdom Census 2001, 2001 Census). In modern times, the Welsh roots of the college come to the fore most prominently on Saint David's Day. The feast is marked by a choral Evening Prayer (Anglican)#Service in prayerbooks in the tradition of 1662, Evensong in the chapel, decorated for the occasion with daffodils. The service, including music, is conducted entirely in Welsh (despite only a small minority of the choir usually being First language, native speakers of the language). It is generally well attended by members of the Welsh community in Oxford. The college's annual St. David's Day Dinner traditionally culminates with the serving of Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, 3rd Baronet, Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn's Pudding. The name recalls the Welsh politician and prominent Jacobitism, Jacobite who attended the college early in the 18th century. The Welsh connection is also evident in the college's outreach activities, such as organising a summer school for Welsh students in partnership with the Welsh Government's Seren Network.


Silverware

The college's collection of silverware includes a silver-gilt punch bowl, presented by Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn in 1732. The bowl, which weighs more than and holds , was used at a dinner held in the Radcliffe Camera in 1814, to celebrate what was supposed to be the final defeat of Napoleon I of France, Napoleon. Those present at the dinner included the Alexander I of Russia, Tsar, the Frederick William III of Prussia, King of Prussia, Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Blücher, Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, Metternich, the George IV of the United Kingdom, Prince Regent, the Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Duke of York and the Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Duke of Wellington. There is a college tradition that the bowl will be presented to anyone who can meet two challenges. The first is to put arms around the bowl at its widest point; the second is to drain the bowl of strong punch. The bowl measures at its widest point, and so the first challenge has only been accomplished rarely; the second challenge has not been met.


Coat of arms

The college's coat of arms, in heraldry, heraldic terminology, is ''Vert, three stags trippant argent attired or''. The arms are not those of Hugh Price. His arms, according to their depiction in the margins of his will, were gules (red) a chevron ermine between three fleur-de-lis, fleurs-des-lis. The arms were not granted or authorised by the College of Arms, but the length of time for which they have been used has given them a prescriptive authority. The earliest depiction of the arms was thought to be about 1590, in a document held by the College of Arms, which refers to the stags appearing on a blue (in heraldic terms, Azure (heraldry), azure) background but subsequent examination of this document by Peter Donoghue, Bluemantle Pursuivant shows that the arms were added c.1680 . The first known appearance of the arms is therefore on John Speed's Map of Oxfordshire in 1605 with a blue field. The green field made its appearance by 1619 in an armorial quarry painted by one of the Van Linge brothers. The green background became generally (but not universally) used by the 1730s, still appearing as horizontal hatchings indicating azure were in use on bookplates for the college library as late as 1761. There are similarities with the arms of Lincoln College, Oxford, where one of the elements consists of three golden stags statant (standing still); this was derived from the coat of arms of Lincoln's so-called "second founder", Thomas Rotherham. It was once claimed that Jesus had stolen the stags from Lincoln, but the counter-argument (from an antiquarian with close Lincoln connections) was that the origins of each were distinct. One suggestion (by Paul Langford, the Rector of Lincoln College) is that Jesus College continued the arms adopted by a theological college founded by Rotherham in his home town – Jesus College, Rotherham – which had been suppressed in the time of Edward VI of England, Edward VI. The arms of Maud Green, Lady Parr, mother of Catherine Parr (the last of the wives of Henry VIII, six wives of Henry VIII of England, Henry VIII and stepmother to Elizabeth I), were of three stags on an azure background, and this became one of the elements of the arms of Catherine Parr on her marriage. Her sister, Anne Parr, Lady Herbert, Anne Parr, married William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1501–1570), William, 1st Earl of Pembroke, whose grandson (the William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, 3rd Earl, also called William) became the first Visitor of the college in 1622. Maud Green's arms are depicted in plasterwork from about 1592 at Powis Castle, owned by a kinsman of the earls. One writer has suggested that the college may have adopted the arms in order to be associated with one of the leading Welsh families of the day. This latter theory is not heraldically tenable as the quarters in an achievement after the first and pronominal quarter brought into the family by marriage to heraldic heiresses cannot meaningfully exist on their own to represent the person who now quarters them. It is more probable then that the arms of the college really are those of Archbishop Rotherham and were assumed to be those of the college by John Speed who saw them on one of its buildings in 1605 when preparing his map. Lawrence Hall in Ship Street was given to Rotherham in 1476 and leased to Jesus in 1572. It may well have displayed the Archbishop's arms in its structure as did the building on the south side of the front quad of Lincoln which he completed. These arms for Jesus College could not be confused with those of Lincoln as that college, since 1574, already had a complex tripartite coat granted to it by Richard Lee, Portcullis Pursuivant, in which the colour of the stags in the centre section had been changed to Or (gold) and their attitude to statant.


Graces

Grace is said by a scholar of the college at Formal Hall (the second, more elaborate sitting of dinner).


Before dinner

'
Translation:
We wretched and needy men reverently give thee thanks, almighty God, heavenly Father, for the food which thou hast sanctified and bestowed for the sustenance of the body, so that we may use it thankfully; at the same time we beseech thee that thou wouldst impart to us the food of angels, the true bread of heaven, the eternal word of God, Jesus Christ our Lord, so that our mind may feed on him and that through his flesh and blood we may be nourished, sustained and strengthened.


After dinner

::''Quandoquidem nos, Domine, donis tuis, omnipotens et misericors Deus, exsatiasti, effice ut posthac quid per nos fieri aut secus velis diligenter observemus, atque illud animo sincero effectum praestemus, per Iesum Christum Dominum nostrum.'' ::Versicle — ''Domine, salvam fac Reginam.'' ::Response (liturgy), Response — ''Et exaudi nos in die qua invocaverimus te.'' ::' Translation: ::Since, O Lord, almighty and most merciful God, thou hast satisfied us with thy gifts, ensure from henceforth that we may diligently regard what thou wishest to be done or left undone by us and cause this to be effected with sincere heart, through Jesus Christ our Lord. ::Versicle: — O Lord, keep the Queen safe. ::Response: — And hear us in the day in which we call on thee. ::God in whose hands are the hearts of Kings, who art the consoler of the humble and the protector of all who hope in thee, grant to our Queen Elizabeth and to the Christian people to celebrate wisely the triumph of thy goodness so that they may be always renewed to glory through thee, through Jesus Christ our Lord. From a card for use by the scholar on duty; translations by J. G. Griffith (Fellow of the college, Public Orator of the University 1973–1980). Modern Grace ::''Benedictus Benedicat.''


References


Citations


Sources

* * * * * *''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'' (). Oxford University Press. Cited in references as: ''ODNB'' *


External links


MCR (postgraduates) website

JCR (undergraduates) website

Virtual Tour of Jesus College
{{Good article Jesus College, Oxford, 1571 establishments in England Colleges of the University of Oxford Educational institutions established in the 1570s Welsh culture