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Jeddah ( ), also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda ( ; ar, جِدَّة, Jidda, ), is a city in the
Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada The ''Shahada'' ( ar, ٱلشَّهَادَةُ ' , "the testimony"), also spelled Shahadah, is an Islamic ...

Hejaz
region of
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
and the country's commercial center. With a population of about 4,697,000 people as of 2021, Jeddah is the largest city in
Makkah Province The Mecca Province ( ar, مِنْطَقَة مَكَّة '), also known as the Mecca Region, is one of the 13 Provinces of saudi arabia, provinces of Saudi Arabia. It is the third-largest province by area at and the most populous with a populat ...
, the largest city in
Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada The ''Shahada'' ( ar, ٱلشَّهَادَةُ ' , "the testimony"), also spelled Shahadah, is an Islamic ...

Hejaz
, the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia (after the capital
Riyadh Riyadh ( ar, الرياض, 'ar-Riyāḍ, Literal translation, lit.: 'The Gardens' Najdi Arabic, Najdi pronunciation: ) is the capital of Saudi Arabia and the largest city on the Arabian Peninsula. Located in the center of the An Nafud, an-Naf ...

Riyadh
), and the tenth-largest in the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
.
Jeddah Islamic Port Image:Jeddah-seaport-saudiarabia.PNG, A general view of the seaport. Jeddah Islamic Port is a Saudi Arabian port, located in the middle of an international shipping route between east and west. It is the second-largest and second-busiest port in t ...
, is on the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a North ...

Red Sea
, is the thirty-sixth largest seaport in the world and the second-largest and second-busiest seaport in the Middle East (after
Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country i ...

Dubai
's
Port of Jebel Ali The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Trieste.html"_;"title="Barcola_near_Trieste">Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port A_port_is_a_ Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port">Trieste.html"_;"title="Barcola_near_Trieste">Barcola_near ...
). Jeddah is the principal gateway to
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ), Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province The Mecca Province ( ar, مِنْطَقَة مَكَّة '), also known as the Mec ...

Mecca
, the holiest city in Islam, to the east, while
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second in and the of the of . The 2020 estimated population of the city is 1,488,782, ma ...

Medina
, the second-holiest city, is to the north. Economically, Jeddah is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East. Jeddah was independently ranked fourth in the Africa – Mid-East region in terms of innovation in 2009 in the Innovation Cities Index. Jeddah is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Beta world city by the
Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank that studies the relationships between global city, world cities in the context of globalization. It is based in the geography department of Loughboro ...
(GaWC). Given the city's close proximity to the Red Sea, fishing and seafood dominate the food culture unlike other parts of the country. In Arabic, the city's motto is "Jeddah Ghair", which translates to "Jeddah is different". The motto has been widely used among both locals as well as foreign visitors. The city is widely perceived as the most liberal city in Saudi Arabia and is a popular tourist destination in the region.


Etymology and spelling

There are at least two explanations for the etymology of the name ''Jeddah'', according to Jeddah Ibn Al-Qudaa'iy, the chief of the Quda'a clan. The more common account has it that the name is derived from ''Jaddah'', the
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
word for "grandmother". According to eastern folk belief, the
Tomb of Eve The Tomb of Eve, also known as Eve's Grave and Eve's Tomb, is an archeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance ...
, considered the grandmother of humanity, is located in Jeddah. The tomb was sealed with concrete by religious authorities in 1975 due to some Muslims praying at the site. The
Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in North Africa, specifically Morocco ) , ...
traveler
Ibn Battuta Ibn Battuta (; 24 February 13041368/1369); fully: ; Arabic: was a Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an e ...
visited Jeddah during his world trip in around 1330. He wrote the name of the city into his diary as "Jiddah". The British
Foreign and Commonwealth Office The Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO) is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdi ...
and other branches of the British government formerly used the older spelling of "Jedda", contrary to other English-speaking usages, but in 2007, it changed to the spelling "Jeddah".
T. E. Lawrence Colonel (UK), Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British Archaeology, archaeologist, army officer, diplomat, and writer, who became renowned for his role in the Arab Revolt (1916–1918) and the Sinai an ...

T. E. Lawrence
felt that any transcription of Arabic names into English was arbitrary. In his book, ''Revolt in the Desert'', Jeddah is spelled in three different ways on the first page alone. On official Saudi maps and documents, the city name is transcribed "Jeddah", which is now the prevailing usage.


History


Pre-Islam

Traces of early activity in the area are testified by some
Thamud The Thamūd ( ar, ثَمُوْد) were an ancient Arabian tribe or tribal confederation that occupied the northwestern Arabian peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "A ...
i scripts that were excavated in
Wadi Briman Wadi ( ar, وَادِي, wādī), alternatively ''wād'' ( ar, وَاد), Maghrebi Arabic, North African Arabic Oued, is the Arabic term traditionally referring to a valley. In some instances, it may refer to a dry (ephemerality, ephemeral) St ...
(), east of the city, and
Wadi Boweb Wadi ( ar, وَادِي, wādī), alternatively ''wād'' ( ar, وَاد), Maghrebi Arabic, North African Arabic Oued, is the Arabic term traditionally referring to a valley. In some instances, it may refer to a dry (ephemerality, ephemeral) St ...
(), northwest of the city. The oldest
Mashrabiya 300px, ''Gannariya'' in Tunisia A ''mashrabiya'' ( ar, مشربية), also either ''shanshūl'' () or ''rūshān'' (), is an architectural element which is characteristic of traditional Islamic architecture, architecture in the Islamic world. It i ...
found in Jeddah dates back to the pre-Islamic era. Some believe that Jeddah had been inhabited before Alexander the Great, who had a naval expedition to the Red Sea, by fishermen in the Red Sea, who considered it a center from which they sailed out into the sea as well as a place for relaxation and well-being. According to the Ministry of Hajj, Jeddah has been settled for more than 2500 years. Excavations in the
old cityOld City often refers to old town, the historic or original core of a city or town. Old City may refer to several places: Historical cities or regions of cities ''(by country)'' *Old City (Baku), Azerbaijan *Old Quebec, Canada, also called ''Old C ...
have been interpreted as that Jeddah was founded as a fishing hamlet by the Yemeni Quda'a tribe ( ar, links=no, بني قضاعة), who left central
Yemen ) , image_map = Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a Sanaa ( ar, صَنْعَاء, ' , Yemeni Arabic: ; Old South Arabian: 𐩮 ...

Yemen
to settle in Makkah after the collapse of Sad (dam)
Marib Dam The Marib Dam ( ar, سـدّ مَـأرِب ', or ') is a modern dam blocking the ''Wadi Adhanah'' (also Dhana or Adhana) in the valley of Dhana in the Balaq Hills, located in the Ma'rib Governorate in Yemen. The current dam was built in the 198 ...
in Yemen in 115 BC.


Under the Caliphates

Jeddah first achieved prominence around AD 647, when the third Muslim
Caliph A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
,
Uthman Ibn Affan Uthman ibn Affan ( ar, عثمان بن عفان, ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān; – 17 June 656), also spelled by the Turkish and Persian rendering Osman, was the third Rashidun , image = تخطيط كلمة الخلفاء الراشدون.pn ...
, turned it into a port making it the port of Makkah instead of Al Shoaib port southwest of Mecca. The
Umayyads The Umayyad dynasty ( ar, بَنُو أُمَيَّةَ, Banū Umayya, Sons of Umayya) or Umayyads () were the ruling family of the Muslim Umayyad Caliphate, caliphate between 661 and 750 and later of Al-Andalus, Islamic Iberia in Europe between 7 ...
inherited the entire
Rashidun Caliphate The Rashidun Caliphate ( ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ, al-Khilāfah ar-Rāšidah) was the first of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an ...
including
Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada The ''Shahada'' ( ar, ٱلشَّهَادَةُ ' , "the testimony"), also spelled Shahadah, is an Islamic ...

Hejaz
and ruled from 661AD to 750AD. In AD 702 Jeddah was briefly occupied by pirates from the
Kingdom of Axum The Kingdom of Aksum ( gez, መንግሥተ አክሱም), also known as the Kingdom of Axum or the Aksumite Empire, was an ancient Habesha kingdom that controlled what are now Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a cou ...
. However, Jeddah remained a key civilian harbor, serving fishermen and pilgrims travelling by sea for the
Hajj The Hajj (; ar, حَجّ ' "wikt:pilgrimage, ''pilgrimage''"; sometimes also spelled Hadj, Hadji or Haj in English) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city for Muslims. Hajj is a Far ...
. It is also believed that Sharifdom of Mecca, an honorary Viceroy to the holy land, was first appointed in this period of the Islamic Caliphate . Jeddah has been established as the main city of the historic Hijaz province and a historic port for pilgrims arriving by sea to perform their Hajj pilgrimage in Mecca. In 750, in the
Abbasid Revolution The Abbasid Revolution, also called the Movement of the Men of the Black Raiment, was the overthrow of the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE), the second of the four major Caliphates in early History of Islam, Islamic history, by the third, the A ...
, the
Abbasids The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate A caliphate or khilāfah ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an institution or public office governing a territory under I ...

Abbasids
successfully took control of almost the whole Umayyad Empire, excluding
Morocco (Maghrib)
Morocco (Maghrib)
and Spain (Al-Andalus). From 876, Jeddah and the surrounding area became the object of wars between the Abbasids and the
Tulunids The Tulunids (), were a Mamluk Mamluk ( ar, مملوك, mamlūk (singular), , ''mamālīk'' (plural), translated as "one who is owned", meaning "History of slavery in the Muslim world, slave", also Arabic transliteration, transliterated as ...
of Egypt, who at one point gained control of the emirates of
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
,
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
,
Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; tr. ') is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In ge ...

Jordan
and
Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada The ''Shahada'' ( ar, ٱلشَّهَادَةُ ' , "the testimony"), also spelled Shahadah, is an Islamic ...

Hejaz
. The power struggle between the Tulunid Governors and the Abbasids over Hejaz lasted for nearly 25 years, until the Tulunids finally withdrew from
Arabia The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...

Arabia
in 900 AD. In 930 AD, the main Hejazi cities of
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second in and the of the of . The 2020 estimated population of the city is 1,488,782, ma ...

Medina
,
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ), Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province The Mecca Province ( ar, مِنْطَقَة مَكَّة '), also known as the Mec ...

Mecca
and
Taif Taif ( ar, اَلطَّائِفُ, translit=aṭ-Ṭāʾif, lit=The circulated or encircled) is a city and governorate in the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia. Located at an elevation of in the slopes of the Hejaz Mountains, which themselves are pa ...
were heavily sacked by the
Qarmatians The Qarmatians ( ar, قرامطة, Qarāmiṭa; ; also transliterated Carmathians, Qarmathians, Karmathians, Karmatian, or Karmathian, Qarmatī, Qarāmiṭah) were a dynasty of a syncretism, syncretic branch of Sevener Isma'ilism, Ismaili Shia I ...

Qarmatians
. It is probable, though not historically confirmed, that Jeddah itself was attacked by Qarmatians. Soon after, in early 935, the
Ikhshidids The Ikhshidid dynasty () was a Turkic mamluk dynasty who ruled Egypt and the Levant from 935 to 969. Muhammad ibn Tughj al-Ikhshid, a Turkic mamluk soldier, was appointed governor by the Abbasid Caliph al-Radi. The dynasty carried the Arabic title " ...
, the new power in Egypt, took control of the Hejaz region. There are no historical records that detail the Ikhshidid rule of Hejaz. At this point in time, Jeddah was still unfortified and without walls.


The Fatimids, Ayyubids, and Mamluks

In 969 AD, the
Fatimids The Fatimid Caliphate ( ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْفَاطِمِيَّة , al-Ḫilāfa al-Fāṭimiyya) was an Isma'ilism, Ismaili Shia caliphate of the 10th to the 12th centuries AD. Spanning a large area of North Africa, it range ...

Fatimids
from Algeria took control in Egypt from the Ikhshidid Governors of Abbasids and expanded their empire to the surrounding regions, including The Hijaz and Jeddah. The Fatimids developed an extensive trade network in both the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
and the
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of and contains 97% of . Another definition is "any of the large ...

Indian Ocean
through the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a North ...

Red Sea
. Their trade and diplomatic ties extended all the way to China and its
Song Dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
, which eventually determined the economic course of
Tihamah Tihamah or Tihama ( ar, تِهَامَةُ ') refers to the Red Sea coastal plain of the Arabian Peninsula from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Bab el Mandeb. Etymology Tihāmat is the Proto-Semitic language's term for 'sea'. Tiamat (or Tehom, in mascul ...

Tihamah
during the
High Middle Ages The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical c ...
. After
Saladin Al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub ( ku, سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی, Selahedînê Eyûbî; ar, الناصر صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب, an-Nāṣir Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; 11374 March 1193), better k ...

Saladin
's conquest of Jerusalem, in 1171 he proclaimed himself sultan of Egypt, after dissolving the
Fatimid Caliphate The Fatimid Caliphate ( ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْفَاطِمِيَّة , al-Ḫilāfa al-Fāṭimiyya) was an Ismaili Shia Ismāʿīlism ( ar, الإسماعيلية, ''al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah''; fa, اسماعیلیان, ''E ...

Fatimid Caliphate
upon the death of
al-Adid Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh ibn Yūsuf ( ar, أبو محمد عبد الله بن يوسف; 1151–1171), better known by his regnal name A regnal name, or regnant name or reign name, is the name used by monarch A monarch is a head of stateWeb ...
, thus establishing the
Ayyubid dynasty The Ayyubid dynasty ( ar, الأيوبيون '; Kurdish languages, Kurdish: ئەیووبیەکان Eyûbiyan) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurds, Kurdish origin, founded by Saladin and centered in Egypt in the Middle Ages, Egypt, ruling over t ...

Ayyubid dynasty
. Ayyubid conquests in Hejaz included Jeddah, which joined the
Ayyubid Empire The Ayyubid dynasty ( ar, الأيوبيون '; Kurdish languages, Kurdish: ئەیووبیەکان Eyûbiyan) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurds, Kurdish origin, founded by Saladin and centered in Egypt in the Middle Ages, Egypt, ruling over th ...
in 1177 during the leadership of
Sharif Sharīf ( ar, شريف, 'noble', 'highborn'), also spelled shareef or sherif, feminine sharīfa (), plural ashrāf (), shurafāʾ (), or (in the Maghreb) shurfāʾ, is a term used to designate a person descended, or claiming to be descended, fro ...

Sharif
Ibn Abul-Hashim Al-Thalab (1094–1201). During their relatively short-lived tenure, the Ayyubids ushered in an era of economic prosperity in the lands they ruled and the facilities and patronage provided by the Ayyubids led to a resurgence in intellectual activity in the
Islamic world The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodne ...
. This period was also marked by an Ayyubid process of vigorously strengthening
Sunni Muslim Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, ...
dominance in the region by constructing numerous ''
madrasas Madrasa (, also , ; Arabic: مدرسة , Plural, pl. , ) is the Arabs, Arabic word for any Educational institution, type of educational institution, secular or religious (of any religion), whether for elementary instruction or higher learning. Th ...
'' (Islamic schools) in their major cities. Jeddah attracted Muslim sailors and merchants from
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, ad ...

Sindh
,
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
and
East Africa East Africa, Eastern Africa, or East of Africa is the eastern sub-region A subregion is a part of a larger region or continent and is usually based on location. Cardinal directions, such as south or southern, are commonly used to define a subr ...
, and other distant regions. In 1254, following events in
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
and the dissolution of the Ayyubid Empire,
Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada The ''Shahada'' ( ar, ٱلشَّهَادَةُ ' , "the testimony"), also spelled Shahadah, is an Islamic ...

Hejaz
became a part of the
Mamluk Sultanate
Mamluk Sultanate
. The Portuguese explorer
Vasco da Gama Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (, ; ; c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portugal in the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea. His initial voyage to India by way of Cape of Good Hope (1 ...

Vasco da Gama
, having found his way around the
Cape A cape is a sleeveless outer garment Outerwear is clothing File:KangaSiyu1.jpg, A kanga (African garment), kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) are items worn on the bo ...

Cape
and obtained pilots from the coast of
Zanzibar Zanzibar (; ; ) is an insular autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative d ...

Zanzibar
in AD 1497, pushed his way across the
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of and contains 97% of . Another definition is "any of the large ...

Indian Ocean
to the shores of Malabar and
Calicut Kozhikode (), also known as Calicut, is an Indian city, second-largest urban agglomeration in the State of Kerala in India and 19th largest in the country with a population of two million according to 2011 census. Kozhikode is classified as ...
, attacked fleets that carried freight and Muslim pilgrims from India to the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a North ...

Red Sea
, and struck terror into the surrounding potentates. The Princes of
Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Gujarat
and
Yemen ) , image_map = Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a Sanaa ( ar, صَنْعَاء, ' , Yemeni Arabic: ; Old South Arabian: 𐩮 ...

Yemen
turned for help to
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
. Sultan Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri accordingly fitted out a fleet of 50 vessels under the Governor of Jeddah, Hussein the Kurd (aka. Mirocem). Jeddah was soon fortified with a wall, using forced labor, as a harbor of refuge from the
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
, allowing
Arabia The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...

Arabia
and the Red Sea to be protected.


Ottoman Empire

In 1517, the
Ottoman Turks The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, tr, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish language , Turkish-speaking people of the Ottoman Empire ( 1299–1922/1923). Reliable information about the early history of Ottoman Turks remains scarce, but the ...
conquered the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt and Syria, during the reign of
Selim I Selim I ( ota, سليم الأول; tr, I. Selim; 10 October 1470 – 22 September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute ( tr, links=no, Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire fr ...

Selim I
."History of Arabia."
Britannica.com.
The Ottomans rebuilt the weak walls of Jeddah in 1525 following the defense of the city against the
Lopo Soares de Albergaria's Armada
Lopo Soares de Albergaria's Armada
at the
Siege of Jeddah (1517) A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition warfare, attrition, or a well-prepared assault. This derives from la, sedere, lit=to sit. Siege warfare is a form of constant, low-intensity conf ...
. The new stone wall included six
watchtower A watchtower is a type of fortification A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to establish rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from La ...

watchtower
s and six
city gate A city gate is a gate which is, or was, set within a city wall. It is a type of fortified gateway. Uses City gates were traditionally built to provide a point of controlled access to and departure from a walled city for people, vehicles, good ...

city gate
s. They were constructed to defend against the Portuguese attack. Of the six gates, the Gate of Mecca was the eastern gate and the Gate of
Al-Magharibah
Al-Magharibah
, facing the port, was the western gate. The Gate of Sharif faced south. The other gates were the Gate of Al-Bunt, Gate of Al-Sham (also called Gate of Al-Sharaf), and Gate of
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second in and the of the of . The 2020 estimated population of the city is 1,488,782, ma ...

Medina
, facing north. The Turks also built The Qishla of Jeddah, a small castle for the city soldiers. In the 19th century, these seven gates were minimized into four giant gates with four towers. These giant gates were the Gate of Sham to the north, the Gate of Mecca to the east, the Gate of Sharif to the south, and the Gate of Al-Magharibah on the seaside. Jeddah became a direct Ottoman
Eyalet Eyalets (Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Turkish ( ota, لِسانِ عُثمانى, , ; tr, Osmanlı Türkçesi) was the standardized register (sociolinguistics), register of the Turkish language used in the Ottoman Empire (14th to 20th centuries ...
, while the remaining
Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada The ''Shahada'' ( ar, ٱلشَّهَادَةُ ' , "the testimony"), also spelled Shahadah, is an Islamic ...

Hejaz
under Sharif Barakat II became a Vassal state to the Ottoman Empire 8 years after the Siege of Jeddah in 1517. Parts of the city wall still survive today in the
old cityOld City often refers to old town, the historic or original core of a city or town. Old City may refer to several places: Historical cities or regions of cities ''(by country)'' *Old City (Baku), Azerbaijan *Old Quebec, Canada, also called ''Old C ...

old city
. Even though the Portuguese were successfully repelled from the city, fleets in the
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of and contains 97% of . Another definition is "any of the large ...

Indian Ocean
were at their mercy. This was evidenced by the
Battle of Diu The Battle of Diu was a naval battle fought on 3 February 1509 in the Arabian Sea, in the port of Diu, Daman and Diu, Diu, India, between the Portuguese Empire and a joint fleet of the Mahmud Begada, Sultan of Gujarat, the Burji dynasty, Mam ...
. The Portuguese soldiers' cemetery can still be found within the
old cityOld City often refers to old town, the historic or original core of a city or town. Old City may refer to several places: Historical cities or regions of cities ''(by country)'' *Old City (Baku), Azerbaijan *Old Quebec, Canada, also called ''Old C ...

old city
today and is referred to as the site of the Christian Graves. Ahmed Al-Jazzar, the Ottoman military man mainly known for his role in the
Siege of AcreSiege of Acre may refer to: *Siege of Acre (1104), following the First Crusade *Siege of Acre (1189–1191), during the Third Crusade *Siege of Acre (1263), Baibars#Campaign against the Crusaders, Baibars laid siege to the Crusader city, but abandon ...
, spent the earlier part of his career at Jeddah. In Jeddah in 1750, he killed some seventy rioting nomads in retaliation for the killing of his commander, Abdullah Beg, earning him the nickname "Jezzar" (butcher). On 15 June 1858, rioting in the city, believed to have been instigated by a former police chief in reaction to British policy in the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a North ...

Red Sea
, led to the massacre of 25 Christians, including the British and French consuls, members of their families, and wealthy Greek merchants. The British frigate , anchored at port, bombarded the city for two days in retaliation.


First Saudi State and Ottoman–Saudi War

In 1802,
Nejdi forces
Nejdi forces
conquered both Mecca and Jeddah from the Ottomans. When Sharif
Ghalib Efendi Ghālib ibn Musā‘id ibn Sa‘īd ( ar, غالب بن مساعد بن سعيد) was a sharif who served as Sharif and Emir of Mecca from 1788 to 1813. Succession to the Emirate Ghalib was the son of the Emir of Mecca Musa'id ibn Sa'id (r. 1752-1 ...
informed
Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phone ...

Sultan
Mahmud II Mahmud II ( ota, محمود ثانى, Mahmud-u s̠ānī, tr, II. Mahmud; 20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th of the from 1808 until his death in 1839. His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, and fiscal ref ...

Mahmud II
of this, the Sultan ordered his
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
ian viceroy
Muhammad Ali Pasha Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha, also known as Muhammad Ali of Egypt and the Sudan (Ottoman language, Ottoman script: ; ar, محمد علي باشا, ; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849), was an Albanians, Albanian Ottoman Empire, Ottoman g ...
to retake the city. Muhammad Ali successfully regained the city in the Battle of Jeddah in 1813.


World War I and the Hashemite Kingdom

During
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, Sharif
Hussein bin Ali
Hussein bin Ali
declared a revolt against the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
, seeking independence from the Ottoman Turks and the creation of a single unified
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
state spanning from
Aleppo )), is an adjective which means "white-colored mixed with black". , motto = , image_map = , mapsize = , map_caption = , image_map1 ...

Aleppo
in
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
to
Aden Aden ( , ; ar, عدن ' Yemeni Arabic, Yemeni: ) is a city, and since 2015, the temporary capital of Yemen, near the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of the strait Bab-el-Mandeb. Its population is approximately ...

Aden
in
Yemen ) , image_map = Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a Sanaa ( ar, صَنْعَاء, ' , Yemeni Arabic: ; Old South Arabian: 𐩮 ...

Yemen
. King Hussein declared the
Kingdom of Hejaz The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz ( ar, المملكة الحجازية الهاشمية, ''Al-Mamlakah al-Ḥijāziyyah Al-Hāshimiyyah'') was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East (modern-day western Saudi Arabia), the western portion of ...
. Later, Hussein was involved in a war with
Ibn Saud Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud ( ar, عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود, ʿAbd al ʿAzīz bin ʿAbd ar Raḥman Āl Suʿūd; 15 January 1875Ibn Saud's birth year has been a source of debate. It is generally accepted a ...
, who was the Sultan of
Nejd Najd, ( ar, نَجْدٌ, ) or the Nejd, forms the geographic center of Saudi Arabia (Shahada) , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection ...
. Hussein abdicated following the fall of
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ), Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province The Mecca Province ( ar, مِنْطَقَة مَكَّة '), also known as the Mec ...

Mecca
, in December 1924, and his son
Ali bin Hussein
Ali bin Hussein
became the new king.


Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

A few months later,
Ibn Saud Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud ( ar, عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود, ʿAbd al ʿAzīz bin ʿAbd ar Raḥman Āl Suʿūd; 15 January 1875Ibn Saud's birth year has been a source of debate. It is generally accepted a ...
, whose clan originated in the central
Nejd Najd, ( ar, نَجْدٌ, ) or the Nejd, forms the geographic center of Saudi Arabia (Shahada) , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection ...
province, conquered
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second in and the of the of . The 2020 estimated population of the city is 1,488,782, ma ...

Medina
and Jeddah via an agreement with Jeddans following the Second Battle of Jeddah. He deposed
Ali bin Hussein
Ali bin Hussein
, who fled to
Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Baghdad
, eventually settling in
Amman Amman (; ar, عَمَّان, ' ) is the capital and largest city of Jordan and the country's economic, political and cultural centre. With a population of 4,007,526, Amman is the List of largest cities in the Levant region by population, larg ...

Amman
,
Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; tr. ') is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In ge ...

Jordan
, where his descendants became part of its
Hashemite The Hashemites ( ar, الهاشميون, al-Hāshimīyūn), also House of Hashim, are the royal family A royal family is the immediate family of kings/ queens, emirs/emiras, or sultans/ sultanas, and sometimes their extended family. The ...

Hashemite
royalty. As a result, Jeddah came under the sway of the Al-Saud dynasty in December 1925. In 1926, Ibn Saud added the title King of Hejaz to his position of Sultan of Nejd. Today, Jeddah has lost its historical role in peninsular politics after Jeddah fell within the new province of
Makkah Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ), Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inlan ...
, whose provincial capital is the city of
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ), Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province The Mecca Province ( ar, مِنْطَقَة مَكَّة '), also known as the Mec ...

Mecca
. From 1928 to 1932, the new Khuzam Palace was built as the new residence of King Abdul Aziz in Jeddah. The palace lies south of the old walled city and was constructed under the supervision of the engineer
Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden ( ar, محمد بن عوض بن لادن; 1908 – 3 September 1967) was a multi-millionaire Saudi businessman working primarily in the construction industry. He founded what is today the Saudi Binladin Group and becam ...
. After 1963, the palace was used as a royal guest house; since 1995, it has housed the Regional Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography. The remaining walls and gates of the old city were demolished in 1947. A fire in 1982 destroyed some ancient buildings in the old town center, called
Al-Balad
Al-Balad
, but much is still preserved. A house-by-house survey of the old districts was made in 1979, showing that some 1000 traditional buildings still existed, though the number of structures with great historic value was far less. In 1990, a Jeddah Historical Area Preservation Department was founded. The modern city has expanded wildly beyond its old boundaries. The built-up area expanded mainly to the north along the Red Sea coastline, reaching the new airport during the 1990s and since edging its way around it toward the Ob'hur Creek, some from the old city center.


Geography

Jeddah is located in Saudi Arabia's Red Sea
coastal plain A coastal plain is flat, low-lying land adjacent to a sea coast. A fall line A fall line (or fall zone) is the area where an upland region and a coastal plain meet and is typically prominent where rivers cross it, with resulting rapids or waterf ...
(called
Tihamah Tihamah or Tihama ( ar, تِهَامَةُ ') refers to the Red Sea coastal plain of the Arabian Peninsula from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Bab el Mandeb. Etymology Tihāmat is the Proto-Semitic language's term for 'sea'. Tiamat (or Tehom, in mascul ...

Tihamah
). Jeddah lies in the Hijazi Tihama () region which is in the lower
Hijaz mountains#REDIRECT Hijaz Mountains The Hijaz Mountains ar, جِـبَـال ٱلْـحِـجَـاز, Jibāl al-Ḥijāz () or Hejaz Range is a mountain range located in the Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barr ...
. Historically, politically and culturally, Jeddah was a major city of
Hejaz Vilayet The Vilayet of the Hejaz ( ''Wilayat al-Ḥijāz''; ota, ولايت حجاز ''Vilâyet-i Hijaz'') refers to the Hejaz region of Arabia when it was administered as a first-level province (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire. At the beginning of the 20t ...

Hejaz Vilayet
, the
Kingdom of Hejaz The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz ( ar, المملكة الحجازية الهاشمية, ''Al-Mamlakah al-Ḥijāziyyah Al-Hāshimiyyah'') was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East (modern-day western Saudi Arabia), the western portion of ...
and other regional political entities according to Hijazi history books. It is the 100th largest city in the world by land area.


Climate

Jeddah features an
arid climate The desert climate or arid climate (in the Köppen climate classification ''BWh'' and ''BWk''), is a climate which there is an excess of evaporation over precipitation. The typically bald, rocky, or sandy surfaces in desert climates hold little ...
(''BWh'') under Koppen's climate classification, with a tropical temperature range. Unlike other Saudi Arabian cities, Jeddah retains its warm temperature in winter, which can range from at dawn to in the afternoon. Summer temperatures are extremely hot, often breaking the mark in the afternoon and dropping to in the evening. Summers are also quite steamy, with dew points often exceeding , particularly in September. Rainfall in Jeddah is generally sparse, and usually occurs in small amounts in November and December. Heavy thunderstorms are common in winter. The thunderstorm of December 2008 was the largest in recent memory, with rain reaching around . The lowest temperature ever recorded in Jeddah was on February 10, 1993. The highest temperature ever recorded in Jeddah was on June 22, 2010.
Dust storm A dust storm, also called a sandstorm, is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Deve ...

Dust storm
s happen in summer and sometimes in winter, coming from the
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...
's deserts or from
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
.


Economy

Jeddah has long been a port city. Even before being designated the port city for Mecca, Jeddah was a trading hub for the region. In the 19th century, goods such as mother-of-pearl, tortoise shells, frankincense, and spices were routinely exported from the city. Apart from this, many imports into the city were destined for further transit to the Suez, Africa, or Europe. Many goods passing through Jeddah could not even be found in the city or even in Arabia. All of the capitals of the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
and North Africa are within two hours flying distance of Jeddah, making it the second commercial center of the Middle East after Dubai. Also, Jeddah's industrial district is the fourth largest industrial city in Saudi Arabia after
Riyadh Riyadh ( ar, الرياض, 'ar-Riyāḍ, Literal translation, lit.: 'The Gardens' Najdi Arabic, Najdi pronunciation: ) is the capital of Saudi Arabia and the largest city on the Arabian Peninsula. Located in the center of the An Nafud, an-Naf ...

Riyadh
,
Jubail Jubail ( ar, الجبيل, ''Al Jubayl'') is a city in the Eastern province on the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada The ''Shahada'' ( ar, ٱلشَّهَادَةُ ' , "the testimony"), also spelled Shahadah, is an Isl ...
and
Yanbu Yanbu ( ar, ينبع, lit=Spring, translit=Yanbu'), also known simply as Yambu or Yenbo, is a city in the Al Madinah Province The Medina State ( ar, مِنْطَقَة ٱلْمَدِيْنَة ٱلْمُنَوَّرَة, Minṭaqat Al-Madīnah ...
.


King Abdullah Street

King Abdullah Street is one of the most important streets in Jeddah and runs from King Fahd Road by the waterfront in the west of Jeddah to the eastern end of the city. It is famous for hosting numerous corporate offices and commercial developments. It will be near the HSR Entrance in Jeddah central train station which connects Jeddah with Makkah, AL-Madinah, and King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC). And it also has the tallest flagpole in the world at a height of 170 m (558 ft). This road also faced a catastrophe in 2011 when it was submerged with rainwater.


Tahliyah Street

Tahaliyah Street is an important fashion and shopping street in central Jeddah. It contains many upscale departments and high fashion brands stores as well as boutiques. It has been renamed "Prince Mohammad bin Abdul Aziz Road" by the government, but this official name is not widely used. It also has many
fine dining Fine dining restaurants are full-service restaurants with specific dedicated meal courses. The décor of such restaurants features higher-quality materials, with establishments having certain rules of dining which visitors are generally expected ...
options.


Madinah Road

Madinah Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second holiest city in Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in Eng ...

Madinah
Road is a historically significant street in Jeddah. It links the Southern districts with the North and contains the Main offices of several companies and showrooms. The northern end of the road links to the , which is a contributing factor to heavy traffic on this road at most times during the day.


Culture


Religious significance

Most citizens are
Sunni Muslims Sunni Islam () is by far the largest Islamic schools and branches, branch of Islam, followed by 85–90% of the world's Muslims. Its name comes from the word ''Sunnah'', referring to the behaviour of Muhammad. The differences between Sunni and ...
. The government, courts, and civil and criminal laws enforce a moral code established by Shari'ah. A very small minority of Saudi citizens are
Shia Muslims Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main branches of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ...
, and there is also a large foreign workforce. The city has over 1,300
mosque A mosque (; from ar, مَسْجِد, masjid, ; literally "place of ritual prostration"), also called masjid, is a place of worship for Muslims. Any act of worship that follows the Salah, Islamic rules of prayer can be said to create a mosque, w ...

mosque
s. The law does not allow other religions' buildings, books, icons and expressions of faith. However, private religious observance not involving Muslims nor offending public order and morality is tolerated. Since the 7th century, Jeddah has hosted millions of Muslim pilgrims from all over the world on their way to
Hajj The Hajj (; ar, حَجّ ' "wikt:pilgrimage, ''pilgrimage''"; sometimes also spelled Hadj, Hadji or Haj in English) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city for Muslims. Hajj is a Far ...
. This merge with pilgrims has a major impact on the society, religion, and economy of Jeddah.


Cultural projects and foundations with a branch in Jeddah

* Encyclopedia of Makkah and Madinah * Saqifat al-Safa Trust


Cuisine

Jeddah's multi-ethnic citizenry has influenced Jeddah's traditional cuisine. Some dishes are native to the Hejaz, like
Saleeg Saleeg ( ar, سليق ) is a white-rice dish, cooked with broth (chicken or other meat) and milk. It originates in region in the west of , where it is commonly regarded as a of the region. The dish is very popular in the city of . Saleeg origin ...
and Mabshūr is a white-rice dish, cooked in broth, often made with chicken instead of lamb meat. Jeddah cuisine is popular as well and dishes like, Foul, Shorabah Hareira (Hareira soup), Mugalgal, Madhbi (chicken grilled on stone), Madfun (literally meaning "buried"), Magloobah, Kibdah, Manzalah (usually eaten at Eid ul-Fitr), Magliya (a local version of
falafel Falafel (; ar, فلافل, ; is a Deep frying, deep-fried ball or patty-shaped fritter made from ground chickpeas, Vicia faba, broad beans, or both. Falafel is a traditional Middle Eastern cuisine, Middle Eastern food, commonly served in a p ...

falafel
) and Saiyadyia which can be acquired in many traditional restaurants around the city, such as Althamrat, Abo-Zaid, Al-Quarmooshi, Ayaz, and Hejaziyat. Some were imported from other Saudi regions like Kabsa from Najd, Arīka and Ma'sūb from the southern Saudi region. Other Dishes were imported from other cultures through Saudis of different origins, like Mantu , Yaghmush and Ruz Bukhāri from Central Asia, Burēk and Šurēk and Kabab almīru from Turkey and the Balkans, Mandi from Yemen, from Yemen-Malaysia, Biryāni and Kābli rice dishes from
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia cov ...

South Asia
.The most popular local fast-food chain, begun in 1974, is Albaik, with branches in Jeddah and the neighboring cities of Makkah, Madinah and Yanbu. Their main dish is broasted (broiled and roasted) chicken, commonly known by Jeddawis as "Broast", and a variety of seafood.


Open-air art

During the oil boom in the late 1970s and 1980s, there was a focused civic effort led by the then city's mayor Mohamed Said Farsi to bring art to Jeddah's public areas. As a result, Jeddah contains a large number of modern open-air sculptures and works of art, typically situated in
roundabout A roundabout is a type of circular intersection The line (purple) in two points (red). The disk (yellow) intersects the line in the line segment between the two red points. In mathematics, the intersection of two or more objects is ...

roundabout
s, making the city one of the largest open-air art galleries in the world. Sculptures include works by Jean/Hans Arp,
César Baldaccini César (born Cesare Baldaccini; 1 January 1921 – 6 December 1998), also occasionally referred to as César Baldaccini, was a noted French sculpture, sculptor. César was at the forefront of the Nouveau realisme, Nouveau Réalisme movement wi ...
,
Alexander Calder Alexander Calder (; July 22, 1898 – November 11, 1976) was an American Sculpture, sculptor known both for his innovative mobile (sculpture), mobiles (kinetic sculptures powered by motors or air currents) that embrace chance in their aesthetic, a ...

Alexander Calder
,
Henry Moore Henry Spencer Moore (30 July 1898 – 31 August 1986) was an English artist. He is best known for his semi- abstract monumental bronze sculptures which are located around the world as public works of art. As well as sculpture, Moore produced m ...

Henry Moore
,
Joan Miró Joan Miró i Ferrà ( , , ; 20 April 1893 – 25 December 1983) was a Catalan people, Catalan painter, sculptor and ceramicist born in Barcelona. A museum dedicated to his work, the Fundació Joan Miró, was established in his native cit ...
and
Victor Vasarely Victor Vasarely (; born Győző Vásárhelyi, ; – ), was a Hungarian- French artist, who is widely accepted as a "grandfather" and leader of the Op art movement. His work entitled ''Zebra'', created in the 1930s, is considered by some to be ...

Victor Vasarely
. They often depict traditional Saudi items such as coffee pots, incense burners, palm trees, etc. The fact that Islamic tradition prohibits the depiction of living creatures, notably the human form, has made for some very creative, as well as bizarre, modern art. These include a giant geometry set, a giant bicycle, and a huge block of concrete with several cars protruding from it at odd angles and a monumental sculpture by Aref Rayess called "Swords of God (Soyuf Allah)".


Museums and collections

There are about a dozen museums or collections in Jeddah, with varied educational aims and professionalism. These include the
Jeddah Regional Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography The Khuzam Palace is a major palace and museum in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The building The Museum is in the historic Khuzam Palace in the Al-Nuzlah al-Yamaniyah quarter in the south of Jeddah. The building was constructed as a royal palace from 192 ...
run by the Deputy Ministry of Antiquities and Museums, the Jeddah Municipal Museum, the
Nasseef House Nasseef House or Nassif House (Arabic language, Arabic: بيت نصيف ''Bayt Nasseef'') is a historical structure in Al-Balad, Jeddah, Al-Balad, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. As of 2009 it is a museum and cultural center which has special exhibits and le ...
, the Humane Heritage Museum, the private Abdul Rauf Hasan Khalil Museum and the private Arts Heritage Museum.


Events and festivals


Red Sea International Film Festival

Jeddah has been selected as a place for the annual Red Sea International Film Festival that will be held in 2020.


Jeddah International Book Fair

Jeddah hosts an annual international book fair called Jeddah international book fair. It is the second largest book fair in Saudi Arabia, and it was first held in 2015. The book fair is held annually in early December.


Jeddah Season

Jeddah Season is a part of the Saudi government's Saudi Seasons initiatives that aims at launching a high-level tourism activities in Saudi Arabia. The first version of the season has been held in June–July 2019. Around 150 activities and events have been organized in five destinations in Jeddah. As Saudi Seasons 2019 aims at shedding the light on the diverse Saudi culture and heritage. Jeddah was chosen because it is one of the most culturally-rich Saudi cities with a history that spans over 3,000 years. Most of Jeddah Season's events and activities have been held at
King Abdullah Sports City King Abdullah Sports City (Arabic: مدينة الملك عبدالله الرياضية), also nicknamed The Shining Jewel, in Arabic (al-Jawharaa Al-Moshe'ah) (Arabic: الجوهرة المشعة) or simply The Jewel, in Arabic (al-Jawhara) (A ...
, Jeddah's historical area, Al-Hamra Corniche, and the Jeddah Waterfront. Jeddah Season aim to make Jeddah the most preferred tourist destination in the world and the best season of Saudi Seasons.


Media

Jeddah is served by four major Arabic-language newspapers, ''
Asharq Al-Awsat ''Asharq Al-Awsat'' ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, Aš-Šarq al-ʾAwsaṭ, meaning "The Middle East") is an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an interna ...
'', '' Al Madina'', ''
Okaz Okaz ( ar, عكاظ) is an Arabic Saudi Arabia (''Shahada The ''Shahada'' ( ar, ٱلشَّهَادَةُ ' , "the testimony"), also spelled Shahadah, is an Islamic oath, one of the Five Pillars of Islam and part of the Adhan. It r ...
'', and '' Al Bilad'', as well as two major English-language newspapers, the ''
Saudi Gazette Saudi Gazette is an English-language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading language of in ...
'' and ''
Arab News :''For the Arab news satellite channel in London, see Arab News Network Arab News Network (ANN) was an Arab news channel broadcast on satellite from London. History and profile ANN was established in 1997. The channel is currently owned by Siw ...
''. ''Okaz'' and ''Al-Madina'' are the primary newspapers of Jeddah and some other Saudi cities, with over a million readers; their focus is mainly local. Internet blogs specifically informative of the locality are abundant in Jeddah, catering mostly to the widespread expatriate population. Of these are constituted websites that have garnered international acclaim for informativeness, such as Jeddah Blog, the recipient of the Bronze Expat Blog Award in 2012 and the Gold Award in 2013 and is among Feedspot's Top 100 Middle East blogs. Other amateur websites catering to specific topics in the region exist as well. Jeddah represents the largest radio and television market in
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
. Television stations serving the city area include Saudi TV1, Saudi TV2, Saudi TV Sports, Al Ekhbariya, the Arab Radio and Television Network, ART channels network and hundreds of cable, satellite, and other specialty television providers. The Jeddah TV Tower is a high television tower with an observation deck.


Accent

The Jeddah region's distinctive speech pattern is called the Hejazi Arabic, Hejazi dialect; it is among the most recognizable accents within the Arabic language.


Cityscape


Old Jeddah

The Old City known as with its traditional multistory buildings and merchant houses, that often still belong to the families that inhabited them before the oil-era, has lost ground to more modern developments. Nonetheless, the Old City contributes to Hejazi's cultural identity. Since it has been granted UNESCO World Heritage status, in 2014, several traditional buildings have been restored and made open to the public. In 2019, the Saudi crown prince, Mohammad bin Salman, Muhammad bin Salman, has issued a royal decree that orders Ministry of Culture (Saudi Arabia), The Ministry of Culture to restore 50 historical buildings in Jeddah. Several historic mosques from different eras are located in al-Balad, as well as one of oldest museums in the city, called Bayt Naseef or Naseef house, displaying local furniture and interior design of the past 150 years, approximately.


Resorts and hotels

The city has many popular resorts, including Durrat Al-Arus, Al-Nawras Mövenpick resort at the Red Sea Corniche, Crystal Resort
Radisson Blu
The Signature Al Murjan Beach Resort, Al Nakheel Village, Sands, and Sheraton Abhur. Many are renowned for their preserved Red Sea marine life and offshore coral reefs.


Consulates

One of two Consul (representative), consulates of the United States of America in
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
is located in Jeddah, along with the consulates for 67 other countries such as Afghanistan, the United Kingdom, Indonesia, France, Germany, Greece, Turkey, Philippines, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Italy, Russia and China, Mainland China. Some of the other consulates present include, countries of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Arab League states.


Historical Jeddah

Historical Jeddah is situated on the eastern shore of the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a North ...

Red Sea
. From the 7th century AD, it was established as a major port for Indian Ocean trade routes, channeling goods to Mecca. It was also the gateway for Muslim pilgrims to Mecca who arrived by sea. These twin roles saw the city develop into a thriving multicultural center, characterized by a distinctive architectural tradition, including tower houses built in the late 19th century by the city's mercantile elites, and combining Red Sea coastal coral building traditions with influences and crafts from along the trade routes. Within a defensive wall that was built during Ottoman rule, the old city of Jeddah, Al-Balad, was divided into districts, or ''Haras'', where business and trade centered around traditional ''souks'', or market places, and ''khans'', covered markets that were generally connected to shops.


Harrat Al-Mathloum (District of the Wronged)

Located in the North East, this district was named after Abdulkarim Al-Barzangi, a Hijazi rebel who was crucified by the Ottomans, some of its landmarks are: * Dar Al-Qabil * Dar Al-Ba'ashin * Dar Al-Sheikh * Al-Shafi'i Mosque The oldest mosque in town, its minaret was built in the 13th century, and its pillars date back to Ottoman rule. * Mosque of Uthman bin Affan Also called the Ebony Mosque because of its two ebony pillars, it was mentioned in the writings of
Ibn Battuta Ibn Battuta (; 24 February 13041368/1369); fully: ; Arabic: was a Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an e ...
and Ibn Jubayr. * Al-Mia'mar Mosque An old mosque built in the 17th century. * Souq Al-Jama One of the oldest markets in town.


Harrat Al-Sham (The Levantine District)

Located in the north and named after its orientation, some of its landmarks are: * Dar Al-Sadat * Dar Al-Serti * Dar Al-Zahid * Dar Al-Banajah * Al-Basha Mosque Built by Bakr Basha, the governor of Jeddah in 1735.


Harrat Al-Yemen (The Yemeni District)

Located in the south and is also named after its orientation, its landmarks include: * Beit Nasseef By far the most famous site in the old town, it was built in 1881 for Omar Nassif Efendi, governor of Jeddah at the time, and served as the royal residence of Ibn Saud, King Abdulaziz after conquering the city. * Dar Al-Jamjoom * Dar Al-Sha'araoui * Dar Al-Abdulsamad * Dar Al-Kayal * Beit Al-Matbouli * Beit Al-Joghadar


Harrat Al-Bahar (The Seafront District)

Located in the southwest, some of its landmarks are: * Dar Al-Nas * Dar Al-Radwan * Dar Al-Nimr


Landmarks


Abdul Raouf Khalil Museum

Founded by Sheikh Abdul Raouf Khalil in 1996, this museum not only presents the rich Islamic cultural heritage of the city but also its pre-Islamic history that goes back to 2500 years; it traces the various civilizations that inhabited the region. Located in the downtown district, it boasts of large collection of items and artifacts belonging to the Ottoman Turks and the fishermen tribes who were the first inhabitants of the region.


King Fahd's Fountain

King Fahd's Fountain was built in the 1980s, can be seen from a great distance and, at , is the highest water jet in the world according to the Guinness World Records.Photograph of King Fahd Fountain
at treklens.com
The fountain was donated to the City of Jeddah by the late Fahd of Saudi Arabia, King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz, after whom it was named.


Al-Rahmah Mosque

Sometimes referred to as the floating mosque because of it being built above water, this fascinating mix of the old architecture and the new was built in 1985. It is a popular spot among tourists and natives looking to lounge by the seaside.


Al-Jawhara Stadium

Is a new stadium launched in 2014, located north of Jeddah, is used mostly for football, reaching a full capacity of 62,241 spectators. It is the largest stadium in Jeddah, and the second-largest in Saudi Arabia.


King Saud Mosque

The largest mosque in the city. Built-in 1987, it displays beautiful Islamic architecture and was built by Egyptian architect Abdel Wahed El Wakil.


NCB Tower

Built-in 1983 and believed to be the highest tower in Saudi Arabia during the 1980s, with a height of over , the National Commercial Bank was Saudi Arabia's first bank.


IDB Tower

The Islamic Development Bank is a multilateral development financing institution. It was founded by the first conference of Finance Ministers of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC, now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation), convened 18 December 1973. The bank officially began its activities on 20 October 1975.


Jeddah Municipality Tower

This is the headquarters of the metropolitan area of Jeddah. The municipality's new building is going to be not only Jeddah's tallest but is also going to dethrone the Burj Khalifa. This proposed tower, formerly known as the Kingdom Tower, is being built in Jeddah by Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal and will stand tall. Upon its completion, it will be the tallest skyscraper in the world. The building has been scaled down from its initial proposal, since the ground proved unsuitable for a building that tall, to a height of at least (the exact height is being kept private while in development, similar to the Burj Khalifa), which, at about one kilometer (), would still make it by far the List of tallest buildings and structures in the world, tallest building or structure in the world to date, standing at least taller than the Burj Khalifa in
Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country i ...

Dubai
. Construction began in April 2013 and there was steady progress, but in January 2018, building owner JEC halted structural concrete work with the tower about one-third completed due to labor issues with a contractor following the 2017–19 Saudi Arabian purge. JEC had said they planned to restart construction in 2020.


King Road Tower

King Road Tower is a commercial and office building, the external walls of which are used to show commercials. The building also has a helipad on its roof. King Road Tower has the largest Light-emitting diode, LED display in the world on its walls.


Al Jawharah Tower

Al Jawharah Tower is a residential high-rise under construction. It became the third-tallest structure in Jeddah when completed in 2014.


Jeddah Flagpole

The King Abdullah Square on the intersection of Andalus Road with King Abdullah Road has the world's tallest flagpole. It is high and the Saudi flag atop it weighs . On the 84th Saudi Arabia National Day, September 23, 2014, the flagpole hoisted a huge Saudi flag before a crowd of thousands. The flagpole succeeded Dushanbe Flagpole as the tallest flagpole in the world.


Entrance of Mecca

Bab Makkah, also known as Makkah Gate, is a limestone coral gateway that leads into the historic Al-Balad district of Jeddah. The Mecca Gate, named the "Quran Gate", is located 60 km outside Jeddah on the Mecca, Makkah Mukkarram road of the Jeddah - Mecca Highway. It is the entrance to
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ), Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province The Mecca Province ( ar, مِنْطَقَة مَكَّة '), also known as the Mec ...

Mecca
and the birthplace of Muhammad. The gate signifies the boundary of the ''haram'' area of the city of Mecca, where non-Muslims are prohibited to enter. The gate was designed in 1979 by an Egyptian architect, Samir Elabd, for the architectural firm IDEA Center. The structure is that of a book, representing the Quran, sitting on a ''Rehal (book rest), rehal'', or book stand.IDEA Center Projects
– Makkah Gate


Jeddah waterfront

The new waterfront was inaugurated in November 2017, by Makkah Governor, Prince Khaled Al-Faisal.Makkah governor opens Jeddah's new waterfront
– Arab news
It spans an area of on the Red Sea. It has many facilities including swimming beaches, huts, floating marina dock, washrooms, restaurants, parks, dancing fountains, playgrounds, and access to wifi.New Jeddah Waterfront open for visitors
– Gulf News
This project of developing JW (Jeddah Waterfront) has been awarded as Jeddah Innovation Award of the year 1439H in the field of government innovation, by the province of Jeddah.


Education


Schools, colleges and universities

, Jeddah had 849 Public school (government-funded), public and private schools for male students and another 1,179 public and private schools for female students. The medium of instruction in both public and private schools is typically Arabic, with emphasis on English language, English as a second language. However, some private schools administered by foreign entities conduct classes in English. These include 10+ Indian schools following the Central Board of Secondary Education, CBSE board of education system, several Pakistani and Bangladeshi schools as well. , Jeddah also had four Philippine international schools, with two more scheduled to open shortly afterward.Salud, Francis R.
2 More Filipino Schools to Open in Jeddah

Archive
. ''
Arab News :''For the Arab news satellite channel in London, see Arab News Network Arab News Network (ANN) was an Arab news channel broadcast on satellite from London. History and profile ANN was established in 1997. The channel is currently owned by Siw ...
''. Thursday 7 March 2005. Retrieved on 5 November 2015.
Jeddah's universities and colleges include the following: * King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences * King Abdulaziz University * King Abdullah University of Science and Technology * University of Jeddah * Arab Open University * Dar Al-Hekma College * Effat University * University of Business and Technology (UBT) * Teacher's College * Jeddah College of Technology * Jeddah Private College * College of Health Care * College of Telecom & Electronics * College of Community * Private College of Business * Ibn Sina National College for Medical Studies * Batterjee Medical College * Prince Sultan College of Tourism * Prince Sultan Aviation Academy * International Islamic Fiqh Academy, Jeddah, Islamic Fiqh Academy * Jeddah Institute for Speech and Hearing * Saudi German Institute for Nursing Jeddah is also home to several primary, intermediate and secondary schools such as:
Jeddah Knowledge International School
* American International School of Jeddah Italian international school * Jeddah International School * Zahrat Al-Sahraa International school (ZSIS)
Cedar International School
* British International School of Jeddah (Continental, BISJ) * École Française Internationale de Djeddah * German International School Jeddah * Al-Thager Model School * International Indian School Jeddah (IISJ) * Pakistan International School Jeddah (PISJ) * Talal International School Jeddah (TISJ) * DPS Jeddah Al-Falah International School * International Philippine School in Jeddah * Jeddah Japanese School * Korean International School of Jeddah (KISJ; 젯다한국국제학교) * Al-Waha International School * Beladi International School Jeddah * Yusr International School * Al-Afaq International School * Manarat Jeddah Schools * Gharnatah International School * New Al Wurood International School Jeddah [NAWIS] * Bangladesh International School Jeddah (BISESJ) * Bader International School * Nobles International School (NIS) * Dauha Al Uloom International School (DAUISJ) * Al-Fath Schools * Al-Aqsa Private Schools * Dar Al-Fikr Schools (DAF) * Al-Fanar School Jeddah * Dar Al-Thikr Schools * Hala International School (HIS) * Jeddah International Turkish School (JITS) * Jeddah Prep and Grammar School (JPGS) * Al Hamraa Girls' School * Building Blocks (private school) * Dar Jana International School (DJIS) * Al Mawarid International School Jeddah [AMIS] * Pioneer International School * Duaa International School Jeddah (DISJ) * Jeddah Private School (JPS) * Nhaond School * Number 18 High School * Number 25 Secondary School * Tuletelah High School * Bangladesh International School And College (Bangla Section) Jeddah (BISCJ) * Al-Afkar International School * Waad Academy School * Al Kon International School


Libraries

The central library at King Abdulaziz University (main branch) is a five-story building that has a large collection of Arabic and English language books, rare books, and documents as well as access to several online databases. It is open for public access and allows the borrowing of books after requesting a library card. Saturdays are dedicated to female visitors. King Abdul Aziz Public Library is a philanthropic institution that was founded and supported by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz, chairman of its board of directors. Established in 1985, the library was officially opened by the King on 27 February 1987. It emphasizes Islamic and Arabic heritage and history of the Kingdom. The library is divided into three branches (men's, women's, and children's). The limited number of libraries is criticized by the public. As a result, King Abdullah, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, has approved the King Abdullah Project for the Development of Public Libraries, and approximately SAR150 million is budgeted to be spent. In April 2014, Prince Mishaal Ibn Abdullah Abdulaziz opened a new public library in Jeddah by Makkah Governor, under the name of King Fahd Public Library. King Fahd Public Library was built over an area of within the main Campus of King Abdulaziz University (KAU) in Jeddah. it includes a diverse collection of books and reference material classified into three sections to meet the needs and wants of a wide range of readership. Spaces have been set apart for youths, children and women.


Sports

Jeddah is the home of the 2 biggest well-known football clubs teams Al-Ittihad Club (Jeddah) and Al-Ahli Saudi FC. Both teams play their league matches at King Abdullah Stadium which is located northern part of Jeddah nearby King Abdelaziz Airport. The city is home to the 2015 Saudi Arabian basketball Champion Al-Ittihad Jeddah (basketball), Al-Ittihad Jeddah, which plays its home games in the ''Prince Abdullah Al-Faisal Basketball Arena''. On 5 November 2020, it was announced that Jeddah will host a Saudi Arabian Grand Prix, round of the 2021 FIA Formula 1 World Championship. The Jeddah Street Circuit is a street circuit, winding through the Jeddah Corniche along the Red Sea, north of the main part of the city.


Transport


Airport

Jeddah is served by King Abdulaziz International Airport. The airport has four passenger terminals. One is the Hajj Terminal, a special outdoor terminal covered by large white tents, which was constructed to handle the more than two million pilgrims who pass through the airport during the
Hajj The Hajj (; ar, حَجّ ' "wikt:pilgrimage, ''pilgrimage''"; sometimes also spelled Hadj, Hadji or Haj in English) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city for Muslims. Hajj is a Far ...
season. The Southern Terminal is used by Saudia and Flynas (both based in Saudi Arabia), while the Northern Terminal serves foreign airlines. A plan for the extension of the airport is being developed. The Royal Terminal is a special terminal reserved for VIPs, foreign kings and presidents, and the Saudi royal family. A portion of the airport, King Abdullah Air Base, was used by Coalition of the Gulf War, Coalition B-52 Stratofortress, B-52 heavy bombers during Operation Desert Storm in 1991. Before King Abdulaziz Airport opened in 1981, Kandara Airport served Jeddah. It was at Kandara, a neighborhood very near the town center. However, the old Jeddah airport experienced heavy congestions, especially during Hajj seasons. After the airport became defunct, the area was redeveloped for housing.


Seaport

The Jeddah Seaport is the List of busiest container ports, 32nd busiest seaport in the world . It handles the majority of Saudi Arabia's commercial movement. In 2017 Jeddah seaport handled 4,309,765 TEUs and in the year 2018 handled 4,215,248 TEUs. Jeddah is part of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road that runs from the Chinese coast to the Upper Adriatic region with its rail connections to Central and Eastern Europe.


Road and rail

Highway 40 (Saudi Arabia), Highway 40, which begins in Jeddah, connects the city to
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ), Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province The Mecca Province ( ar, مِنْطَقَة مَكَّة '), also known as the Mec ...

Mecca
,
Riyadh Riyadh ( ar, الرياض, 'ar-Riyāḍ, Literal translation, lit.: 'The Gardens' Najdi Arabic, Najdi pronunciation: ) is the capital of Saudi Arabia and the largest city on the Arabian Peninsula. Located in the center of the An Nafud, an-Naf ...

Riyadh
and Dammam on the east coast. Jeddah does not have any rapid transit system, but the Haramain High Speed Rail Project provides a connection to
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ), Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province The Mecca Province ( ar, مِنْطَقَة مَكَّة '), also known as the Mec ...

Mecca
and
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second in and the of the of . The 2020 estimated population of the city is 1,488,782, ma ...

Medina
. There is a contracted plan to build an extensive light metro system known as the Jeddah Metro, throughout the city, originally by 2020. Jeddah's main highways run parallel to each other.


Issues and challenges

The city is challenged by pollution, weak Sewage, sewage systems, a weak storm drain system that led to massive floodings, heavy traffic, epidemics, and water shortages.


Pollution and environment

Air pollution is a problem for Jeddah, particularly on hot summer days. The city has experienced bush fires, landfill fires, and pollution from the two industrial zones in the north and the south of the metropolitan area. A water treatment factory and the Jeddah Seaport, seaport also contribute to water pollution. Much of the seafront, however, is considered to be safe and clean. Ramboll has acted as Environmental Consultant on the Jeddah Environmental Impact Assessment as well as the Jeddah Environmental Social Masterplan.


Terrorism

On 6 December 2004, a group of five men associated with the terrorist group Al-Qaeda (Al-Qaeda Organization in the Arabian Peninsula) conducted a mid-day attack on the U.S. Consulate, which killed five Consulate workers. The group was led by Fayez ibn Awwad Al-Jeheni, a former member of the Saudi religious police. Two other assailants were subsequently identified by the Saudi authorities as residents of Jeddah's Al-Jamia suburb and other slums on Saudi Arabia's increasingly urbanized west coast. Buildings were attacked, hostages taken and used as human shields, and the U.S. and non-U.S. staff were under siege, although the chancery/consular section building itself was never penetrated. Closed-circuit video feeds documented that the Saudi security personnel assigned to protect the facility fled when the vehicle holding the terrorists pulled up to the front gate and ran past the Delta barrier. Inside the compound, however, an armed Saudi security guard employed by the embassy shot and killed one terrorist before being fatally shot himself. The attackers spread and ignited a flammable liquid on the front of the chancery building, and opened fire on the front doors, both of which actions did not have any penetrating effect. The Consulate's U.S. Marines released tear gas in front of the chancery building, but the terrorists had already left that location. More than an hour later, Saudi special forces made it through traffic and, along with others from their unit who arrived in a helicopter, fought to retake the compound. Two of the terrorists were killed in the final fight, with another dying later in hospital and the final militant being captured alive. Four Saudi special forces and a further 10 hostages were wounded in the crossfire. The five Foreign Service National employees who died during the terrorist attack were Ali Yaslem Bin Talib, Imad e-Deen Musa Ali, Romeo de la Rosa, Mohammed Baheer Uddin, and Jaufar Sadik. The casualties came from Yemen, Sudan, Philippines, India and Sri Lanka. The attack underscores the ongoing vulnerabilities of Westerners to threats, terrorist actions, and the environs. In a communiqué posted in online publications such as ''Sawt al-Jihad'' (Voice of Jihad) and ''Mu'askar al-Battar'' (Al-Battar Training Camp), Al-Qaeda hinted at the symbolic nature of the U.S. Consulate attack, stating: "Know that the Mujahideen are determined to continue on their path, and they will not be weakened by what has happened to them." Terrorist activities have persisted from 2004 to the present day. In 2004 there was an unsuccessful shooting attack on a U.S. Marine visiting the Saudi American Bank and an attempt to simultaneously explode car bombs at Saudi American Bank and Saudi British Bank branches in Jeddah on the anniversary of the 2001 "9-11" terrorist attacks on the U.S. On 26 August 2012, a spokesman for the Interior Ministry announced that terrorists were arrested in Jeddah who had been preparing explosives for attacks within the kingdom.


Traffic

Roads and highways within and exiting the city are frequently clogged with traffic. Mass transit is rare and planning is nascent; most Jeddawi adults have at least one car. Motorcycles are rare on the roads, further impacting the traffic patterns. Days immediately preceding and following the holy days are particularly noisome and cost hundreds of thousands of man-hours because of traffic jams. The Saudi Gazette reports that there is a plan in the works to tackle the traffic issue. A reported 3 billion Saudi Riyals will be put into constructing flyovers and underpasses in an effort to expedite traffic. The plan is scheduled to take about five years from its start to finish.


Sewage

Prior to the construction of a waste treatment plant, Jeddah's wastewater was disposed of by either discharge into the sea or via absorption into deep underground pits. As the city grew, a proper waste management plant was created and the built-up part of the city was connected with a sewer system by the 1970s. However, even with the ever-increasing population, the original sewer system has hardly been expanded. The original plant cannot cope with the amount of waste inundating it daily. As a result, some untreated sewage is discharged directly into the sea and the entire northern part of the city remains completely unconnected to the sewage system, instead of relying on septic tanks. This has been responsible for a large number of sewage tankers. In late 2011, a storm drainage system was built in the south Jeddah area (similar to that of the Los Angeles storm drain) to reduce the risk of floods.


Floods

On 25 November 2009, heavy floods affected the city and other areas of
Makkah Province The Mecca Province ( ar, مِنْطَقَة مَكَّة '), also known as the Mecca Region, is one of the 13 Provinces of saudi arabia, provinces of Saudi Arabia. It is the third-largest province by area at and the most populous with a populat ...
. The floods were described by civil defence officials as the worst in 27 years. , 77 people were reported to have been killed, and more than 350 were missing. Some roads were under a meter (three feet) of water on 26 November, and many of the victims were believed to have drowned in their cars. At least 3,000 vehicles were swept away or damaged. The death toll was expected to rise as flood waters receded, allowing rescuers to reach stranded vehicles. On 26 January 2011, again, heavy floods affected the city and other areas of
Makkah Province The Mecca Province ( ar, مِنْطَقَة مَكَّة '), also known as the Mecca Region, is one of the 13 Provinces of saudi arabia, provinces of Saudi Arabia. It is the third-largest province by area at and the most populous with a populat ...
. The cumulative rainfall exceeded the recorded in four hours during the 25 November 2009 flash floods. Streets including Palestine Street, Madinah Road, and Wali Al-Ahad Street were either flooded or jammed with traffic. Cars were seen floating in some places. Meanwhile, eyewitnesses told local newspaper ''Arab News'' that East Jeddah was swamped and floodwater was rushing west towards the Red Sea, turning streets into rivers once again. On 17 November 2015, heavy floods affected the city. Streets affected by the flood include Palestine Street, Madinah Road, and many others. Cars were seen burning, and many trees fell as a result of the violent flood. 3 deaths were also reported. 2 of the fatalities (including a child) were hit by lightning while crossing a street. On 21 November 2017, heavy floods affected the city once more and Jeddah Islamic Port stopped operations for about 3 hours. Jeddah police received 11,000 phone calls on 911 from people enquiring about alternative roads and weather conditions. There were 250 reports of electrocution. Five people were electrocuted, two died.


Districts

Metropolitan Jeddah comprises 137 districts: (transliterated from Arabic) # Al-Murjan (The Coral) # Al-Basateen (The Orchards) # Al-Mohamadiya (Of Mohammed) # Ash-Shati (The Beach) # An-Nahda (The Renaissance) # An-Naeem (The Bliss) # An-Nuzha (The Excursion) # Az-Zahraa (from Fatima Az-Zahraa) # As-Salamah (The Safety) # Al-Bawadi # Ar-Rabwa (The Hill) # Al-Safa # Al-Khalidiya (Of Khalid) # Ar-Rawdha (The Medow) # Al-Faysaliya (Of Faisal) # Al-Andalus (Andalucia) # Al-Aziziya (Of Aziz "Abdulaziz") # Ar-Rihab (The Vast Expanse) # Al-Hamraa (The Red or Alhambra) # Mosharafa # Ar-Ruwais # Ash-Sharafiya (Of The Shareef) # Bani Malik # Al-Woroud (The Flowers) # An-Naseem (The Breeze) # Al-Baghdadiya Ash-Sharqiya (Of East Baghdad) # Al-Amariya (Of Ammar) # Al-Hindawiya # As-Saheifa # Al-Kandra # As-Sulaimaniya (Of Sulaiman/Solomon) # Al-Thaalba (The Foxes) # As-Sabeel (The Path) # Al-Qurayat # Gholail # An-Nozla Al-Yamaniya # Al-Nozla Ash-Sharqiya # Al-Taghr (The Stoma) # Al-Jamaa (The University; due to its proximity to King Abdulaziz University) # Madayin Al-Fahad (The Cities of Fahad) # Ar-Rawabi # Al-Wazeeriya (The Ministerial) # Petromin # Al-Mahjar (The Stone Pit) # Prince Abdel Majeed # Obhour Al-Janobiya (South of the Obhur Bay) # Al-Marwa # AL-Fayhaa # King Abdul Al-Aziz University # Al-Baghdadiya Al-Gharbiya (Of West Baghdad) # Al-Balad (The City) # Al-Ajwad # Al-Manar # As-Samer # Abruq Ar-Roghama # Madinat As-Sultan # Um Hablain # Al-Hamdaniya # Al-Salhiya # Mokhatat Al-Aziziya # Mokhatat Shamal Al-Matar # Mokhatat Ar-Riyadh # Mokhatat Al-Huda # Braiman # Al-Salam # Al-Mostawdaat # Al-Montazahat # Kilo 14 # Al-Harazat # Um As-Salam # Mokhtat Zahrat Ash-Shamal # Al-Majid # Gowieza # Al-Gozain # Al-Kuwait # Al-Mahrogat # Al-Masfa # Al-Matar Al-Gadeem (old airport) # Al-Bokhariya # An-Nour # Bab Shareif # Bab Makkah # Bahra # Al-Amir Fawaz # Wadi Fatma # Obhour Shamaliya # At-Tarhil (deportation) # Al-Iskan Al-janoubi # At-Tawfeeq # Al-Goaid # Al-Jawhara # Al-Jamoum # Al-Khumra # Ad-Difaa Al-Jawi (Air Defense) # Ad-Dageeg # Ar-Robou # Ar-Rabie # Ar-Rehaily # As-Salmiya # As-Sanabil # As-Sinaiya (Bawadi) # Industrial City (Mahjar) # Al-Adl # Al-Olayia # Al-Faihaa # Al-Karanteena # Al-Ajaweed # Al-Ahmadiya # Al-Mosadiya # East Al-Khat As-Sarei # Kilo 10 # King Faisal Navy Base # Kilo 7 # Kilo 45 # King Faisal Guard City # Kilo 11 # Thowal # Kilo 13 # Al-Makarona # Al-Layth # Al-Gonfoda # Rabegh # Kilo 8 # Kilo 5 # Kilo 2 # Al-Mokhwa # National Guard Residence # As-Showag # Air Defense Residence # Al-Morsalat # Ash-Shoola # Al-Corniche # Al-Waha # Mokhatat Al-Haramain # Kholais # Al-Rhmanya # Wadi al batin # AL MADINAH # JUDAYYIADAT ARAR # AS SALWA # al huda


Twin towns – sister cities

Jeddah is Sister city, twinned with: *Adana, Turkey *Alexandria, Egypt *Almaty, Kazakhstan *
Amman Amman (; ar, عَمَّان, ' ) is the capital and largest city of Jordan and the country's economic, political and cultural centre. With a population of 4,007,526, Amman is the List of largest cities in the Levant region by population, larg ...

Amman
, Jordan *Baku, Azerbaijan *Chittagong, Bangladesh *
Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country i ...

Dubai
, United Arab Emirates *Istanbul, Turkey *Jakarta, Indonesia *Karachi, Pakistan *Kuching, Malaysia *Marbella, Spain *Mary, Turkmenistan, Mary, Turkmenistan *Oran, Algeria *Osh, Kyrgyzstan *Plovdiv, Bulgaria *Surabaya, Indonesia *Taipei, Taiwan *Tunis, Tunisia


See also

* Abha * Timeline of Jeddah#Bibliography, Bibliography of the history of Jeddah * Khobar * List of cities and towns in Saudi Arabia


Notes


References

* Didier, Charles. ''Séjour Chez Le Grand-Cherif De La Mekke''. Librairie De L. Hachette et, Rue Pierre. * Didier, Charles. ''Rehla Ela Al-Hejaz: A trip to Hejaz''. Translated from "Séjour Chez Le Grand-Cherif De La Mekke" into Arabic. Paris, 1854. * Facey, William & Grant, Gillian. ''Saudi Arabia by the First Photographers''. * Farsi, Hani M.S. (Mohamed Said). ''Jeddah: city of art: the sculptures and monuments.'' London: Stacey International, 1991. * ''From Bullard to Mr Chamberlain''. Jeddah, 1925 Feb. (No.# secrets) - Archived Post. * Froster, Captain G. S. ''A trip Across the Peninsula - Rehla Abr Al-Jazeera''. Mombai, India, 1866. * El-Hage, Badr. ''Saudi Arabia : caught in time 1861-1939''. Published by Garnet, Reading, 1997. * Al-Harbi, Dalal. ''King Abdulaziz and his Strategies to deal with events : Events of Jeddah''. King Abdulaziz National Library, 2003. * Keane, John F. ''Six months in the Hejaz : journeys to Makkah and Madinah 1877-1989''. Manchester: Barzan Publishing, 2006. * Al-Khaldi, Ibrahim. ''The Bedouin Photographer'' - ''Al-Mosawwir Al-Badawi''. Kuwait, 2004. * Maneval, Stefan. 2019
New Islamic Urbanism: The Architecture of Public and Private Space in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
London: UCL Press. * Al-Rehani. ''Nejd and Its Followers''. * Tarabulsi, Mohammed Yosuf. ''Jeddah: A Story of a City''. Riyadh: King Fahd National Library, 2006. * Al-Turki, Thuraya. ''Jeddah: Um Al-Rakha wal Sheddah''. Published by Dar Al-Shrooq.


External links


Municipality of Jeddah
Official municipality website (in Arabic)
Principality of Jeddah
Official Jeddah principality website (in Arabic)
City of Jeddah
Official website (in English)
About Jeddah
Informational website about Jeddah (in English)
Jeddah Jobs
Jobs in Jeddah

Jeddah City Guide
Sculptures of Jeddah
Website detailing the Sculptures in Jeddah (in English)
الدليل السعودي - دليل جدة
Jeddah Saudi Arabia
موسم جدة - مواسم السعودية
Jeddah Season website (in Arabic) {{Authority control Jeddah, Populated coastal places in Saudi Arabia Populated places established in the 6th century BC Populated places in Mecca Province Port cities in the Arabian Peninsula Port cities and towns in Saudi Arabia Port cities and towns of the Red Sea Underwater diving sites in Saudi Arabia World Heritage Sites in Saudi Arabia