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Jammu and Kashmir was a region formerly administered by
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
as a state from 1954 to 2019, constituting the southern and southeastern portion of the larger
Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr () is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley The Kashmir Valley, also known as the ''Vale ...

Kashmir
region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India,
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
and
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
since the mid-20th century. (subscription required) Quote: "Jammu and Kashmir, state of India, located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent in the vicinity of the Karakoram and westernmost Himalayan mountain ranges. The state is part of the larger region of Kashmir, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since the partition of the subcontinent in 1947." Quote: "Jammu and Kashmir: Territory in northwestern India, subject to a dispute between India and Pakistan. It has borders with Pakistan and China." The underlying region of this state were parts of the former
princely state of Jammu and Kashmir A prince is a male ruler (ranked below a king of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg">Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a ...
, whose western districts, now known as
Azad Kashmir Azad Jammu and Kashmir ( ur, , translit=āzād jammū̃ o kaśmīr, translit-std=IAST, ), abbreviated as AJK and colloquially referred to as simply Azad Kashmir, is a region administered by Pakistan as a nominally self-governing entitySee: ...

Azad Kashmir
, and northern territories, now known as
Gilgit-Baltistan Gilgit-Baltistan (; , Balti language, Balti: རྒྱལ་སྐྱིད་ སྦལྟི་ཡུལ།), formerly known as the Northern Areas, is a region administered by Pakistan as an administrative territory, and constitutes the no ...

Gilgit-Baltistan
, are administered by Pakistan. The
Aksai Chin Aksai Chin is a region administered by China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countri ...
region in the east, bordering
Tibet Tibet (; ; ) is a region in East Asia covering much of the Tibetan Plateau spanning about . It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa people, Monpa, Tamang people, Tamang, Qia ...

Tibet
, has been under Chinese control since 1962. After the Government of India repealed the special status accorded to Jammu and Kashmir under
Article 370 Article 370 of the Indian constitution gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest ci ...
of the Indian constitution in 2019, the Parliament of India passed the
Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019 is an act of the Parliament of India The Parliament of India ( IAST: ) is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. It is a bicameral legislature composed of the President o ...
, which contained provisions that dissolved the state and reorganised it into two
union territories #REDIRECT Union territory #REDIRECT Union territory#REDIRECT Union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administ ...
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
in the west and
Ladakh Ladakh () is a region administered by India as a union territory, and constitutes a part of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947. (subscription required) Quote: "Jammu ...

Ladakh
in the east, with effect from 31 October 2019. At the time of its dissolution, Jammu and Kashmir was the only state in India with a Muslim-majority population.


History


Establishment

After the
Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948 The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948 or the First Kashmir War was an War, armed conflict that was fought between Dominion of India, India and Dominion of Pakistan, Pakistan over the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir (princely state), Jammu a ...
, the princely state of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
was divided between India (which controlled the regions of
Jammu Jammu is the winter capital Some countries have multiple capitals. In some cases, one city is the capital for some purposes, and one or more others are capital for other purposes, without any being considered an official capital in preferen ...

Jammu
,
Kashmir Valley #REDIRECT Kashmir Valley The Kashmir Valley, also known as the ''Vale of Kashmir'', is an intermontane valley in Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until t ...

Kashmir Valley
, and
Ladakh Ladakh () is a region administered by India as a union territory, and constitutes a part of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947. (subscription required) Quote: "Jammu ...

Ladakh
) and Pakistan (which controlled
Gilgit–Baltistan Gilgit-Baltistan (, Balti: རྒྱལ་སྐྱིད་ སྦལྟི་ཡུལ།), formerly known as the Northern Areas, is a region administered by Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English language, English as , ...
and
Azad Kashmir Azad Jammu and Kashmir ( ur, , translit=āzād jammū̃ o kaśmīr, translit-std=IAST, ), abbreviated as AJK and colloquially referred to as simply Azad Kashmir, is a region administered by Pakistan as a nominally self-governing entitySee: ...

Azad Kashmir
). The Indian-administered territories elected a
constituent assembly A constituent assembly (also known as a constitutional convention, constitutional congress, or constitutional assembly) is a body assembled for the purpose of drafting or revising a constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental ...
in 1951, which ratified the accession of the state to India in 1954. In 1956–57, China constructed a road through the disputed
Aksai Chin Aksai Chin is a region administered by China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countri ...
area of Ladakh. India's belated discovery of this road culminated in the
Sino-Indian War The Sino-Indian War, also known as the Indo-China War, Sino-Indian Border Conflict and, by some, Clash on the Roof of the World, was a war between China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia ...
of 1962; China has since administered Aksai Chin. Following the
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the Bangladesh Liberation War in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the Pakistani Instrument of Surrender, fall of Dacca ( ...
, India and Pakistan signed the
Simla Agreement The Simla Agreement, also spelled Shimla Agreement, was a peace treaty A peace treaty is an agreement Agreement may refer to: Agreements between people and organizations * Gentlemen's agreement, not enforceable by law * Trade agreemen ...
, recognising a
Line of Control The Line of Control (LoC) is a military control line between the Indian and Pakistani controlled parts of the former Jammu and Kashmir (princely state), princely state of Jammu and Kashmir—a line which does not constitute a legally recogni ...
in Kashmir, and committing to a peaceful resolution of the dispute through bilateral negotiations.


Kashmir insurgency

In the late 1980s, discontent over the high-handed policies of the union government and allegations of the rigging of the
1987 Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly election Election for the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencie ...
triggered a violent uprising and armed insurgency which was backed by Pakistan. Pakistan claimed to be giving its "moral and diplomatic" support to the separatist movement. The
Inter-Services Intelligence The Inter-Services Intelligence (abbreviated as ISI) is the premier intelligence agency An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, Intelligence analysis, analysis, and exploitation of information in support ...
of
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
has been accused by
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
and the international community of supporting, supplying arms and training
mujahideen ''Mujahideen'', or ''Mujahidin'' ( ar, مُجَاهِدِين, mujāhidīn), is the plural form of ''mujahid'' ( ar, مجاهد, mujāhid, strugglers or strivers or justice, right conduct, Godly rule, etc. doers of jihād), an Arabic term th ...
, to fight in Jammu and Kashmir. In 2015, former
President of Pakistan The President of Pakistan ( ur, , translit=s̤adr-i Pākiṣṭān), officially the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is the ceremonial head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (p ...
Pervez Musharraf Pervez Musharraf ( ur, , Parvez Muśarraf; born 11 August 1943) is a Pakistani politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, ...

Pervez Musharraf
admitted that Pakistan had supported and trained insurgent groups in the 1990s. India has repeatedly called Pakistan to end its "cross-border terrorism" in Kashmir. Since 1989, a prolonged, bloody conflict between the Islamic militant separatists and the
Indian Army The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces The Indian Armed Forces are the military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organi ...

Indian Army
took place, both of whom have been accused of widespread
human rights abuses Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A speci ...
, including abductions, massacres, rapes and armed robbery. Several new militant groups with radical Islamic views emerged and changed the ideological emphasis of the movement to Islamic. This was facilitated by a large influx of Islamic "Jihadi" fighters (mujahadeen) who had entered the Kashmir valley following the end of the
Soviet–Afghan War The Soviet–Afghan War was a conflict wherein insurgent groups known collectively as the Mujahideen ''Mujahideen'', or ''Mujahidin'' ( ar, مُجَاهِدِين, mujāhidīn), is the plural form of ''mujahid'' ( ar, مجاهد, mujā ...
in the 1980s. Following the
2008 Kashmir unrest On 26 May 2008, the government of India and the state Government of Jammu and Kashmir reached an agreement to transfer of forest land to the ''Shri Amarnathji Shrine Board'' (SASB) in the main Kashmir valley to set up temporary shelters and faci ...
, secessionist movements in the region were boosted. The 2016–17 Kashmir unrest resulted in the death of over 90 civilians and the injury of over 15,000. Six policemen, including a sub-inspector were killed in an ambush in Anantnag in June 2017, by trespassing militants of the Pakistan-based
Lashkar-e-Toiba Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT; ur, ; literally ''Army of the Good'', translated as ''Army of the Righteous'', or ''Army of the Pure'' and alternatively spelled as ''Lashkar-e-Tayyiba'', ''Lashkar-e-Toiba'', ''Lashkar-i-Taiba'', ''Lashkar-i-Tayyeba'') is ...
. An
attack Attack may refer to: Warfare and combat * Offensive (military) * Charge (warfare) * Attack (fencing) * Strike (attack) * Attack (computing) * Attack aircraft Books and publishing * The Attack (novel), ''The Attack'' (novel), a book * ''Attack No. ...
on an Indian police convoy in Pulwama, in February 2019, resulted in the deaths of 40 police officers. Responsibility for the attack was claimed by a Pakistan-backed militant group
Jaish-e-Mohammed Jaish-e-Mohammed ( ur, , literally "The Army of Muhammad ) , birth_date = , birth_place = , death_date = , death_place = , resting_place = , resting_place_coordinates = , nationality ...
.Pulwama Attack 2019, everything about J&K terror attack on CRPF by terrorist Adil Ahmed Dar, Jaish-eMohammad
, India Today, 16 February 2019.


Dissolution

In August 2019, both houses of the
Parliament of India The Parliament of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scien ...
passed resolutions to amend Article 370 and extend the
Constitution of India The Constitution of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the sci ...

Constitution of India
in its entirety to the state, which was implemented as a constitutional order by the
President of India The president of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scienc ...
. At the same time, the parliament also passed the
Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019 The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019 is an act of the Parliament of India The Parliament of India ( IAST: ) is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. It is a bicameral legislature composed of the President o ...
, which contained provisions that dissolved the state of Jammu and Kashmir and established two new
union territories #REDIRECT Union territory #REDIRECT Union territory#REDIRECT Union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administ ...
: the eponymous union territory of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
, and that of
Ladakh Ladakh () is a region administered by India as a union territory, and constitutes a part of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947. (subscription required) Quote: "Jammu ...

Ladakh
.Jammu & Kashmir Reorganisation Bill passed by Rajya Sabha: Key takeaways
, The Indian Express, 5 August 2019.
The reorganisation act was assented to by the
President of India The president of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scienc ...
, and came into effect on 31 October 2019. Prior to these measures, the union government locked down the
Kashmir Valley #REDIRECT Kashmir Valley The Kashmir Valley, also known as the ''Vale of Kashmir'', is an intermontane valley in Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until t ...

Kashmir Valley
, increased security forces, imposed
Section 144Unlawful assembly is a legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is ...
that prevented assembly, and placed political leaders such as former Jammu and Kashmir chief ministers
Omar Abdullah Omar Abdullah (; born 10 March 1970) is an Indian politician and former Chief Minister of the erstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir. He became the 11th and the youngest Chief Minister of the State of Jammu and Kashmir (state), Jammu and Kashmir ...

Omar Abdullah
and
Mehbooba Mufti Mehbooba Mufti (born 22 May 1959) is an India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an ...

Mehbooba Mufti
under house arrest. Internet and phone services were also blocked.


Administrative divisions

The state of Jammu and Kashmir consisted of three
divisions Division or divider may refer to: Mathematics *Division (mathematics) Division is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, the ways that numbers are combined to make new numbers. The other operations are addition, subtraction, and multi ...
: the
Jammu Division The Jammu Division () is a revenue and administrative division within Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the larg ...
, the
Kashmir Division The Kashmir Division is a revenue and administrative division in the Kashmir Valley region of Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It borders Jammu Division to the south and the Indian-administered union terri ...
and
Ladakh Ladakh () is a region administered by India as a union territory, and constitutes a part of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947. (subscription required) Quote: "Jammu ...

Ladakh
which are further divided into 22 districts. The
Siachen Glacier The Siachen Glacier is a glacier A glacier (; ) is a persistent body of dense that is constantly moving under its own weight. A glacier forms where the accumulation of exceeds its over many years, often . Glaciers slowly deform and ...
, while under Indian military control, did not lie under the administration of the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Kishtwar Kishtwar is a municipality in the Kishtwar District of the Jammu region in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, ...
, Ramban,
Reasi Reasi is a town and a notified area committee and tehsil in the Indian States and union territories of India, union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. Situated at the bank of River Chenab, it is the headquarters ...
,
Samba Samba (), also known as samba urbano carioca (''urban Carioca samba'') or simply samba carioca (''Carioca samba'') is a Brazilian music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the ...
,
Bandipora Bandipore () or Bandipora is the headquarters of Bandipore district, district of Bandipore in the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is located on the northern banks of Wullar Lake—the second ...
,
Ganderbal Ganderbal is a town and a municipality committee in Ganderbal district in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, seco ...
,
Kulgam Kulgam (), known as Kolgom () in Kashmiri language, Kashmiri, is a town, administrative division, and capital of the Kulgam district in the Indian States and union territories of India, union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), J ...
and
Shopian Shopian or Shupiyan (), known as Shupyan () in Kashmiri, is an apple town and administrative division of the Shopian district, located in southern part of Kashmir Valley, of Jammu and Kashmir, India India (Hindi: ), officially the Rep ...
were districts formed in 2008.


Districts


Demographics

Jammu and Kashmir was the only state in India with a
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
-majority population. In the
Census of India The decennial Census of India has been conducted 15 times, as of 2011. While it has been undertaken every 10 years, beginning in 1872 under British Viceroy Lord Mayo, the first complete census was taken in 1881. Post 1949, it has been conducted by ...
held in 1961, the first to be conducted after the formation of the state,
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
was practised by 68.31% of the population, while 28.45% followed
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
. The proportion of population that practised Islam fell to 64.19% by 1981 but recovered afterward. According to the 2011 census, the last to be conducted in the state, Islam was practised by about 68.3% of the state population, while 28.4% followed Hinduism and small minorities followed
Sikhism Sikhism () or Sikhi ( pa, ਸਿੱਖੀ ', , from pa, ਸਿੱਖ, lit=disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner, translit=Sikh, label=none)''Sikhism'' (indigenously known as ''Sikhī'') originated from the word ''Sikh'', which comes from the Sanskr ...
(1.9%),
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
(0.9%) and
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
(0.3%). The state's official language was
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
, which occupied a central space in media, education, religious and political discourses and the legislature of Jammu and Kashmir; the language functioned as a symbol of identity among Muslims of South Asia. The first language of less than 1% of the population, it was regarded as a "neutral" and non-native language of the multilingual region, and broadly accepted by Kashmiri Muslims. The dominant position of Urdu has been criticised for rendering Kashmiri into a functional "minority language," effectively restricting its use to households and family. The most widely spoken language is , the mother tongue of % of the population according to the 2011 census. Other major languages include
Dogri Dogri (Dogra The Dogras or Dogra people, are an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *A ...

Dogri
(%),
Gojri Gurjari, also known as Gujri (गुर्जरी, ) is a variety of Indo-Aryan spoken by the Gurjars and other tribes of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of ...
(%),
PahariPahari or Pahadi may refer to: * Pahari language, the name of several languages of South Asia * Pahari people (Nepal), an ethnic group of Nepal * Pahari people, a cover term for many Northern Indo-Aryan languages, Northern Indo-Aryan speaking groups ...
(%),
Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, North India. Hindi has been described as a Standard la ...

Hindi
(%),
Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a ge ...
(%), , ,
Bhadarwahi Bhadarwahi (Takri The Tākri script (Takri ( Chamba): ; Takri (Jammu Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory ...
,
Brokskat Brokskat, or Brokpa, the Shina languages, Shina of Ladakh and Baltistan, is a Dardic languages, Dardic language of India. References

Dardic languages Languages of Ladakh {{IndoAryan-lang-stub ...
,
Changthang The Changtang (alternatively spelled Changthang or Qangtang) is a part of the high altitude Tibetan Plateau in western and northern Tibet extending into the southern edges of Xinjiang as well as southeastern Ladakh, India, with vast highlands and g ...
, Ladakhi, Purik, Sheikhgal, Spiti Bhoti, and Zangskari. Additionally, several other languages, predominantly found in neighbouring regions, are also spoken by communities within Jammu and Kashmir: Bhattiyali,
Chambeali Chambeali (Takri script, Takri: ) is a language spoken in the Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh. Classification The Chambeali language is a part of the North-Western branch of the Indo-Aryan languages. It is further classified as a member of ...
,
Churahi Churahi (Takri The Tākri script (Takri ( Chamba): ; Takri (Jammu Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lyi ...
, Gaddi,
Hindko Hindko (, romanized: , ) is a cover term for a diverse group of Lahnda Lahnda () () also known as Lahndi or Western Punjabi, is a group of north-western Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in M ...

Hindko
, Lahul Lohar, Pangwali,
Pattani Pattani ( th, ปัตตานี, ; Pattani Malay: , , ) is one of the southern provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from southeast clockwise) Narathiwat Province, Narathiwat, Yala Province, Yala, and Songkhla Province, Songkhla. ...
, Sansi, and
Shina Shina may refer to: * Shina language, an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan * Shina people, a Dardic ethnic group in Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan People named Shina * Shina Matsudo (born 1973), Japanese freestyle swimmer * ...

Shina
.


Government

Jammu and Kashmir was the only state in India which had special autonomy under
Article 370 Article 370 of the Indian constitution gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest ci ...
of the
Constitution of India The Constitution of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the sci ...

Constitution of India
, according to which no law enacted by the
Parliament of India The Parliament of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scien ...
, except for those in the field of defence, communication and foreign policy, would be extendable in Jammu and Kashmir unless it was ratified by the state legislature of Jammu and Kashmir. The state was able to define the
permanent residents Permanent residency is a person's legal resident status in a country or territory of which such person is not a citizen Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law of a country A country is a distinct territory, t ...
of the state who alone had the privilege to vote in state elections, the right to seek government jobs and the ability to own land or property in the state. Jammu and Kashmir was the only Indian state to have its own official
state flag In vexillology Vexillology () is the study of the history, symbolism and usage of s or, by extension, any interest in flags in general.Smith, Whitney. ''Flags Through the Ages and Across the World'' New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975. Print. The w ...
, along with India's
national flag A national flag is a flag A flag is a piece of fabric A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production o ...

national flag
, in addition to a separate constitution. Designed by the then ruling National Conference, the flag of Jammu and Kashmir featured a
plough A plough or plow ( US; both ) is a farm tool for loosening or turning the soil before sowing Sowing is the process of planting. An area or object that has had seeds planted in it will be described as a sowed area. Plants which are usu ...

plough
on a red background symbolising labour; it replaced the Maharaja's state flag. The three stripes represented the three distinct administrative divisions of the state, namely Jammu, Valley of Kashmir, and Ladakh. Like all the states of India, Jammu and Kashmir had a multi-party democratic system of governance and had a bicameral legislature. At the time of drafting the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir, 100 seats were earmarked for direct elections from territorial constituencies. Of these, 25 seats were reserved for the areas of Jammu and Kashmir state that came under Pakistani control; this was reduced to 24 after the 12th amendment of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir. After a
delimitation Boundary delimitation (or simply delimitation) is the drawing of boundaries, particularly of electoral precincts A precinct or voting district, in the United States, is the smallest unit into which electoral districts are divided. A larger ge ...
in 1988, the total number of seats increased to 111, of which 87 were within Indian-administered territory. The Jammu and Kashmir Assembly had a 6-year term, in contrast to the norm of a 5-year term followed in every other state assemblies. In 2005, it was reported that the
Indian National Congress The Indian National Congress (often called the Congress Party or simply Congress, INC) is a political party in India with widespread roots. Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire ...
-led government in the state intended to amend the term to bring parity with the other states.


Central provisions

In 1990, an
Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA), 1958 is an act of the Parliament of India The Parliament of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless roma ...
of India, which gave special powers to the Indian security forces, including the detaining of individuals for up to two years without presenting charges, was enforced in Jammu and Kashmir, a decision which drew criticism from
Human Rights Watch Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization A non-governmental organization, or simply an NGO, is an that is, generally, formed independent from . They are typically s, and many of them are active in or t ...
and Amnesty International for violating human rights. Security forces claimed that many missing people were not detained, but had crossed into Pakistan-administered Kashmir to engage in militancy.


Economy

The economy of Jammu and Kashmir was predominantly dependent on agriculture and related activities. Horticulture played a vital role in the economic development of the state; produce included apples, apricots, cherries, pears, plums, almonds and walnuts. The
Doda district Doda is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, counties, severa ...

Doda district
, rich in high-grade
sapphire Sapphire is a precious gemstone A gemstone (also called a fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical c ...

sapphire
, had active mines until the 1989 insurgency; in 1998, the government discovered that smugglers had occupied these mines and stolen much of the resource. Industrial development was constrained by the extreme mountainous landscape and power shortage. Jammu and Kashmir was one of the largest recipients of grants from India; in 2004, this amounted to US$812 million. Tourism, which was integral to the economy, witnessed a decline owing to the insurgency, but foreign tourism later rebounded, and in 2009, the state was one among the top tourist destinations in India. The economy was also benefited by
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...

Hindu
pilgrims who visited the shrines of
Vaishno Devi Vaishno Devi (also known as Mata Rani, Trikuta, Ambe and Vaishnavi) is a manifestation of the Hindu Mother Goddess, Devi Devī (Sanskrit: देवी) is the Sanskrit word for 'goddess'; the masculine form is Deva (Hinduism), ''deva'' ...
and
Amarnath Temple Amarnath Cave Temple is a Hinduism, Hindu shrine located in Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir, India. The cave is situated at an altitude of , about from Srinagar, the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir, reached through Pa ...
annually. The British government had reiterated its advise against all travel to Jammu and Kashmir in 2013, with certain exceptions.


See also

*
Indian White Paper on Jammu and Kashmir The Indian Government The Government of India (ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (soc ...


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

* * * * *


Further reading

* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Jammu And Kashmir Jammu and Kashmir 1954 establishments in India 2019 disestablishments in India Disputed territories in Asia History of the Republic of India States and territories established in 1954 Territorial disputes of Pakistan Former states and territories of India