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Isabella II ( es, Isabel II; 10 October 1830 – 9 April 1904), also known as the Queen of Sad Mischance and the Traditional Queen, was
Queen of Spain , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain , image = King Felipe VI of Spain.jpg , incumbent = Felipe VI Felipe VI or Philip VI (; Felipe Juan ...
from 29 September 1833 until 30 September 1868. Shortly before her birth, the King issued a
Pragmatic Sanction A pragmatic sanction is a sovereign's solemn decree on a matter of primary importance and has the force of fundamental law. In the late history of the Holy Roman Empire, it referred more specifically to an edict issued by the Emperor. When used ...
to ensure the succession of his firstborn daughter, due to his lack of a son. She came to the throne a month before her third birthday, but her succession was disputed by her uncle the
Infante Carlos ''Infante'' (, ; f. ''infanta''), also anglicised Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spell ...
(founder of the
Carlist movement Carlism ( eu, Karlismo; ca, Carlisme; ; ) is a Traditionalism (Spain), Traditionalist and Legitimists (disambiguation), Legitimist political movement in Spain aimed at establishing an alternative branch of the House of Bourbon, Bourbon dynasty ...
), whose refusal to recognize a female sovereign led to the
Carlist Wars The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century. The contenders fought to establish their claim to the throne, although some political differences also existed. Indeed, several times during the period f ...
. Under the regency of her mother, Spain transitioned from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy adopting the Royal Statute of 1834 and Constitution of 1837. Her effective reign was a period marked by palace intrigues, back-stairs and antechamber influences, barracks conspiracies, and military ''
pronunciamiento A ''pronunciamiento'' (, pt, pronunciamento ; "proclamation , announcement or declaration") is a form of military rebellion or ''coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an ...
s''. She came to be known by the
sobriquets A sobriquet ( ), or soubriquet, is a nickname, sometimes assumed, but often given by another, that is descriptive. A sobriquet is distinct from a pseudonym, as it is typically a familiar name used in place of a real name, without the need of expla ...
of ''the Traditional Queen'' (
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
: ''la Reina Castiza''), and ''the Queen of Sad Mischance'' (
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
: ''la de los Tristes Destinos''). She was deposed in the
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga, An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus), the invasion also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch, was the deposition of ...
of 1868, and formally abdicated in 1870. Her son,
Alfonso XII Alfonso XII of Spain (Alfonso Francisco de Asís Fernando Pío Juan María de la Concepción Gregorio Pelayo; 28 November 185725 November 1885), also known as El Pacificador or the Peacemaker, was King of Spain, reigning from 1874 to 1885. Afte ...

Alfonso XII
, became king in 1874.


Birth and regencies

Isabella was born in the
Royal Palace of Madrid The Royal Palace of Madrid ( es, Palacio Real de Madrid) is the official residence of the Spanish royal family at the city of Madrid, although now used only for state ceremonies. The palace has of floor space and contains 3,418 rooms. It is the ...

Royal Palace of Madrid
in 1830, the eldest daughter of King
Ferdinand VII of Spain , house = BourbonBourbon may refer to: Food and drink * Bourbon whiskey, an American whiskey made using a corn-based mash * Bourbon barrel aged beer, a type of beer aged in bourbon barrels * Bourbon biscuit, a chocolate sandwich biscuit ...
, and of his fourth wife and niece,
Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies ( it, Maria Cristina Ferdinanda di Borbone, Principessa delle Due Sicilie, es, link=no, María Cristina de Borbón, Princesa de las Dos Sicilias; 27 April 1806 – 22 August 1878) was queen consort A qu ...
. She was entrusted to the royal governess María del Carmen Machín y Ortiz de Zárate. Queen Maria Christina became regent on 29 September 1833, when her three-year-old daughter Isabella was proclaimed sovereign following the death of Ferdinand VII. Isabella succeeded to the throne because Ferdinand VII had induced the
Cortes Generales The Cortes Generales (; en, Spanish Parliament, lit=General Courts) are the bicameral Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative ...
to help him set aside the
Salic law#REDIRECT Salic law The Salic law ( or ; la, Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Franks, Salian Frankish Civil law (legal system), civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis I, Clovis. The written text is in La ...
, introduced by the Bourbons in the early 18th century, and to reestablish the older succession law of Spain. The first
pretender A pretender is someone who claims to be the rightful ruler of a country although not recognized as such by the current government. The term is often used to suggest that a claim is not legitimate.Curley Jr., Walter J.P. Monarchs-in-Waiting. New ...
to the throne, Ferdinand's brother
Infante Carlos, Count of Molina ''Infante'' (, ; grammatical gender, f. ''infanta''), also anglicised as Infant or translated as Prince, is the title and rank given in the Iberian kingdoms of Spain (including the predecessor kingdoms of Crown of Aragon, Aragon, Crown of Cast ...
, fought for seven years during Isabella's minority to dispute her title (see
First Carlist War The First Carlist War was a civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''St ...
). The supporters of Carlos and his descendants were known as
Carlists Carlism ( eu, Karlismo; ca, Carlisme; ; ) is a Traditionalist Traditionalism is the adherence to traditional beliefs or practices. It may also refer to: Religion and spirituality * Traditionalist conservatism, a school concerned about tradi ...
, and the fight over the succession was the subject of a number of
Carlist Wars The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century. The contenders fought to establish their claim to the throne, although some political differences also existed. Indeed, several times during the period f ...
in the 19th century. Isabella's reign was maintained only through the support of the army. The Cortes and the Moderate Liberals and
Progressives Progressivism is a political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability ...
reestablished constitutional and parliamentary government, dissolved the religious orders and confiscated their property (including that of the
Jesuits The Society of Jesus ( la, Societas Iesu; abbreviated SJ), also known as the Jesuits (; la, Iesuitæ), is a religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome. It was founded by Ignatius of Loyola and six co ...
), and tried to restore order to Spain's finances. After the Carlist war, the regent, Maria Christina, resigned to make way for
Baldomero Espartero, Prince of Vergara Baldomero Fernández-Espartero y Álvarez de Toro (27 February 17938 January 1879) was a Spanish marshal and statesman. He served as the Regent of Spain, Regent of the Realm as well as three times as Prime Minister of Spain, Prime Minister. Th ...

Baldomero Espartero, Prince of Vergara
, the most successful and most popular Isabelline general. Espartero, a Progressive, remained regent for only two years. Her minority saw tensions with the United States over the ''Amistad'' affair. Baldomero Espartero was deposed in 1843 by a military and political ''
pronunciamiento A ''pronunciamiento'' (, pt, pronunciamento ; "proclamation , announcement or declaration") is a form of military rebellion or ''coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an ...
'' led by Generals
Leopoldo O'Donnell Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris, 1st Duke of Tetuán, GE (12 January 1809 – 5 November 1867), was a Spanish general and statesman A statesman or stateswoman is usually a politician A politician is a person active in party politics Polit ...
and
Ramón María Narváez Ramón María Narváez y Campos, 1st Duke of Valencia (5 August 180023 April 1868) was a Spanish general and statesman who served as Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer t ...
. They formed a cabinet, presided over by Joaquín María López y López. This government induced the Cortes to declare Isabella of age at 13.


Reign as an adult


Beginnings

Isabella was declared of age and swore the 1837 Constitution on 10 November 1843, age thirteen. Despite the alleged parliamentary supremacy, in practice, the "double trust" led to Isabella having a role in the making and toppling of governments, undermining the progressives. The uneasy alliance between moderates and progressives that had toppled Espartero in July 1843 was already disintegrating by the time of the coming of age of the queen. Following a brief government led by progressive Salustiano de Olózaga, the moderates elected their candidate, Pedro José Pidal, to the presidency of the Cortes. After the subsequent decision to dissolve the hostile Cortes by Olózaga on 28 November, rumours about an alleged forcing of the queen to sign the royal decree spread. As a result, Olózaga was prosecuted, removed from political office, and forced to exile, with the Progressive Party already being beheaded, in what it was the starting point of their growing disaffection from the Isabelline monarchy.


Moderate decade

Dominated by the figure of Marshal Narváez, the ''Espadón'' ("Big Sword") of Loja, the so-called " Moderate decade" began in 1844. The constitutional reforms devised by Narváez moved away from the 1837 Constitution by rejecting national sovereignty and reinforcing the power of the monarch, to the point of a "co-sovereignty" between the Cortes and the Queen. On 10 October 1846, the Moderate Party made their sixteen-year-old queen marry her double-first cousin Francisco de Asís, Duke of Cádiz (1822–1902), the same day that her younger sister, Infanta Luisa Fernanda, married Antoine d'Orléans, Duke of Montpensier. Disgusted by her marriage, Isabella reportedly commented later to one of her intimates: "what shall I tell you about a man whom I saw wearing more lace than I was wearing on our wedding night?". The marriages suited
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
and Louis Philippe, King of the French, who as a result bitterly quarrelled with Britain. However, the marriages were not happy; persistent rumour had it that few if any of Isabella's children were fathered by her king-consort, rumoured to be a homosexual. The Carlist party asserted that the heir-apparent to the throne, who later became Alfonso XII, had been fathered by a captain of the guard, Enrique Puigmoltó y Mayans. In 1847, a major scandal took place when Isabella, age seventeen, publicly showed her love for General Serrano and her willingness to divorce from her husband Francisco de Asís; though Narváez and Isabella's mother Maria Christina solved the problem posed to the monarchical institution—Serrano was shifted away from the capital to the post of Captain General of Granada in 1848—, the deterioration of the public image of the queen increased from then on. Following the , Narváez was authorised to rule as dictator to repress insurrectionary attempts up until 1849. In late 1851, Isabella II gave birth to her first daughter and heir presumptive, who was baptised on 21 December as María Isabel Francisca de Asís. Historians have attributed the Princess of Asturias' biological parenthood to José Ruiz de Arana, ''Gentilhombre de cámara''. On 2 February 1852, Isabella and the Royal Guard were caught by surprise while the Queen was leaving the Chapel of the
Royal Palace This is a list of royal palaces, sorted by continent. Africa * Abdin Palace, Cairo * Al-Gawhara Palace, Cairo * Koubbeh Palace, Cairo * Tahra Palace, Cairo * Menelik Palace * National Palace (Ethiopia), Jubilee Palace * Guenete Leul Palace ...

Royal Palace
intending to go with her parade to the church of Atocha: , an ordained priest and liberal activist approached the queen giving the impression of wanting to deliver her a message, and stabbed her. The impact was reduced by the gold embroidery of her dress and by the
baleen Baleen is a filter-feeding Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure. Some animals ...

baleen
stays of her
corset A corset is a support garment commonly worn to hold and train the torso into a desired shape, traditionally a smaller waist or larger bottom, for aesthetic or medical purposes (either for the duration of wearing it or with a more lasting effec ...

corset
, and what was intended to be a stab wound to the chest only resulted in a minor incision at the right side of the belly. Merino, quickly seized by the halberdiers of the Royal Guard (with help from the dukes of Osuna and Tamames, the Marquis of Alcañices and the Count of Pinohermoso), was removed from sacerdocy and executed by ''
garrote A garrote or garrote vil (a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish Rive ...
''. Under the government of the Count of San Luis (whose ascension to premiership had been solely founded on the support from the networks of the royal court), the system was in a critical state by June 1854. On 28 June 1854 a military ''
pronunciamiento A ''pronunciamiento'' (, pt, pronunciamento ; "proclamation , announcement or declaration") is a form of military rebellion or ''coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an ...
'' intending to force the queen to oust the government of the Count of San Luis, featuring
Leopoldo O'Donnell Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris, 1st Duke of Tetuán, GE (12 January 1809 – 5 November 1867), was a Spanish general and statesman A statesman or stateswoman is usually a politician A politician is a person active in party politics Polit ...

Leopoldo O'Donnell
(a "puritan" moderate), took place in Vicálvaro, the so-called '' Vicalvarada''. The military coup (rather dominated by the moderates themselves) had a mixed result and O'Donnell (advised by Ángel Fernández de los Ríos and
Antonio Cánovas del Castillo Antonio Cánovas del Castillo (8 February 18288 August 1897) was a Spain, Spanish politician and historian known principally for serving six terms as Spanish Prime Minister, Prime Minister and his overarching role as "architect" of the regime tha ...
) proceeded then to seek for civilian support, promising new reforms not in the initial plans in order to appeal to progressives, by bringing a "liberal regeneration", as proclaimed in the ''
Manifesto of ManzanaresThe Manifesto of Manzanares ( es, Manifiesto de Manzanares) was issued 7 July 1854 in Manzanares, Ciudad Real, Manzanares, Spain. Drafted by Antonio Cánovas del Castillo and signed by General Leopoldo O'Donnell, it called for political reforms and a ...
'', drafted by Antonio Cánovas del Castillo and issued on 7 July 1854. Days later, the situation was followed by a full-scale people's revolution, with revolutionary juntas organised on 17 July in Madrid, and barricades erected in the streets. With the prospect of a civil war on the horizon, Isabella was advised to appoint General Espartero (who enjoyed charisma and popular support) as prime minister. This renewed ascension of Espartero marked the beginning of the ''bienio progresista''.


Progressive biennium

Espartero entered the capital of Spain on 28 July, and proceeded to separate again Isabella from the influence of Maria Christina. In any case, though Isabella accepted advice from Maria Christina, she was not characterised for displaying a profound filial love towards her mother. By virtue of a royal decree,
Iloilo Iloilo (), officially the Province of Iloilo ( hil, Kapuoran sang Iloilo; krj, Kapuoran kang Iloilo; tl, Lalawigan ng Iloilo), is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrati ...
in the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
was opened to world trade on 29 September 1855, mainly to export sugar and other products to America, Australia and Europe. A
Liberal Constitution Constitutional liberalism is a form of government that upholds the principles of classical liberalism and the rule of law. It differs from liberal democracy in that it is not about the method of selecting government. The journalist and scholar Far ...
("the Unborn One") was drafted in 1856, yet it was never enacted as the counter-revolutionary coup by O'Donnell seized power.


Later reign

On 28 November 1857, Isabella II gave birth to a male heir, who was baptised on 7 December 1857 as . Assumed by historians to be the biological son of , the toddler, who replaced infanta Isabella as
Prince of Asturias Prince or Princess of Asturias ( es, link=no, Príncipe/Princesa de Asturias) is the main substantive title A substantive title is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify ...
upon his birth, was known under the moniker "''el Puigmoltejo''", in reference to the rumours about his presumed biological parenthood. Isabella II showed a special affection for the child, greater than that shown to her daughters. The later part of her reign saw a war against Morocco (1859–1860), which ended in a treaty advantageous for Spain and cession of some Moroccan territory, the Spanish retake of Santo Domingo (1861–1865), and the fruitless
Chincha Islands War The Chincha Islands War, also known as Spanish–South American War ( es, Guerra hispano-sudamericana), was a series of coastal and naval battles between Spain and its former colonies of Peru, Chile, Ecuador, and Bolivia from 1865 to 1866. The ...
(1864–1866) against
Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = Seal (device), National seal , national_mott ...

Peru
and
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...

Chile
. In August 1866 exiled forces comprising both elements from the
Democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: Politics *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people ...
and the
Progressive PartyProgressive Party may refer to: Active parties * Australian Progressives * Progressive Party (Chile) * Dominica Progressive Party * Progressive Party (Iceland) * Jordanian Progressive Party * Serbian Progressive Party in Macedonia * Sabah Progressi ...
met secretly in Belgium and subscribed to the under the initiative of Marshal Prim, seeking to topple Isabella. On 7 July 1868 Isabella banished her brother-in-law and her sister, the Dukes of Montpensier, away from Spain, as they were linked to a conspiracy against the Crown in connivance with generals from the Liberal Union. Since late Summer, Isabella II was enjoying her traditional holidays in the coast in
Lekeitio Lekeitio (Spanish: Lequeitio) is a town and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regio ...
, Biscay. The royal entourage moved to
San Sebastián San Sebastian, also known as Donostia-San Sebastián (official names in both local languages: ''Donostia'' () and ''San Sebastián'' ()) is a city and Municipalities of Spain, municipality located in the Basque Country (autonomous community), ...

San Sebastián
to hold a concerted meeting with
Napoleon III Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 18089 January 1873) was the first President of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is t ...

Napoleon III
and Eugenia de Montijo, scheduled for 18 September but that never took place as the French royals did not arrive in time and the meeting was subsequently aborted. On that very day, a ''pronunciamiento'' took place in
Cádiz Cádiz (, also , ; see more below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the Province of Cádiz, one of eight that make up the autonomous community of Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost ...

Cádiz
. Led by Marshal Prim and the Admiral Topete (himself an unconditional follower of the Duke of Montpensier), it marked the beginning of the
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga, An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus), the invasion also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch, was the deposition of ...
. The democratic party provided the insurrection with popular support, making it transcend the nature of a simple military ''pronunciamento'' into an actual revolution. The factors for the revolution include the weariness both moderates (alienated by the Crown) and the progressives (barely having even the chance to rule) developed vis-à-vis the Isabelline monarchy, as well as the personal behaviour of the queen, the corruption, the abortion of the possibility of political reform and the economic crisis alienating the bourgeoisie. The revolutionary subject has been however variously identified in historiographical accounts, and historians looking at social roots for the revolution highlight that peasantry, small bourgeoisie, and the proletariat formed an alternative subject alternative to burgueoisie, articulated through the progressive and federal republican forces. By September 1868 Isabella was a repudiated monarch, and, during the early stages of the revolution, instances of political
iconoclasm alt=A painting, 288px, In this Elizabethan work of propaganda, the top right of the picture depicts men busy pulling down and smashing icons, while power is shifting from the dying King Henry VIII at left, pointing to his far more staunchly Pr ...
carried out by the masses took place, leading to the destruction of many symbols and emblems of the Bourbon dynasty, a ''
Damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in rela ...
''. The defeat of the Isabelline forces commanded by Manuel Pavía y Lacy by the revolutionary forces led by Marshal Serrano at the 28 September 1868 Battle of Alcolea led to the definitive demise of Isabella II's 35-year reign. In the light of the news, Isabella and her entourage left San Sebastián and went to exile taking a train to
Biarritz Biarritz ( , , , ; Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture an ...

Biarritz
(France) on 30 September. Prim (leader of the liberal progressives) was received by the Madrilenian people at his arrival to the capital in early October in a festive mood. He pronounced his famous speech of the "three nevers" directed against the Bourbons, and delivered a highly symbolic hug to Serrano (leader of the revolutionary forces triumphant in the bridge of Alcolea) in the
Puerta del Sol The Puerta del Sol (English language, English: "Gate of the Sun") is a public square in Madrid, one of the best known and busiest places in the city. This is the centre (''Kilometre Zero, Km 0'') of the radial network of Transportation in Spai ...

Puerta del Sol
.


Life after ousting

Following the crossing of the French–Spanish border by train on 30 September, Isabella and Francisco de Asís spent 5 weeks in the organising their Parisian future, arriving to the French capital on 8 November, settling in the
Rue de Rivoli Rue de Rivoli (; English: "Rivoli Street") is a street in central Paris, France. It is a commercial street whose shops include leading fashionable brands. It bears the name of Napoleon's early victory against the Austrian army, at the Battle of Riv ...

Rue de Rivoli
172. Isabella was forced to renounce to her dynastic rights in Paris in favour of her son,
Alfonso Alphons (Latinized ''Alphonsus'', ''Adelphonsus'', or ''Adefonsus'') is a male given name recorded from the 8th century (Alfonso I of Asturias Alfonso I of Asturias, called the Catholic (''el Católico''), (c. 693 – 757) was the third Ki ...

Alfonso
on 25 June 1870, officially "freely and spontaneously". Involving an economic settling, the formal separation between Isabella and Francisco de Asís had pended on the passing of the former queen's dynastic rights to her son. Following the election to the Spanish throne of (second son of
Victor Emmanuel II of Italy en, Victor Emmanuel Mario Albert Eugene Ferdinand Thomas , house = House of Savoy, Savoy , father = Charles Albert of Sardinia , mother = Maria Theresa of Austria (1801–1855), Maria Theresa of Austria , religion = L ...
) in November 1870, Isabella reconciled in 1871 with her brother-in-law, the Duke of Montpensier, who assumed the political management of the family. The
First Spanish Republic The Spanish Republic ( es, República Española), historiographically referred to as the First Spanish Republic, was the political regime that existed in Spain from 11 February 1873 to 29 December 1874. The Republic's founding ensued after th ...
that followed Amadeo's short reign was overthrown by a military coup started in
Sagunto Sagunto ( ca-valencia, Sagunt) is a city in Eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...

Sagunto
by General Arsenio Martínez Campos on 29 December 1874 that proclaimed the restoration of the monarchy and the
Bourbon dynasty The House of Bourbon (, also ; ) is a European of French origin, a branch of the , the royal . Bourbon kings first ruled France and in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the held thrones in , , , and . Spain and have monarchs ...

Bourbon dynasty
in the person of Isabella's son Alfonso XII, who landed in Barcelona on 9 January 1875. After 1875 she lived in a relationship with , her secretary and chief of staff. Cánovas del Castillo, the dominant figure of the new regime, became convinced that the figure of Isabella had become an issue for the Crown and wrote her a letter bluntly stating "Your Majesty is not a person, it is a reign, it is a historical time, and what the country needs is another reign, a different time", hellbent on avoiding the former queen stepping onto the Spanish capital before the proclamation of the new constitution in June 1876. She returned to Spain in July 1876, stayed in
Santander Santander may refer to: Places *Santander, Spain, the original place to receive this name, a port city and capital of the autonomous community of Cantabria, Spain *Santander Department, a department of Colombia *Santander State, former state of Co ...
and
El Escorial El Escorial, or the Royal Site of San Lorenzo de El Escorial ( es, Monasterio y Sitio de El Escorial en Madrid), or Monasterio del Escorial (), is a historical residence of the King of Spain , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Mon ...

El Escorial
and was only allowed to visit Madrid for barely hours on 13 October. She moved to
Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish , Andalusian Spanish (with yeísmo) ) is the capital and largest city of the Spain, Spanish autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville. It is situate ...

Seville
, where she stood longer and left for France in 1877. Isabella's son would marry Mercedes of Orléans (first cousin of Alfonso and daughter of the Dukes of Montpensier) in 1878, only for the latter to die five months after the wedding. Isabella mostly lived in Paris for the rest of her life, based at the
Palacio Castilla The Peninsula Paris is a historic luxury hotel, originally known as the Hotel Majestic, located on Avenue Kléber in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, France. It opened in 1908 as the Hotel Majestic and was converted to government offices in 1936. T ...
. She paid some visits to Seville. She wrote her
testament A testament is a document that the author has sworn to be true. In law it usually means last will and testament. Testament or The Testament can also refer to: Books * Testament (comics), ''Testament'' (comic book), a 2005 comic book * ''Testament ...
in Paris in June 1901, making her will to be entombed in
El Escorial El Escorial, or the Royal Site of San Lorenzo de El Escorial ( es, Monasterio y Sitio de El Escorial en Madrid), or Monasterio del Escorial (), is a historical residence of the King of Spain , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Mon ...

El Escorial
. Less than a month after passing through a cold categorised as "flu" by the physicians, she died on 9 April 1904, at 8:45 AM. Her corpse was moved from the Palacio Castilla to the
Gare d'Orsay Gare d'Orsay is a former Paris railway station and hotel, built in 1900 to designs by Victor Laloux, Lucien Magne and Émile Bénard; it served as a terminus for the Chemin de Fer de Paris à Orléans (Paris–Orléans Railway). It was the firs ...
, and arrived to El Escorial on 15 April. The funeral took place on the next day at San Francisco el Grande.


Children

Isabella had twelve pregnancies, yet only five children reached adulthood: * Infanta María Isabel (1851–1931): married her mother's and father's first cousin
Prince Gaetan, Count of Girgenti , title = Count of Girgenti , image = Cayetano de las Dos Sicillias.jpg , caption = , succession = , spouse = , issue = , house = House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Bourbon-Two Sicilies , father = ...

Prince Gaetan, Count of Girgenti
. *
Alfonso XII of Spain Alfonso XII of Spain (Alfonso Francisco de Asís Fernando Pío Juan María de la Concepción Gregorio Pelayo; 28 November 185725 November 1885), also known as El Pacificador or the Peacemaker, was King of Spain, reigning from 1874 to 1885. Afte ...

Alfonso XII of Spain
(1857–1885) Future king of
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
. * Infanta María del Pilar (1861–1879). * Infanta María de la Paz (1862–1946); married her paternal first cousin Prince Louis Ferdinand of Bavaria. * Infanta Eulalia of Spain, Infanta María Eulalia (1864–1958); married her maternal first cousin Infante Antonio, Duke of Galliera, Infante Antonio d'Orléans, Duke of Galliera. There has been considerable speculation that some or all of Isabella's children were not fathered by Francisco de Asís; this has been bolstered by rumours that Francisco de Asís was either homosexual or impotent. Francisco de Asís recognised all of them: he played the offended, proceeding to blackmail the queen to receive money in exchange for keeping his mouth shut. The extortion by her husband would continue and intensify during Isabella's exile.


Honours

* : Dame of the Order of Queen Maria Luisa, ''10 October 1830'' * : Knight Grand Cordon with Collar of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary, Royal Hungarian Order of Saint Stephen, VV. AA., Boletín de la Real Academia de la Historia, Tomo CLXXVI, Cuaderno I, 1979, Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid, España, páginas = 211 & 220, español, 6 de junio de 2010 Information Containing the Orders and Decorations received by Isabella II of her European tour after her coming of age to reign as Queen * : Dame of the Order of the Starry Cross, Order of the Starry Cross, 1st Class * : Knight Grand Cordon of the Order of Christ (Brazil), Imperial and Royal Order of Christ * :: Knight Grand Cordon with Collar of the Order of the Southern Cross, Imperial and Royal Order of the Southern Cross, ''1848'' * France ** House of Bourbon, Bourbon-French Royal Family: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Holy Spirit, Royal Order of the Holy Spirit ** House of Bourbon, Bourbon-French Royal Family: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Saint Michael, Royal Order of Saint Michael ** House of Bonaparte, French Imperial Family: Knight Grand Cordon with Collar of the Legion of Honour, Imperial Order of the Legion of Honour * Kingdom of Bavaria, Bavaria: Knight Grand Cross with Chain of the Order of Saint Hubert * Kingdom of Bavaria, Bavaria: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Theresa * Kingdom of Bavaria, Bavaria: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Elizabeth * : Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the White Falcon, ''1 November 1861'' * Kingdom of Saxony, Saxony: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Rue Crown * Kingdom of Saxony, Saxony: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Sidonia * Kingdom of Saxony, Saxony: Dame of the :de:Maria-Anna-Orden, Order of Maria-Anna, Special Class * Kingdom of Greece (Wittelsbach), Greece: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer * Italy ** House of Savoy, Italian Royal Family: Knight Grand Collar of the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation ** House of Savoy, Italian Royal Family: Knight Grand Cordon of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus ** House of Savoy, Italian Royal Family: Knight Grand Cordon of the Order of the Crown of Italy ** Holy See: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Supreme Order of Christ ** House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Two Sicilian Royal Family: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Saint Januarius ** House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Two Sicilian Royal Family: Bailiff Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George, Two Sicilian Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George * Mexico ** Second Mexican Republic, Mexican Republic: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Mexican Imperial Orders#Order of Guadalupe, National Order of Guadalupe, ''1854'' ** House of Iturbide, Mexican Imperial Family: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Charles (Mexico), Imperial Order of Saint Charles, ''10 April 1865'' * : Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saint-Charles * Kingdom of Portugal, Portugal: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa, ''23 June 1834'' * Kingdom of Portugal, Portugal: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Tower and Sword * Kingdom of Portugal, Portugal: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Isabel


Honorific eponyms

* : **Cavite: Bridge of Isabel II **Province of Isabela, Isabela (province) **Manila: ''El Banco Español Filipino de Isabel II'' former name of the current Bank of the Philippine Islands. * : **Isabel II: barrio-pueblo (referred to as Isabel Segunda in Spanish) is a barrio and the administrative center (seat) in the downtown area in the island-municipality of Vieques, Puerto Rico.


Ancestry


Film portrayal

In the 1997 film ''Amistad (film), Amistad'', she was played by Anna Paquin, and is depicted as a spoiled 11-year-old girl.


See also

*Carl Schurz, who was U.S. ambassador to Spain for a brief time at the beginning of Abraham Lincoln, Lincoln's President of the United States, presidency, in his ''Reminiscences'' (New York, McClure's Publ. Co., 1907, Volume II, Chapter VI) describes Isabel II and her court. * Isabela (province), Isabela province in the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
. * Mid-19th-century Spain * Spain under the Restoration * Plaza de Isabel II (Santa Cruz de Tenerife)


References

;Informational notes ;Citations ;Bibliography * * * * * * * ;Further reading * Barton, Simon. ''A History of Spain'' (2009
excerpt and text search
* Raymond Carr, Carr, Raymond, ed. ''Spain: A History'' (2001
excerpt and text search
* Esdaile, Charles J. ''Spain in the Liberal Age: From Constitution to Civil War, 1808–1939'' (2000
excerpt and text search
* Gribble, Francis Henry. ''The tragedy of Isabella, II'' (1913
online


External links

* , - , - , - {{DEFAULTSORT:Isabel 02 of Spain 1830 births 1904 deaths House of Bourbon (Spain) Queens regnant Modern child rulers Monarchs who abdicated Spanish infantas Princesses of Asturias Princes of Viana Spanish duchesses Dukes of Montblanc Spanish countesses Lords of Spain Spanish military personnel Spanish generals Commanders in chief Grand Masters of the Order of the Golden Fleece Knights of the Golden Fleece of Spain Grand Masters of the Order of Isabella the Catholic Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic Grand Masters of the Royal and Military Order of San Hermenegild Grand Crosses of the Royal and Military Order of San Hermenegild Grand Crosses of Military Merit Grand Crosses of Naval Merit Grand Masters of the Order of Calatrava Knights of Calatrava Grand Masters of the Order of Santiago Knights of Santiago Grand Masters of the Order of Alcántara Knights of the Order of Alcántara Grand Masters of the Order of Montesa Knights of the Order of Montesa Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint-Charles Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa Dames of the Order of Saint Isabel Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary 19th-century Spanish monarchs 19th-century Spanish women 20th-century Spanish women 19th-century women rulers Burials in the Pantheon of Kings at El Escorial Navarrese titular monarchs Isabella II of Spain