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Major League Baseball Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents and are paid to play for a specific team or club system. It is played in baseball league, leag ...
(MLB) uses
instant replay Instant replay or action replay is a video reproduction of something that recently occurred which was both shot and broadcast live TV, live. The video, having already been shown live, is replayed in order for viewers to see again and analyze what ...
review to allow league officials to review certain types of plays in order to determine the accuracy of the initial call of the
umpire An umpire is an official An official is someone who holds an office (function or Mandate (politics), mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual Office, working space with it) in an organization or government and participates in the exe ...
s on the field. Reviews may be initiated either by a team's
manager Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit, non-profit organization, or a government body. It is the art and science of managing resources. Management includes the activities ...
with limitations or by the umpires themselves. All instant replay reviews are examined by umpires at the Replay Command Center in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
, who have the final decision as to whether to uphold or overturn the initial call. MLB was the last of the four major North American professional sports leagues to implement an instant replay review system. Instant replay review was first implemented during the 2008 season. Under that system, only the umpire crew chief could initiate a review, and one or more members of the umpiring crew would review the video at the stadium and render the decision to uphold or overturn the call. Only boundary home run calls could be reviewed, either if the initial call was a home run but might not have been (e.g., spectator interference or a foul ball near the foul pole) or if the initial call was not a home run but might have been (e.g., the ball hit an object such as a railing beyond the outfield wall and then bounced back onto the field). The current instant replay system was implemented in the 2014 season. Under the current system, each manager is allotted one challenge per game, with additional challenges granted only if the previous one was successful. From the eighth inning on, the umpire crew chief is allowed to initiate his own replay review. The umpire crew chief is also allowed to initiate a review during any inning if the play in question is a boundary home run call.


Procedure

The following plays may be subjected to instant replay review: * Home run or boundary calls, including placement of runners *Fair/foul calls on balls hit into the outfield * Force plays and tag plays * Catch/trap calls on balls hit into the outfield, i.e., whether an outfielder cleanly caught a ball on the fly or trapped it against his body *Whether a runner passed a preceding runner * Time plays, i.e., whether or not a run scored prior to the third out *Missed bases * Scorekeeping issues, including the count, number of outs, score, or substitutions * Whether a batter was hit by a pitch *Collisions at home plate (Rule 6.01(i)) *Tag-ups * Interference on double plays *Spectator interference In addition, the crew chief can use replay to review the following issues at any time, which is not considered a challenge: * The count, the number of outs, and the score * Substitutions * Batting out of turn * Rules check In cases where an appeal is required by rule (e.g. missed base, tag-up), an appeal must be made, and it is the call on the appeal that is reviewed. To initiate a manager's challenge, a manager must either enter the field of play and verbally tell the umpire he will use his challenge, or call or signal the challenge from the top of the dugout, within 30 seconds after the end of the play. Teams are allowed to have a replay assistant in the booth watch the replay and talk with a coach via the dugout telephone to decide if the team should challenge the call. A player or coach in the dugout will signal to the manager whether or not to use the challenge. The manager must signal to hold play within 10 seconds after the end of the play in order to wait for his replay booth's decision. When a play is reviewed, at least two umpires (including the crew chief) will go to an area behind
home plate A baseball field, also called a ball field, sandlot or a baseball diamond, is the field Field may refer to: Expanses of open ground * Field (agriculture), an area of land used for agricultural purposes * Airfield, an aerodrome that lacks the inf ...
where they will meet a technician. The technician hands the umpires headsets where they can communicate with the umpires at the Replay Command Center in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. During the review, the replay may be displayed on the stadium video screen. Once the call is determined, the field technician will leave and the crew chief will signal the final call. If a manager enters the field of play to argue a reviewed call, he will be automatically ejected from the game. After being reviewed, umpires will call one of three review outcomes. If the play is confirmed, the umpire found clear and convincing evidence that the original call was correct. If the play is overturned, the umpire found clear and convincing evidence that the original call was incorrect. If the umpire found no clear evidence to overturn the call, the call stands. The replay review lasts no more than two minutes. The clock begins after what is being challenged is established by the crew chief. There are a few exceptions to this time limit however, including placement of runners, multiple challenges, technology issues, rules application, and director discretion. Some plays are non-reviewable, so instant replay cannot be used. These plays include subjective calls, such as check swings, infield fly rule, and balls and strikes. Other calls that are considered non-reviewable are trap plays (infield), foul tips, and mound visit count.


Background

Instant replay in MLB actually had been used once before in the 1999 season during a
Florida Marlins The Miami Marlins are an American professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents and are paid to play for a specific team or club system. It is played in baseball league, leag ...
home game at
Pro Player Stadium Hard Rock Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium located in Miami Gardens, Florida, a city north of Miami. It is the home stadium of the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League (NFL). Hard Rock Stadium also plays host to the Miami Hurricanes ...
. This was the first instance in which instant replay was utilized in Major League Baseball. While playing the
St. Louis Cardinals The St. Louis Cardinals are an American professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents and are paid to play for a specific team or club system. It is played in baseball league, ...
,
Cliff Floyd Cornelius Clifford Floyd Jr. (born December 5, 1972) is a former Major League Baseball left fielder who played for 17 seasons, most notably for the Montreal Expos, Florida Marlins and New York Mets. He is currently a baseball analyst who co-hosts ...

Cliff Floyd
hit a ball off the top of the left-field scoreboard. Originally ruled a double and then ruled a home run, National League umpire
Frank Pulli Frank Victor Pulli (March 22, 1935 – August 28, 2013) was a professional baseball Umpire (baseball), umpire, working in the National League from 1972 until 1999. He umpired many postseason games, including four World Series. Pulli wore unifo ...
changed the call back to a double after consulting a television monitor in the Marlins' dugout. The Cardinals won the game, 5-2, and the Marlins protested the use of the TV monitor. The National League Office declared that the umpires erred in using instant replay, and the American League Office concurred that instant replay was not to be used in the future. However, the Marlins' protest was denied on the grounds that it was a judgment call rather than a rules violation as such, and the play stood. MLB did not use instant replay again for almost a decade. Major League Baseball instant replay was instituted on August 28, 2008, by
commissioner A commissioner is, in principle, a member of a commission Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (remuneration), a form of payment to an agent for services rendered ** Commission (art), the purchase or the ...
Bud Selig Allan Huber "Bud" Selig (; born July 30, 1934) is an American baseball executive who currently serves as the Commissioner Emeritus of Baseball. Previously, he served as the ninth Commissioner of Baseball The Commissioner of Baseball is the ch ...
. "I believe that the extraordinary technology that we now have merits the use of instant replay on a very limited basis," Selig said. "The system we have in place will ensure that the proper call is made on home run balls and will not cause a significant delay to the game." MLB was the last of the four major United States professional sports leagues to implement an instant replay review system. Replay was used 123 times between August 28, 2008, and the conclusion of the 2010 season (with 48 of those instances resulting in overturned calls).


Official debut

Replay made its official, sanctioned MLB debut at
Tropicana Field Tropicana Field, also commonly known as The Trop, is a domed stadium A stadium (plural stadiums or stadia) is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or comple ...

Tropicana Field
on September 3, 2008, after
Alex Rodriguez Alexander Enmanuel Rodriguez (born July 27, 1975), nicknamed "A-Rod," is an American former professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents and are paid to play for a specifi ...

Alex Rodriguez
of the
New York Yankees The New York Yankees are an American professional baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a pl ...
hit a ball near the left-field
foul pole A baseball field, also called a ball field, sandlot or a baseball diamond, is the field upon which the game of baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseba ...
that was initially ruled a home run by
third base A third baseman, abbreviated 3B, is the player in baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a play ...
umpire
Brian Runge Brian Edward Runge (born January 5, 1970) is a former umpire An umpire is an official An official is someone who holds an office (function or Mandate (politics), mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual Office, working space with ...

Brian Runge
.
Tampa Bay Rays The Tampa Bay Rays are an American professional baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing teams, in whic ...
manager
Joe Maddon Joseph John Maddon (born February 8, 1954) is an American professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns bat ...

Joe Maddon
and catcher
Dioner Navarro Dioner Favian Navarro Vivas (born February 9, 1984) is a Venezuelan former professional baseball catcher. He played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the New York Yankees, Los Angeles Dodgers, Tampa Bay Rays, Cincinnati Reds, Chicago Cubs, Chic ...

Dioner Navarro
argued that the ball was foul and asked for a review. After a conversation among the umpires, crew chief
Charlie Reliford Charles Harold Reliford (born September 19, 1956) is an American former umpire (baseball), umpire in Major League Baseball (MLB). After working in the National League (NL) from 1989 to 1999, he worked throughout both leagues from 2000 to 2009. He ...
allowed the replay to take place and after review, upheld the home run call. The first instance of an umpire's call being overturned by instant replay also occurred at
Tropicana Field Tropicana Field, also commonly known as The Trop, is a domed stadium A stadium (plural stadiums or stadia) is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or comple ...

Tropicana Field
. On September 19, 2008, in the bottom of the 4th inning with two runners on base,
Carlos Peña Carlos Felipe Peña (born May 17, 1978) is a Dominican former professional baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The ga ...
of the Rays hit the ball just over the fence in right field. The umpires originally ruled that there was spectator interference, but after several minutes of viewing replays, the umpires returned to the field and signaled it a home run, extending the Rays' lead to 9-0. Aside from the two aforementioned reviews at Tampa Bay, review was used five additional times during the 2008 regular season: twice at Houston, and once each at Seattle, San Francisco, and Philadelphia.


Use of instant replay

On March 16, 2009, during the
2009 World Baseball Classic The 2009 World Baseball Classic (WBC) was an International Baseball Federation, international baseball competition. It began on March 5 and finished March 23. Unlike in 2006 World Baseball Classic, 2006, when the Round-robin tournament, round-ro ...
, instant replay was requested for the first time in the tournament's history at
Dolphin Stadium Hard Rock Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium A multi-purpose stadium is a type of stadium A stadium (plural stadiums or stadia) is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stag ...

Dolphin Stadium
to give
Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continent A continent is any of several large l ...
a home run against
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico) is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...
. Crew chief
Ed Rapuano Edward Stephen Rapuano Jr. (born September 30, 1957) is an umpire An umpire is an official An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organization ...

Ed Rapuano
stated in a postgame press conference that there was never any replay, because the "war room" in New York City was unable to send him a replay of the play in question due to technical difficulties. The umpires, two from the United States and two from Japan, then worked with a translator to make a final ruling. Three of the four umpires said they believed it was a home run, and when third-base umpire Hitoshi Watarida was asked by Rapuano if he was "110 percent sure" that it was a home run, Watarida said yes. Nearly 10 minutes after first entering the dugout, the umpires returned to the field and awarded the Venezuelan team with a home run. Instant replay instead made its WBC debut during the
2013 World Baseball Classic The 2013 World Baseball Classic (WBC) was an International Baseball Federation, international professional baseball competition, held from March 2 to March 19, 2013. This was the third iteration of the World Baseball Classic, WBC, following the t ...
, as umpires upheld a home run call during a
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...
vs.
USA The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and a ...
game. On June 19, 2009, instant replay was used twice in a game for the first time, during a
Detroit Tigers The Detroit Tigers are an American professional baseball team based in Detroit. The Tigers compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member of the American League (AL) American League Central, Central division. One of the AL's eight charter fr ...

Detroit Tigers
versus
Milwaukee Brewers The Milwaukee Brewers are an American professional baseball team based in Milwaukee. They compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) National League Central, Central division. The Brewers are named for t ...
game. On October 31, 2009, instant replay was used for the first time in a World Series. In the fourth inning of Game 3 of the
World Series The World Series is the annual championship series of Major League Baseball (MLB) in the United States and Canada, contested since 1903 World Series, 1903 between the champion teams of the American League (AL) and the National League (NL). The ...
, Alex Rodriguez hit a ball that bounced off the camera in right field. Initially called as a
double Double may refer to: * Look-alike, a person who closely resembles another person * Double (filmmaking), someone who substitutes for the credited actor of a character * Doppelgänger, ghostly double of a living person * Polish Enigma doubles, repl ...
, the umpires reviewed the play, and determined that had the camera not been in its location, the ball probably would have left the park, and a home run was awarded to Rodriguez, making the score 3-2. On June 1, 2011, Billy Butler of the
Kansas City Royals The Kansas City Royals are an American professional baseball team based in Kansas City, Missouri. The Royals compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the American League (AL) American League Central, Central division. The team ...

Kansas City Royals
hit a fly ball to left field in the bottom of the ninth inning of a scoreless game against the
Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim The Los Angeles Angels are an American professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents and are paid to play for a specific team or club system. It is played in baseball league, ...

Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim
. The ball hit off the fence over the left-field wall and skipped back onto the field. It was ruled a double and
Jeff Francoeur Jeffrey Braden Francoeur (; born January 8, 1984), nicknamed "Frenchy", is an American former professional baseball right fielder, who played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Atlanta Braves, New York Mets, Texas Rangers (baseball), Texas Ra ...

Jeff Francoeur
held at third. Manager
Ned Yost Edgar Frederick Yost III (; born August 19, 1954) is a former Major League Baseball catcher and manager (baseball), manager of the Milwaukee Brewers and Kansas City Royals. He played for the Brewers, Texas Rangers (baseball), Texas Rangers, and M ...
argued that it was a home run. After review, the umpires accordingly ruled a home run, granting the Royals a 2-0 victory. This was the second
walk-off home run In baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team (baseball), fielding team, ...
reviewed by instant replay in MLB history. On August 18, 2011,
Justin Morneau Justin Ernest George Morneau (born May 15, 1981) is a Canadian former professional baseball first baseman. He played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Minnesota Twins, Pittsburgh Pirates, Colorado Rockies, and Chicago White Sox. At and , ...

Justin Morneau
of the
Minnesota Twins The Minnesota Twins are an American professional baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player ...
hit a deep fly ball to right field that appeared to go just to the right side of the foul pole for a foul ball in a game against the New York Yankees. However, the umpires immediately called it a home run. Yankees manager Joe Girardi came out to argue the call and ask for a review. The umpires reviewed and ruled that the ball did indeed go past the right side of the foul pole, thus calling it a foul ball. Twins manager
Ron Gardenhire Ronald Clyde Gardenhire (born October 24, 1957) is an American former professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents and are paid to play for a specific team or club system. It ...
came out to argue the call and was ejected from the game by home plate umpire
Brian O'Nora Brian Keith O'Nora (born February 7, 1963) is an American umpire (baseball), umpire in Major League Baseball (MLB). He joined the major league staff in , after previously umpiring for the American League (AL) from to and wears sleeve number 7. ...
for arguing a decision to change a call after looking at instant replay, which pursuant to MLB rules, results in an automatic ejection. On September 4, 2011,
Hunter Pence Hunter Andrew Pence (born April 13, 1983), nicknamed "The Reverend", is an American former professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two o ...

Hunter Pence
of the Philadelphia Phillies hit a fly ball to deep right field. Originally ruled a live ball, instant replay showed
Florida Marlins The Miami Marlins are an American professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents and are paid to play for a specific team or club system. It is played in baseball league, leag ...
right fielder Bryan Petersen was interfered with by multiple fans during his opportunity to catch a ball, under Rule 2.00 INTERFERENCE (d)(1) and (2). After instant replay review, first base umpire and crew chief Joe West ruled Pence out under the provisions of spectator interference, Rule 3.16, and sent Phillies baserunner
Ryan Howard Ryan may refer to: People and fictional characters *Ryan (given name) Ryan is an English-language given name of Irish name, Irish origin. Traditionally a male name, it has been used increasingly by both males and females since the 1970s. It c ...
back to first base. For the second time in less than a month, a manager was ejected arguing the instant replay decision:
Charlie Manuel Charles Fuqua Manuel Jr. (born January 4, 1944), is an American baseball coach for the Philadelphia Phillies, and a former professional baseball outfielder in Major League Baseball (MLB), as well as a former Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB) pla ...

Charlie Manuel
was ejected and elected to play the game under protest. On September 7, 2011, MLB VP of Baseball Operations
Joe Torre Joseph Paul Torre (; born July 18, 1940) is an American professional baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game pr ...

Joe Torre
denied the first ever protest associated with authorized instant replay usage.


Changes for 2014

Instant replay was not expanded in 2012, and Torre confirmed that instant replay would again not be expanded in time for Opening Day 2013, putting off plans for another season. On August 15, 2013, Major League Baseball announced that it would expand its video review process for the 2014 season, granting managers one challenge over the first six innings of games and two from the seventh inning until the end of the game. Calls that are challenged would be reviewed by a crew in MLB headquarters in New York City, who make the final ruling. As part of the 2014
collective bargaining agreement A collective agreement, collective labour agreement (CLA) or collective bargaining agreement (CBA) is a written contract negotiated through collective bargaining Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between employers and a group of e ...
between MLB's owners and players union (MLBPA), and approval by the umpires union (WUA), two additional elements were added to the replay rules. Instant replay was expanded to include fair and foul calls and balls that are caught or trapped by the player catching the ball. It also expanded interference reviews beyond the home run boundary to all walls.


2013 Arizona Fall League testing

Following the conclusion of the
2013 World Series The 2013 World Series was the World Series, championship series of Major League Baseball's (MLB) 2013 Major League Baseball season, 2013 season. The 109th edition of the World Series, it was a best-of-seven playoff between the American League (AL ...
, MLB announced it would test expanded instant replay as proposed for 2014 for a week's slate of games in the
Arizona Fall League The Arizona Fall League is an off-season league owned and operated by Major League Baseball Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents ...
. During the second inning of the Tuesday, November 5 Solar Sox- Rafters game played at
Talking Stick Resort Arena Footprint Center (formerly America West Arena, US Airways Center, Talking Stick Resort Arena, and Phoenix Suns Arena) is a sports and entertainment arena An arena is a large enclosed platform, often circular or oval-shaped, designe ...
, first base umpire Sean Barber ruled batter C. J. Cron out at first base on a close play. Manager
Bill Richardson William Blaine Richardson III (born November 15, 1947) is an American politician, author, and diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific st ...
approached plate umpire Hal Gibson to challenge the play, initiating the first video review conducted by off-field umpires and relayed via headset to the plate umpire; Barber's out call was upheld after the review. In total, four plays were reviewed during the debut game, with instant replay affirming the umpire's on-field call all four times. The first overturned call occurred during November 6's Rafters-
Scorpions Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the Order (biology), order Scorpiones. They have eight legs, and are easily recognized by a pair of Chela (organ), grasping pincers and a narrow, segmented tail, often carried in a characteristic forward curv ...
game when umpires used replay to reverse an out call on a stolen base attempt. The game also featured a rare multi-replay challenge, as video review upheld two umpiring calls in one play: batter Kyle Kubitza's touch of second base as well as his slide into third base ahead of a tag. In total, fifteen calls were challenged with three overturned upon instant replay review, resulting in a 20% overturn rate.


Expanded replay approved for 2014

To accommodate the anticipated expansion of instant replay, MLB promoted seven minor league umpires to the full-time major league staff on January 14, 2014. Two days later, on January 16, MLB officially announced the approval of expanded instant replay for use during the 2014 season, whose terms were modified after negotiations with the MLBPA and WUA. According to the terms, managers were allotted one challenge per game (two if the first challenge resulted in an overturned call) while the umpiring crew chief was empowered to initiate a review in the seventh inning and beyond. The umpires were also allowed to review a home run call at any time. Once a call was challenged or an umpire requested a video review, fellow umpires in New York's Replay Command Center watched video of the play in question using the "indisputable video evidence" standard when deciding whether to overturn a call. The following plays were reviewable under the system: * Ground-rule doubles * Fan interference calls * Boundary calls (managers may not, however, challenge home run or potential home run calls) * Force plays at all bases, except whether a middle infielder touched second base during the attempt to "turn" a
double play In baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team (baseball), fielding team, ...

double play
* Tag plays on the base paths—whether a runner was tagged or whether the runner touched a base (an appeal is still required ahead of the latter) * Fair/foul calls on balls hit into the outfield * Catch/trap calls on balls hit into the outfield * Time plays (whether or not a run scored prior to the third out) * Whether a runner passed a preceding runner * Scorekeeping issues, including the count, number of outs, score or substitutions Judgment calls not specified above, including, but not limited to, pitches called ball or strike,
obstruction Obstruction may refer to: Places * Obstruction Island, in Washington state * Obstruction Islands, east of New Guinea Medicine * Obstructive jaundice * Obstructive sleep apnea * Airway obstruction, a respiratory problem ** Recurrent airway obstru ...
,
interference Interference is the act of interfering, invading, or poaching. Interference may also refer to: Communications * Interference (communication) In telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types ...
, the
infield fly rule The infield fly rule is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spell ...
, and
checked swing A checked swing is a type of motion in baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing teams, in which the act ...
s are not reviewable. On March 31, 2014, the first instant replay challenge under the new system occurred when Chicago Cubs manager Rick Renteria challenged a potential double play in the top of the fifth inning against the Pittsburgh Pirates, disputing the call on the field that pitcher Jeff Samardzija was out at first. The umpires confirmed the call on the field, and the Cubs lost the challenge. From announcement of the challenge to confirmation of the call, the process took 1 minute, 40 seconds, longer than MLB's hope of 60 to 90 seconds per review. Later that day, the first successful challenge took place when Atlanta Braves manager Fredi González challenged the call of a Ryan Braun single. It was overturned to an out in a review that took 58 seconds, although the Braves lost the game to the
Milwaukee Brewers The Milwaukee Brewers are an American professional baseball team based in Milwaukee. They compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) National League Central, Central division. The Brewers are named for t ...
2-0; coincidentally, former Brewers owner and MLB commissioner
Bud Selig Allan Huber "Bud" Selig (; born July 30, 1934) is an American baseball executive who currently serves as the Commissioner Emeritus of Baseball. Previously, he served as the ninth Commissioner of Baseball The Commissioner of Baseball is the ch ...
was in attendance for the first successful challenge. Moments later, the aforementioned Cubs–Pirates game had the second overturned call (and the first in extra innings) when Emilio Bonifacio was called safe on a pickoff attempt by Bryan Morris. Pirates manager Clint Hurdle successfully challenged the call, which was said to have influenced the outcome of the game, a 1-0 Pirates victory. Finally, the first umpire-initiated review took place in a game between the Oakland Athletics and Cleveland Guardians, Cleveland Indians when umpire Mike Winters wanted to confirm that Oakland catcher John Jaso did not unnecessarily block the plate as Michael Brantley attempted to score. As of the 2014 All-Star Break, instant replay was generally well received by managers, players, and umpires. Managers challenged 606 calls, or an average of one every 2.35 games, of which 52% were overturned. Including situations where umpires requested the Replay Operations Center to review a call, 47.7% of calls were overturned. However, MLB informally allows up to 30 seconds to have the team's video coordinator signal a call to the manager. When situations where the manager comes out on the field to await a decision from a team video coordinator are included, MLB estimates the percentage of calls overturned decreases to 21%. The average replay review takes one minute, fifty seconds, which is higher than MLB's original goal of 90 seconds per review. One side effect has been the addition of 12 new umpires—the most since 1999—to MLB's staff, due to the need to staff the Replay Command Center with two crews. However, statistics show that umpiring quality has remained constant despite the additions, with four out of the top seven umpires with reversals those who have umpired more than 1,600 games.


Changes for 2015

In 2015, many changes regarding instant replay were made. Managers could invoke instant replay from the dugout and were no longer be required to approach the calling umpire to challenge a call. Managers could hold play from the top step of the dugout by signaling to players and the home plate umpire that they are considering a challenge. A decision could be communicated verbally or with a hand signal. To challenge an inning-ending call, managers are required to leave the dugout immediately in order to hold the defensive team on the field. Tag-up plays became reviewable, to help determine if a player touched the base before continuing or not. A manager now retains his challenge after every call that is overturned, as opposed to the 2014 standard that allowed a challenge to be retained only after the first overturned call. A manager must use a challenge in order to review whether a play at home plate included a violation of the rule governing home plate collisions. However, in the event that a manager is out of challenges after the start of the seventh inning, the crew chief may still choose to review whether there was a violation of the rule. During postseason games, regular season tiebreaker games, and the All-Star Game, managers are given two challenges per game. Instant replay was not utilized during 2015 spring training, but it was in place for exhibition games at Major League ballparks prior to the start of the 2015 regular season.


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Instant Replay In Baseball Baseball rules