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Industrialisation ( alternatively spelled industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an
agrarian society An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose economy is based on producing and maintaining crops and farmland. Another way to define an agrarian society is by seeing how much of a nation's total production is in agricultu ...
into an
industrial society In sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The te ...
. This involves an extensive re-organisation of an
economy An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ...

economy
for the purpose of
manufacturing Manufacturing is the creation or Production (economics), production of goods with the help of equipment, Work (human activity), labor, machines, tools, and chemical or biological processing or formulation. It is the essence of secondary sector ...
. Historically industrialization is associated with increase of
polluting
polluting
industries heavily dependent on
fossil fuel A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon In , a hydrocarbon is an consisting entirely of and . Hydrocarbons are examples of s. Hydrocarbons are generally colourless and hydrophobic with only weak odours. Because of their diverse molecular structure ...
s; however, with the increasing focus on
sustainable development Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services Social forestry in India, Social ...

sustainable development
and
green industrial policy Green industrial policy (GIP) is strategic government policy that attempts to accelerate the development and growth of green industries to transition towards a low-carbon economy. Green industrial policy is necessary because green industries such ...
practices, industrialization increasingly includes
technological leapfrogging
technological leapfrogging
, with direct investment in more advanced, cleaner technologies. The reorganization of the economy has many
unintended consequences In the social sciences Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to ...

unintended consequences
both economically and socially. As industrial workers' incomes rise, markets for consumer goods and services of all kinds tend to expand and provide a further stimulus to industrial
investment Investment is the dedication of an asset to attain an increase in value over a period of time. Investment requires a sacrifice of some present asset, such as time, money, or effort. In finance Finance is the study of financial institution ...

investment
and
economic growth Economic growth can be defined as the increase or improvement in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economics, economy over time. Statisticians conventionally measure such growth as the percent rate of i ...

economic growth
. Moreover, family structures tend to shift as extended families tend to no longer live together in one household, location or place.


Background

After the last stage of the
Proto-industrialization Proto-industrialization is the regional development, alongside commercial agriculture Intensive agriculture, also known as intensive farming (as opposed to extensive farming) and industrial agriculture, is a type of agriculture Agricult ...
, the first transformation from an agricultural to an industrial economy is known as the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
and took place from the mid-18th to early 19th century in certain areas in
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
and North America; starting in Great Britain, followed by Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, and France. Characteristics of this early industrialisation were technological progress, a shift from rural work to industrial labor, financial investments in new industrial structure, and early developments in class consciousness and theories related to this. Later commentators have called this the First Industrial Revolution. The "
Second Industrial Revolution The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid and from the late 19th century into the early 20th century. The , which ended in the middle of the 19th century, was punctuated by a slowdow ...
" labels the later changes that came about in the mid-19th century after the refinement of the
steam engine from Stott Park Bobbin Mill, Cumbria, England A steam engine is a heat engine In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energ ...

steam engine
, the invention of the
internal combustion engine An internal combustion engine (ICE or IC engine) is a heat engine In thermodynamics and engineering, a heat engine is a system that converts heat to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do work (physics), mechanical work. It doe ...

internal combustion engine
, the harnessing of
electricity Electricity is the set of physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical'' (album), a 1981 album by Olivia Newton-John **Physical (Olivia Newton-John song), "Physi ...
and the construction of canals, railways and electric-power lines. The invention of the
assembly line
assembly line
gave this phase a boost. Coal mines, steelworks, and textile factories replaced homes as the place of work. By the end of the 20th century,
East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both Geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The modern State (polity), states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. ...

East Asia
had become one of the most recently industrialised regions of the world. The BRICS states (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) are undergoing the process of industrialisation. There is considerable literature on the factors facilitating industrial modernisation and enterprise development.


Industrialization in East Asia

Between the early 1960s and 1990s, the
Four Asian Tigers The Four Asian Tigers (also known as the Four Asian Dragons or Four Little Dragons in Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the ...

Four Asian Tigers
underwent rapid industrialization and maintained exceptionally high growth rates.


Social consequences

The
Industrial revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
was accompanied with a great deal of changes on the social structure, the main change being a transition from farm work to factory related activities. This resulted in the creation of a class structure that differentiated the commoners from the well off and the working category. It distorted the family system as most people moved into cities and left the farm areas, consequently playing a major role in the transmission of diseases. The place of women in the society then shifted from being home cares to employed workers hence reducing the number of children per household. Furthermore industrialization contributed to increased cases of
child labor Child labour refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially and morally harmful. Such e ...

child labor
and thereafter education systems.


Urbanisation

As the Industrial Revolution was a shift from the agrarian society, people migrated from villages in search of jobs to places where factories were established. This shifting of rural people led to urbanization and increase in the population of towns. The concentration of labour in factories has increased urbanization and the size of settlements, to serve and house the factory workers.


Exploitation


China

China, along with many other areas of the world run by industrialization, has been affected by the world’s never ending rise of supply and demand. With the largest population in the world, China has become one of the main exporters of objects from household items to high technology appliances.


Changes in family structure

Family structure changes with industrialisation. Sociologist
Talcott Parsons Talcott Parsons (13 December 1902 – 8 May 1979) was an American sociologist of the classical tradition The Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, ...

Talcott Parsons
noted that in pre-industrial societies there is an
extended family An extended family is a family that extends beyond the nuclear family A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family group consisting of parents and their children (one or more). It is in contrast to a single-parent family, th ...

extended family
structure spanning many generations who probably remained in the same location for generations. In industrialised societies the
nuclear family A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the ...
, consisting of only parents and their growing children, predominates. Families and children reaching adulthood are more mobile and tend to relocate to where jobs exist. Extended family bonds become more tenuous.


Current situation

the "
international development International development or global development is a broad concept denoting the idea that societies and countries have differing levels of "development" on an international scale. It is the basis for international classifications such as develo ...
community" (
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...
, , many United Nations departments,
FAO The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture; it, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura is a specialized agency ...
WHO The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unite ...
ILO The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations a ...
and
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
, endorses development policies like water purification or
primary education Primary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool/kindergarten and before secondary school. Primary education takes place in primary school, the elementary school or first and middle school depending on ...
and co-operation amongst third world communities.United Nations Millennium Development Goals
. Un.org (2008-05-20). Retrieved on 2013-07-29.
Some members of the economic communities do not consider contemporary industrialisation policies as being adequate to the
global south The Global South is a term often used to identify lower income countries on one side of the so-called global North–South divide, the other side being the countries of the Global North. As such the term does not inherently refer to a geogra ...
(Third World countries) or beneficial in the longer term, with the perception that they may only create inefficient local industries unable to compete in the free-trade dominated political order which industrialisation has fostered.
Environmentalism Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical real ...
and
Green politics Green politics, or ecopolitics, is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of beliefs or philosophies attributed to a person or group of persons, especially as held for reasons that are not purely epistemic, in which "practical element ...
may represent more visceral reactions to industrial growth. Nevertheless, repeated examples in history of apparently successful industrialisation (Britain, Soviet Union, South Korea, China, etc.) may make conventional industrialisation seem like an attractive or even natural path forward, especially as populations grow,
consumerist ''Consumerist'' (also known as ''The Consumerist'') was a non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a c ...
expectations rise and agricultural opportunities diminish. The relationships among economic growth, employment, and poverty reduction are complex. Higher
productivity Productivity is the efficiency Efficiency is the (often measurable) ability to avoid wasting materials, energy, efforts, money, and time in doing something or in producing a desired result. In a more general sense, it is the ability to do th ...
, it is argued, may lead to lower
employment Employment is the relationship between two parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview; cropped away black border edge.jpg, 300px, ''Hip, Hip, Hurrah!'' ...

employment
(see
jobless recoveryA jobless recovery or jobless growth is an economic phenomenon in which a macroeconomy experiences growth while maintaining or decreasing its level of employment Employment is a relationship between two party (law), parties, usually based on em ...
).Claire Melamed, Renate Hartwig and Ursula Grant 2011
Jobs, growth and poverty: what do we know, what don't we know, what should we know?
London:
Overseas Development Institute The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is a global affairs think tank, founded in 1960. Formally known as the “Overseas Development Institute”, its mission is "to inspire people to act on injustice and inequality through collaborative res ...
There are differences across sectors, whereby manufacturing is less able than the
tertiary sector The tertiary sector of the economy, generally known as the service sector, is the third of the three economic sector Image:Economic sectors and income.JPG, 250px, Percentages of a country's economy made up by different sectors. Countries with h ...
to accommodate both increased productivity and employment opportunities; more than 40% of the world's employees are "
working poor The working poor are working people whose incomes fall below a given poverty line due to low-income jobs and low familial household income. These are people who spend at least 27 weeks in a year working or looking for employment, but remain under ...
", whose incomes fail to keep themselves and their families above the $2-a-day
poverty line The poverty threshold, poverty limit, poverty line or breadline is the minimum level of income In microeconomics, income is the Consumption (economics), consumption and saving opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, w ...
. There is also a phenomenon of deindustrialisation, as in the former
USSR The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state that spanned Eurasia during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a Federation, federal union of multiple national Republics of ...
countries' transition to market economies, and the
agriculture sector The primary sector of the economy includes any Industry (economics), industry involved in the extraction and production of raw materials, such as farming, logging, hunting, fishing, and mining. The primary sector tends to make up a larger portion ...
is often the key sector in absorbing the resultant unemployment.


See also

*
Automation Automation describes a wide range of technologies that reduce human intervention in processes. Human intervention is reduced by predetermining decision criteria, subprocess relationships, and related actions — and embodying those predeterm ...
*
Deindustrialization The former decline_of_the_city's_once_vibrant_Automotive_industry_in_the_United_States.html" ;"title="Decline_of_Detroit.html" ;"title="Detroit.html" ;"title="Packard Automotive Plant in Detroit">Packard Automotive Plant in Detroit is one of the ...
*
Division of labour The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an ...
*
Great Divergence 320px, The European book output rose between 500 and 1800 by a factor of 100,000, particularly after the Printing Revolution in 1450. The Great Divergence or European miracle is the socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics ...
*
Idea of Progress upright=1.14, alt=Painting depicting a woman draped in white robes flying westward across the land with settlers and following her on foot, John Gast, ''American Progress'', Progress is the movement towards a refined, improved, or otherwise de ...
*
Mass production Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of substantial amounts of standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standard A techni ...
*
Mechanization Mechanization is the process of changing from working largely or exclusively by hand or with animals to doing that work with machinery. In an early engineering text a machine is defined as follows: In some fields, mechanization includes the ...
*
Newly industrialised country The category of newly industrialized country (NIC), newly industrialized economy (NIE) or middle income country is a socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affec ...


References


Further reading

* * Hewitt, T., Johnson, H. and Wield, D. (Eds) (1992) ''industrialisation and Development'', Oxford University Press: Oxford. * Hobsbawm, Eric (1962): ''The Age of Revolution.'' Abacus. * Kemp, Tom (1993) ''Historical Patterns of Industrialisation'', Longman: London. * Kiely, R (1998) ''industrialisation and Development: A comparative analysis'', UCL Press:London. * * Pomeranz, Ken (2001)''The Great Divergence: China, Europe and the Making of the Modern World Economy'' (Princeton Economic History of the Western World) by (Princeton University Press; New Ed edition, 2001) * Tilly, Richard H.
''Industrialization as an Historical Process''
European History Online European History Online (''Europäische Geschichte Online, EGO'') is an academic website that publishes articles on the history of Europe between the period of 1450 and 1950 according to the principle of open access Open access (OA) is a set ...
, Mainz:
Institute of European HistoryThe Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) in Mainz Mainz (; ) is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western states of Germany, state of Germany. It covers and has a ...
, 2010, retrieved: 29 February 2011. {{Authority control Human activities with impact on the environment Secondary sector of the economy Economic growth Economic development Late modern economic history Industrial history