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Indo-Aryan peoples refers to both the pastoralist
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau. Some European languages of t ...
people migrating from
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in which stretches from the in the west to and in the east, and from and in the south to in the north, including the former of , , , , and . It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries all ...

Central Asia
into
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the ...

South Asia
in the second millennium BCE, introducing the
Proto-Indo-Aryan language Proto-Indo-Aryan (sometimes Proto-Indic) is the Linguistic reconstruction, reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Aryan languages. It is intended to reconstruct the language of the Proto-Indo-Aryans. Being descended from Proto-Indo-Iranian lang ...
, as well as to contemporary
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau. Some European languages of t ...
ethnolinguistic group An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is a group that is unified by both a common ethnicity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them ...
s speaking modern
Indo-Aryan languages The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages form a major language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages h ...
, a subgroup of the
Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing ...
.


History

The introduction of the
Indo-Aryan languages The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages form a major language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages h ...
in the Indian subcontinent was the result of a migration of Indo-Aryan people from Central Asia into the northern Indian subcontinent (modern-day
India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the on the south, the on the southwest, and the on the southeast, it shares land borders wit ...

India
,
Nepal Nepal (; ne, :ne:नेपाल, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in S ...

Nepal
,
Bhutan Bhutan (; dz, འབྲུག་ཡུལ་, Druk Yul, ), officially known as the Kingdom of Bhutan ( dz, འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་, Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in the Eastern Himalayas. It is bordered by Ch ...

Bhutan
,
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, , ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in . It is the in the world, with a population exceeding 163 million people, in an area of , making it one of the in the world. Bangladesh shares land bor ...

Bangladesh
,
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
and
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
). These migrations started approximately 1,800 BCE, after the invention of the war chariot, and also brought Indo-Aryan languages into the
Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region of . In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the , which included present-day , , , , and most of southwest of the middle . In its widest historical sense, the Levant ...

Levant
and possibly
Inner Asia Inner Asia refers to landlocked regions within East Asia and North Asia that are part of today's Western China, Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian language, Mongolian: , Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: ') is a landlocked country in ...
. The
Proto-Indo-Iranians Indo-Iranian peoples, also known as Indo-Iranic peoples by scholars, and sometimes as Arya or Aryans from their self-designation, were a group of Indo-European peoples who brought the Indo-Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European lan ...
, from which the Indo-Aryans developed, are identified with the
Sintashta culture The Sintashta culture, around 2050–1900 BCE, is the first phase of the Sintashta–Petrovka culture. or Sintashta–Arkaim culture,. and is a late Middle Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characteriz ...

Sintashta culture
(2100–1800 BCE), and the
Andronovo culture The Andronovo culture is a collection of similar local Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilizat ...

Andronovo culture
, which flourished ca. 1800–1400 BCE in the steppes around the
Aral sea The Aral Sea (Aral ; kk, Aral teńizi, Арал теңізі, uz, Orol dengizi, Орол денгизи, kaa, Aral ten'izi, Арал теңизи, russian: Аральское море) was an endorheic lake lying between Kazakhstan Kaza ...

Aral sea
, present-day Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The proto-Indo-Aryan split off around 1800–1600 BCE from the Iranians, moved south through the Bactria-Margiana Culture, south of the Andronovo culture, borrowing some of their distinctive religious beliefs and practices from the BMAC, and then migrated further south into the
Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region of . In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the , which included present-day , , , , and most of southwest of the middle . In its widest historical sense, the Levant ...

Levant
and north-western India. The migration of the Indo-Aryans was part of the larger diffusion of
Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, based on speech and gesture (spoken language), Signed language, sign, or o ...
from the
Proto-Indo-European homeland The Proto-Indo-European homeland (or Indo-European homeland) was the prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanit ...
at the
Pontic steppe Pontic, from the Greek language, Greek ''pontos'' (, ), or "sea", may refer to: The Black Sea Places * The Pontic colonies, on its northern shores * Pontus (region), a region on its southern shores * The Pontic–Caspian steppe, steppelands stre ...
which started in the 4th millennia BCE. The GGC, Cemetery H, Copper Hoard, OCP and PGW cultures are candidates for cultures associated with Indo-Aryans. The Indo-Aryans were united by shared cultural norms and language, referred to as ''aryā'', "noble." Diffusion of this culture and language took place by patron-client systems, which allowed for the absorption and acculturalisation of other groups into this culture, and explains the strong influence on other cultures with which it interacted. While the Indo-Aryan linguistic group occupies mainly northern parts of India, genetically, all South Asians across the Indian subcontinent are descendants from a mix of South Asian hunter-gatherers, Iranian hunter-gatherers, and Central-Asian steppe pastoralists in varying proportion. Additionally, Austroasiatic and Tibeto-Burmese speaking people contributed to the genetic make-up of South Asia. Indigenous Aryanism propagates the idea that the Indo-Aryans were indigenous to the Indian subcontinent, and that the Indo-European languages spread from there to central Asia and Europe. Contemporary support for this idea is ideologically driven, and has no basis in objective data and mainstream scholarship.


List of historical Indo-Aryan peoples

*
Anga Anga was an ancient Indian kingdom that flourished on the eastern Indian subcontinent and one of the sixteen mahajanapadas The Mahājanapadas ( sa, great realm, from ''maha'', "great", and ''janapada The Janapadas () were the realms, ...

Anga
s *
Bahlikas The Bahlikas ( sa, बाह्लिक; ''Bāhlika'') were the inhabitants of Bahlika ( sa, बह्लिक, located in Bactria Bactria (Bactrian language, Bactrian: , ), or Bactriana, was an ancient region in Central Asia. Bactria proper w ...
* Bharatas * Chedi * Dewa *
Gandharis
Gandharis
*
Gangaridai Gangaridai ( gr, Γανγαρίδαι; Latin: ''Gangaridae'') is a term used by the ancient Greco-Roman Roman Theatre of Mérida, Spain. The term "Greco-Roman world" (also "Greco-Roman culture" or ; spelled Graeco-Roman in the Commonwealt ...
*
Kambojas The Kambojas were a tribe of Iron Age India In the prehistory of the Indian subcontinent, an "Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of Homo sapiens, humanit ...
*
KalingaKalinga may refer to: Geography, linguistics and/or ethnology * Kalinga (historical region) Kalinga is a historical region of India. It is generally defined as the eastern coastal region between the Mahanadi and the Godavari rivers, althoug ...
* Kasmira *
Kekaya Kekayas or Kaikeyas ( sa, केक‍य) were an ancient people attested to have been living in north-western Punjab—between and the river since remote antiquity. They were the descendants of the s of the Kekaya hence called ' or ''Kaikey ...
*
Khasas Khasas (Devanāgarī: खश; ') were an ancient Indo-Aryan tribe from northern Indian subcontinent mentioned in the various historical Indian inscriptions and ancient Indian Hindu and Tibetan literatures. They were reported to have lived around Gan ...
* Kikata *
Kosala Kingdom of Kosala ( sa, कोसल राज्य) was an ancient Indian kingdom with a rich culture, corresponding the area with the region of Awadh in present-day Uttar Pradesh to Western Odisha. It emerged as a janapada, small state durin ...
* Kurus * Licchavis *
Madra Madra (; ) is the name of an ancient region and its inhabitants, located in the north-west division of the ancient Indian sub-continent. The Madra are numerously referenced in ancient Sanskrit Vedic Sanskrit, or Vedic, is the name given by ...
*
Magadhis
Magadhis
*
Malavas The Malavas or Malwas were an ancient n tribe. Modern scholars identify them with the who were settled in the at the time of 's invasion in the 4th century BCE. Later, the Malavas migrated southwards to present-day , and ultimately to and . T ...
*
Mallas Malla was an ancient Indian republic (Gaṇa sangha) that constituted one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (great kingdoms) of ancient India. The republic is notable for being the chosen death place of Mahavira and Gautama Buddha. History Malla was ...
*
Matsya Matsya ( sa, मत्स्य, lit. ''fish'') is the fish avatar An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST: ; ), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent", is the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth. The relative ...
* Nishadhas *
OdraOdra may refer to: Rivers * Oder, also spelled Odra, a river in Czech Republic, Poland and Germany * Odra (Kupa), a river in Croatia * Odra (Spain), a river in Spain Populated places * Odra, Silesian Voivodeship, a village in southern Poland * Od ...
*
PakthasPakthas are an ancient people that find reference in Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan b ...
*
PalaPala may refer to: Places Chad *Pala, Chad, the capital of the region of Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Estonia *Pala, Kose Parish, village in Kose Parish, Harju County *Pala, Kuusalu Parish, village in Kuusalu Parish, Harju County *Pala, Järva County, villa ...
*
Panchala Panchala ( sa, पञ्चाल, ) was an ancient kingdom of northern India, located in the Ganges-Yamuna Doab of the upper Gangetic plain. During Late Vedic times (c. 900–500 BCE), it was one of the most powerful states of the Ancient ...
* Pulindas * Paundra *
Puru Puru refer to: *, a tribe, or a confederation of tribes, mentioned many times in the Rigveda *, a king in Hindu mythology *, a king of northwest India in the time of Alexander the Great * (1896-1963), also known as Pu Xinyu, artist and cousin of Ch ...
* Salva * Salwa * Saraswata *
Sauvira Sauvīra was an ancient kingdom of the lower Indus Valley#REDIRECT Indus River#REDIRECT Indus River {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalisation {{R unprintworthy ... {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from misc ...
*
Shakya The Shakya ( in the : 𑀲𑀓𑁆𑀬 , , or , : , : शाक्य) were a clan of (1st millennium BCE), inhabiting an area in , situated at present-day southern and northern , near the Himalaya. The Shakyas formed an independent oligarc ...
*
Sindhu The Indus ( ) is a transboundary river of Asia and a trans-Himalayan river of South Asia, South and Central Asia. The river rises in Western Tibet, flows northwest through the Ladakh and Gilgit-Baltistan regions of Kashmir, bends sharply to ...
* Sudra *
Surasena Kingdom of Surasena (or Sourasena) (, ) was an ancient India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous countr ...
*
Trigarta Trigarta kingdom was an ancient kingdom in northern Indian region of the Indian subcontinent with its capital at Prasthala (modern Jalandhar), Multan and Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, Kangra. Trigarta was founded and ruled by the Katoch Dynasty. Men ...
* Utkala *
Vanga The family Vangidae (from ''vanga'', Malagasy Malagasy may refer to: *Someone or something from Madagascar *Malagasy people *Malagasy language *Malagasy Republic *Related to the culture of Madagascar See also *Madagascar (disambiguation) {{di ...
*
Vatsa Vatsa or Vamsa (Pali Pali () is a Middle Indo-Aryan liturgical language native to the Indian subcontinent. It is widely studied because it is the language of the '' Pāli Canon'' or '' Tipiṭaka'' and is the sacred language of '' The ...
*
Vidarbha Vidarbha is the north-eastern region of the Indian state of Maharashtra, comprising Nagpur Division and Amravati Division. Amravati division's former name is Berar Province, Berar (Varhad in Marathi language, Marathi). It occupies 31.6% of the tot ...
*
Videha Image:Map of Vedic India.png, 400px, Kingdom of Videha in Vedic India Map The Kingdom of the Videhas (also known as Mithila and Tirabhukti) was an ancient Indian kingdom in Late Vedic IndiaMichael Witzel (1989), ''Tracing the Vedic dialects'' in ...
*
Yadava The Yadavas (literally, descended from Yadu) were an ancient Indian people Indians are the nationals Nationals may refer to: * People of a given nationality * A tournament or convention of national scope * Washington Nationals, a Major Lea ...
*
Yadu Yadu is one of the five early Rigvedic tribes ) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. After a scribal benediction ('), the first line has the first pada, RV 1.1.1a ('). The Vedic accent, pitch-accent is marked by underscores and verti ...
*
Yaksha The yakshas ( sa, यक्ष ; pi, yakkha, i=yes) are a broad class of nature-spirits, usually benevolent, but sometimes mischievous or capricious, connected with water, fertility, trees, the forest, treasure and wilderness. They appear in ...


Contemporary Indo-Aryan peoples

*
Assamese people The Assamese people are a socio- ethnolinguistic identity that has been described at various times as nationalistic or micro-nationalistic. This group is often associated with the Assamese language, though the use of the term precedes the n ...
*
Awadhi people The Awadhi people or Awadhis (Awadhi/Hindi: अवधी, Urdu: ) are an Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who speak the Awadhi dialect and reside in the Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh. Many Awadhis also migrated to Madhya Pr ...
*
Banjara people The Banjara (also known as Gor, Nayak, Lambadi) are a historically Nomads of India, nomadic Trade, trading tribe who may have origins in the Mewar region of what is now Rajasthan. They are now found throughout Northwestern, Western and Souther ...

Banjara people
*
Bengali people Bengalis or Bangalis ( bn, বাঙালি ), also rendered as the Bengali people, are an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peopl ...

Bengali people
*
Bhil people Bhils or Bheels are an Indo-Aryan speaking ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of tradit ...
*
Bhojpuri people The Bhojpuri people are an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *Aryan invasion theory (disambigua ...
*
Bishnupriya Manipuri people The Bishnupriya Manipuris are a group of Indo-Aryan people, Indo-Aryan people that are indigenous to the Indian state of Manipur and are also found in neighbouring Assam, Tripura and northeastern Bangladesh. They speak the Bishnupriya Manipuri ...
* Brokpa people *
Chakma people The Chakma people, are a native group from the easternmost regions of the Indian subcontinent, they are the largest ethnic group in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in southeastern Bangladesh, and in Mizoram, India (Chakma Autonomous District ...
* Deccani people *
Dhivehi people Dhivehi, also spelled Divehi, may refer to: *Dhivehi people, an ethnic group native to the historic region of the Maldive Islands *Maldivian language, Dhivehi language, an Indo-Aryan language predominantly spoken by about 350,000 people in the Repu ...
*
Dogra people The Dogras or Dogra people, are an Indo-Aryans, Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group in India and Pakistan consisting of the Dogri language speakers. Dogras ruled Jammu from the 19th century, when Gulab Singh was made a hereditary Raja of Jammu by ...
*
Garhwali people The Garhwali people are an Indian ethnolinguistic group native to the Garhwal, in the Indian state of Uttarakhand Uttarakhand (), formerly known as Uttaranchal (), is a state in the northern part of India India (Hindi: ), official ...
*
Gujarati people The Gujarati people or Gujaratis, are an Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group who speak Gujarati language, Gujarati, an Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan language. While they mainly inhabit the Indian state of Gujarat, they have ...
*
Halba people Halba are a community found in Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa in India. However over last two decades, many people have moved to other parts of India for education, work and jobs.They speak the Halbi language, Marathi languag ...
*
Haryanvi people The Haryanvi people are an Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is a group that is unified by both a common ethnicity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each ...
* Jaunsari people *
Kalash people The Kalasha (Kalasha A kalasha, also spelled kalash or kalasa, also called ghat or ghot ( sa, कळश , Kannada: ಕಳಶ literally "pitcher, pot"), is a metal (brass, copper, silver or gold) pot with a large base and small mouth, large en ...
*
Kashmiri people Kashmiris are a Dardic ethno-linguistic group and first-language speakers of the Kashmiri, living mostly, but not exclusively, in the Kashmir Valley #REDIRECT Kashmir Valley The Kashmir Valley, also known as the ''Vale of Kashmir'', is ...
*
Khas people Khas people (; ne, खस) also called Khas and Arya are an Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group native to South Asia, what is now present-day Nepal and Indian states of Uttarakhand, West Bengal and Sikkim.The Khas people speak ...
*
Kho people The Kho (, khw, ) or Chitrali people are an Dardic ethnolinguistic group An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is a group that is unified by both a common ethnicity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people ...
*
Kohistani people Kohistanis are speakers of the Maiyã language, a member of the Dardic subgroup of the Indo-Aryan language family. They are located in Northern Pakistan (Indus Kohistan). History Inhabiting the region of Kohistan, the Kohistani formerly prac ...
*
Konkani people The Konkani people ( also , ) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic community who inhabit or originate from the Konkan region of western India, and speak various dialects of the Konkani language. They are the native majority (but resident minori ...
*
Kumauni people Kumaonis, also known as Kumaiye, are people who speak Kumaoni language as their first-language and live mostly in Kumaon division, Kumaon, in the Indian Himalayas. Kumaoni is also used as an address for people who have their origin in Kumao ...
*
Kutchi people The Kutchi people ( Kutchi and Gujarati: કચ્છી) traditionally hail from the Kutch district of the western India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countrie ...
*
Magahi people This article is about the culture of the present-day Magadh division, Magadh region split between the states of Bihar and Jharkhand, India. The major language of the region is Magahi language, Magahi. Language Magahi language spoken in south Biha ...
* Maithil people *
Marathi people The Marathi people, also rendered as Marathis or Maharashtrian, are an ethnolinguistic group who speak Marathi, an Indo-Aryan language as their native language. They inhabit the state of Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH) is a state i ...
*
Marwari people The Marwari or Marwadi are an India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries a ...
*
Nagpuri people Nagpuri or Nagpuria are an Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group who traditionally speak Nagpuri as their native language and reside in western Chota Nagpur Plateau region of Indian state Jharkhand Jharkhand (; ; meaning "The land of forests" ...
* Odia people * Pashayi people * Punjabi people * Rajasthani people * Romani people * Rohingya people * Saraiki people * Saurashtra people * Sindhi people * Sinhalese people * Tharu people * Warli


See also

*Indo-Iranians *Dardic peoples *Aryan *Aryan race *Aryavarta *Dasa *
Indo-Aryan languages The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages form a major language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages h ...
*Proto-Indo-Europeans *Dravidian peoples *''Early Indians'' *Indian diaspora *Dewa (people)


References


Citations


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * Mallory, JP. 1998. "A European Perspective on Indo-Europeans in Asia". In ''The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Peoples of Eastern and Central Asia''. Ed. Mair. Washington DC: Institute for the Study of Man. * * * Trubachov, Oleg N., 1999: Indoarica, Nauka, Moscow. * *


External links


Horseplay at Harappa - People Fas Harvard - Harvard University
- Frontline (magazine), Frontline {{DEFAULTSORT:Indo-Aryan Peoples Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-European peoples Modern Indo-European peoples, Ancient peoples of India Ancient peoples of Pakistan Ancient peoples of Nepal