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''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' is a 1984 American
action ACTION is a bus operator in , Australia owned by the . History On 19 July 1926, the commenced operating public bus services between Eastlake (now ) in the south and in the north. The service was first known as Canberra City Omnibus Se ...
-
adventure film Adventure films are a genre of film whose plots feature elements of travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical location In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth descriptio ...
directed by
Steven Spielberg Steven Allan Spielberg (; born December 18, 1946) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. He began his career in the New Hollywood New Hollywood, sometimes referred to as the American New Wave or the Hollywood Renaissance, r ...

Steven Spielberg
. It is the second installment in the ''Indiana Jones'' franchise, a
prequel A prequel is a literary, dramatic or cinematic work whose story precedes that of a previous work, by focusing on events that occur before the original narrative. A prequel is a work that forms part of a backstory A backstory, background story, ba ...
to the 1981 film ''
Raiders of the Lost Ark ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' is a 1981 American Action film#Action-adventure, action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Lawrence Kasdan, based on a story by George Lucas and Philip Kaufman. It stars Harrison Ford, Karen ...
'', featuring
Harrison Ford Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American actor, pilot, and environmental activist. , the U.S. domestic box office grosses of his films total over $5.1billion, with worldwide grosses surpassing $9.3billion, placing him at No. 4 on th ...

Harrison Ford
reprising his role as the title character. After arriving in
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
,
Indiana Jones ''Indiana Jones'' is an American media franchise based on the adventures of Indiana Jones (character), Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones Jr., a fictional professor of archaeology, that began in 1981 with the film ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. In ...
is asked by desperate villagers to find a mystical stone and rescue their children from a
Thuggee Thuggee (, ) refers to the acts of the Thugs, who were organised gangs of professional robber Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear. According to comm ...
cult practicing
child slavery Child slavery is the slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for another person (a slaver), while treated as property Property (''latin: Res Pr ...
, black magic, and ritualistic
human sacrifice Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more humans as part of a ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and according to a set sequence. Rituals may be ...
in honor of the goddess,
Kali Kali (; sa, काली, ), also known as Dakshina Kālikā ( sa, दक्षिण कालिका), is a Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of H ...

Kali
. Not wishing to feature the
Nazis Nazism (), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus; ), is the ideology and practices associated with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (german: link=no, Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP, or National Socia ...

Nazis
as the villains again,
George Lucas George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and entrepreneur. Lucas is best known for creating the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia fr ...

George Lucas
, executive producer and co-writer, decided to regard this film as a prequel. Three
plot device A plot device or plot mechanism is any technique Technique or techniques may refer to: Music * The Techniques, a Jamaican rocksteady vocal group of the 1960s *Technique (band), a British female synth pop band in the 1990s *Technique (album), '' ...
s were rejected before Lucas wrote a
film treatment A film treatment (or simply treatment) is a piece of prose, typically the step between scene cards (index cards) and the first draft of a screenplay A screenplay, or script, is a written work by screenwriter A screenplay writer (also call ...
that resembled the final storyline.
Lawrence Kasdan Lawrence Edward Kasdan (born January 14, 1949) is an American director, screenwriter, and producer. He is the co-writer of the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic space opera media franchise created by George Lucas, which began ...
, Lucas's collaborator on ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'', turned down the offer to write the script, and
Willard Huyck Willard Miller Huyck, Jr. (born September 8, 1945) is an American screenwriter, director and producer, best known for his association with George Lucas George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American film director, producer, scree ...
and
Gloria Katz Gloria Katz (October 25, 1942 – November 25, 2018) was an American screenwriter A screenplay writer (also called screenwriter for short), scriptwriter or scenarist, is a writer A writer is a person who uses written words in different ...
were hired as his replacements, who had previously worked with Lucas on ''
American Graffiti ''American Graffiti'' is a 1973 American coming-of-age Coming of age is a young person's transition from being a child to being an adult. It continues through adolescence. The specific age at which this transition takes place varies bet ...
''. The film was released to financial success but initial reviews were mixed, criticizing its darker elements and violence. However, critical opinion has improved since 1984, citing the film's intensity and imagination. In response to some of the more violent sequences in the film, and with similar complaints about ''
Gremlins ''Gremlins'' is a 1984 American comedy horror film directed by Joe Dante and written by Chris Columbus (filmmaker), Chris Columbus. It draws on legends of folkloric mischievous creatures that cause malfunctions—"gremlins"—in the British Ro ...

Gremlins
'', Spielberg suggested that the
Motion Picture Association of America The Motion Picture Association (MPA) is an American trade association A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association, sector association or industry body, is an organization founded and funded by businesses ...
(MPAA) alter its rating system, which it did within two months of the film's release, creating a new
PG-13 The Motion Picture Association (MPA) film rating system is used in the United States and its territories to rate a film's suitability for certain audiences based on its content. The MPA rating system is a voluntary scheme that is not enforced by la ...
rating. It was released to cinemas in the United States on May 23, 1984. It was nominated for the
Academy Award for Best Original Score An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the ...
and won the
Academy Award for Best Visual Effects The Academy Award for Best Visual Effects is an Academy Awards, Academy Award given for the best achievement in visual effects. History of the award The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences first recognized the technical contributions of ...
. A sequel, ''
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'' is a 1989 American action film, action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg, from a story co-written by executive producer George Lucas. It is the third installment in the Indiana Jones, ''Indiana J ...
'', followed in 1989.


Plot

In 1935, Indiana Jones survives a murder attempt by , a crime boss in
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the sou ...

Shanghai
who has hired him to retrieve the remains of
Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to ''commander'' under the Roma ...
Nurhaci Nurhaci (1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen people, Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. He was a member of the House of Aisin-Gioro, and reigned as the founding Khan (title), khan of the Later J ...

Nurhaci
. With his young orphaned
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
sidekick,
Short Round This is a list of characters in the ''Indiana Jones'' series. Introduced in ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' Indiana Jones Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr. (Harrison Ford Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American actor, pilot, a ...
, and the nightclub singer, Willie Scott, in tow, Indy flees Shanghai on a
cargo aircraft A cargo aircraft (also known as freight aircraft, freighter, airlifter or cargo jet) is a fixed-wing aircraft A fixed-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air flying machine Early flying machines include all forms of aircraft studied or c ...

cargo aircraft
. While the three of them are asleep, the pilots (employed by Lao Che) dump the fuel and escape via parachute, leaving the plane to crash over the
Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It ar ...

Himalayas
. The three narrowly manage to survive by jumping out of the plane on an inflatable raft. They ride down the mountain slopes and fall into a raging river, eventually arriving at the village of Mayapore in northern
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
. The villagers plead for their aid in retrieving the stolen from their shrine, along with their missing children, by evil forces in the nearby Pankot Palace. Indy agrees to do so, hypothesizing that the stone is one of the five Sankara stones given by the gods to help humanity fight evil. The trio receive a warm welcome at Pankot Palace and are allowed to stay for the night as guests, attending a lavish, but revolting, banquet hosted by the young
Maharajah Mahārāja ; (also spelled Maharajah, Maharaj) is a Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo ...
. The officials rebuff Indy's theory that the
Thuggee Thuggee (, ) refers to the acts of the Thugs, who were organised gangs of professional robber Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear. According to comm ...
cult is responsible for their troubles. Later that night, Indy is attacked by an assassin. After Indy kills him, he discovers a series of tunnels hidden behind a statue and sets out to explore them, overcoming a number of booby-traps. The trio reach an underground temple where the Thuggees worship
Kali Kali (; sa, काली, ), also known as Dakshina Kālikā ( sa, दक्षिण कालिका), is a Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of H ...

Kali
with human sacrifice. They discover that the Thuggees now possess three of the Sankara stones and have enslaved the children to search for the last two, hidden in the palace catacombs. As Indy tries to retrieve the stones, he, Willie, and Shorty are captured. Thuggee high priest Mola Ram forces Indy to drink a potion that puts him into a trance-like state in which he mindlessly serves the cult. Willie is prepared for sacrifice, while Shorty is put to work in the mines with the other children. Shorty escapes and returns to the temple, where he first frees Indy and, later, the Maharajah from the effects of the potion. Indy saves Willie and retrieves the stones. After freeing the children, Indy fights a hulking overseer who gets killed by a rock crusher. The trio escape from the temple, pursued by Thuggees, and barely escape Mola Ram's attempt to flood them out. They are again ambushed by Mola Ram and his henchmen on a rope bridge above a crocodile-infested river. Indy cuts the bridge, causing several of the henchmen to fall to the crocodiles and leaving the survivors to hang on for their lives. As Mola Ram and Indy struggle, Indy invokes the name of
Shiva Shiva (; sa, शिव, lit=The Auspicious One, Śiva ), also known as Mahadeva (; ɐɦaːd̪eːʋɐ, is one of the Hindu deities, principal deities of Hinduism. He is the God, Supreme Being in Shaivism, one of the major traditions wit ...

Shiva
, causing the stones to glow red-hot and burn through Indy's satchel. Two of them fall out; Mola Ram tries to catch the third, but burns his hand and falls from the bridge and into the river, where he, too, is eaten by the crocodiles. Indy catches the stone safely and climbs up just as a company of
British Indian Army The British Indian Army was the main military of the British Indian Empire The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam' ...
riflemen, sent by the Maharajah, arrive and open fire against the Thuggees to drive them away; the surviving Thuggees are soon cornered and arrested by more soldiers. Indy, Willie, and Shorty return safely to Mayapore with the stone and the missing children.


Cast

*
Harrison Ford Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American actor, pilot, and environmental activist. , the U.S. domestic box office grosses of his films total over $5.1billion, with worldwide grosses surpassing $9.3billion, placing him at No. 4 on th ...

Harrison Ford
as
Indiana Jones ''Indiana Jones'' is an American media franchise based on the adventures of Indiana Jones (character), Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones Jr., a fictional professor of archaeology, that began in 1981 with the film ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. In ...
: An
archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biological, geological, ...
adventurer who is asked by a desperate Indian village to retrieve a mysterious stone and rescue the missing village children. Ford undertook a strict physical exercise regimen headed by
Jake Steinfeld Jake Steinfeld (born ) is an American actor, fitness icon, entrepreneur and producer. He develops businesses through the "Body by Jake" brand. Early life Born in Sea Gate in Brooklyn, Jake was raised in Baldwin, Long Island, and dropped out of SUN ...
to gain a more muscular tone for the part. *
Kate Capshaw Kathleen Sue Spielberg (née Nail; born November 3, 1953), known professionally as Kate Capshaw, is an American retired actress, best known for her portrayal of Willie Scott, an American nightclub singer and performer in '' Indiana Jones and the T ...

Kate Capshaw
as Willie Scott: An American
nightclub A nightclub (music club, discothèque, disco club, or simply ''club'') is an entertainment venue during night Night (also described as night time, night-time, or nighttime, unconventionally spelled as ''nite'') is the period of ambie ...
singer working in Shanghai. In a nod to the ''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture Cultural impact of S ...

Star Wars
'' franchise, the nightclub is called ''Club Obi Wan''. Willie is unprepared for her adventure with Indy and Short Round, and appears to be a
damsel in distress The damsel in distress is a recurring narrative device (or trope) in which one or more men must rescue a woman who has either been kidnapped or placed in general peril. Kinship, love, or lust gives the male protagonist the motivation or compuls ...
. She also forms a romantic relationship with Indy. Over 120 actresses auditioned for the role, including
Sharon Stone Sharon Vonne Stone (born March 10, 1958) is an American actress, producer, and former fashion model. Known for playing femme fatale A ''femme fatale'' ( or ; , literally "fatal woman"), sometimes called a maneater or vamp, is a stock charac ...

Sharon Stone
. To prepare for the role, Capshaw watched ''
The African QueenThe African Queen may refer to: Horticulture * African Queen, a cultivar of ''Osteospermum'', a member of the sunflower family Vessels * African Queen (boat), the vessel used in the 1951 film "The African Queen" * African Queen (ship), including a ...
'' and ''
A Guy Named Joe ''A Guy Named Joe'' is a 1943 American romantic fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe, often inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which then became fantasy litera ...
''. Spielberg wanted Willie to be a complete contrast to
Marion Ravenwood Marion Ravenwood is a fictional character who first appeared in the 1981 film ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. Played by Karen Allen, she enters the story when Indiana Jones (character), Indiana Jones visits her in Nepal, needing her help to locate the ...
from ''
Raiders of the Lost Ark ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' is a 1981 American Action film#Action-adventure, action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Lawrence Kasdan, based on a story by George Lucas and Philip Kaufman. It stars Harrison Ford, Karen ...
'', so Capshaw dyed her brown hair blonde for the part. Costume designer
Anthony Powell Anthony Dymoke Powell ( ; 21 December 1905 – 28 March 2000) was an English novelist best known for his 12-volume work '' A Dance to the Music of Time'', published between 1951 and 1975. It is on the list of longest novels in English. Powell' ...
wanted the character to have red hair. *
Amrish Puri Amrish Lal Puri (22 June 1932 – 12 January 2005) was an Indian actor, who was an important figure in Indian theatre Indian theatre is one of the most ancient forms of theatre and it features a detailed textual, sculptural, and dramatic ...

Amrish Puri
as Mola Ram: A
Thuggee Thuggee (, ) refers to the acts of the Thugs, who were organised gangs of professional robber Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear. According to comm ...
priest who performs rites of
human sacrifice Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more humans as part of a ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and according to a set sequence. Rituals may be ...
s. The character is named after a 17th-century Indian painter. Lucas wanted Mola Ram to be terrifying, so the screenwriters added elements of Aztec and Hawaiian human sacrificers and European devil worship to the character. To create his headdress, make-up artist
Tom SmithTom Smith may refer to: Sports *Tom Smith (horse trainer) (1878–1957), American thoroughbred racehorse trainer of Seabiscuit *Tom Smith (second baseman) (1851–1889), Major League player *Tom Smith (pitcher) (1871–1929), Major League player ...
based the skull on a cow (as this would be
sacrilegious Konstantin Makovsky. The Bulgarian martyresses. 1877 Atrocities of bashibazouks in Bulgarian Orthodox Church Sacrilege is the violation or injurious treatment of a sacred object, site or person. This can take the form of irreverence to sacred pe ...
), and used a latex
shrunken head A shrunken head is a severed and specially prepared human head In human anatomy, the head is at the top of the human body The human body is the structure of a Human, human being. It is composed of many different types of Cell (biology), ce ...

shrunken head
. *
Roshan Seth Roshan Seth (born 2 April 1942) is a British-Indian actor, writer and stage director who has worked in the United Kingdom, United States and India. He began his acting career in the early 1960s in the UK, but left acting the following decade and ...
as Chattar Lal: The Prime Minister of the Maharaja of Pankot. Chattar, also a Thuggee worshiper, is enchanted by Indy, Willie and Short Round's arrival, but is offended by Indy's questioning of the palace's history and the archaeologist's own dubious past. *
Philip Stone Philip or Phillip or Philipp or Phillipp, may refer to: People * Philip (name) Philip is a male given name, derived from the Greek language, Greek (''Philippos'', lit. "horse-loving" or "fond of horses"Liddell, Henry George & al.Φίλιππο ...
as Captain Philip Blumburtt: A
British Indian Army The British Indian Army was the main military of the British Indian Empire The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam' ...
Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a military rank in a ...
on a routine inspection tour of Pankot and the surrounding area. Alongside a unit of his riflemen, Blumburtt assists Indy towards the end in fighting off Thuggee reinforcements. * Jonathan Ke Quan as
Short Round This is a list of characters in the ''Indiana Jones'' series. Introduced in ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' Indiana Jones Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr. (Harrison Ford Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American actor, pilot, a ...
: Indy's 11-year-old Chinese sidekick, who drives the 1936 Auburn Boat Tail Speedster that allows Indy to escape during the opening sequence. Quan was chosen as part of a
casting call In the performing arts industry such as theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live ...
in Los Angeles. Around 6,000 actors auditioned worldwide for the part, including
Peter Shinkoda Peter Shinkoda (born March 25, 1971) is a Japanese Canadian film and television actor who stars as Dai on the TNT (U.S. TV network), TNT science fiction series ''Falling Skies'' from Steven Spielberg and as Sektor in the Warner Bros. webseries ' ...
: Quan was cast after his brother auditioned for the role. Spielberg liked his personality, so he and Ford improvised the scene where Short Round accuses Indy of cheating during a card game. He was credited by his birthname, Ke Huy Quan. Additionally,
Roy Chiao Roy Chiao (16 March 1927 – 15 April 1999) was a Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. ( ...
portrays , a Shanghai
crime boss A crime boss, also known as a crime lord, Don, gang lord, kingpin, godfather, or criminal mastermind, is a person in charge of a criminal organization. A crime boss typically has absolute or nearly absolute control over the other members of th ...
who, with his sons Chen (Chua Kah Joo) and Kao Kan ( Ric Young), hires Indy to recover the cremated ashes of one of his ancestors; Ron Taylor dubbed Chiao's voice.
David Yip David Nicholas Yip (; born 4 June 1951) is a British actor of Chinese and English descent best known for his lead role in '' The Chinese Detective''. Early life Yip was born in Liverpool Liverpool is a City status in the United Kingdom, ...
portrays Wu Han, a friend of Indy, who is killed in Club Obi Wan. Raj Singh (dubbed by
Katie Leigh Katie Leigh is an American voice actress, best known for her roles as Sunni Gummi in '' Disney's Adventures of the Gummi Bears'', Zuzu in '' Poppy Cat'', Alex in the first two seasons of ''Totally Spies! ''Totally Spies!'' is a French-Canadian ...
) portrays Zalim Singh, the adolescent Maharajá of Pankot, and D. R. Nanayakkara portrays Shaman, the leader of a small village that recruits Indy to retrieve their stolen sacred
Shiva Shiva (; sa, शिव, lit=The Auspicious One, Śiva ), also known as Mahadeva (; ɐɦaːd̪eːʋɐ, is one of the Hindu deities, principal deities of Hinduism. He is the God, Supreme Being in Shaivism, one of the major traditions wit ...

Shiva
lingam A lingam ( sa, लिङ्ग , lit. "sign, symbol or mark"), sometimes referred to as linga or Shiva linga, is an abstract or Aniconism, aniconic representation of the Hinduism, Hindu Hindu deities, god Shiva in Shaivism. The original meanin ...

lingam
stone. Actor
Pat Roach Francis Patrick Roach (19 May 1937 – 17 July 2004) was an English actor, and professional wrestler. During an acting career between the 1970s and the 1990s, he appeared in multiple films, usually cast as a support player strongman villain. He ...
plays the Thuggee overseer in the mines, with painted brown skin; Roach had previously appeared as a white mechanic and the Giant Sherpa in ''
Raiders of the Lost Ark ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' is a 1981 American Action film#Action-adventure, action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Lawrence Kasdan, based on a story by George Lucas and Philip Kaufman. It stars Harrison Ford, Karen ...
''.
Spielberg Steven Allan Spielberg (; born December 18, 1946) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. He began his career in the New Hollywood era, and is one of the most commercially List of highest-grossing film directors, successful di ...

Spielberg
,
Lucas Lucas or LUCAS may refer to: People * Lucas (surname) * Lucas (given name) Arts and entertainment * Luca Family Singers, also known as "The Lucas" * Lucas (album), ''Lucas'' (album) (2007), an album by Skeletons and the Kings of All Cities * Lucas ...

Lucas
,
Marshall Marshall may refer to: Places United States * Marshall, Alaska * Marshall, Arkansas * Marshall, California * Lotus, California, former name Marshall * Marshall Pass, a mountain pass in Colorado * Marshall, Illinois * Marshall, Indiana * Marshall, ...
, Kennedy, and
Dan Aykroyd Daniel Edward Aykroyd ( ; born July 1, 1952) is a Canadian actor, comedian, producer, musician and writer. He was an original member of the "Not Ready for Prime Time Players" on ''Saturday Night Live ''Saturday Night Live'' (also known as ...

Dan Aykroyd
have cameos at the airport.
Tress MacNeille Teressa Claire MacNeille ( Payne; born June 20, 1951) is an American voice actress, whose credits include voicing Dot Warner on the animated television series ''Animaniacs'', Babs Bunny on ''Tiny Toon Adventures'' and Daisy Duck in various Disney ...

Tress MacNeille
dubbed the voice of the first slave child in the prison scene.


Production


Development

Spielberg later recalled that when Lucas first approached him for ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'', "George said if I directed the first one then I would have to direct a trilogy. He had three stories in mind. It turned out George did not have three stories in mind and we had to make up subsequent stories."Indiana Jones: Making the Trilogy, 2003,
Paramount Pictures Paramount Pictures Corporation (common metonym Metonymy () is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric ...

Paramount Pictures
Both men later attributed the film's tone, which was darker than ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'', to their personal moods following the breakups of their relationships. In addition, Lucas felt "it had to have been a dark film. The way '' Empire Strikes Back'' was the dark second act of the ''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture Cultural impact of S ...

Star Wars
'' trilogy." Spielberg had said "The danger in making a sequel is that you can never satisfy everyone. If you give people the same movie with different scenes, they say why weren't you more original?" "But if you give them the same character in another fantastic adventure, but with a different tone, you risk disappointing the other half of the audience who just wanted a carbon copy of the first film with a different girl and a different bad guy. So you win and you lose both ways." Lucas set the film in an earlier year than the first to avoid repeating the use of Nazis as the villains. Spielberg originally wanted to bring
Marion Ravenwood Marion Ravenwood is a fictional character who first appeared in the 1981 film ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. Played by Karen Allen, she enters the story when Indiana Jones (character), Indiana Jones visits her in Nepal, needing her help to locate the ...
back, with Abner Ravenwood considered as a possible character. In developing the story, Lucas conceived of an opening chase scene with
Indiana Jones ''Indiana Jones'' is an American media franchise based on the adventures of Indiana Jones (character), Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones Jr., a fictional professor of archaeology, that began in 1981 with the film ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. In ...
on a motorcycle on the
Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typic ...

Great Wall of China
, followed by the discovery of a "''
Lost World The lost world is a subgenre Genre () is any form or type of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities or Organization, grou ...
'' pastiche with a hidden valley inhabited by dinosaurs". Another idea was to feature the as the
plot device A plot device or plot mechanism is any technique Technique or techniques may refer to: Music * The Techniques, a Jamaican rocksteady vocal group of the 1960s *Technique (band), a British female synth pop band in the 1990s *Technique (album), '' ...
. However, Chinese authorities refused permission for them to film in the country, requiring a different setting. Lucas wrote a
film treatment A film treatment (or simply treatment) is a piece of prose, typically the step between scene cards (index cards) and the first draft of a screenplay A screenplay, or script, is a written work by screenwriter A screenplay writer (also call ...
that included a haunted castle in Scotland, but Spielberg felt it was too similar to ''
Poltergeist In ghostlore, a poltergeist ( or ; German for "loud ghost" or "noisy spirit") is a type of ghost or spirit that is responsible for physical disturbances, such as loud noises and objects being moved or destroyed. Most claims about or fictional de ...
''; so the setting transformed into a
demon A demon is a supernatural being, typically associated with evil, prevalent historically in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology, and folklore; as well as in Media (communication), media such as comics, video games, movies, an ...

demon
ic temple in India. Lucas came up with ideas that involved a religious cult devoted to
child slavery Child slavery is the slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for another person (a slaver), while treated as property Property (''latin: Res Pr ...
, black magic, and ritual
human sacrifice Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more humans as part of a ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and according to a set sequence. Rituals may be ...
.
Lawrence Kasdan Lawrence Edward Kasdan (born January 14, 1949) is an American director, screenwriter, and producer. He is the co-writer of the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic space opera media franchise created by George Lucas, which began ...
of ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' was asked to write the script. "I didn't want to be associated with ''Temple of Doom''," he reflected. "I just thought it was horrible. It's so mean. There's nothing pleasant about it. I think ''Temple of Doom'' represents a chaotic period in both their ucas's and Spielberg'slives, and the movie is very ugly and mean-spirited." Lucas hired
Willard Huyck Willard Miller Huyck, Jr. (born September 8, 1945) is an American screenwriter, director and producer, best known for his association with George Lucas George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American film director, producer, scree ...
and
Gloria Katz Gloria Katz (October 25, 1942 – November 25, 2018) was an American screenwriter A screenplay writer (also called screenwriter for short), scriptwriter or scenarist, is a writer A writer is a person who uses written words in different ...
to write the script because of their knowledge of
Indian culture Indian culture is the heritage Heritage may refer to: History and society * In history History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the inven ...
. ''
Gunga Din "Gunga Din" is an 1890 poem by Rudyard Kipling set in British Raj, British India. The poem is much remembered for its final line: "You're a better man than I am, Gunga Din". Background The poem is a rhyming narrative from the point of view o ...
'' served as an influence for the film. Huyck and Katz spent four days at
Skywalker Ranch Skywalker Ranch is a movie ranch and workplace of film director A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay (or script) while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that Goal, ...
for story discussions with Lucas and Spielberg in early 1982. They later said the early plot consisted of two notions of Lucas': that Indy would recover something stolen from a village and decide whether to give it back, and that the picture would start in China and work its way to India. Huyck says Lucas was very single-minded about getting through meetings, while "Steve would always stop and think about visual stuff.""Gloria Katz and Willard Huyck's Best Defense Against Critics Is Their Screenwriting Track Record" By Donald G. McNeil Jr. August 20, 1984 ''People Magazine''
accessed April 22, 2015
Lucas's initial idea for Indiana's
sidekick A sidekick is a slang expression for a close companion or colleague (not necessarily in fiction) who is, or is generally regarded as, subordinate to the one they accompany. Some well-known fictional sidekicks are Don Quixote (, ;Oxford ...
was a virginal young princess, but Huyck, Katz, and Spielberg disliked the idea. Just as Indiana Jones was named after Lucas's
Alaskan Malamute The Alaskan Malamute () is a large breed of dog A dog breed is a particular strain or dog type that was purposefully bred by humans to perform specific tasks, such as herding, hunting, and guarding. When distinguishing breed from type, the ...

Alaskan Malamute
, the character of Willie was named after Spielberg's
Cocker Spaniel Cocker Spaniels are dogs belonging to two breeds of the spaniel A spaniel is a type Type may refer to: Science and technology Computing * Typing, producing text via a keyboard, typewriter, etc. * Data type, collection of values used for comp ...

Cocker Spaniel
, and Short Round was named after Huyck's dog, whose name was derived from ''
The Steel Helmet ''The Steel Helmet'' is a 1951 American war film directed, written, and produced by Samuel Fuller during the Korean War. The cast stars Gene Evans, Robert Hutton (actor), Robert Hutton, Steve Brodie (actor), Steve Brodie, James Edwards (actor), Ja ...
''. Lucas handed Huyck and Katz a 20-page treatment in May 1982 titled ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Death'' to adapt into a screenplay. Scenes such as the fight scene in Shanghai, the escape from the airplane, and the mine cart chase came from earlier scripts of ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''."FORTUNE AND GLORY: Writers of Doom! Quint interviews Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz!" ''Ain't It Cool New'' 23 May 2014
accessed April 23, 2015
Lucas, Huyck, and Katz had been developing ''
Radioland Murders ''Radioland Murders'' is a 1994 American comedy thrillerComedy thrillers are a cross-genre that draw subject matter generally from comedy and Thriller (genre), thrillers. They often include a darker tone, relative to other genres, of humor. Example ...
'' (1994) since the early 1970s. The opening music was taken from that script and applied to ''Temple of Doom''. Spielberg reflected, "George's idea was to start the movie with a musical number. He wanted to do a
Busby Berkeley Busby Berkeley (born Berkeley William Enos; November 29, 1895 – March 14, 1976) was an American film director and musical film, musical choreographer. Berkeley devised elaborate musical production numbers that often involved complex geometric ...
dance number. At all our story meetings he would say, 'Hey, Steven, you always said you wanted to shoot musicals.' I thought, 'Yeah, that could be fun. Lucas, Spielberg, Katz, and Huyck were concerned how to keep the audience interest while explaining the Thuggee cult. Huyck and Katz proposed a tiger hunt but Spielberg said, "There's no way I'm going to stay in India long enough to shoot a tiger hunt." They eventually decided on a dinner scene involving eating bugs, , and the like. "Steve and George both still react like children, so their idea was to make it as gross as possible," says Katz. Lucas sent Huyck and Katz a 500-page transcript of their taped conversations to help them with the script. The first draft was written in six weeks, in early August 1982. "Steve was coming off an enormously successful movie 'E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial''] and George didn't want to lose him," said Katz. "He desperately wanted him to direct (''Temple of Doom''). We were under a lot of pressure to do it really, really fast so we could hold on to Steve." A second draft was finished by September. Captain Blumburtt, Chattar Lal, and the boy Maharaja originally had more crucial roles. A dogfight was deleted, as well as those who drank the
Kali Kali (; sa, काली, ), also known as Dakshina Kālikā ( sa, दक्षिण कालिका), is a Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of H ...

Kali
blood turned into zombies with physical superhuman abilities. During pre-production, the ''Temple of Death'' title was replaced with ''Temple of Doom''. From March to April 1983, Huyck and Katz simultaneously performed rewrites for a final shooting script. Huyck and Katz later said Harrison Ford took many of the One-line joke, one liners originally given to Short Round.


Filming

The filmmakers were denied permission to film in North India and Amer Fort, due to the government finding the script offensive. Producer Frank Marshall (filmmaker), Frank Marshall explained that "originally the scenes were going to be shot in India at a fantastic palace. They required us to give them a script, so we sent it over and we didn't think it was going to be a problem. But because of the voodoo element with Mola Ram and the Thuggees, the Indian government was a little bit hesitant to give us permission. They wanted us to do things like not use the term Maharajah, and they didn't want us to shoot in a particular temple that we had picked. The Indian government wanted changes to the script and final cut privilege." As a result, location work went to Kandy, Sri Lanka, with matte paintings and scale models applied for the village, temple, and Pankot Palace. Budgetary inflation also caused ''Temple of Doom'' to cost $28.17 million, $8 million more than ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. Principal photography, Filming began on April 18, 1983, in Kandy,Rinzler, Bouzereau, Chapter 6: "Doomruners (April—August 1983), p. 142—167 and moved to Elstree Studios (Shenley Road), Elstree Studios in Hertfordshire, England on May 5. Marshall recalled, "when filming the bug scenes, crew members would go home and find bugs in their hair, clothes and shoes." Eight out of the nine sound stages at Elstree housed the filming of ''Temple of Doom''. Lucas list of biographers, biographer Marcus Hearn observed, "Douglas Slocombe's skillful lighting helped disguise the fact that about 80 percent of the film was shot with sound stages." Danny Daniels choreographed the opening music number "Anything Goes (Cole Porter song), Anything Goes". Capshaw learned to sing in Standard Chinese, Mandarin and took tap dance lessons. However the dress was fitted so tightly that Capshaw was not able to dance in it. Made by Barbara Matera (costume designer), Barbara Matera out of original 1920s and 1930s beads, the dress was one of a kind. The opening dance number was actually the last scene to be shot, but the dress did feature in some earlier location shots in Sri Lanka, drying on a nearby tree. Unfortunately an elephant had started to eat it, tearing the whole back of the dress. Consequently, some emergency repair work had to be done by Matera with what remained of the original beads, and it was costume designer
Anthony Powell Anthony Dymoke Powell ( ; 21 December 1905 – 28 March 2000) was an English novelist best known for his 12-volume work '' A Dance to the Music of Time'', published between 1951 and 1975. It is on the list of longest novels in English. Powell' ...
who had to fill in the insurance forms. As to the reason for damage, he had no option but to put "dress eaten by elephant". In a 2003 documentary on the making of the film (first released when the original trilogy made its debut on DVD), costume designer Anthony Powell stated that only one evening dress was made for Capshaw due to the limited amount of original 1920s and 1930s beads and sequins (story above). However, there have been more than one of these dresses on display at the same time in different countries, so this story cannot be entirely true – from late 2014, a dress was on display at the Hollywood Costume exhibition in Los Angeles (exhibition ran from October 2, 2014 – March 2, 2015). At the very same time, the travelling "Indiana Jones: Adventure of Archaeology" exhibition was on display in Edmonton in Canada (October 11, 2014 – April 6, 2015) and there featured another of the red & gold dresses. It has also been confirmed by an embroiderer working at Barbara Matera Ltd. at the time, that three dresses were in fact made initially – One for Kate, one for the stunt double, and one "just in case". Production designer Norman Reynolds could not return for ''Temple of Doom'' because of his commitment to ''Return to Oz''. Elliot Scott (''Labyrinth (1986 film), Labyrinth'', ''Who Framed Roger Rabbit''), Reynolds' mentor, was hired. To build the rope bridge the filmmakers found a group of British engineers from Balfour Beatty working on the nearby Victoria Dam (Sri Lanka), Victoria Dam. Harrison Ford suffered a severe spinal disc herniation by performing a somersault while filming the scene with the assassin in Jones's bedroom. A hospital bed was brought on set for Ford to rest between Take#Film, takes. Lucas stated, "He could barely stand up, yet he was there every day so shooting would not stop. He was in incomprehensible pain, but he was still trying to make it happen." With no alternatives, Lucas shut down production while Ford was flown to Centinela Freeman Regional Medical Center, Centinela Campus, Centinela Hospital on June 21 for recovery. Stunt double Vic Armstrong spent five weeks as a stand-in for various shots. Wendy Leech, Armstrong's wife, served as Capshaw's stunt double. Macau (then a Portuguese Macau, Portuguese colony) was substituted for Shanghai, while cinematographer Douglas Slocombe caught fever from June 24 to July 7 and could not work. Ford returned on August 8. Despite the problems during filming, Spielberg was able to complete ''Temple of Doom'' on schedule and on budget, finishing principal photography on August 26. Various pick-up (filmmaking), pickups took place afterwards. This included Snake River Canyon (Idaho), Snake River Canyon, in Idaho, Mammoth Mountain, Tuolumne River, Tuolumne and American River, Yosemite National Park, San Joaquin Valley, Hamilton Air Force Base and Arizona.Rinzler, Bouzereau, Chapter 8: "Forward on All Fronts (August 1983 – June 1984)", p. 168—183 Producer Frank Marshall (producer), Frank Marshall directed a second unit in Florida in January 1984, using alligators to double as crocodiles. The mine chase was a combination of a roller coaster and scale models with dolls body double, doubling for the actors. Minor stop motion was also used for the sequence. Visual effects supervisors Dennis Muren, Joe Johnston and a crew at Industrial Light & Magic provided the visual effects work, while Skywalker Sound, headed by Ben Burtt, commissioned the sound design. Burtt recorded roller coasters at Disneyland Park (Anaheim), Disneyland Park in Anaheim for the mine cart scene.


Editing

"After I showed the film to George [Lucas], at an hour and 55 minutes, we looked at each other," Spielberg remembered. "The first thing that we said was, 'Too fast'. We needed to decelerate the action. I did a few more Matte painting, matte shots to slow it down. We made it a little bit slower, by putting breathing room back in so there'd be a two-hour oxygen supply for the audience."


Release


Box office

''Temple of Doom'' was released on May 23, 1984, in America, accumulating a record-breaking $45.7 million in its first week. The film went on to gross $333.1 million worldwide, with $180 million in North America and $153.1 million in other markets. The film had the highest opening weekend of 1984, and was that year's highest-grossing film (third in North America, behind ''Beverly Hills Cop'' and ''Ghostbusters''). It was also the tenth highest-grossing film of all time during its release. It sold an estimated 53,532,800 tickets in the United States.


Promotion

Marvel Comics published a comic book adaptation of the film by writer David Michelinie and artists Jackson Guice, Ian Akin, Brian Garvey (comics), Brian Garvey, and Bob Camp. It was published as ''Marvel Comics Super Special, Marvel Super Special'' #30 and as a three-issue Limited series (comics), limited series. LucasArts and Atari Games promoted the film by releasing an arcade game. Hasbro released a toy line based on the film in September 2008.


Home media

The video was released at Christmas 1986 with a retail price of $29.95 and sold a record 1.4 million units. A DVD version of the film was released in 2003 together with the two other films in the then Indiana Jones trilogy series. A Blu-ray version for the film was released in 2012 as part of a box set for the series, which had four films at the time. In 2021, a remastered 4K version of the film was released on Ultra HD Blu-ray, produced using scans of the original negatives. It was released as part of a box set for the then four films in the Indiana Jones film series.


Reception


Critical response

''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' received mixed reviews upon its release, but over the years the film's reception has shifted to a more positive tone. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 84% based on 69 reviews, with an average rating of 7.20/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "It may be too 'dark' for some, but ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' remains an ingenious adventure spectacle that showcases one of Hollywood's finest filmmaking teams in vintage form." On Metacritic the film has a weighted average score of 57 out of 100, based on 14 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". Roger Ebert gave the film a perfect four-star rating, calling it "the most cheerfully exciting, bizarre, goofy, romantic adventure movie since ''Raiders'', and it is high praise to say that it's not so much a sequel as an equal. It's quite an experience." Vincent Canby felt the film was "too shapeless to be the fun that ''Raiders'' is, but shape may be beside the point. Old-time, 15-part Serial film, movie serials didn't have shape. They just went on and on and on, which is what ''Temple of Doom'' does with humor and technical invention." Neal Gabler commented that "I think in some ways, ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' was better than ''
Raiders of the Lost Ark ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' is a 1981 American Action film#Action-adventure, action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Lawrence Kasdan, based on a story by George Lucas and Philip Kaufman. It stars Harrison Ford, Karen ...
''. In some ways it was less. In sum total, I'd have to say I enjoyed it more. That doesn't mean it's better necessarily, but I got more enjoyment out of it." Colin Covert of the ''Star Tribune'' called the film "sillier, darkly violent and a bit dumbed down, but still great fun." Pauline Kael, writing in ''The New Yorker'', said that "nobody has ever fused thrills and laughter in quite the way that [Spielberg] does here" and claimed that the movie was "the most sheerly pleasurable physical comedy I've seen in years." Dave Kehr stated "The film betrays no human impulse higher than that of a ten-year-old boy trying to gross out his baby sister by dangling a dead worm in her face." Ralph Novak of ''People (magazine), People'' complained "The ads that say 'this film may be too intense for younger children' are fraudulent. No parent should allow a young child to see this traumatizing movie; it would be a cinematic form of child abuse. Even Harrison Ford is required to slap Quan and abuse Capshaw. There are no heroes connected with the film, only two villains; their names are Steven Spielberg and George Lucas." ''The Observer'' described it as "a thin, arch, graceless affair."Halliwell's Film Guide ''The Guardian'' summarized it as "a two-hour series of none too carefully linked chase sequences ... sitting on the edge of your seat gives you a sore bum but also a numb brain." Leonard Maltin gave the movie only 2 out of 4 stars, saying that the film is "headache inducing" and "never gives us a chance to breathe", and chiding the gross-out' gags." Colin Greenland reviewed ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' for ''Imagine (game magazine), Imagine'' magazine, and stated that "''Raiders'' had the wit and lightness of touch not to take itself too seriously. ''Temple'' starts well, but promptly loses itself In clamorous self-importance. I couldn't care less if it outgrosses ''Raiders''. It grossed me out." Kate Capshaw called her character "not much more than a dumb screaming blonde." Steven Spielberg said in 1989 "I wasn't happy with ''Temple of Doom'' at all. It was too dark, too subterranean, and much too horrific. I thought it out-poltered ''
Poltergeist In ghostlore, a poltergeist ( or ; German for "loud ghost" or "noisy spirit") is a type of ghost or spirit that is responsible for physical disturbances, such as loud noises and objects being moved or destroyed. Most claims about or fictional de ...
''. There's not an ounce of my own personal feeling in ''Temple of Doom''." He later added during the ''Making of Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' documentary, "''Temple of Doom'' is my least favorite of the trilogy. I look back and I say, 'Well the greatest thing that I got out of that was I met Kate Capshaw.' We married years later and that to me was the reason I was fated to make ''Temple of Doom''." Lucas, who had divorced from Marcia Lucas, attributed the film's darkness to his relationship problems, but in regards to the film said, "I love the movie, it's just slightly darker in tone and not as fun as the first." In 2014, ''Time Out (magazine), Time Out'' polled several film critics, directors, actors and stunt actors to list their top action films. ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' was listed at 71st place on this list.


Awards

Dennis Muren and Industrial Light & Magic's visual effects department won the
Academy Award for Best Visual Effects The Academy Award for Best Visual Effects is an Academy Awards, Academy Award given for the best achievement in visual effects. History of the award The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences first recognized the technical contributions of ...
at the 57th Academy Awards. Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (soundtrack), Soundtrack composer John Williams was, as he had been for his work on ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'', again nominated for Academy Award for Best Original Score, Original Music Score. The visual effects crew won the same category at the 38th British Academy Film Awards. Cinematographer Douglas Slocombe, editor Michael Kahn (film editor), Michael Kahn, Ben Burtt and other sound designers at Skywalker Sound received nominations. Spielberg, the writers, Harrison Ford, Jonathan Ke Quan,
Anthony Powell Anthony Dymoke Powell ( ; 21 December 1905 – 28 March 2000) was an English novelist best known for his 12-volume work '' A Dance to the Music of Time'', published between 1951 and 1975. It is on the list of longest novels in English. Powell' ...
and prosthetic makeup, makeup designer
Tom SmithTom Smith may refer to: Sports *Tom Smith (horse trainer) (1878–1957), American thoroughbred racehorse trainer of Seabiscuit *Tom Smith (second baseman) (1851–1889), Major League player *Tom Smith (pitcher) (1871–1929), Major League player ...
were nominated for their work at the Saturn Awards. ''Temple of Doom'' was nominated for Saturn Award for Best Fantasy Film, Best Fantasy Film but lost to ''Ghostbusters''.


Controversy

The depiction of Indian culture caused controversy and brought it to the attention of India's censors, who placed a temporary ban on it as it did not open in theaters. The film was later released when it came out on home video. The depiction of Indian cuisine was heavily criticized, as dishes such as baby snakes, eyeball soup, beetles, and chilled monkey brains are not Indian foods. Shashi Tharoor and Yvette Rosser have criticized the film for its portrayal of India, with Rosser writing "[it] seems to have been taken as a valid portrayal of India by many teachers, since a large number of students surveyed complained that teachers referred to the eating of monkey brains." Tharoor criticizes the film for promoting a negative impression of India as "a country where kings and courtiers feasted on stewed snakes and monkey brains, where Kali worshippers plucked the hearts out of their victims and embroiled them in flaming pits, and where evil, poverty and destitution reigned until the Great White Hero could intervene to restore justice and prosperity". Other assessments of the movie, both those contemporaneous to the release of the film, and later reviews, have criticized the depiction of Indian Religions, Indian religion and Chinese characters as racist and orientalism, orientalist, and reflecting white savior tropes.
Roshan Seth Roshan Seth (born 2 April 1942) is a British-Indian actor, writer and stage director who has worked in the United Kingdom, United States and India. He began his acting career in the early 1960s in the UK, but left acting the following decade and ...
, who played Chattar Lal, mentioned that the banquet scene was a joke that went wrong, saying, "Steven intended it as a joke, the joke being that Indians were so smart that they knew all Westerners think that Indians eat cockroaches, so they served them what they expected. The joke was too subtle for that film." In his autobiography,
Amrish Puri Amrish Lal Puri (22 June 1932 – 12 January 2005) was an Indian actor, who was an important figure in Indian theatre Indian theatre is one of the most ancient forms of theatre and it features a detailed textual, sculptural, and dramatic ...

Amrish Puri
expressed the whole controversy around the film was "silly". He wrote that "it's based on an ancient cult that existed in India and was recreated like a fantasy. If you recall those imaginary places like Pankot Palace, starting with Shanghai, where the plane breaks down and the passengers use a raft to jump over it, slide down a hill and reach India, can this ever happen? But fantasies are fantasies, like our Panchatantra and folklore. I know we are sensitive about our cultural identity, but we do this to ourselves in our own films. It's only when some foreign directors do it that we start cribbing."


Impact

In response to some of the more violent sequences in the film, and with similar complaints about ''
Gremlins ''Gremlins'' is a 1984 American comedy horror film directed by Joe Dante and written by Chris Columbus (filmmaker), Chris Columbus. It draws on legends of folkloric mischievous creatures that cause malfunctions—"gremlins"—in the British Ro ...

Gremlins
'', Spielberg suggested that the
Motion Picture Association of America The Motion Picture Association (MPA) is an American trade association A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association, sector association or industry body, is an organization founded and funded by businesses ...
(MPAA) alter its rating system by introducing an intermediary between the PG and R ratings. The MPAA concurred, and a new
PG-13 The Motion Picture Association (MPA) film rating system is used in the United States and its territories to rate a film's suitability for certain audiences based on its content. The MPA rating system is a voluntary scheme that is not enforced by la ...
rating was introduced two months after the film's release. In the UK the film was heavily censored for a PG certificate. The United Kingdom followed suit 5 years later, with the BBFC introducing the “12” rating and Batman (1989) being the first film to receive it.


See also

* White savior narrative in film


Notes


References


Further reading

* * *


External links

* * at * * * * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Indiana Jones And The Temple Of Doom Indiana Jones films 1984 films American films English-language films 1980s action adventure films BAFTA winners (films) Prequel films Censored films Race-related controversies in film Films shot in India Films scored by John Williams Films about slavery Film controversies Films directed by Steven Spielberg Films with screenplays by George Lucas Films set in 1935 Films set in India Films set in the British Raj Films set in Shanghai Films shot in Arizona Films shot in California Films shot in Macau Films shot in England Films shot in Florida Films shot in Sri Lanka Films shot in Washington (state) Films that won the Best Visual Effects Academy Award Hinduism in pop culture-related controversies Hinduism-related controversies Mining in film Films with screenplays by Willard Huyck Films with screenplays by Gloria Katz Treasure hunt films Films shot at Elstree Studios Lucasfilm films Paramount Pictures films American action adventure films American adventure thriller films Films about cults Film censorship in India Films about child abduction in India