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Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr., also known simply as Indy, is the
title character The title character in a Narrative, narrative work is one who is named or referred to in the title of the work. In a performed work such as a play or film, the performer who plays the title character is said to have the title role of the piece. The ...
and
protagonist 200px, Shakespeare's ''Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.'' William Morris Hunt, oil on canvas, c. 1864 A protagonist (from grc, πρωταγωνιστής, translit=prōtagōnistḗs, lit=one who plays the first part, chief actor) is the main character ...
of the ''Indiana Jones'' franchise (1981–2023).
George Lucas George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and entrepreneur. Lucas is best known for creating the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia fr ...

George Lucas
created the character in homage to the action heroes of 1930s film serials. The character first appeared in the 1981 film ''
Raiders of the Lost Ark ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' is a 1981 American Action film#Action-adventure, action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Lawrence Kasdan, based on a story by George Lucas and Philip Kaufman. It stars Harrison Ford, Karen ...
'', to be followed by ''
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' is a 1984 American action-adventure film Adventure films are a genre of film whose plots feature elements of travel. They typically involve protagonists who must leave their home or place of comfort ...
'' in 1984, ''
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'' is a 1989 American action film, action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg, from a story co-written by executive producer George Lucas. It is the third installment in the Indiana Jones, ''Indiana ...
'' in 1989, ''
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles'' is an American television series that aired on ABC from March 4, 1992, to July 24, 1993. Filming took place in various locations around the world, with "Old Indy" bookend segments filmed in Wilmington, North ...
'' from 1992 to 1996, ''
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull ''Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull'' is a 2008 American action ACTION is a bus operator in , Australia owned by the . History On 19 July 1926, the commenced operating public bus services between Eastlake (now ...

Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
'' in 2008, and a fifth film in 2023. The character is also featured in novels, comics, video games, and other media. Jones is also featured in several
Disney theme park Disney Parks, Experiences and Products, Inc., formerly Walt Disney Parks and Resorts Worldwide, Inc. and informally known as Disney Parks, is one of The Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney (), is an Ameri ...
attractions, including Indiana Jones et le Temple du Péril, the
Indiana Jones Adventure The Indiana Jones Adventure is an enhanced motion vehicle dark ride attraction based on the ''Indiana Jones (franchise), Indiana Jones'' film series, located at Disneyland and Tokyo DisneySea. Guests accompany intrepid archaeologist Indiana Jones ...
, and '' Epic Stunt Spectacular!'' attractions. Jones is most famously portrayed by
Harrison Ford Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American actor. His films have grossed more than $5.4billion in North America and more than $9.3billion worldwide, making him the seventh-highest-grossing actor in North America. He is the recipient o ...

Harrison Ford
and has also been portrayed by
River Phoenix River Jude Phoenix (Given name, né Bottom; August 23, 1970 – October 31, 1993) was an American actor, musician, and activist. Phoenix grew up in an Wikt:itinerant, itinerant family, as older brother of Rain Phoenix, Joaquin Phoenix, Liberty ...

River Phoenix
(as the young Jones in ''The Last Crusade'') and in the television series ''
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles'' is an American television series that aired on ABC from March 4, 1992, to July 24, 1993. Filming took place in various locations around the world, with "Old Indy" bookend segments filmed in Wilmington, North ...
'' by
Corey Carrier Corey Thomas Carrier (born August 20, 1980) is an American former child actor The term child actor or child actress is generally applied to a child acting on stage or in movies A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving ...
,
Sean Patrick Flanery Sean Patrick Flanery (born October 11, 1965) is an American actor, author and martial artist. He is known for playing Connor MacManus in ''The Boondock Saints'' (1999) and its sequel ''The Boondock Saints II: All Saints Day'' (2009), Greg Stillso ...
, and George Hall. Doug Lee has supplied the voice of Jones for two
LucasArts Lucasfilm Games is an American video game licensor that is part of Lucasfilm Lucasfilm Ltd. LLC is an American film and television and a subsidiary of , which is a business segment of . The studio is best known for creating and producing th ...
video games, ''
Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis ''Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis'' is a point-and-click adventure game by LucasArts Lucasfilm Games is an American video game licensor that is part of Lucasfilm. It was founded in May 1982 by George Lucas as a video game developme ...
'' and ''
Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine ''Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine'' is an Action-adventure game, action-adventure video game by LucasArts released in 1999. The first 3D computer graphics, 3D installment in the Indiana Jones (franchise)#Video games, series, its gameplay foc ...
'', David Esch supplied his voice for ''
Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb ''Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb'' is an action-adventure Action-adventure is a video game genre that combines core elements from both the action game and adventure game genres. Action-adventure is a hybrid genre, and thus the definitio ...
'', and John Armstrong for '' Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings''. Jones is characterized by his iconic accoutrements (
bullwhip A bullwhip is a single-tailed whip (implement), whip, usually made of braided leather, designed as a tool for working with livestock. Bullwhips are pastoral tools, traditionally used to control livestock in open country. A bullwhip's length, fl ...

bullwhip
,
fedora A fedora () is a hat A collection of 18th and 19th century men's beaver felt hats A hat is a head covering which is worn for various reasons, including protection against weather conditions, ceremonial reasons such as university graduation, ...

fedora
,
satchel A satchel is a bag with a strap, traditionally used for carrying books.Satchel
The Cambridge Dictionary. ...
, and
leather jacket A leather jacket is a jacket-length Coat (clothing), coat that is usually worn on top of other apparel or item of clothing, and made from the leather, tanned hide of various animals. The leather material is typically dyed black, or various shad ...

leather jacket
), wry, witty and sarcastic sense of humor, deep knowledge of ancient civilizations and languages, and
fear of snakes Fear is an intensely unpleasant emotion in response to perception, perceiving or recognizing a danger or threat. Fear causes physiological changes that may produce behavioral reactions such as mounting an aggressive response or fleeing the threa ...
. Since his first appearance in ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'', Indiana Jones has become one of cinema's most famous characters. In 2003, the
American Film Institute The American Film Institute (AFI) is an American film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applyin ...
ranked him the second-greatest film hero of all time. He was also named the greatest movie character by ''
Empire An empire is a "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries". Narrowly defined, an empire is a sovereign state called an empire and ...
'' magazine. ''
Entertainment Weekly ''Entertainment Weekly'' (sometimes abbreviated as ''EW'') is an American monthly entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, ...
'' ranked Indiana 2nd on their list of The All-Time Coolest Heroes in Pop Culture. ''
Premiere A premiere or première is the wikt:debut, debut (first public presentation) of a Play (theatre), play, film, dance, or musical composition. A work will often have many premières: a world première (the first time it is shown anywhere in the ...
'' magazine also placed Indiana at number 7 on their list of The 100 Greatest Movie Characters of All Time.


Appearances


Films and television

* ''
Raiders of the Lost Ark ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' is a 1981 American Action film#Action-adventure, action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Lawrence Kasdan, based on a story by George Lucas and Philip Kaufman. It stars Harrison Ford, Karen ...
'' (1981) * ''
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' is a 1984 American action-adventure film Adventure films are a genre of film whose plots feature elements of travel. They typically involve protagonists who must leave their home or place of comfort ...
'' (1984) * ''
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'' is a 1989 American action film, action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg, from a story co-written by executive producer George Lucas. It is the third installment in the Indiana Jones, ''Indiana ...
'' (1989) * ''
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles'' is an American television series that aired on ABC from March 4, 1992, to July 24, 1993. Filming took place in various locations around the world, with "Old Indy" bookend segments filmed in Wilmington, North ...
'' (1992–1996) * ''
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull ''Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull'' is a 2008 American action ACTION is a bus operator in , Australia owned by the . History On 19 July 1926, the commenced operating public bus services between Eastlake (now ...

Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
'' (2008) * ''Indiana Jones 5'' (2023) A native of
Princeton, New Jersey Princeton is a municipality with a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, off ...
, Indiana Jones was introduced as a tenured professor of archaeology in the 1981 film ''
Raiders of the Lost Ark ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' is a 1981 American Action film#Action-adventure, action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Lawrence Kasdan, based on a story by George Lucas and Philip Kaufman. It stars Harrison Ford, Karen ...
'', set in 1936. The character is an adventurer reminiscent of the 1930s film serial treasure hunters and pulp action heroes. His research is funded by Marshall College (a fictional school named after producer Frank Marshall), where he is a
professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, hig ...

professor
of archaeology. He studied under the Egyptologist and archaeologist Abner Ravenwood at the
Oriental InstituteOriental Institute may refer to a number of university faculties, departments, and institutes of Oriental studies: ;United States * Oriental Institute (Chicago), part of the University of Chicago ;United Kingdom * Faculty of Oriental Studies, Oxfor ...
at the
University of Chicago The University of Chicago (UChicago) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an abse ...
. In this first adventure, he is pitted against
Nazis Nazism (), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus; ), is the ideology and practices associated with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (german: link=no, Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP, or National Socia ...

Nazis
commissioned by Hitler to recover artifacts of great power from the Old Testament (see Nazi archaeology). In consequence, Dr Jones travels the world to prevent them from recovering the
Ark of the Covenant The Ark of the Covenant (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judea ...

Ark of the Covenant
(see also Biblical archaeology). He is aided by
Marion Ravenwood Marion Ravenwood is a fictional character In fiction Fiction is any creative workA creative work is a manifestation of creative effort including fine artwork (sculpture Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in t ...
and
Sallah Sallah Mohammed Faisel el-Kahir ( ar, صلاح محمد فيصل القاهر), is a fictional character played by Welsh people, Welsh actor John Rhys-Davies in two of the ''Indiana Jones'' films; ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' and ''Indiana Jones and ...
. The Nazis are led by Jones' archrival, a Nazi-sympathizing French archaeologist named René Belloq, and Arnold Toht, a sinister
Gestapo The (), abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; for ...

Gestapo
agent. In the 1984 prequel, ''
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' is a 1984 American action-adventure film Adventure films are a genre of film whose plots feature elements of travel. They typically involve protagonists who must leave their home or place of comfort ...
'', set in 1935, Jones travels to India and attempts to free enslaved children and the three Sankara stones from the bloodthirsty
Thuggee Thuggee (, ) refers to the acts of the Thugs, who were organised gangs of professional robber Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear. According to comm ...
cult. He is aided by
Short Round This is a list of characters in the ''Indiana Jones'' series. Introduced in ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' Indiana Jones Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr. (Harrison Ford Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American actor, pilot, a ...
, a boy played by Jonathan Ke Quan, and is accompanied by singer Willie Scott (
Kate Capshaw Kathleen Sue Spielberg (née Nail; born November 3, 1953), known professionally as Kate Capshaw, is an American retired actress, best known for her portrayal of Willie Scott, an American nightclub singer and performer in '' Indiana Jones and the T ...

Kate Capshaw
). The prequel is not as centered on archaeology as ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' and is considerably darker. The third film, 1989's ''
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'' is a 1989 American action film, action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg, from a story co-written by executive producer George Lucas. It is the third installment in the Indiana Jones, ''Indiana ...
'', set in 1938, returned to the formula of the original, reintroducing characters such as
Sallah Sallah Mohammed Faisel el-Kahir ( ar, صلاح محمد فيصل القاهر), is a fictional character played by Welsh people, Welsh actor John Rhys-Davies in two of the ''Indiana Jones'' films; ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' and ''Indiana Jones and ...
and
Marcus Brody This is a list of characters in the ''Indiana Jones'' series. Introduced in ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' Indiana Jones Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr. ( Harrison Ford), the titular character of the franchise, is an archaeologist Ar ...
, a scene from Professor Jones' classroom (he now teaches at Barnett College), the globe trotting element of multiple locations, and the return of the infamous Nazi mystics, this time trying to find the
Holy Grail The Holy Grail (french: Saint Graal, br, Graal Santel, cy, Greal Sanctaidd, kw, Gral) is a treasure that serves as an important motif in Arthurian literature This is a bibliography of works about King Arthur King Arthur ( cy, Brenin ...

Holy Grail
. The film's introduction, set in 1912, provided some back story to the character, specifically the origin of his
fear of snakes Fear is an intensely unpleasant emotion in response to perception, perceiving or recognizing a danger or threat. Fear causes physiological changes that may produce behavioral reactions such as mounting an aggressive response or fleeing the threa ...
, his use of a
bullwhip A bullwhip is a single-tailed whip (implement), whip, usually made of braided leather, designed as a tool for working with livestock. Bullwhips are pastoral tools, traditionally used to control livestock in open country. A bullwhip's length, fl ...

bullwhip
, the scar on his chin, and his hat; the film's epilogue also reveals that "Indiana" is not Jones' first name, but a nickname he took from the family dog. The film was a
buddy movie The buddy film, or ship film is a film genre in which two people—often both men—are put together and on an adventure, a quest, or a road trip. The two often contrast in personality, which creates a different dynamic onscreen than a pairing of ...
of sorts, teaming Jones with his father, Henry Jones Sr., often to comical effect. Although Lucas intended to make five Indiana Jones films, ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'' was the last for over 18 years, as he could not think of a good plot element to drive the next installment. From 1992 to 1996, George Lucas as stories writing and executive-produced a television series named ''
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles'' is an American television series that aired on ABC from March 4, 1992, to July 24, 1993. Filming took place in various locations around the world, with "Old Indy" bookend segments filmed in Wilmington, North ...
'', aimed mainly at teenagers and children, which showed many of the important events and historical figures of the early 20th century through the prism of Indiana Jones' life. The show initially featured the formula of an elderly (93 to 94 years of age) Indiana Jones played by George Hall introducing a story from his youth by way of an anecdote: the main part of the episode then featured an adventure with either a young adult Indy (16 to 21 years of age) played by
Sean Patrick Flanery Sean Patrick Flanery (born October 11, 1965) is an American actor, author and martial artist. He is known for playing Connor MacManus in ''The Boondock Saints'' (1999) and its sequel ''The Boondock Saints II: All Saints Day'' (2009), Greg Stillso ...
or a child Indy (8 to 10 years) played by
Corey Carrier Corey Thomas Carrier (born August 20, 1980) is an American former child actor The term child actor or child actress is generally applied to a child acting on stage or in movies A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving ...
. One episode, "Young Indiana Jones and the Mystery of the Blues", is bookended by Harrison Ford as Indiana Jones, rather than Hall. Later episodes and telemovies did not have this bookend format. The bulk of the series centers around the young adult Indiana Jones and his activities during
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
as a 16- to 17-year-old soldier in the Belgian Army and then as an intelligence officer and spy seconded to French intelligence. The child Indy episodes follow the boy's travels around the globe as he accompanies his parents on his father's worldwide lecture tour from 1908 to 1910. The show provided some backstory for the films, as well as new information regarding the character. Indiana Jones was born July 1, 1899, and his middle name is Walton (Lucas's middle name). It is also mentioned that he had a sister called Suzie who died as an infant of fever, and that he eventually has a daughter and grandchildren who appear in some episode introductions and epilogues. His relationship with his father, first introduced in ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'', was further fleshed out with stories about his travels with his father as a young boy. Indy damages or loses his right eye sometime between the events in
1957 Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the . There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in s). This day is known as since the day marks the beginning of the year. __TOC__ ...

1957
and the early 1990s, when the "Old Indy" segments take place, as the elderly Indiana Jones wears an eyepatch. In 1999, Lucas removed the episode introductions and epilogues by George Hall for the VHS and DVD releases, and re-edited the episodes into chronologically ordered feature-length stories. The series title was also changed to ''The Adventures of Young Indiana Jones''. The 2008 film, ''
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull ''Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull'' is a 2008 American action ACTION is a bus operator in , Australia owned by the . History On 19 July 1926, the commenced operating public bus services between Eastlake (now ...

Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
'', is the latest film in the series. Set in 1957, 19 years after the third film, it pits an older, wiser Indiana Jones against
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sove ...
agents bent on harnessing the power of an
extraterrestrial Extraterrestrial refers to any object or being beyond (wikt:extra-, extra-) the planet Earth (wikt:terrestrial, terrestrial). It is derived from the Latin words wikt:extra, ''extra'' ("outside", "outwards") and ''terrestris'' ("earthly", "of or rela ...
device discovered in South America. Jones is aided in his adventure by his former lover,
Marion Ravenwood Marion Ravenwood is a fictional character In fiction Fiction is any creative workA creative work is a manifestation of creative effort including fine artwork (sculpture Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in t ...
(
Karen Allen Karen Jane Allen (born October 5, 1951) is an American film and stage actress. After making her film debut in ''Animal House ''National Lampoon's Animal House'' is a 1978 American comedy film A comedy film is a category of film ...
), and her son—a young greaser named Henry "Mutt" Williams (
Shia LaBeouf Shia LaBeouf (; born June 11, 1986) is an American actor, performance art Performance art is an artwork or art exhibition created through actions executed by the artist or other participants. It may be witnessed live or through document ...
), later revealed to be Jones' unknown child. There were rumors that Harrison Ford would not return for any future installments and LaBeouf would take over the Indy franchise. This film also reveals that Jones was recruited by the
Office of Strategic Services The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was the intelligence agency An intelligence agency is a government agency A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machiner ...

Office of Strategic Services
during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, attaining the rank of
colonel Colonel (; abbreviated as Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer An officer is a person who has a position of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social rel ...
in the
United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists ma ...
, and implies very strongly that in 1947 he was forced to investigate the
Roswell UFO incident The Roswell incident is the 1947 recovery of balloon debris from a ranch near Corona, New Mexico by United States Army Air Forces officers from Roswell Army Air Field, and the Conspiracy theory, conspiracy theories, decades later, claiming that t ...
, and the investigation saw that he was involved in affairs related to Hangar 51. He is tasked with conducting covert operations with MI6 agent George Michale against the Soviet Union. In March 2016, Disney announced a fifth ''Indiana Jones'' film to be in active development, with Ford and Spielberg set to return to the franchise. Initially set for release on July 10, 2020, the film's release date was pushed back to July 9, 2021, due to production issues, then further pushed back to July 29, 2022, due to a reshuffle in Disney's release schedule as due to the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
. In December 2020 Disney announced that
James Mangold James Mangold (born December 16, 1963) is an American film and television director, screenwriter and producer. He is best known for the films ''Cop Land'' (1997), ''Girl, Interrupted (film), Girl, Interrupted'' (1999), ''Walk the Line'' (2005), ' ...
would be directing the film and that this would be final time Harrison Ford would appear in the franchise.


Attractions

Indiana Jones is featured at several Walt Disney theme park attractions. The
Indiana Jones Adventure The Indiana Jones Adventure is an enhanced motion vehicle dark ride attraction based on the ''Indiana Jones (franchise), Indiana Jones'' film series, located at Disneyland and Tokyo DisneySea. Guests accompany intrepid archaeologist Indiana Jones ...
attractions at
Disneyland The Disneyland Park, originally Disneyland, is the first of two theme parks Wonder Mountain at Canada's Wonderland An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for ...
and
Tokyo DisneySea is a theme park at the Tokyo Disney Resort located in Urayasu, Chiba Prefecture is a Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan located in the Kantō region of Honshu. Chiba Prefecture has a population of 6,278,060 (1 June 2019) and has a ...

Tokyo DisneySea
("Temple of the Forbidden Eye" and "Temple of the Crystal Skull," respectively) place Indy at the forefront of two similar archaeological discoveries. These two temples each contain a wrathful deity who threatens the guests who ride through in World War II troop transports. The attractions, some of the most expensive of their kind at the time, opened in 1995 and 2001, respectively, with sole design credit attributed to
Walt Disney Imagineering Walt Disney Imagineering Research & Development, Inc., commonly referred to as Imagineering, is the research and development Research and development (R&D, R+D), known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), is the set ...
. Ford was approached to reprise his role as Indiana Jones, but ultimately negotiations to secure Ford's participation broke down in December 1994, for definitively unknown reasons. Instead, Dave Temple provided the voice of Jones. Ford's physical likeness, however, has nonetheless been used in subsequent
audio-animatronic Audio-Animatronics (also known as simply Animatronics Animatronics refers to mechatronic Mechatronics, which is also called mechatronics engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that focuses on the engineering of electroni ...
figures for the attractions.
Disneyland Paris Disneyland Paris, formerly Euro Disney Resort, is an entertainment resort in Chessy, France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of co ...
also features an Indiana Jones-titled ride where people speed off through ancient ruins in a runaway mine wagon similar to that found in ''
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' is a 1984 American action-adventure film Adventure films are a genre of film whose plots feature elements of travel. They typically involve protagonists who must leave their home or place of comfort ...
''. ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Peril'' is a looping roller coaster engineered by
Intamin Intamin Amusement Rides is a design and manufacturing company in Schaan, Liechtenstein. It is best known for creating Amusement ride, thrill rides and roller coasters worldwide. The Intamin brand name is a syllabic abbreviation for "international ...
, designed by Walt Disney Imagineering, and opened in 1993. The ''
Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular! ''Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular!'' is a live amusement show at Disney's Hollywood Studios at the Walt Disney World Resort in Florida Florida (, ) is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern regio ...
'' is a live show that has been presented in the
Disney's Hollywood Studios Disney's Hollywood Studios is a Amusement park, theme park at the Walt Disney World, Walt Disney World Resort in Bay Lake, Florida, near Orlando, Florida, Orlando. It is owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company through its Disney Parks, E ...
theme park of the
Walt Disney World Resort The Walt Disney World Resort, also called Walt Disney World or Disney World, is an entertainment resort complex in Bay Lake, Florida, Bay Lake and Lake Buena Vista, Florida, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, United States, near the cities of Orlando ...

Walt Disney World Resort
with few changes since the park's 1989 opening, as Disney-MGM Studios. The 25-minute show presents various stunts framed in the context of a feature film production, and recruits members of the audience to participate in the show. Stunt artists in the show re-create and ultimately reveal some of the secrets of the stunts of the ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' films, including the well-known "running-from-the-boulder" scene. Stunt performer Anislav Varbanov was fatally injured in August 2009, while rehearsing the popular show. Also formerly at Disney's Hollywood Studios, an audio-animatronic Indiana Jones appeared in another attraction; during
The Great Movie Ride The Great Movie Ride was a dark ride located at Disney's Hollywood Studios at the Walt Disney World, Walt Disney World Resort in Bay Lake, Florida. The attraction employed the use of Audio-Animatronics, Audio-Animatronic figures, practical sets, ...
's ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' segment.


Literature


Graphic novels

Indy also appears in the 2004
Dark Horse Comics Dark Horse Comics is an American comic book and manga Manga (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep r ...

Dark Horse Comics
story ''Into the Great Unknown'', collected in ''
Star Wars Tales Volume 5 ''Star Wars Tales Volume 5'' is the fifth ''Star Wars Tales'' Trade paperback (comics), trade paperback, collecting issues 17-20. Star Wars Tales 17 ''Planet of the Dead'' :Script: Steve Niles :Pencils: Davidé Fabbri :Inks: Christian Dalla Vecch ...
''. In this non-canon story bringing together two of Harrison Ford's best-known roles, Indy and Short Round discover a crash-landed ''
Millennium Falcon The ''Millennium Falcon'' is a fictional starship in the ''Star Wars'' franchise. Designed by Joe Johnston for the movie ''Star Wars (film), Star Wars'' (1977), it has subsequently appeared in ''The Star Wars Holiday Special'' (1978), ''The Em ...

Millennium Falcon
'' in the Pacific Northwest, along with
Han Solo Han Solo is a fictional character in the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic Epic commonly refers to: * Epic poetry, a long narrative poem celebrating heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation * Epic film, a ge ...
's skeleton and the realization that a rumored nearby Sasquatch is in fact Chewbacca. Indy also appears in a series of Marvel Comics.


Movie tie-in novelizations

The four Indiana Jones film scripts were novelized and published in the time-frame of the films' initial releases. ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' was novelized by Campbell Black based on the script by Lawrence Kasdan that was based on the story by George Lucas and Philip Kaufman and published in April 1981 by Ballantine Books; ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' was novelized by James Kahn and based on the script by Willard Huyck & Gloria Katz that was based on the story by George Lucas and published May 1984 by Ballantine Books; ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'' was novelized by Rob MacGregor based on the script by Jeffrey Boam that was based on a story by George Lucas and Menno Meyjes and published June 1989 by Ballantine Books. Nearly 20 years later ''Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull'' was novelized by James Rollins based on the script by David Koepp based on the story by George Lucas and Jeff Nathanson and published May 2008 by Ballantine Books. In addition, in 2008 to accompany the release of ''Kingdom of Skulls'', Scholastic Books published juvenile novelizations of the four scripts written, successively in the order above, by Ryder Windham, Suzanne Weyn, Ryder Windham, and James Luceno. All these books have been reprinted, with ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' being retitled ''Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark''. While these are the principal titles and authors, there are numerous other volumes derived from the four film properties.


Original novels

From February 1991 through February 1999, 12 original Indiana Jones-themed adult novels were licensed by Lucasfilm, Ltd. and written by three genre authors of the period. Ten years afterward, a 13th original novel was added, also written by a popular genre author. The first 12 were published by Bantam Books; the last by Ballantine Books in 2009. (See
Indiana Jones (franchise) ''Indiana Jones'' is an American media franchise based on the adventures of Indiana Jones (character), Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr., a fictional professor of archaeology, that began in 1981 with the film ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. ...
for broad descriptions of these original adult novels.) The novels are: * Rob MacGregor (author) * '' Indiana Jones and the Peril at Delphi'', February 1991. * '' Indiana Jones and the Dance of the Giants'', June 1991. * '' Indiana Jones and the Seven Veils'', December 1991. * ''Indiana Jones and the Genesis Deluge'', February 1992. * ''Indiana Jones and the Unicorn's Legacy'', September 1992. * ''Indiana Jones and the Interior World'', December 1992. * Martin Caidin (author) * ''Indiana Jones and the Sky Pirates'', December 1993. * ''Indiana Jones and the White Witch'', April 1994. * Max McCoy (author) * ''Indiana Jones and the Philosopher's Stone'', May 1995. * ''Indiana Jones and the Dinosaur Eggs'', March 1996. * ''Indiana Jones and the Hollow Earth'', March 1997. * ''Indiana Jones and the Secret of the Sphinx'', February 1999. * Steve Perry (author) * ''Indiana Jones and the Army of the Dead'', September 2009.


Video games

The character has appeared in several officially licensed games, beginning with adaptations of ''Raiders of the Lost Ark (Atari 2600), Raiders of the Lost Ark'', ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1985 video game), Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'', two adaptations of ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (video game), Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'' (one with purely action mechanics, one with an adventure- and puzzle-based structure) and ''Indiana Jones' Greatest Adventures, Indiana Jones' Greatest Adventures'', which included the storylines from all three of the original films. Following this, the games branched off into original storylines with Indiana Jones in the Lost Kingdom, ''
Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis ''Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis'' is a point-and-click adventure game by LucasArts Lucasfilm Games is an American video game licensor that is part of Lucasfilm. It was founded in May 1982 by George Lucas as a video game developme ...
'', ''
Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine ''Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine'' is an Action-adventure game, action-adventure video game by LucasArts released in 1999. The first 3D computer graphics, 3D installment in the Indiana Jones (franchise)#Video games, series, its gameplay foc ...
'', ''
Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb ''Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb'' is an action-adventure Action-adventure is a video game genre that combines core elements from both the action game and adventure game genres. Action-adventure is a hybrid genre, and thus the definitio ...
'' and '' Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings''. ''Emperor's Tomb'' sets up Jones' companion Wu Han and the search for Nurhaci's ashes seen at the beginning of ''Temple of Doom''. The first two games were developed by Hal Barwood and starred Doug Lee as the voice of Indiana Jones; ''Emperor's Tomb'' had David Esch fill the role and ''Staff of Kings'' starred John Armstrong. ''
Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine ''Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine'' is an Action-adventure game, action-adventure video game by LucasArts released in 1999. The first 3D computer graphics, 3D installment in the Indiana Jones (franchise)#Video games, series, its gameplay foc ...
'' was the first Indy-based game presented in three dimensions, as opposed to 8-bit graphics and side-scrolling games before. There is also a small game from Lucas Arts ''Indiana Jones and His Desktop Adventures''. A video game was made for young Indy called ''Young Indiana Jones and the Instruments of Chaos'', as well as a video game version of ''
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles'' is an American television series that aired on ABC from March 4, 1992, to July 24, 1993. Filming took place in various locations around the world, with "Old Indy" bookend segments filmed in Wilmington, North ...
''. Two Lego Indiana Jones games have also been released. ''Lego Indiana Jones: The Original Adventures'' was released in 2008 and follows the plots of the first three films. It was followed by ''Lego Indiana Jones 2: The Adventure Continues'' in late 2009. The sequel includes an abbreviated reprise of the first three films, but focuses on the plot of ''
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull ''Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull'' is a 2008 American action ACTION is a bus operator in , Australia owned by the . History On 19 July 1926, the commenced operating public bus services between Eastlake (now ...

Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
''. However, before he got his own Lego games, he appeared as a secret character in Lego Star Wars: The Complete Saga as a playable character. If you go to the cinema in the hub world and watch the trailer for Lego Indiana Jones: The Original Adventures, you can unlock him as a playable character after the trailer is finished. He also makes a brief appearance in a minigame in Lego Star Wars III: The Clone Wars during the level “Castle Hostage”. Social gaming company Zynga introduced Indiana Jones to their "Indiana Jones Adventure World, Adventure World" game in late 2011.


Character description and formation

"Indiana" Jones' full name is Dr. Henry Walton Jones, Jr., and his nickname is often shortened to "Indy". In his role as a college professor of archaeology, Jones is scholarly and learned in a tweed suit, lecturing on ancient civilizations. At the opportunity to recover important artifacts, Dr. Jones transforms into "Indiana," a "non-superhero superhero" image he has concocted for himself. Producer Frank Marshall (film producer), Frank Marshall said, "Indy [is] a fallible character. He makes mistakes and gets hurt. ... That's the other thing people like: He's a real character, not a character with superpowers." Spielberg said there "was the willingness to allow our leading man to get hurt and to express his pain and to get his mad out and to take pratfalls and sometimes be the butt of his own jokes. I mean, Indiana Jones is not a perfect hero, and his imperfections, I think, make the audience feel that, with a little more exercise and a little more courage, they could be just like him." According to Spielberg biographer Douglas Brode, Indiana created his heroic figure so as to escapism, escape the dullness of teaching at a school. Both of Indiana's personas reject one another in philosophy, creating a Dualism (philosophy of mind), duality. Harrison Ford said the fun of playing the character was that Indiana is both a Romanticism, romantic and a cynicism (contemporary), cynic, while scholars have analyzed Indiana as having traits of a lone wolf; a man on a quest; a noble Treasure hunting, treasure hunter; a hardboiled detective; a human superhero; and an American patriot. Like many characters in his films, Jones has some autobiographical elements of Spielberg. Indiana lacks a proper father figure because of his strained relationship with his father, Henry Jones, Sr.. His own contained anger is misdirected towards Professor Abner Ravenwood, his mentor at the
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, leading to a strained relationship with
Marion Ravenwood Marion Ravenwood is a fictional character In fiction Fiction is any creative workA creative work is a manifestation of creative effort including fine artwork (sculpture Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in t ...
. The teenage Indiana bases his own look on a figure from the prologue of ''
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'' is a 1989 American action film, action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg, from a story co-written by executive producer George Lucas. It is the third installment in the Indiana Jones, ''Indiana ...
'', after being given his hat.
Marcus Brody This is a list of characters in the ''Indiana Jones'' series. Introduced in ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' Indiana Jones Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr. ( Harrison Ford), the titular character of the franchise, is an archaeologist Ar ...
acts as Indiana's positive role model at the college. Indiana's own insecurities are made worse by the absence of his mother. In ''
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' is a 1984 American action-adventure film Adventure films are a genre of film whose plots feature elements of travel. They typically involve protagonists who must leave their home or place of comfort ...
'', he becomes the father figure to
Short Round This is a list of characters in the ''Indiana Jones'' series. Introduced in ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' Indiana Jones Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr. (Harrison Ford Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American actor, pilot, a ...
, to survive; he is rescued from Kali's evil by Short Round's dedication. In ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'', he is wise enough to close his eyes in the presence of God in the
Ark of the Covenant The Ark of the Covenant (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judea ...

Ark of the Covenant
. By contrast, his rival Rene Belloq is killed for having the audacity to try to communicate directly with God. In the prologue of ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'', Jones is seen as a teenager, establishing his look when given a fedora hat. Indiana's intentions are revealed as Prosocial behavior, prosocial, as he believes artifacts "belong in a museum." In the film's climax, Indiana undergoes "literal" tests of faith to retrieve the Grail and save his father's life. He also remembers Jesus as a historical figure—a humble carpenter—rather than an exalted figure when he recognizes the simple nature and tarnished appearance of the real Grail amongst a large assortment of much more ornately decorated ones. Henry Senior rescues his son from falling to his death when reaching for the fallen Grail, telling him to "let it go," overcoming his mercenary nature. ''
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles'' is an American television series that aired on ABC from March 4, 1992, to July 24, 1993. Filming took place in various locations around the world, with "Old Indy" bookend segments filmed in Wilmington, North ...
'' explains how Indiana becomes solitary and less idealistic following his service in
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. In ''
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull ''Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull'' is a 2008 American action ACTION is a bus operator in , Australia owned by the . History On 19 July 1926, the commenced operating public bus services between Eastlake (now ...

Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
'', Jones is older and wiser, whereas his sidekicks Mutt and Mac are youthfully arrogant, and greedy, respectively.


Origins and inspirations

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George Lucas George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and entrepreneur. Lucas is best known for creating the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia fr ...

George Lucas
and Steven Spielberg enjoyed in their childhoods (such as the Republic Pictures serials, and the Doc Savage series). Sir Henry Rider Haggard, H. Rider Haggard's safari guide/big game hunter Allan Quatermain of ''King Solomon's Mines'' is a notable template for Jones. The two friends first discussed the project in Hawaii around the time of the release of the first ''Star Wars (film), Star Wars'' film. Spielberg told Lucas how he wanted his next project to be something fun, like a ''James Bond in film, James Bond'' film (this would later be referenced when they cast Sean Connery as Henry Jones Sr.). According to sources, Lucas responded to the effect that he had something "even better", or that he'd "got that beat." One of the possible bases for Indiana Jones is Professor Challenger, created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in 1912 for his novel, ''The Lost World''. Challenger was based on Doyle's physiology professor, William Rutherford (physiologist), William Rutherford, an adventuring academic, albeit a zoologist/anthropologist. Another important influence on the development of the character Indiana Jones is the Disney character Scrooge McDuck. Carl Barks created Scrooge in 1947 as a one-off relation for Donald Duck in the latter's self-titled comic book. Barks realized that the character had more potential, so a separate ''Uncle Scrooge'' comic book series full of exciting and strange adventures in the company of his duck nephews was developed. This ''Uncle Scrooge'' comic series strongly influenced George Lucas. This appreciation of Scrooge as an adventurer influenced the development of Jones, with the prologue of ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' containing homage to Barks' Scrooge adventure "The Seven Cities of Cibola", published in ''Uncle Scrooge'' #7 from September 1954. This homage in the film takes the form of playfully mimicking the removal-of-Golden Idol, the-statuette-from-its-pedestal and the falling-stone sequences of the comic book. The character was originally named Indiana Smith, after an Alaskan Malamute called Indiana that Lucas owned in the 1970s and on which he based the Star Wars character Chewbacca. Spielberg disliked the name Smith, and Lucas casually suggested Jones as an alternative. The ''Last Crusade'' script references the name's origin, with Jones' father revealing his son's birth name to be Henry and explaining that "we named the ''dog'' Indiana", to his son's chagrin. Some have also posited that C.L. Moore's science fiction character Northwest Smith may have also influenced Lucas and Spielberg in their naming choice. Lucas has said on various occasions that Sean Connery's portrayal of British secret agent James Bond was one of the primary inspirations for Jones, a reason Connery was chosen for the role of Indiana's father in ''
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'' is a 1989 American action film, action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg, from a story co-written by executive producer George Lucas. It is the third installment in the Indiana Jones, ''Indiana ...
''. Spielberg earned the rank of Eagle Scout (Boy Scouts of America), Eagle Scout and Ford the Life Scout badge in their youth, which gave them the inspiration to portray Indiana Jones as a Life Scout at age 13 in ''The Last Crusade''.


Historical models

Many people are said to be the real-life inspiration of the Indiana Jones character—although none of the following have been confirmed as inspirations by Lucas or Spielberg. There are some suggestions listed here in alphabetical order by last name: * Carl Akeley, Carl Ethan Akeley (May 19, 1864 – November 18, 1926) – explorer, sculptor, biologist, conservationist, inventor, taxidermist, and nature photographer, noted for his contributions to American museums, most notably to the Field Museum of Natural History and the American Museum of Natural History. He is considered the father of modern taxidermy. * Beloit College professor and paleontologist Roy Chapman Andrews. * Edgar James Banks (May 23, 1866 – May 5, 1945) – American diplomat, antiquarian and novelist. Banks is credited with the sale of an ancient cuneiform tablet famously known as Plimpton 322 proving the Babylonians beat the Greeks to the invention of trigonometry—the study of triangles—by more than 1,000 years. * Italian archaeologist and circus strongperson (strength athlete), strongman Giovanni Battista Belzoni (1778–1823). * Yale University professor, historian, US senator, and explorer Hiram Bingham III, (1875–1956) who rediscovered and excavated the lost city of Machu Picchu, and chronicled his find in the bestselling book ''The Lost City of the Incas'' in 1948. *
University of Chicago The University of Chicago (UChicago) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an abse ...
archaeologist Robert Braidwood. * University of Chicago archaeologist James Henry Breasted. * Frederick Russell Burnham, the celebrated American scout and British Army spy who heavily influenced Haggard's fictional Allan Quatermain character and also became the inspiration for the Boy Scouts. * British archaeologist Percy Fawcett, who spent much of his life exploring the jungles of northern Brazil, and who was last seen in 1925 returning to the Amazon Basin to look for the Lost City of Z, Lost City Of Z. A fictionalized version of Fawcett appears to Jones in the book ''Indiana Jones And The Seven Veils''. * American archaeologist Walter Fairservis. * Harvard University paleontologist Farish Jenkins. * British archaeologist and soldier T. E. Lawrence. * Northwestern University political scientist, anthropologist, professor and adventurer William Montgomery McGovern. * American archaeologist and adventurer Wendell Phillips (archaeologist), Wendell Phillips led well-publicized expeditions in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula in the 1940s and 1950s. * American chess expert and adventurer Albert Pincus (chess player), Albert Pincus, a Manhattan Chess Club member who innovated the 2 Knights Defense, and went on expeditions into South America. * German archaeologist Otto Rahn. * Harvard University archaeologist and art historian Langdon Warner. * Vendyl Jones (1930–2010) led digs in Israel searching for the holy ark. He discovered items identified as the Temple incense and a clay vessel for holy anointing oil. In his book ''A Door of Hope: My Search for the Treasures of the Copper Scroll'', he discusses the similarities.


Costume

Upon requests by Spielberg and Lucas, the costume designer gave the character a distinctive silhouette through the styling of the hat; after examining many hats, the designers chose a tall-crowned, wide-brimmed
fedora A fedora () is a hat A collection of 18th and 19th century men's beaver felt hats A hat is a head covering which is worn for various reasons, including protection against weather conditions, ceremonial reasons such as university graduation, ...

fedora
. As a documentary of ''Raiders'' pointed out, the hat served a practical purpose. Following the lead of the old "B"-movies that inspired the ''Indiana Jones'' series, the fedora hid the actor's face sufficiently to allow doubles to perform the more dangerous stunts seamlessly. Examples in ''Raiders'' include the wider-angle shot of Indy and Marion crashing a statue through a wall, and Indy sliding under a fast-moving vehicle from front to back. Thus it was necessary for the hat to stay in place much of the time. The hat became so iconic that the filmmakers could only come up with very good reasons or jokes to remove it. If it ever fell off during a take, filming would have to stop to put it back on. In jest, Ford put a stapler against his head to stop his hat from falling off when a documentary crew visited during shooting of ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade''. This created the urban legend that Ford stapled the hat to his head. Anytime Indy's hat accidentally came off as part of the storyline (blown off by the wind, knocked off, etc.) and seemed almost irretrievable, filmmakers would make sure Indy and his hat were always reunited, regardless of the implausibility of its return. Although other hats were also used throughout the films, the general style and profile remained the same. Elements of the outfit include: * The fedora was supplied by Herbert Johnson (hatters), Herbert Johnson Hatters in England for the first three films. An Australian model was used by costume designer Deborah Landis to show hat maker Richard Swales the details when making the iconic hat from "the Poets" parts. The fedora for ''Crystal Skull'' was made by Steve Delk and Marc Kitter of the Adventurebilt Hat Company of Columbus, Mississippi. * The leather jacket, a hybrid of the "Type 440" and the A-2 jacket, was made by Leather Concessionaires (now known as Wested Leather Co.) for ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' and ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade''. For ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'', jackets were made in-house at Bermans & Nathans in London based on a stunt jacket they provided for ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. Tony Nowak made the jacket for ''Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull''. * The Indiana Jones shirt is based on a typical safari-style shirt. Its distinctive feature is two vertical strips running from the shoulders to the bottom of the shirt tails and continued over both breast pockets. A common debate regards the original shirt color. Surviving samples of the original shirts seem to be darker in reality than they appear on screen. Most fans look for an off-white "stone" color for their replicas. The original shirts, however, may have been more of a "tan" or "natural" color. The shirt varied little from film to film, the only notable difference being the darker buttons in ''Temple of Doom'' and ''Last Crusade''. Originally designed by Andreas Dometakis for the films, this shirt was once one of the hardest pieces of gear to find. * The trousers worn by Indiana Jones in all three films were based on original World War II Army and Army Air Corps officer trousers. Although not original Pinks they are based on the same basic design and do carry a slight pinkish hue. The trousers made for ''Raiders'' are said to be more of a greyish-brown whereas the trousers made for ''Temple of Doom'' and ''Last Crusade'' were supposedly a purer reddish brown. The trousers were made of a khaki wool-twill, pleated with seven belt loops, two scalloped button flap rear pockets, a button fly and a four-inch military style hem. They were all most likely subcontracted by the costume department and made by famed London based cinema costumers, Angels and Bermans, to be tailored perfectly for Harrison Ford for the production. * The
satchel A satchel is a bag with a strap, traditionally used for carrying books.Satchel
The Cambridge Dictionary. ...
was a modified Mark VII WWII gas mask, gas mask bag that was used by British troops and civilians during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. * The whip was an 8- to 10-foot (2.4 to 3.0 m)
bullwhip A bullwhip is a single-tailed whip (implement), whip, usually made of braided leather, designed as a tool for working with livestock. Bullwhips are pastoral tools, traditionally used to control livestock in open country. A bullwhip's length, fl ...

bullwhip
crafted by David Morgan for the first three films. The whips for ''Crystal Skull'' were crafted by a variety of people, including Terry Jacka, Joe Strain and Morgan (different lengths and styles were likely used in specific stunts). * The pistol was usually a
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
-era revolver, including the Webley Revolver, Webley Government (WG) Revolver (''Last Crusade'' and ''Crystal Skull''), or a Smith & Wesson Second Model Hand Ejector revolver (''Raiders''). He has also used a Colt Official Police revolver (''Temple of Doom''), a Nagant M1883 (''Young Indiana Jones''), and a 9 mm Browning Hi-Power (''Raiders''). The weapon is carried in a military pattern flap holster. * The shoes were made by Alden Shoe Company, Alden. A stock style (model 405) that had been a favorite of Ford's before the films, they are still sold today (though in a redder (brick) shade of brown than seen in the films) and are popularly known as "Indy Boots." The fedora and leather jacket from ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'' are on display at the Smithsonian Institution's American History Museum in Washington, D.C. The collecting of props and clothing from the films has become a thriving hobby for some aficionados of the franchise. Jones' whip was the third most popular film weapon, as shown by a 2008 poll held by 20th Century Fox, which surveyed approximately two thousand film fans.


Casting

Originally, Spielberg suggested Harrison Ford; Lucas resisted the idea, since he had already cast the actor in ''American Graffiti'', ''Star Wars (film), Star Wars'' and ''The Empire Strikes Back'', and did not want Ford to become known as his "Bobby De Niro" (in reference to the fact that fellow director Martin Scorsese regularly casts Robert De Niro in his films). During an intensive casting process, Lucas and Spielberg auditioned many actors, and finally cast actor Tom Selleck as Indiana Jones. Shortly afterward pre-production began in earnest on ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. CBS refused to release Selleck from his contractual commitment to ''Magnum, P.I.'', forcing him to turn down the role. Shooting for the film could have overlapped with the pilot for ''Magnum, P.I.'' but it later turned out that filming of the pilot episode was delayed and Selleck could have done both. Subsequently, Peter Coyote and Tim Matheson both auditioned for the role. After Spielberg suggested Ford again, Lucas relented, and Ford was cast in the role less than three weeks before filming began.


Cultural impact


Archaeological influence

The industry magazine ''Archaeology (magazine), Archaeology'' named eight past and present archaeologists who they felt "embodied [Jones'] spirit" as recipients of the Indy Spirit Awards in 2008. That same year Ford himself was elected to the board of directors for the Archaeological Institute of America. Commenting that "understanding the past can only help us in dealing with the present and the future," Ford was praised by the association's president for his character's "significant role in stimulating the public's interest in archaeological exploration." He is perhaps the most influential character in films that explore archaeology. Since the release of ''
Raiders of the Lost Ark ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' is a 1981 American Action film#Action-adventure, action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Lawrence Kasdan, based on a story by George Lucas and Philip Kaufman. It stars Harrison Ford, Karen ...
'' in 1981, the very idea of archaeology and archaeologists has fundamentally shifted. Prior to the film's release, the stereotypical image of an archaeologist was that of an older, lackluster professor type. In the early years of films involving archaeologists, they were portrayed as victims who would need to be rescued by a more masculine or heroic figure. Following 1981, the stereotypical archaeologist was thought of as an adventurer consistently engaged in fieldwork. Archeologist Anne Pyburn described the influence of Indiana Jones as elitist and sexist, and argued that the film series had caused new discoveries in the field of archaeology to become oversimplified and overhyped in an attempt to gain public interest, which negatively influences archaeology as a whole. Eric Powell, an editor with the magazine ''Archaeology'', said "O.K., fine, the movie romanticizes what we do", and that "Indy may be a horrible archeologist, but he's a great diplomat for archeology. I think we'll see a spike in kids who want to become archeologists". Kevin McGeough, associate professor of archaeology, describes the original archaeological criticism of the film as missing the point of the film: "dramatic interest is what is at issue, and it is unlikely that film will change in order to promote and foster better archaeological techniques".


Other characters inspired by Jones

While himself an homage to various prior adventurers, aspects of Indiana Jones also directly influenced some subsequent characterizations: * Lara Croft, the female archaeologist of the ''Tomb Raider'' series, was originally designed as a man but was changed to a woman, partly because the developers felt the original design was too similar to Indiana Jones. Paramount Pictures, which distributed the Indiana Jones film series, would later make two Lara Croft#In films, films based on the ''Tomb Raider'' games. * Rick O'Connell from The Mummy (1999 film), The Mummy has often been compared to the likes of Indiana Jones. * The producer of the ''Prince of Persia (2008 video game), Prince of Persia'' (2008) video game, Ben Mattes, explained that its "inspiration was anything Harrison Ford has ever done: Indiana Jones,
Han Solo Han Solo is a fictional character in the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic Epic commonly refers to: * Epic poetry, a long narrative poem celebrating heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation * Epic film, a ge ...
."As quoted in Gary Steinman, "''Prince of Persia'': Anatomy of a Prince," ''PlayStation: The Official Magazine'' 13 (December 2008): 50. * The video game series ''Uncharted'' protagonist Nathan Drake (character), Nathan Drake shares many similarities with Jones himself, both visually and personality-wise. * Arizona Goof, a Goofy's cousin created by Disney Italy in 1988.


References


External links


IndianaJones.com
– the official Indiana Jones site
Indiana Jones
on IMDb {{DEFAULTSORT:Jones, Indiana Adventure film characters Characters created by George Lucas Child characters in television Fictional American people Fictional European-American people Fictional Scottish people Fictional Russian people Fictional French people Fictional Irish people Fictional archaeologists Fictional characters based on real people Fictional characters from New Jersey Film characters introduced in 1981 Fictional colonels Fictional explorers Fictional flexible weapons practitioners Fictional Office of Strategic Services personnel Fictional people from the 20th-century Fictional professors Fictional child soldiers Fictional prisoners of war Fictional secret agents and spies Fictional World War I veterans Fictional World War II veterans Male characters in film Indiana Jones characters Fictional Central Intelligence Agency personnel