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The ''I Ching'' or ''Yi Jing'' (, ), usually translated as ''Book of Changes'' or ''Classic of Changes'', is an ancient Chinese
divination Divination (from Latin ''divinare'', 'to foresee, to foretell, to predict, to prophesy') is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occult The occult, in the broadest sense, is a category of supernatural The ...

divination
text and among the oldest of the
Chinese classics Chinese classic texts or canonical texts () or simply dianji (典籍) refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics The Four Books and ...
. Originally a divination manual in the
Western Zhou The Western Zhou ( zh, c=, p=Xīzhōu; c. 1045 BC – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. It began when King Wu of Zhou King Wu of Zhou () was the first king of the King of the Romans (variant used in the ...
period (1000750), over the course of the
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period i ...
and early imperial period (500200) it was transformed into a
cosmological Cosmology (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
text with a series of philosophical commentaries known as the "
Ten Wings Ten Wings ( ''shí yì'') is a collection of commentaries (''zhuan'' ) to the classical Chinese '' Book of Changes'' traditionally ascribed to Confucius } Confucius ( ; zh, s=, p=Kǒng Fūzǐ, "Master Kǒng"; ) was a Chinese philosopher ...
". After becoming part of the
Five Classics The Four Books and Five Classics () are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world ...
in the 2nd century BCE, the ''I Ching'' was the subject of scholarly commentary and the basis for divination practice for centuries across the Far East, and eventually took on an influential role in Western understanding of Eastern thought. The ''I Ching'' is used in a type of divination called
cleromancy Cleromancy is a form of sortition, casting of wikt:lot#Noun, lots, in which an outcome is determined by means that normally would be considered random, such as the rolling of dice, but that are sometimes believed to reveal the will of God, or othe ...
, which uses apparently random numbers. Six numbers between 6 and 9 are turned into a
hexagram , can be seen as a compound polygon, compound composed of an upwards (blue here) and downwards (pink) facing equilateral triangle, with their intersection as a regular hexagon (in green). A hexagram (Greek language, Greek) or sexagram (Latin la ...
, which can then be looked up in the text, in which hexagrams are arranged in an order known as the
King Wen sequenceThe King Wen sequence () is an arrangement of the sixty-four divination figures in 易經 Yì Jīng, the I Ching or Book of Changes. They are called '' hexagrams'' in English because each figure is composed of six 爻 yáo—broken or unbroken lines ...
. The interpretation of the readings found in the ''I Ching'' is a matter which has been endlessly discussed and debated over in the centuries following its compilation, and many commentators have used the book symbolically, often to provide guidance for moral decision making as informed by
Confucianism , Shanxi Shanxi (; ; Chinese postal romanization, formerly romanised as Shansi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region. The capital and largest city of th ...
,
Taoism Taoism (), or Daoism (), is a philosophical and spiritual tradition of China, Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the ''Tao'' (, Taoism#Spelling and pronunciation, or ''Dao''). In Taoism, the ''Tao'' is the source, pattern a ...
and
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
. The hexagrams themselves have often acquired cosmological significance and been paralleled with many other traditional names for the processes of change such as
yin and yang In Ancient Chinese philosophy Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period () and Warring States period (), during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significan ...

yin and yang
and
Wu XingWuxing may refer to: *Wuxing (Chinese philosophy) File:VM Mu-Huo-Tu-Jin-Shui zhi Shen 4594.jpg, Tablet in the Temple of Heaven of Beijing, written in Chinese language, Chinese and Manchu language, Manchu, dedicated to the Wufang Shangdi, gods ...
.


The divination text: ''Zhou yi''


History

The core of the ''I Ching'' is a
Western Zhou The Western Zhou ( zh, c=, p=Xīzhōu; c. 1045 BC – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. It began when King Wu of Zhou King Wu of Zhou () was the first king of the King of the Romans (variant used in the ...
divination text called the ''Changes of Zhou'' (). Various modern scholars suggest dates ranging between the 10th and 4th centuries BC for the assembly of the text in approximately its current form. Based on a comparison of the language of the ''Zhou yi'' with dated bronze inscriptions, the American sinologist
Edward Shaughnessy Edward Louis Shaughnessy (born July 29, 1952) is an American Sinologist, scholar, and educator, known for his studies of early History of China, Chinese history, particularly the Zhou dynasty, and his studies of the Yijing, ''Classic of Changes'' ( ...
dated its compilation in its current form to the early decades of the reign of
King Xuan of Zhou of the King of the Romans King of the Romans ( la, Rex Romanorum; german: König der Römer) was the title used by the German king following his election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population choos ...

King Xuan of Zhou
, in the last quarter of the 9th century BC. A copy of the text in the
Shanghai Museum The Shanghai Museum is a of ancient , situated on the in the of , China. Rebuilt at its current location in 1996, it is considered one of China's first world-class modern museums. History The museum was founded in 1952 and was first open to ...

Shanghai Museum
corpus of
bamboo and wooden slips Bamboo and wooden slips () were the main media for writing documents in China before the widespread introduction of paper during the first two centuries AD. (Silk was occasionally used, for example in the Chu Silk Manuscript, but was prohibiti ...
(discovered in 1994) shows that the ''Zhou yi'' was used throughout all levels of Chinese society in its current form by 300 BC, but still contained small variations as late as the
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period i ...
. It is possible that other divination systems existed at this time; the ''
Rites of Zhou The ''Rites of Zhou'' (), originally known as "Officers of Zhou" () is a work on bureaucracy and organizational theory. It was renamed by Liu Xin to differentiate it from a chapter in the ''Book of History The ''Book of Documents'' (''Shūj ...
'' name two other such systems, the ''Lianshan'' and the ''
Guicang ''Guicang'' (歸藏, "Return to the Hidden") is a divination text dating to the Zhou dynasty, which was once used in place of the ''I Ching''. The text of ''Guicang'' was rediscovered in a rural bog in 1993; it had been lost for roughly two thousan ...
''.


Name and authorship

The name ''Zhou yi'' literally means the "changes" () of the
Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China ...
. The "changes" involved have been interpreted as the transformations of hexagrams, of their lines, or of the numbers obtained from the divination.
Feng Youlan Feng Youlan (; 4 December 1895 – 26 November 1990) was a Chinese philosopher, historian, and writer who was instrumental for reintroducing the study of Chinese philosophy Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and A ...

Feng Youlan
proposed that the word for "changes" originally meant "easy", as in a form of divination easier than the
oracle bone Oracle bones () are pieces of ox scapula In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas), also known as the shoulder bone, shoulder blade, wing bone, speal bone or blade bone, is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with t ...

oracle bone
s, but there is little evidence for this. There is also an ancient
folk etymology Folk etymology (also known as popular etymology, analogical reformation, reanalysis, morphological reanalysis or etymological reinterpretation) is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more famili ...
that sees the character for "changes" as containing the sun and moon, the cycle of the day. Modern Sinologists believe the character to be derived either from an image of the sun emerging from clouds, or from the content of a vessel being changed into another. The ''Zhou yi'' was traditionally ascribed to the Zhou cultural heroes
King Wen of Zhou King Wen of Zhou (; 1112–1050 BC, the Civilizing King) was Count of ZhouZhou may refer to: Chinese history * King Zhou of Shang () (1105 BC–1046 BC), the last king of the Shang dynasty * Predynastic Zhou (), 11th-century BC precursor to the Z ...

King Wen of Zhou
and the
Duke of Zhou Dan, Duke Wen of Zhou (), commonly known as the Duke of Zhou (), was a member of the royal family of the early Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historical ...
, and was also associated with the legendary world ruler
Fu Xi Fuxi or Fu Hsi (伏羲 ~ 伏犧 ~ 伏戲) is a culture hero A culture hero is a mythological Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions commo ...

Fu Xi
. According to the canonical ''Great Commentary'', Fu Xi observed the patterns of the world and created the
eight trigrams The Bagua, Pakua or Palgwae are eight symbols used in to represent the fundamental principles of reality, seen as a range of eight interrelated concepts. Each consists of three lines, each line either "broken" or "unbroken", respectively re ...

eight trigrams
(), "in order to become thoroughly conversant with the numinous and bright and to classify the myriad things." The ''Zhou yi'' itself does not contain this legend and indeed says nothing about its own origins. The ''Rites of Zhou'', however, also claims that the hexagrams of the ''Zhou yi'' were derived from an initial set of eight trigrams. During the Han dynasty there were various opinions about the historical relationship between the trigrams and the hexagrams. Eventually, a consensus formed around 2nd-century AD scholar
Ma Rong Ma Rong (; 79–166), courtesy name Jichang (), was a Chinese poet and politician of the Eastern Han dynasty. He was born in Youfufeng () in the former Han capital region, in modern Xianyang, Shaanxi Province. He was known for his commentaries o ...
's attribution of the text to the joint work of Fu Xi, King Wen of Zhou, the Duke of Zhou, and
Confucius } Confucius ( ; zh, s=, p=Kǒng Fūzǐ, "Master Kǒng"; or commonly zh, s=, p=Kǒngzǐ, labels=no; ) was a Chinese philosopher Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period () and Warring States period (), ...

Confucius
, but this traditional attribution is no longer generally accepted.


Structure

The basic unit of the ''Zhou yi'' is the
hexagram , can be seen as a compound polygon, compound composed of an upwards (blue here) and downwards (pink) facing equilateral triangle, with their intersection as a regular hexagon (in green). A hexagram (Greek language, Greek) or sexagram (Latin la ...
( ''guà''), a figure composed of six stacked horizontal lines ( ''yáo''). Each line is either broken or unbroken. The received text of the ''Zhou yi'' contains all 64 possible hexagrams, along with the hexagram's name ( ), a short hexagram statement ( ), and six line statements ( ''yáocí''). The statements were used to determine the results of divination, but the reasons for having two different methods of reading the hexagram are not known, and it is not known why hexagram statements would be read over line statements or vice versa. The book opens with the first hexagram statement, (). These four words, translated traditionally by
James Legge James Legge (; 20 December 181529 November 1897) was a Scottish sinologist, missionary, and scholar, best known as an early and prolific translator of Classical Chinese texts into English. Legge served as a representative of the London Miss ...

James Legge
as "originating and penetrating, advantageous and firm," are often repeated in the hexagram statements and were already considered an important part of ''I Ching'' interpretation in the 6th century BC. Edward Shaughnessy describes this statement as affirming an "initial receipt" of an offering, "beneficial" for further "divining". The word (, ancient form ) was also used for the verb "divine" in the
oracle bone Oracle bones () are pieces of ox scapula In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas), also known as the shoulder bone, shoulder blade, wing bone, speal bone or blade bone, is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with t ...

oracle bone
s of the late
Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From ...

Shang dynasty
, which preceded the Zhou. It also carried meanings of being or making upright or correct, and was defined by the Eastern Han scholar
Zheng Xuan Zheng Xuan (127–200), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere The E ...
as "to enquire into the correctness" of a proposed activity. The names of the hexagrams are usually words that appear in their respective line statements, but in five cases (2, 9, 26, 61, and 63) an unrelated character of unclear purpose appears. The hexagram names could have been chosen arbitrarily from the line statements, but it is also possible that the line statements were derived from the hexagram names. The line statements, which make up most of the book, are exceedingly cryptic. Each line begins with a word indicating the line number, "base, 2, 3, 4, 5, top", and either the number 6 for a broken line, or the number 9 for a whole line. Hexagrams 1 and 2 have an extra line statement, named ''yong''. Following the line number, the line statements may make oracular or prognostic statements. Some line statements also contain poetry or references to historical events.


Usage

Archaeological evidence shows that Zhou dynasty divination was grounded in
cleromancy Cleromancy is a form of sortition, casting of wikt:lot#Noun, lots, in which an outcome is determined by means that normally would be considered random, such as the rolling of dice, but that are sometimes believed to reveal the will of God, or othe ...
, the production of seemingly random numbers to determine divine intent. The ''Zhou yi'' provided a guide to cleromancy that used the stalks of the
yarrow plant
yarrow plant
, but it is not known how the yarrow stalks became numbers, or how specific lines were chosen from the line readings. In the hexagrams, broken lines were used as shorthand for the numbers 6 () and 8 (), and solid lines were shorthand for values of 7 () and 9 (). The ''Great Commentary'' contains a late classic description of a process where various numerological operations are performed on a bundle of 50 stalks, leaving remainders of 6 to 9. Like the ''Zhou yi'' itself, yarrow stalk divination dates to the Western Zhou period, although its modern form is a reconstruction. The ancient narratives ''
Zuo zhuan The ''Zuo Zhuan'' (; ), generally translated ''The Zuo Tradition'' or ''The Commentary of Zuo'', is an ancient Chinese narrative history that is traditionally regarded as a commentary on the ancient Chinese chronicle ''Spring and Autumn Annals ...

Zuo zhuan
'' and '' Guoyu'' contain the oldest descriptions of divination using the ''Zhou yi''. The two histories describe more than twenty successful divinations conducted by professional soothsayers for royal families between 671 BC and 487 BC. The method of divination is not explained, and none of the stories employ predetermined commentaries, patterns, or interpretations. Only the hexagrams and line statements are used. By the 4th century BCE, the authority of the ''Zhou yi'' was also cited for rhetorical purposes, without relation to any stated divination. The ''Zuo zhuan'' does not contain records of private individuals, but
Qin dynasty The Qin dynasty, or Ch'in dynasty in Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of ever ...

Qin dynasty
records found at Shuihudi show that the hexagrams were privately consulted to answer questions such as business, health, children, and determining lucky days. The most common form of divination with the ''I Ching'' in use today is a reconstruction of the method described in these histories, in the 300 BC ''Great Commentary'', and later in the ''
Huainanzi The ''Huainanzi'' is an ancient Chinese text that consists of a collection of essays that resulted from a series of scholarly debates held at the court of Liu An, Prince of Huainan, sometime before 139. The ''Huainanzi'' blends Daoist, Confucia ...
'' and the ''
Lunheng The ''Lunheng'', also known by numerous English translations, is a wide-ranging Chinese classic text by Wang Chong (27- ). First published in 80, it contains critical essays on natural science Natural science is a branch of science ...
''. From the ''Great Commentarys description, the Neo-Confucian
Zhu Xi Zhu Xi (; ; October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), Wade-Giles, W-G Chu Hsi, also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese Confucianism, Confucian scholar philosopher and government official of Son ...

Zhu Xi
reconstructed a method of yarrow stalk divination that is still used throughout the Far East. In the modern period, Gao Heng attempted his own reconstruction, which varies from Zhu Xi in places.
Another divination method
Another divination method
, employing coins, became widely used in the Tang dynasty and is still used today. In the modern period; alternative methods such as specialized
dice Dice (singular die or dice) are small, throwable objects with marked sides that can rest in multiple positions. They are used for generating random numbers, commonly as part of tabletop game Tabletop games are game with separate sliding d ...

dice
and
cartomancy Cartomancy is fortune-telling Fortune telling is the practice of prediction, predicting information about a person's life.J. Gordon Melton, Melton, J. Gordon. (2008). ''The Encyclopedia of Religious Phenomena''. Visible Ink Press. pp. 115-11 ...
have also appeared. In the ''Zuo zhuan'' stories, individual lines of hexagrams are denoted by using the genitive particle (), followed by the name of another hexagram where that specific line had another form. In later attempts to reconstruct ancient divination methods, the word was interpreted as a verb meaning "moving to", an apparent indication that hexagrams could be transformed into other hexagrams. However, there are no instances of "changeable lines" in the ''Zuo zhuan''. In all 12 out of 12 line statements quoted, the original hexagrams are used to produce the oracle.


The classic: ''I Ching''

In 136 BC,
Emperor Wu of Han Emperor Wu of Han (30 June 156 – 29 March 87BC), formally enshrined as Emperor Wu the Filial Filial may refer to: * Filial church, a Roman Catholic church to which is annexed the cure of souls, but which remains dependent on another church ...

Emperor Wu of Han
named the ''Zhou yi'' "the first among the classics", dubbing it the ''Classic of Changes'' or ''I Ching''. Emperor Wu's placement of the ''I Ching'' among the
Five Classics The Four Books and Five Classics () are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written before 300 BC. The Four Books and the Five Classics are the most important classics of Chinese Confucianism. Four Books The Four Books () are Chi ...
was informed by a broad span of cultural influences that included
Confucianism , Shanxi Shanxi (; ; Chinese postal romanization, formerly romanised as Shansi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region. The capital and largest city of th ...
,
Taoism Taoism (), or Daoism (), is a philosophical and spiritual tradition of China, Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the ''Tao'' (, Taoism#Spelling and pronunciation, or ''Dao''). In Taoism, the ''Tao'' is the source, pattern a ...
, Legalism,
yin-yang cosmology
yin-yang cosmology
, and Wu Xing physical theory. While the ''Zhou yi'' does not contain any cosmological analogies, the ''I Ching'' was read as a microcosm of the universe that offered complex, symbolic correspondences. The official edition of the text was literally set in stone, as one of the
Xiping Stone Classics The Xiping Stone Classics () are a collection of Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Li ...
. The canonized ''I Ching'' became the standard text for over two thousand years, until alternate versions of the ''Zhou yi'' and related texts were discovered in the 20th century.


Ten Wings

Part of the canonization of the ''Zhou yi'' bound it to a set of ten commentaries called the
Ten Wings Ten Wings ( ''shí yì'') is a collection of commentaries (''zhuan'' ) to the classical Chinese '' Book of Changes'' traditionally ascribed to Confucius } Confucius ( ; zh, s=, p=Kǒng Fūzǐ, "Master Kǒng"; ) was a Chinese philosopher ...
. The Ten Wings are of a much later provenance than the ''Zhou yi'', and are the production of a different society. The ''Zhou yi'' was written in Early
Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It i ...
, while the Ten Wings were written in a predecessor to
Middle Chinese Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country ...
. The specific origins of the Ten Wings are still a complete mystery to academics. Regardless of their historical relation to the text, the philosophical depth of the Ten Wings made the ''I Ching'' a perfect fit to Han period Confucian scholarship. The inclusion of the Ten Wings reflects a widespread recognition in ancient China, found in the ''Zuo zhuan'' and other pre-Han texts, that the ''I Ching'' was a rich moral and symbolic document useful for more than professional divination. Arguably the most important of the Ten Wings is the ''Great Commentary'' (''Dazhuan'') or ''Xi ci'', which dates to roughly 300 BC. The ''Great Commentary'' describes the ''I Ching'' as a microcosm of the universe and a symbolic description of the processes of change. By partaking in the spiritual experience of the ''I Ching'', the ''Great Commentary'' states, the individual can understand the deeper patterns of the universe. Among other subjects, it explains how the eight trigrams proceeded from the eternal oneness of the universe through three bifurcations. The other Wings provide different perspectives on essentially the same viewpoint, giving ancient, cosmic authority to the ''I Ching''. For example, the ''Wenyan'' provides a moral interpretation that parallels the first two hexagrams, 乾 (qián) and 坤 (kūn), with
Heaven Heaven or the heavens, is a common religious cosmological or transcendent supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and . It also ...

Heaven
and Earth, and the ''Shuogua'' attributes to the symbolic function of the hexagrams the ability to understand self, world, and destiny. Throughout the Ten Wings, there are passages that seem to purposefully increase the ambiguity of the base text, pointing to a recognition of multiple layers of symbolism. The ''Great Commentary'' associates knowledge of the ''I Ching'' with the ability to "delight in Heaven and understand fate;" the sage who reads it will see cosmological patterns and not despair in mere material difficulties. The Japanese word for "metaphysics", ''keijijōgaku'' (;
pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objecti ...

pinyin
: ''xíng ér shàng xué'') is derived from a statement found in the ''Great Commentary'' that "what is above form 'xíng ér shàng''is called
Dao Tao or Dao is the natural order of the universe whose character one's human intuition Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is someth ...

Dao
; what is under form is called a tool". The word has also been borrowed into Korean and re-borrowed back into Chinese. The Ten Wings were traditionally attributed to
Confucius } Confucius ( ; zh, s=, p=Kǒng Fūzǐ, "Master Kǒng"; or commonly zh, s=, p=Kǒngzǐ, labels=no; ) was a Chinese philosopher Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period () and Warring States period (), ...

Confucius
, possibly based on a misreading of the ''
Records of the Grand Historian The ''Records of the Grand Historian'', also known by its Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dep ...

Records of the Grand Historian
''. Although it rested on historically shaky grounds, the association of the ''I Ching'' with Confucius gave weight to the text and was taken as an article of faith throughout the Han and Tang dynasties. The ''I Ching'' was not included in the
burning of the Confucian classics
burning of the Confucian classics
, and textual evidence strongly suggests that Confucius did not consider the ''Zhou yi'' a "classic". An ancient commentary on the ''Zhou yi'' found at Mawangdui portrays Confucius as endorsing it as a source of wisdom first and an imperfect divination text second. However, since the Ten Wings became canonized by Emperor Wu of Han together with the original I Ching as the Zhou Yi, it can be attributed to the positions of influence from the Confucians in the government. Furthermore, the Ten Wings tends to use diction and phrases such as "the master said", which was previously commonly seen in the
Analects The ''Analects'' (; ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China ...

Analects
, thereby implying the heavy involvement of Confucians in its creation as well as institutionalization.


Hexagrams

In the canonical ''I Ching'', the hexagrams are arranged in an order dubbed the
King Wen sequenceThe King Wen sequence () is an arrangement of the sixty-four divination figures in 易經 Yì Jīng, the I Ching or Book of Changes. They are called '' hexagrams'' in English because each figure is composed of six 爻 yáo—broken or unbroken lines ...
after King Wen of Zhou, who founded the Zhou dynasty and supposedly reformed the method of interpretation. The sequence generally pairs hexagrams with their upside-down equivalents, although in eight cases hexagrams are paired with their inversion. Another order, found at
Mawangdui Mawangdui () is an archaeological site An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of hu ...
in 1973, arranges the hexagrams into eight groups sharing the same upper trigram. But the oldest known manuscript, found in 1987 and now held by the Shanghai Library, was almost certainly arranged in the King Wen sequence, and it has even been proposed that a pottery paddle from the Western Zhou period contains four hexagrams in the King Wen sequence. Whichever of these arrangements is older, it is not evident that the order of the hexagrams was of interest to the original authors of the ''Zhou yi''. The assignment of numbers, binary or decimal, to specific hexagrams, is a modern invention. Yin and yang are represented by broken and solid lines: yin is broken () and yang is solid (). Different constructions of three yin and yang lines lead to
eight trigrams The Bagua, Pakua or Palgwae are eight symbols used in to represent the fundamental principles of reality, seen as a range of eight interrelated concepts. Each consists of three lines, each line either "broken" or "unbroken", respectively re ...

eight trigrams
(八卦) namely, Qian (乾, ☰), Dui (兌, ☱), Li (離, ☲), Zhen (震, ☳), Xun (巽, ☴), Kan (坎, ☵), Gen (艮, ☶), and Kun (坤, ☷). The different combinations of the two trigrams lead to 64 hexagrams. The following table numbers the hexagrams in King Wen order.


Interpretation and influence

The sinologist Michael Nylan describes the ''I Ching'' as the best-known Chinese book in the world. In East Asia, it is a foundational text for the Confucian and Daoist philosophical traditions, while in the West, it attracted the attention of Enlightenment intellectuals and prominent literary and cultural figures.


Eastern Han and Six Dynasties

During the
Eastern Han#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Eastern Han
, ''I Ching'' interpretation divided into two schools, originating in a dispute over minor differences between different editions of the received text. The first school, known as New Text criticism, was more egalitarian and eclectic, and sought to find symbolic and numerological parallels between the natural world and the hexagrams. Their commentaries provided the basis of the School of Images and Numbers. The other school, Old Text criticism, was more scholarly and hierarchical, and focused on the moral content of the text, providing the basis for the School of Meanings and Principles. The New Text scholars distributed alternate versions of the text and freely integrated non-canonical commentaries into their work, as well as propagating alternate systems of divination such as the ''
Taixuanjing The text ''Tài Xuán Jīng'' ("Canon of Supreme Mystery", ) was composed by the Confucian writer Yang Xiong (author), Yang Xiong (53 BCE-18 CE). The first draft of this work was completed in 2 BCE (in the decade before the fall of the Western Han ...
''. Most of this early commentary, such as the image and number work of
Jing FangJing Fang (, 78–37 BC), born Li Fang (), courtesy name Junming (), was born in present-day 東郡頓丘 ( Puyang, Henan) during the Han Dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (2 ...
,
Yu Fan Yu Fan (164–233), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere The East A ...
and
Xun Shuang Xun Shuang (128–190), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere, including China, ...
, is no longer extant. Only short fragments survive, from a Tang dynasty text called ''Zhou yi jijie''. With the fall of the Han, ''I Ching'' scholarship was no longer organized into systematic schools. The most influential writer of this period was
Wang Bi Wang Bi (226–249), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere, including China, Ja ...
, who discarded the numerology of Han commentators and integrated the philosophy of the Ten Wings directly into the central text of the ''I Ching'', creating such a persuasive narrative that Han commentators were no longer considered significant. A century later
Han Kangbo Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese, the world's largest ethnic group, the Han make up 18% of the Earth's human population * Han people, the South Korean term for Koreans * Hän, a First Nations people of Canada East Asian history ...
added commentaries on the Ten Wings to Wang Bi's book, creating a text called the ''Zhouyi zhu''. The principal rival interpretation was a practical text on divination by the soothsayer
Guan Lu Guan Lu (209–256), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere, including China, Ja ...
.


Tang and Song dynasties

At the beginning of the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
,
Emperor Taizong of Tang Emperor Taizong of Tang (28January 59810July 649), previously Prince of Qin, personal name Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled fr ...
ordered to create a canonical edition of the ''I Ching''. Choosing
Wang Bi Wang Bi (226–249), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere, including China, Ja ...
's 3rd-century "Annotated Zhou-dynasty (Book of) Changes" ('; ) as the official commentary, he added to it further commentary drawing out the subtler details of Wang Bi's explanations. The resulting work, the "Right Meaning of the Zhou-dynasty (Book of) Changes" ('; ), became the standard edition of the ''I Ching'' through the
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
. By the 11th century, the ''I Ching'' was being read as a work of intricate philosophy, as a jumping-off point for examining great metaphysical questions and ethical issues. Cheng Yi, patriarch of the Neo-Confucian
Cheng–Zhu schoolThe Cheng–Zhu school (), is one of the major philosophical schools of Neo-Confucianism, based on the ideas of the Neo-Confucian philosophers Cheng Yi (philosopher), Cheng Yi, Cheng Hao, and Zhu Xi. It is also referred to as the Rationalistic School ...
, read the ''I Ching'' as a guide to moral perfection. He described the text as a way to for ministers to form honest political factions, root out corruption, and solve problems in government. The contemporary scholar
Shao YongImage:Shao Yong.jpg, 200px, Shao Yong Shao Yong (; 1011–1077), courtesy name Yaofu (堯夫), named Shào Kāngjié (邵康節) was a Chinese cosmologist, historian, philosopher, and poet who greatly influenced the development of Neo-Confucianism ...

Shao Yong
rearranged the hexagrams in a format that resembles modern
binary number In mathematics and digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons The electr ...
s, although he did not intend his arrangement to be used mathematically. This arrangement, sometimes called the
binary sequence A bitstream (or bit stream), also known as binary sequence, is a sequence In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed and order theory, order matters. Like a Set (mathematics), set, it conta ...
, later inspired
Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ; see inscription of the engraving depicted in the "#1666–1676, 1666–1676" section. ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath active as a mathematician, philosopher, scientist, and diplomat. He is a promin ...
.


Neo-Confucian

The 12th century Neo-Confucian
Zhu Xi Zhu Xi (; ; October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), Wade-Giles, W-G Chu Hsi, also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese Confucianism, Confucian scholar philosopher and government official of Son ...

Zhu Xi
, cofounder of the Cheng–Zhu school, criticized both of the Han dynasty lines of commentary on the ''I Ching'', saying that they were one-sided. He developed a synthesis of the two, arguing that the text was primarily a work of divination that could be used in the process of moral self-cultivation, or what the ancients called "rectification of the mind" in the ''
Great Learning The ''Great Learning'' or ''Daxue'' was one of the "Four Books The Four Books and Five Classics () are the authoritative books of Confucianism , Shanxi Shanxi (; ; Chinese postal romanization, formerly romanised as Shansi) is a la ...
''. Zhu Xi's reconstruction of I Ching yarrow stalk divination, based in part on the ''Great Commentary'' account, became the standard form and is still in use today. As China entered the early modern period, the ''I Ching'' took on renewed relevance in both Confucian and Daoist studies. The
Kangxi Emperor The Kangxi Emperor (Xuanye; 4 May 1654– 20 December 1722) was the third Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Wester ...

Kangxi Emperor
was especially fond of the ''I Ching'' and ordered new interpretations of it.
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
scholars focused more intently on understanding pre-classical grammar, assisting the development of new philological approaches in the modern period.


Korean and Japanese

Like the other Chinese classics, the ''I Ching'' was an influential text across the East Asian "
Sinosphere The East Asian cultural sphere, also known as the Sinosphere, the Sinic world, the Sinitic world, the Chinese cultural sphere or the Chinese character sphere, encompasses countries in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of As ...
". In 1557, the Korean Neo-Confucian
Yi Hwang Yi Hwang (1501–1570) was a Korean philosopher and writer. He was one of the two most prominent Korea Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been Division of Korea, divided into the two parts ...
produced one of the most influential ''I Ching'' studies of the early modern era, claiming that the spirit was a principle (''li'') and not a material force (''''). Hwang accused the Neo-Confucian school of having misread Zhu Xi. His critique proved influential not only in Korea but also in Japan. Other than this contribution, the ''I Ching''—known in Korean as the ''Yeok-gyeong''—was not central to the development of Korean Confucianism, and by the 19th century, ''I Ching'' studies were integrated into the ''
silhak Silhak was a social reform movement in late . ''Sil'' means "actual" or "practical", and ''hak'' means "studies" or "learning". It developed in response to the increasingly metaphysical nature of (성리학) that seemed disconnected from the rap ...
'' reform movement. In medieval Japan, secret teachings on the ''I Ching''—known in Japanese as the ''Ekikyō''—were publicized by
Rinzai Zen The Rinzai school ( ja, , Rinzai-shū, zh, t=臨濟宗, s=临济宗, p=Línjì zōng) is one of three sects of Zen in Japanese Buddhism (along with Sōtō and Ōbaku). The Chinese Linji school, Linji school of Chan Buddhism, Chan was first tran ...
master
Kokan Shiren Kokan Shiren (Japanese language, Japanese: こかんしれん, Kanji: 虎関師錬; 9 May 1278 – 11 August 1347), Japanese Rinzai Zen patriarch and celebrated poet. He preached Buddhism at the Imperial court, and was noted for his poetry in the Li ...

Kokan Shiren
and the Shintoist
Yoshida Kanetomo was a Japanese Shinto priest of the Sengoku period. He was a seminal figure in the evolution of a coherent descriptive and interpretive Model (abstract), schema of Shinto ritual and mythology.Itō Satoshi "Yoshida Kanetomo,"''Encyclopedia of Shint ...

Yoshida Kanetomo
. ''I Ching'' studies in Japan took on new importance in the
Edo period The or is the period between 1603 and 1867 in the history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...
, during which over 1,000 books were published on the subject by over 400 authors. The majority of these books were serious works of philology, reconstructing ancient usages and commentaries for practical purposes. A sizable minority focused on numerology, symbolism, and divination. During this time, over 150 editions of earlier Chinese commentaries were reprinted in Japan, including several texts that had become lost in China. In the early Edo period, writers such as Itō Jinsai,
Kumazawa Banzan was an adherent of a branch of Neo-Confucianism called Yangmingism (Japanese: ''Yōmeigaku'': 陽明学), who lived during the early Edo period. His childhood name (yōmei) was , his imina was , also read Shigetsugu. His common name (azana) was ...
, and Nakae Toju ranked the ''I Ching'' the greatest of the Confucian classics. Many writers attempted to use the ''I Ching'' to explain . One writer, Shizuki Tadao, even attempted to employ
Newtonian mechanics Newton's laws of motion are three Scientific law, laws of classical mechanics that describe the relationship between the motion of an object and the forces acting on it. These laws can be paraphrased as follows: ''Law 1''. A body continues ...
and the
Copernican principle In physical cosmology Physical cosmology is a branch of cosmology concerned with the study of cosmological models. A cosmological model, or simply cosmology, provides a description of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the universe ...
within an ''I Ching'' cosmology. This line of argument was later taken up in China by the Qing scholar and official
Zhang Zhidong Zhang Zhidong () (4 September 18375 October 1909) was a Chinese official who lived during the late Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of Chin ...

Zhang Zhidong
.


Early European

Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ; see inscription of the engraving depicted in the "#1666–1676, 1666–1676" section. ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath active as a mathematician, philosopher, scientist, and diplomat. He is a promin ...

Leibniz
, who was corresponding with
Jesuits in China 300px, " The Complete Map of the Myriad Countries" (''Wanguo Quantu''), Western geographic knowledge to Chinese cartography">Chinese cartographic standards (early 17th century) The history of the missions of the Jesuits in China is part of the his ...
, wrote the first European commentary on the ''I Ching'' in 1703. He argued that it proved the universality of
binary number In mathematics and digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons The electr ...
s and
theism Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of a Supreme Being, supreme being or deities. In common parlance, or when contrasted with ''deism'', the term often describes the classical conception of God that is found in monotheism (a ...
, since the broken lines, the "0" or "nothingness", cannot become solid lines, the "1" or "oneness", without the intervention of
God In monotheistic Monotheism is the belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the ...

God
. This was criticized by
Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (; ; 27 August 1770 – 14 November 1831) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citi ...
, who proclaimed that binary system and
Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, ...
were "empty forms" that could not articulate spoken words with the clarity of the Western
alphabet An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semanti ...

alphabet
. In their commentary, ''I Ching'' hexagrams and Chinese characters were conflated into a single foreign idea, sparking a dialogue on Western philosophical questions such as universality and the nature of communication. The usage of binary in relation to the I Ching was central to Leibniz's
characteristica universalis The Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it ...
, or universal language, which in turn inspired the standards of Boolean logic and for Gottlob Frege to develop
predicate logic First-order logic—also known as predicate logic, quantificational logic, and first-order predicate calculus—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science. First-order logic uses Quantifica ...
in the late 19th century. In the 20th century,
Jacques Derrida Jacques Derrida (; ; born Jackie Élie Derrida; See also . July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004), born in Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers ...
identified Hegel's argument as logocentric, but accepted without question Hegel's premise that the Chinese language cannot express philosophical ideas.


Modern

After the
Xinhai Revolution The 1911 Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Xinhai Revolution, ended China's last imperial dynasty, the Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria ...
of 1911, the ''I Ching'' was no longer part of mainstream Chinese political philosophy, but it maintained cultural influence as China's most ancient text. Borrowing back from Leibniz, Chinese writers offered parallels between the ''I Ching'' and subjects such as
linear algebra Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as: :a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n=b, linear maps such as: :(x_1, \ldots, x_n) \mapsto a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n, and their representations in vector spaces and through matrix (mat ...
and
logic in computer science Logic (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 milli ...
, aiming to demonstrate that ancient Chinese cosmology had anticipated Western discoveries. The Sinologist
Joseph Needham Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (; 9 December 1900 – 24 March 1995) was a British biochemist, historian and sinologist Sinology or Chinese studies, is an academic discipline that focuses on the study of China China, officially ...
took the opposite opinion, arguing that the ''I Ching'' had actually impeded scientific development by incorporating all physical knowledge into its metaphysics. However with the advent of
quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with ...
, physicist
Niels Bohr Niels Henrik David Bohr (; 7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of D ...

Niels Bohr
credited inspiration from the Yin and Yang symbolisms in using intuition to
interpret Interpreting is a translational activity in which one produces a first and final translation on the basis of a one-time exposure to an expression in a source language. The most common two modes of interpreting are simultaneous interpreting, whic ...
the new field, which disproved principles from older Western classical mechanics. The
principle of complementarity In physics, complementarity is a conceptual aspect of quantum mechanics that Niels Bohr regarded as an essential feature of the theory. The complementarity principle holds that objects have certain pairs of complementary properties which cannot all ...
heavily used concepts from the I Ching as mentioned in his writings. The psychologist
Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung ( ; born Karl Gustav Jung, ; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961), was a Swiss psychiatrist A psychiatrist is a physician A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations ...

Carl Jung
took interest in the possible universal nature of the imagery of the ''I Ching'', and he introduced an influential German translation by Richard Wilhelm by discussing his theories of
archetype The concept of an archetype (; from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popu ...
s and
synchronicity Synchronicity (german: Synchronizität) is a concept first introduced by Analytical psychology, analytical psychologist Carl G. Jung "to describe circumstances that appear meaning (psychology), meaningfully related yet lack a causality, causal co ...
. Jung wrote, "Even to the most biased eye, it is obvious that this book represents one long admonition to careful scrutiny of one's own character, attitude, and motives." The book had a notable impact on the 1960s counterculture and on 20th century cultural figures such as
Philip K. Dick Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928March 2, 1982) was an American writer known for his work in science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 in the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magaz ...
,
John Cage John Milton Cage Jr. (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American composer A composer (Latin wikt:compono, ''compōnō''; literally "one who puts together") is a person who writes musical composition, music, especially classical ...
,
Jorge Luis Borges Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo (; ; 24 August 1899 – 14 June 1986) was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, and a key figure in Spanish literature, Spanish-language and international literature. His ...

Jorge Luis Borges
,
Terence McKenna Terence Kemp McKenna (November 16, 1946 – April 3, 2000) was an American ethnobotanist and mystic who advocated for the responsible use of naturally occurring psychedelic plants. He spoke and wrote about a variety of subjects, includin ...

Terence McKenna
and
Hermann Hesse Hermann Karl Hesse (; 2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-Swiss poet, novelist, and painter. His best-known works include ''Demian'', ''Steppenwolf (novel), Steppenwolf'', ''Siddhartha (novel), Siddhartha'', and ''The Glass Bead Game'', ...

Hermann Hesse
. The modern period also brought a new level of skepticism and rigor to ''I Ching'' scholarship. Li Jingchi spent several decades producing a new interpretation of the text, which was published posthumously in 1978. Modern data scientists including Alex Liu proposed to represent and develop I Ching methods with data science 4E framework and
latent variableIn statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a ...
approaches for a more rigorous representation and interpretation of I Ching. Gao Heng, an expert in pre-Qin China, reinvestigated its use as a Zhou dynasty oracle. Edward Shaughnessy proposed a new dating for the various strata of the text. New archaeological discoveries have enabled a deeper level of insight into how the text was used in the centuries before the Qin dynasty. Proponents of newly reconstructed Western Zhou readings, which often differ greatly from traditional readings of the text, are sometimes called the "modernist school".


In Fiction

The ''I Ching'' features significantly in
Philip K. Dick Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928March 2, 1982) was an American writer known for his work in science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 in the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magaz ...
's ''
The Man in the High Castle ''The Man in the High Castle'' is an alternate history novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. Published and set in 1962, the novel takes place fifteen years after a different end to World War II World War II or the Second World Wa ...
'' (an alternate reality novel where the Axis Powers won
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
), where various characters in the Japanese-controlled portion of America base their decisions on what it tells them. ''I Ching'' is also in
Philip Pullman Sir Philip Pullman, CBE The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry An order of chivalry, order of knighthood, chivalric order, or equestrian order is an order of knights typically founded during or ins ...
's ''
His Dark Materials ''His Dark Materials'' is a trilogy of Fantasy literature, fantasy novels by Philip Pullman consisting of ''Northern Lights (Pullman novel), Northern Lights'' (1995; published as ''The Golden Compass'' in North America), ''The Subtle Knife'' (1 ...
'' where it guides the physicist Mary Malone on her interactions with Dust/
Dark Matter Dark matter is a hypothetical form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, ...

Dark Matter
and leads her to another dimension.


Translations

The ''I Ching'' has been translated into Western languages dozens of times. The earliest complete published ''I Ching'' translation in a Western language was a Latin translation done in the 1730s by the French
Jesuit , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a Christian symbolism ...
missionary Jean-Baptiste Régis that was published in Germany in the 1830s. The most influential ''I Ching'' translation was the 1923 German translation of Richard Wilhelm, which was translated into English in 1950 by
Cary BaynesCary Baynes, born Cary Fink (1883-1977) was an American Jungian psychologist and translator.James Legge James Legge (; 20 December 181529 November 1897) was a Scottish sinologist, missionary, and scholar, best known as an early and prolific translator of Classical Chinese texts into English. Legge served as a representative of the London Miss ...

James Legge
had both translated the text in the 19th century, the text gained significant traction during the counterculture of the 1960s, with the translations of Wilhelm and
John Blofeld John Eaton Calthorpe Blofeld (2 April 1913 – 7 June 1987) was a British writer on Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisp ...
attracting particular interest.
Richard Rutt Cecil Richard Rutt CBE (27 August 192527 July 2011) was an English Roman Catholic priest The priesthood is one of the three holy orders of the Catholic Church, comprising the ordained priests or presbyters. The other two orders are the Bishop in ...
's 1996 translation incorporated much of the new archaeological and philological discoveries of the 20th century. Gregory Whincup's 1986 translation also attempts to reconstruct Zhou period readings.
An overview of the Taoist, Buddhist, and several other treatments of the ''I Ching''
by Thomas Cleary is available from Shambhala Publications. The most commonly used English translations of the ''I Ching'' are: * (1882). ''The Yî King''. In ''
Sacred Books of the East The ''Sacred Books of the East'' is a monumental 50-volume set of English translations of Asian religious texts Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions c ...
, vol. XVI''. 2nd edition (1899), Oxford: Clarendon Press; reprinted numerous times. * Wilhelm, Richard (1950). ''The I Ching or Book of Changes''. Cary Baynes, trans. Bollingen Series 19. Introduction by Carl G. Jung. New York: Pantheon Books. 3rd edition (1967), Princeton:
Princeton University Press Princeton University Press is an independent publisher Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creatio ...

Princeton University Press
; reprinted numerous times. Other notable English translations include: * McClatchie, Thomas (1876). ''A Translation of the Confucian Yi-king''. Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press. * Blofeld, John (1965). ''The Book of Changes: A New Translation of the Ancient Chinese I Ching''. New York: E. P. Dutton. * * * * *


See also

*
Lingqijing ''Lingqijing'' (or ''Ling Ch'i Ching''; 靈棋經 lit. "Classic of the Divine Chess") is a Chinese book of divination Divination (from Latin ''divinare'', 'to foresee, to foretell, to predict, to prophesy', related to ''divinus'', ' divine'), o ...
*
Taixuanjing The text ''Tài Xuán Jīng'' ("Canon of Supreme Mystery", ) was composed by the Confucian writer Yang Xiong (author), Yang Xiong (53 BCE-18 CE). The first draft of this work was completed in 2 BCE (in the decade before the fall of the Western Han ...
*
Lo Shu Square__NOTOC__ Lo Shu Square (; also written ; literally: Luo (River) Book/Scroll), or the Nine Halls Diagram (), is the unique normal magic square of order three (every normal magic square of order three is obtained from the Lo Shu by rotation or re ...
*
Qi Men Dun Jia Qimen Dunjia is an ancient form of divination Divination (from Latin ''divinare'', 'to foresee, to foretell, to predict, to prophesy', related to ''divinus'', ' divine'), or "to be inspired by a god," is the attempt to gain insight into a que ...


Notes


References


Citations


Sources cited

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


''The texts of Confucianism, Part II: The Yî king''
(''The Sacred books of China'' 16), translated by
James Legge James Legge (; 20 December 181529 November 1897) was a Scottish sinologist, missionary, and scholar, best known as an early and prolific translator of Classical Chinese texts into English. Legge served as a representative of the London Miss ...

James Legge
, 1882. *
Yi Jing
' at the Chinese Text Project: original text and Legge's translation {{DEFAULTSORT:I Ching 1st-millennium BC books Chinese folk religion Esoteric schools of thought History of philosophy Philosophy books Synchronicity Thirteen Classics Zhou dynasty texts Chinese books of divination