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The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a
professional association A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) usually seeks to further Further or Furthur may refer to: *Furthur (bus), ''Furthur'' (bus), the Merry Pranksters' psychedelic bus ...
for
electronic engineering Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design, and application of equipment, devices, and sys ...
and
electrical engineering Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design, and application of equipment, devices, and systems which use electricity, electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical enginee ...

electrical engineering
(and associated disciplines) with its corporate office in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
and its operations center in
Piscataway, New Jersey Piscataway () is a Township (New Jersey), township in Middlesex County, New Jersey, Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. The township is a major bedroom suburb of the New York metropolitan area, located within the heart of the Raritan Ri ...
. It was formed in 1963 from the amalgamation of the
American Institute of Electrical Engineers American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is ...
and the
Institute of Radio Engineers The Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) was a professional organization which existed from 1912 until December 31, 1962. On January 1, 1963 it merged with the American Institute of Electrical Engineers American(s) may refer to: * American, someth ...
. Due to its expansion of scope into so many related fields, it is simply referred to by the letters I-E-E-E (pronounced I-triple-E), except on legal business documents. , it is the world's largest association of technical professionals with more than 423,000 members in over 160 countries around the world. Its objectives are the educational and technical advancement of
electrical and electronic engineering
electrical and electronic engineering
,
telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Gr ...
s,
computer engineering Computer engineering (CoE or CpE) is a branch of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The di ...
and similar disciplines.


History


Origins

The IEEE traces its founding to 1884 and the
American Institute of Electrical Engineers American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is ...
. In 1912, the rival
Institute of Radio Engineers The Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) was a professional organization which existed from 1912 until December 31, 1962. On January 1, 1963 it merged with the American Institute of Electrical Engineers American(s) may refer to: * American, someth ...
was formed. Although the AIEE was initially larger, the IRE attracted more students and was larger by the mid-1950s. The AIEE and IRE merged in 1963. The IEEE headquarters is in New York City at 3 Park Ave, but most business is done at the IEEE Operations Center in Piscataway, NJ, first occupied in 1975.


Growth

The AIEE and the IRE merged to create the IEEE on January 1, 1963. At that time, the combined group had 150,000 members, 93% in the United States. By 1984 there were 250,000 members, 20% of whom were outside the U.S. The Australian Section of the IEEE existed between 1972 and 1985. After this date, it split into state- and territory-based sections. , IEEE has over 400,000 members in 160 countries, with the U.S. based membership no longer constituting a majority.


Controversies


Huawei ban

In May 2019, IEEE restricted
Huawei Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ( ; ) is a Chinese multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. It designs, develops and sells telecommunications equipment, cons ...
employees from peer reviewing papers or handling papers as editors due to the "severe legal implications" of U.S. government sanctions against Huawei. As members of its standard-setting body, Huawei employees could continue to exercise their voting rights, attend standards development meetings, submit proposals and comment in public discussions on new standards. The ban sparked outrage among Chinese scientists on social media. Some professors in China decided to cancel their memberships. On June 3, 2019, IEEE lifted restrictions on Huawei's editorial and peer review activities after receiving clearance from the United States government.


Publications

IEEE produces over 30% of the world's literature in the electrical and electronics engineering and computer science fields, publishing approximately 200
peer-reviewed journals An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which Scholarly method, scholarship relating to a particular list of academic disciplines, academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums ...
and magazines. IEEE publishes more than 1,200 conference proceedings every year. The published content in these journals as well as the content from several hundred annual
conferences A conference is a meeting A meeting is when two or more people A people is a plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self ...
sponsored by the IEEE are available in the IEEE Electronic Library (IEL) available through IEEE ''Xplore'' platform, for subscription-based access and individual publication purchases. In addition to journals and conference proceedings, the IEEE also publishes tutorials and standards that are produced by its standardization committees. The organization also has its own IEEE format paper. In writing IEEE papers, it is not just a matter of mentioning the author's name or the page number or the date an article was published. The most important aspect is referring to the source by indicating its number in a square bracket and ensure it corresponds with the full citation as mentioned in the reference list.


Educational activities

The IEEE provides learning opportunities within the engineering sciences, research, and technology. IEEE offers educational opportunities such as ''IEEE e Learning Library'', the ''Education Partners Program'', ''Standards in Education'' and ''Continuing Education Units'' (CEUs). ''IEEE eLearning Library'' is a collection of online educational courses designed for self-paced learning. Education Partners, exclusive for IEEE members, offers on-line degree programs, certifications and courses at a 10% discount. The Standards in Education website explains what standards are and the importance of developing and using them. The site includes tutorial modules and case illustrations to introduce the history of standards, the basic terminology, their applications and impact on products, as well as news related to standards, book reviews and links to other sites that contain information on standards. Currently, forty states in the United States require Professional Development Hours (PDH) to maintain a Professional Engineering license, encouraging engineers to seek Continuing Education Units (CEUs) for their participation in continuing education programs. CEUs readily translate into Professional Development Hours (PDHs), with 1 CEU being equivalent to 10 PDHs. Countries outside the United States, such as South Africa, similarly require continuing professional development (CPD) credits, and it is anticipated that IEEE Expert Now courses will feature in the CPD listing for South Africa. IEEE also sponsors a website designed to help young people better understand engineering, and how an engineering career can be made part of their future. Students of age 8–18, parents, and teachers can explore the site to prepare for an engineering career, ask experts engineering-related questions, play interactive games, explore curriculum links, and review lesson plans. This website also allows students to search for accredited engineering degree programs in Canada and the United States; visitors are able to search by state/province/territory, country, degree field, tuition ranges, room and board ranges, size of student body, and location (rural, suburban, or urban). Through the Student Activities Committee, IEEE facilitates partnership between student activities and all other IEEE entities.


Membership grades

Most IEEE members are electrical and electronics engineers, but the organization's wide scope of interests has attracted people in other disciplines as well (e.g.,
computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of computation, automation, a ...
,
software engineering Software engineering is the systematic application of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The d ...
,
mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is an engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineerin ...

mechanical engineering
,
civil engineering Civil engineering is a professional engineering Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, well-being and other interests of the general public and to defin ...
,
biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ...

biology
,
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

physics
, and
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
). An individual can join the IEEE as a student member, professional member, or associate member. In order to qualify for membership, the individual must fulfill certain academic or professional criteria and abide to the code of ethics and bylaws of the organization. There are several categories and levels of IEEE membership and affiliation: * Student membership is available for a reduced fee to those who are enrolled in an accredited institution of higher education as undergraduate or graduate students in technology or engineering. * Graduate student membership is discounted but members at this level have greater privileges than do Student Members. * Ordinary or professional membership requires that the individual have graduated from a technology or engineering program of an appropriately accredited institution of higher education or have demonstrated professional competence in technology or engineering through at least six years of professional work experience. An associate membership is available to an individual whose area of expertise falls outside the scope of the IEEE or who does not, at the time of enrollment, meet all the requirements for full membership. Students and Associates have all the privileges of members, except the right to vote and hold certain offices. * Some IEEE Societies also allow a person who is not an IEEE member to become a ''Society Affiliate'' of a particular Society within the IEEE, which allows a limited form of participation in the work of a particular IEEE Society. * Upon meeting certain requirements, a professional member can apply for ''Senior Membership'', which is the highest level of recognition that a professional member can directly apply for. Applicants for Senior Member must have at least three letters of recommendation from Senior, Fellow, or Honorary members and fulfill other rigorous requirements of education, achievement, remarkable contribution, and experience in the field. The Senior Members are a selected group, and certain IEEE officer positions are available only to Senior (and Fellow) Members. Senior Membership is also one of the requirements for those who are nominated and elevated to the grade ''IEEE Fellow'', a distinctive honor. * The Fellow grade is the highest level of membership, conferred by the IEEE Board of Directors upon persons "with xtraordinary recordsof accomplishments in any of the IEEE fields of interest". It cannot be applied for directly by the member; the candidate must be nominated by others, and of the institute's voting membership no more than one in one thousand can be selected as Fellows in any given year. * Individuals who are not IEEE members but have demonstrated exceptional contributions, such as being a recipient of an
IEEE Medal of Honor The IEEE Medal of Honor is the highest recognition of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association for electronic engineering and electrical e ...
, may receive ''Honorary Membership'' from the IEEE Board of Directors. * Members who have reached the age of 65 and whose number of years of membership plus their age in years adds up to at least 100 are recognized as ''Life Members'', ''Life Senior Members'' or ''Life Fellows'', as appropriate.


Technical societies

Various technical areas are addressed by IEEE's 39 societies, each one focused on a certain knowledge area. They provide specialized publications, conferences,
business networking Networking is a socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies social progress ...
and sometimes other services.


IEEE Technology and Engineering Management Society

The ''IEEE Technology Engineering and Management Society'' (''TEMS'') has its origins in the ''IRE Professional Group on Engineering Management'' had been established under the
Institute of Radio Engineers The Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) was a professional organization which existed from 1912 until December 31, 1962. On January 1, 1963 it merged with the American Institute of Electrical Engineers American(s) may refer to: * American, someth ...
(IRE) in 1951. This group had become the ''Engineering Management Society'' (EMS) of the IEEE in 1955. In 2007, this group became the ''IEEE Technology Management Council'' (TMC); and in January 2015 is finally acquired the current name. TEMS was formerly one of seven councils of the IEEE, established 1 January 2015. The society's field of interest encompasses the
management sciences Management science (MS) is the broad interdisciplinary study of problem solving and decision making in human organizations, with strong links to management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a bus ...
and practices required for defining, implementing, and managing engineering and technology. The society publishes two
peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field Field may re ...
journals: the ''IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management'' and the ''IEEE Engineering Management Review''. The society also publishes a newsletter, the ''IEEE Leader'', which covers issues ranging from education to entrepreneurship. The society is governed by a board of governors consisting of officers and members-at-large, most of whom are elected by the membership. In addition, the society has Technical Committees dealing with the major management issues. The society sponsors and co-sponsors a number of internationally held conferences and events on subjects relevant to its field of interest the flagships being TEMSCON and ICTE)


Technical councils

IEEE technical councils are collaborations of several IEEE
societies A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same Politics, political authority ...
on a broader knowledge area. There are currently seven technical councils: * IEEE Biometrics Council *
IEEE Council on Electronic Design Automation The IEEE Council on Electronic Design Automation, also called IEEE CEDA, or Council on EDA, or just CEDA, is an organizational unit of the IEEE The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association A prof ...
* IEEE Nanotechnology Council *
IEEE Sensors Council The IEEE Sensors Council is one of seven technical councils of the IEEE and is focused on sensors, transducers and integrated sensor-actuators. 26 of 39 IEEE Societies are member societies of this council. Each society is represented in the Adm ...
* IEEE Council on Superconductivity * IEEE Systems Council * IEEE Council on RFID (CRFID)


Technical committees and initiatives

To allow a quick response to new innovations, IEEE can also organize technical committees on top of their technical societies and technical councils. There are currently over twenty such technical committees. IEEE develops communities around particular technology challenges or cutting-edge subject areas. Their areas of coverage may be general in nature, which include multi-disciplinary topics or emerging concepts. * Big Data Community * Blockchain Community * Brain Community * Cloud Computing Community * Cybersecurity Community * Digital Reality Community * Entrepreneurship Community * Environmental Engineering Community * Future Networks Community * Global Earth Observing System of Systems Community * International Roadmap for Devices and Systems Community * Internet of Things Community * Life Sciences Community * Quantum Community * Rebooting Computing Community * Smart Cities Community * Smart Grid Community * Smart Village Community * Software Defined Networks Community * Sustainable ICT Community * TechEthics Community * Transportation Electrification Community


IEEE Regions, Sections and local Subunits

IEEE Geographically consists of Regions and Sections, which include local Subunits (Chapters and Affinity Groups).


IEEE Foundation

The IEEE Foundation is a charitable foundation established in 1973 to support and promote technology education, innovation and excellence. It is incorporated separately from the IEEE, although it has a close relationship to it. Members of the Board of Directors of the foundation are required to be active members of IEEE, and one third of them must be current or former members of the IEEE Board of Directors. Initially, the role of the IEEE Foundation was to accept and administer donations for the IEEE Awards program, but donations increased beyond what was necessary for this purpose, and the scope was broadened. In addition to soliciting and administering unrestricted funds, the foundation also administers donor-designated funds supporting particular educational, humanitarian, historical preservation, and peer recognition programs of the IEEE. As of the end of 2014, the foundation's total assets were nearly $45 million, split equally between unrestricted and donor-designated funds.


See also

* Certified Software Development Professional (CSDP) program of the IEEE Computer Society *
Glossary of electrical and electronics engineering This glossary of electrical and electronics engineering is a list of definitions of terms and concepts related specifically to electrical engineering Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design, and app ...
*
Engineering and Technology History Wiki The Engineering and Technology History Wiki (ETHW) is a MediaWiki-based website dedicated to the history of technology. It started operating in 2015. It consists of articles, first-hand accounts, oral histories, landmarks and milestones. A partne ...
*
Eta Kappa Nu Eta Kappa Nu (ΗΚΝ) or IEEE-HKN is the international honor society In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primari ...
– IEEE HKN Honor society *
IEEE Standards Association The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEE SA) is an Operating Unit within IEEE that develops global technical standard, standards in a broad range of industries, including: Electrical power, power and Energy ...
*
Institution of Engineering and Technology The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) is a multidisciplinary professional engineering institution. The IET was formed in 2006 from two separate institutions: the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), dating back to 1871, and the ...
(UK) * List of IEEE awards * List of IEEE conferences * List of IEEE Fellows


References


External links

* *
IEEE Xplore
research database and online digital library archive
IEEE History Center
{{Authority control Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1963 establishments in New York (state) Organizations based in New York City Piscataway, New Jersey Professional associations based in the United States Standards organizations in the United States