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''Homarus gammarus'', known as the European lobster or common lobster, is a species of
clawed lobster Lobsters are a family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the ...

clawed lobster
from the eastern
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
,
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
and parts of the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
. It is closely related to the
American lobster The American lobster (''Homarus americanus'') is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defin ...
, ''H. americanus''. It may grow to a length of and a mass of , and bears a conspicuous pair of
claw A claw is a curved, pointed appendage found at the end of a toe or finger in most amniote Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον ''amnion'', "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", ...

claw
s. In life the lobsters are blue, only becoming "lobster red" on cooking.
Mating In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanis ...

Mating
occurs in the summer, producing
eggs Egg An egg is the organic vessel containing the in which an develops until it can survive on its own, at which point the animal hatches. An egg results from of an . Most s, (excluding s), and lay eggs, although some, such as s, do ...
which are carried by the females for up to a year before hatching into
plankton Plankton are the diverse collection of organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology ...

plankton
ic
larvae A larva (plural larvae ) is a distinct juvenile form many animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are organisms that form the Animalia. With few exceptions, animals , , are , can , and grow from a hollow sphere of , the , during . Ove ...

larvae
. ''Homarus gammarus'' is a highly esteemed food, and is widely
caught Caught is a method of dismissing a batsman In cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with ...
using
lobster pots
lobster pots
, mostly around the
British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

British Isles
.


Description

''Homarus gammarus'' is a large
crustacean Crustaceans (Crustacea ) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, Caridea, shrimp, krill, Dendrobranchiata, prawns, woodlice, barnacles, copepods, amphipoda, amphipods and mantis shrimp. The ...
, with a body length up to and weighing up to , although the lobsters caught in
lobster pots
lobster pots
are usually long and weigh . Like other crustaceans, lobsters have a hard
exoskeleton An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, ''éxō'' "outer" and σκελετός, ''skeletós'' "skeleton") is the external skeleton A skeleton is a structural frame that supports an animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular ...

exoskeleton
which they must shed in order to grow, in a process called
ecdysis Ecdysis is the moulting In biology, moulting (British English), or molting (American English), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (ofte ...
(molting). This may occur several times a year for young lobsters, but decreases to once every 1–2 years for larger animals. The first pair of
pereiopod The decapod crustacea Crustaceans (Crustacea ) form a large, diverse arthropod An arthropod (, (gen. ποδός)) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a Segmentation (biology), segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthr ...
s is armed with a large, asymmetrical pair of
feet The foot (plural: feet) is an anatomical Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemist ...

feet
. The larger one is the "crusher", and has rounded nodules used for crushing prey; the other is the "cutter", which has sharp inner edges, and is used for holding or tearing the prey. Usually, the left claw is the crusher, and the right is the cutter. The
exoskeleton An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, ''éxō'' "outer" and σκελετός, ''skeletós'' "skeleton") is the external skeleton A skeleton is a structural frame that supports an animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular ...

exoskeleton
is generally blue above, with spots that coalesce, and yellow below. The red colour associated with lobsters only appears after cooking. This occurs because, in life, the red
pigment A pigment is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water. In contrast, dyes are typically soluble, at least at some stage in their use. Generally dyes are often organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compou ...
astaxanthin Astaxanthin is a keto-carotenoid Carotenoids (), also called tetraterpenoids, are yellow, orange, and red organic compound, organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria, and fungi. Carotenoids give the char ...

astaxanthin
is bound to a
protein complex A protein complex or multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chain Peptides (from Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēnikḗ'') is an independent branch of ...
, but the complex is broken up by the heat of cooking, releasing the red pigment. The closest relative of ''H. gammarus'' is the
American lobster The American lobster (''Homarus americanus'') is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defin ...
, ''Homarus americanus''. The two species are very similar, and can be crossed artificially, although hybrids are unlikely to occur in the wild since their ranges do not overlap. The two species can be distinguished by a number of characteristics: *The rostrum of ''H. americanus'' bears one or more spines on the underside, which are lacking in ''H. gammarus''. *The spines on the claws of ''H. americanus'' are red or red-tipped, while those of ''H. gammarus'' are white or white-tipped. *The underside of the claw of ''H. americanus'' is orange or red, while that of ''H. gammarus'' is creamy white or very pale red.


Life cycle

Female ''H. gammarus'' reach
sexual maturity Sexual maturity is the capability of an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by taxono ...
when they have grown to a carapace length of , whereas males mature at a slightly smaller size.
Mating In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanis ...

Mating
typically occurs in summer between a recently moulted female, whose shell is therefore soft, and a hard-shelled male. The female carries the
eggs Egg An egg is the organic vessel containing the in which an develops until it can survive on its own, at which point the animal hatches. An egg results from of an . Most s, (excluding s), and lay eggs, although some, such as s, do ...
for up to 12 months, depending on the temperature, attached to her
pleopod The decapod crustacea Crustaceans (Crustacea ) form a large, diverse arthropod An arthropod (, (gen. ποδός)) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a Segmentation (biology), segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arth ...
s. Females carrying eggs are said to be "berried" and can be found throughout the year. The eggs hatch at night, and the
larvae A larva (plural larvae ) is a distinct juvenile form many animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are organisms that form the Animalia. With few exceptions, animals , , are , can , and grow from a hollow sphere of , the , during . Ove ...

larvae
swim to the water surface where they drift with the
ocean current An ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of sea water generated by a number of forces acting upon the water, including wind Wind is the natural movement of air or other gases relative to a planet's surface. Wind occurs on a range ...
s, preying on
zooplankton Zooplankton (; ) are heterotroph A heterotroph (; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often ro ...

zooplankton
. This stage involves three moults and lasts for 15–35 days. After the third moult, the
juvenile Juvenile may refer to: *Juvenile status, or minor (law), prior to adulthood *Juvenile (organism) *Juvenile (rapper) (born 1975), American rapper *Juvenile (2000 film), ''Juvenile'' (2000 film), Japanese film *Juvenile (2017 film), ''Juvenile'' (20 ...
takes on a form closer to the adult, and adopts a . The juveniles are rarely seen in the wild, and are poorly known, although they are known to be capable of digging extensive
burrow An Eastern chipmunk at the entrance of its burrow A burrow is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an orga ...

burrow
s. It is estimated that only 1 larva in every 20,000 survives to the benthic phase. When they reach a carapace length of , the juveniles leave their burrows and start their adult lives.


Distribution

''Homarus gammarus'' is found across the north-eastern from northern
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
to the
Azores The Azores ( , also ; pt, Açores ), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal The two Autonomous Regions of Portugal ( pt, Regiões Autónomas de Portugal) are the Azores (''Região ...

Azores
and
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
, not including the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that a ...

Baltic Sea
. It is also present in most of the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
, only missing from the section east of
Crete Crete ( el, Κρήτη, translit=, Modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology ...

Crete
, and along only the south-west coast of the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
. The northernmost populations are found in the Norwegian
fjord In physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδ ...

fjord
s
Tysfjorden or or Storrusten, Erling. 1998. ''Hurtigruten: The World's Most Beautiful Sea Voyage''. Narvik: Ofotens og Vesteraalens Dampskibsselskab, p. 69. is a fjord in Nordland Counties of Norway, county, Norway. The fjord is the border between Narvik Mun ...
and Nordfolda, inside the
Arctic Circle The Arctic Circle is one of the two polar circle A polar circle is a geographic term for a conditional circular line (arc) referring either to the Arctic Circle The Arctic Circle is one of the two s and the most northerly of the fiv ...

Arctic Circle
. The species can be divided into four
genetically Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms.Hartl D, Jones E (2005) Though heredity had been observed for millennia, Gregor Mendel, Moravia, Moravian scientist and Augustinia ...

genetically
distinct populations, one widespread population, and three which have diverged due to small
effective population size The effective population size is the number of individuals that an idealised population would need to have in order for some specified quantity of interest to be the same in the idealised population as in the real population. Idealised populations ...
s, possibly due to
adaptation In , adaptation has three related meanings. Firstly, it is the dynamic evolutionary process that fits s to their environment, enhancing their . Secondly, it is a state reached by the population during that process. Thirdly, it is a or adapti ...

adaptation
to the local environment. The first of these is the population of lobsters from northern Norway, which have been referred to as the "midnight-sun lobster". The populations in the Mediterranean Sea are distinct from those in the Atlantic Ocean. The last distinct population is found in the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
: samples from the
Oosterschelde The Eastern Scheldt ( nl, Oosterschelde) is a former estuary in the province of Zeeland, Netherlands, between Schouwen-Duiveland and Tholen on the north and Noord-Beveland and Zuid-Beveland on the south. It has also the largest national park in ...

Oosterschelde
were distinct from those collected in the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
or
English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" (Cotentinais Cotentinais is the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two ...

English Channel
. Attempts have been made to introduce ''H. gammarus'' to
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
, alongside other European species such as the edible crab, ''
Cancer pagurus ''Cancer pagurus'', commonly known as the edible crab or brown crab, is a species of crab Crabs are Decapoda, decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen#Other animals, abdomen) ( ...

Cancer pagurus
''. Between 1904 and 1914, one million lobster
larvae A larva (plural larvae ) is a distinct juvenile form many animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are organisms that form the Animalia. With few exceptions, animals , , are , can , and grow from a hollow sphere of , the , during . Ove ...

larvae
were released from in
Dunedin Dunedin ( ; mi, Ōtepoti) is the second-largest city in the South Island The South Island, also officially named , is the larger of the two major in surface area, the other being the smaller but more populous . It is bordered to the nort ...

Dunedin
, but the species did not become established there.


Ecology

Adult ''H. gammarus'' live on the
continental shelf A continental shelf is a portion of a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth descriptio ...

continental shelf
at depths of , although not normally deeper than . They prefer hard substrates, such as rocks or hard mud, and live in holes or crevices, emerging at night to feed. The diet of ''H. gammarus'' mostly consists of other benthic
invertebrate Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a ''backbone'' or ''spine''), derived from the notochord. This includes all animals apart from the chordata, chordate subphylum vertebrate, Vertebra ...
s. These include
crab Crabs are decapod crustacean Crustaceans (Crustacea ) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, Caridea, shrimp, krill, Dendrobranchiata, prawns, woodlice, barnacles, copepods, amphipoda ...

crab
s,
molluscs Mollusca is the second-largest phylum In biology, a phylum (; plural The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical number, grammatical category of number ...

molluscs
,
sea urchin Sea urchins () are spine (zoology), spiny, globular echinoderms in the class Echinoidea. About 950 species of sea urchin live on the seabed of every ocean and inhabit every depth zone — from the intertidal seashore down to . The spherical, ha ...

sea urchin
s,
starfish Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped In mathematics, a Set (mathematics), set S in the Euclidean space \R^n is called a star domain (or star-convex set, star-shaped set or radially convex set) if there exists an s_0 \in S such that for ...

starfish
and . The three clawed lobster species ''Homarus gammarus'', '' H. americanus'' and ''
Nephrops norvegicus ''Nephrops norvegicus'', known variously as the Norway lobster, Dublin Bay prawn, ' (compare langostino) or ''scampi'', is a slim, orange-pink lobster which grows up to long, and is "the most important commercial crustacean in Europe". It is now ...

Nephrops norvegicus
'' are hosts to the three known species of the animal phylum Cycliophora; the species on ''H. gammarus'' has not been described. ''Homarus gammarus'' is susceptible to the disease gaffkaemia, caused by the
bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one biological cell The cell (from Latin ''cella'', meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and ...
'' Aerococcus viridans''. Although it is frequently found in
American lobster The American lobster (''Homarus americanus'') is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defin ...
s, the disease has only been seen in captive ''H. gammarus'', where prior occupation of the tanks by ''H. americanus'' could not be ruled out.


Human consumption

''Homarus gammarus'' is traditionally "highly esteemed" as a foodstuff and was mentioned in "
The Crabfish "The Crabfish" is a ribaldry, ribald humorous folk song of the England, English oral tradition. It dates back to the seventeenth century, appearing in Bishop Percy's Folio Manuscript as a song named "The Sea Crabb" based on an earlier tale. The mo ...
" a seventeenth century
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
folk song Folk music is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all hu ...

folk song
. It may fetch very high prices and may be sold fresh, frozen, canned or powdered. Both the claws and the abdomen of ''H. gammarus'' contain "excellent"
white meat In culinary terms, white meat is meat which is pale in color before and after cooking. A common example of white meat is the lighter-colored meat Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Humans have hunted and killed animals for meat since ...
, and most of the contents of the
cephalothorax The cephalothorax, also called prosoma in some groups, is a tagma of various arthropod An arthropod (, (gen. ποδός)) is an invertebrate Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a ...
are edible. The exceptions are the gastric mill and the "sand vein" ( gut). The price of ''H. gammarus'' is up to three times higher than that of ''H. americanus'', and the European species is considered to be more flavored. Lobsters are mostly fished using , although
lines Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) (also known as long interspersed nucleotide elements or long interspersed elements) are a group of non-LTR (long terminal repeat A long terminal repeat (LTR) is a pair of identical sequences of DNA ...
baited with
octopus An octopus (pl. octopuses/octopi, see below for variants) is a soft-bodied, eight- limbed mollusc Mollusca is the second-largest phylum of invertebrate animals after the Arthropoda. The members are known as molluscs or mollusks (). A ...

octopus
or
cuttlefish Cuttlefish or cuttles are marine Marine is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the sea or ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
cuttlefish
sometimes succeed in tempting them out, to allow them to be caught in a net or by hand. In 2008, 4,386 t of ''H. gammarus'' were caught across Europe and North Africa, of which 3,462 t (79%) was caught in the
British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

British Isles
(including the
Channel Islands The Channel Islands ( nrf, Îles d'la Manche; french: îles Anglo-Normandes or ''îles de la Manche'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island ...

Channel Islands
). The
minimum landing sizeThe minimum landing size (MLS) is the smallest fish measurement at which it is legal to keep or sell a fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack Limb (anatomy), limbs with Digit (anatomy), digits. They fo ...
for ''H. gammarus'' is a carapace length of . To protect known breeding females, lobsters caught carrying eggs are to be notched on a uropod, the inner tail flap of female lobsters of reproductive size (usually above the minimum landing size 87mm carapace length). Following this, it is illegal for the female to be kept or sold, and is commonly referred to as a "v-notch". This notch remains for three molts of the lobster exoskeleton, providing harvest protection and continued breeding availability for 3–5 years.
Aquaculture Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct rel ...
systems for ''H. gammarus'' are under development, and production rates are still very low.


Taxonomic history

''Homarus gammarus'' was first given a
binomial name In Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy, binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system"), also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed ...
by
Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement Ennoblement is the conferring of nobility—the induction of an individual into the noble social class, class. Currently only a few kingdoms still grant nob ...

Carl Linnaeus
in the tenth edition of his ''
Systema Naturae ' (originally in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic ...
'', published in 1758. That name was ''Cancer gammarus'', since Linnaeus' concept of the genus ''
Cancer Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumor A benign tumor is a mass of cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biolo ...
'' at that time included all large crustaceans. ''H. gammarus'' is the
type species In zoological nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted Convention (norm), convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific name, scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is al ...
of the genus ''
Homarus ''Homarus'' is a genus of lobsters, which include the common and commercially significant species ''Homarus americanus'' (the American lobster) and ''Homarus gammarus'' (the European lobster). The Cape lobster, which was formerly in this genus a ...
'' Weber, 1795, as determined by Direction 51 of the
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is an organization dedicated to "achieving stability and sense in the scientific naming of animals". Founded in 1895, it currently comprises 24 commissioners from 18 countries. Organ ...
. Prior to that direction, confusion arose because the species had been referred to by several different names, including ''Astacus marinus'' Fabricius, 1775 and ''Homarus vulgaris'' H. Milne-Edwards, 1837, and also because Friedrich Weber's description of the genus had been overlooked until rediscovered by Mary J. Rathbun, rendering any prior assignments of type species (for ''Homarus'' H. Milne-Edwards, 1837) invalid for ''Homarus'' Weber, 1795. The
type specimen In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Bi ...
of ''Homarus gammarus'' was a
lectotype In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cel ...
selected by
Lipke Holthuis Lipke Bijdeley Holthuis (21 April 1921 – 7 March 2008) was a Dutch carcinologist, considered one of the "undisputed greats" of carcinology, and "the greatest carcinologist of our time". Holthuis was born in Probolinggo File:COLLECTIE TROPENM ...
in 1974. It came from , near
Marstrand 100px, Arms; incorporated with Kungälv Municipality in 1971 Marstrand () is a seaside Urban areas in Sweden, locality situated in Kungälv Municipality, Västra Götaland County, Sweden. It had 1,320 inhabitants in 2010. The town got its name fro ...

Marstrand
,
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
( northwest of
Gothenburg Gothenburg (; abbreviated Gbg; sv, Göteborg ) is the List of urban areas in Sweden by population, second-largest city in Sweden, fifth-largest in the Nordic countries, and capital city, capital of the Västra Götaland County. It is situate ...

Gothenburg
), but both it and the paralectotypes have since been lost. The
common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is sometimes erroneously referred to as ...
for ''H. gammarus'' preferred by the
Food and Agriculture Organization The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture; it, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura is a specialized agency ...
is "European lobster", but the species is also widely known as the "common lobster".


References


External links

* * {{Authority control Crustaceans described in 1758 Commercial crustaceans Crustaceans of the Atlantic Ocean Edible crustaceans
Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus Taxonomy (biology), Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus (1707−1778), an 18th-century Swedish taxonomist, botanist, and zoologist. Known as the "father of modern taxonomy" – from his inventing and developing binomial nomenclature; the taxonomy (biology) ...
True lobsters True lobsters, or clawed lobsters are crustaceans of the family (biology), family Nephropidae, as well as their fossil relatives. They do not include squat lobsters, slipper lobsters, or spiny lobsters. {{Commons category, Nephropoidea Decapods ...