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Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
. It is bordered by
Bedfordshire Bedfordshire (; abbreviated Beds) is a Counties of England, county in the East of England. It is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and a Historic counties of England, historic county, covered by three Unitary authorities of Engl ...

Bedfordshire
and
Cambridgeshire Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chamber ...

Cambridgeshire
to the north,
Essex Essex () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...

Essex
to the east,
Greater London Greater London is an administrative area Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names ...

Greater London
to the south, and
Buckinghamshire Buckinghamshire (), abbreviated Bucks, is a ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of Eng ...

Buckinghamshire
to the west. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the
East of England The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. This region was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics purposes from 1999. It includes the ceremonial counties of Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, ...
region. It covers . It derives its name from a hart (stag) and a
ford Ford commonly refers to: * Ford Motor Company The Ford Motor Company, commonly known as Ford, is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit (strait) , nicknames ...
, used as the components of the county's coat of arms and of the
flag A flag is a piece of fabric A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crochetin ...
.
Hertfordshire County Council Hertfordshire County Council is the upper-tier local authority Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented ...
is based in
Hertford Hertford ( ) is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synon ...
, once the main
market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and p ...
. Since 1903,
Letchworth Letchworth Garden City, commonly known as Letchworth, is a town in Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Esse ...
is the prototype of the
garden cityGarden City or Garden Suburb may refer to: Design and planning *Garden city movement, emphasizing self-contained communities surrounded by "greenbelts" *Town and Country Planning Association, originally known as the Garden City Association Plac ...
and
Stevenage Stevenage ( ) is a large town and Non-metropolitan district, borough in Hertfordshire, England, north of London. Stevenage is east of junctions 7 and 8 of the A1(M) motorway, A1(M), between Letchworth Garden City to the north and Welwyn Garde ...

Stevenage
became the first town to expand under post-war Britain's New Towns Act. In 2013, the population was about 1,140,700, with
Hemel Hempstead Hemel Hempstead () is a large town in Hertfordshire, England, located northwest of London, and part of the Greater London Urban Area. The population, according to the 2011 United Kingdom Census, 2011 Census, was 97,500. Developed after the Wor ...

Hemel Hempstead
,
Stevenage Stevenage ( ) is a large town and Non-metropolitan district, borough in Hertfordshire, England, north of London. Stevenage is east of junctions 7 and 8 of the A1(M) motorway, A1(M), between Letchworth Garden City to the north and Welwyn Garde ...

Stevenage
,
Watford Watford () is a large town and borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, officia ...

Watford
(and
St Albans St Albans () is a cathedral city in Hertfordshire, England and the main urban area in the St Albans City and District, City and District of St Albans. It lies east of Hemel Hempstead and west of Hatfield, Hertfordshire, Hatfield, about north-no ...

St Albans
, the county's only ''city'') each having between 50,000 and 100,000 residents. Elevations are higher in the north and west, reaching more than in the Chilterns near
Tring Tring is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Borough of Dacorum, Hertfordshire, England. It is situated in a gap passing through the Chiltern Hills, classed as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, from Central ...
. The county centres on the headwaters and upper valleys of the rivers
Lea
Lea
and the
Colne Colne () is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Borough of Pendle, Lancashire, England. 2.5 miles northeast of Nelson, Lancashire, Nelson, north-east of Burnley, east of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and west of L ...
; both flow south, and both are accompanied by a canal. Hertfordshire's undeveloped land is mainly agricultural and much is protected by
green belt A green belt is a policy and land-use zone designation used in land-use planning Land use planning is the process of regulating the use of land by a central authority. Usually, this is done to promote more desirable social and environmental ...
. The largest sector of the county's economy is services. Hertfordshire is well-served with motorways and railways for access to London, the
Midlands The Midlands is the central part of England and a cultural area that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Mercia, Kingdom of Mercia. The Midlands region is bordered by Northern England and Southern England. The Midlands were important in th ...

Midlands
and the
North North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydro ...

North
.


History

The county's landmarks span many centuries, ranging from the
Six Hills The Six Hills are a collection of Roman barrows situated alongside the old Great North Road on Six Hills Common in Stevenage Stevenage ( ) is a town and borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English- ...
in the
new town New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of t ...
of
Stevenage Stevenage ( ) is a large town and Non-metropolitan district, borough in Hertfordshire, England, north of London. Stevenage is east of junctions 7 and 8 of the A1(M) motorway, A1(M), between Letchworth Garden City to the north and Welwyn Garde ...

Stevenage
built by local inhabitants during the
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...

Roman
period, to
Leavesden Film Studios Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden is an studio complex in Leavesden in Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Esse ...
. The volume of intact medieval and Tudor buildings surpasses London, in places in well-preserved
conservation area Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the ena ...
s, especially in
St Albans St Albans () is a cathedral city in Hertfordshire, England and the main urban area in the St Albans City and District, City and District of St Albans. It lies east of Hemel Hempstead and west of Hatfield, Hertfordshire, Hatfield, about north-no ...

St Albans
which includes remains of the Roman town of
Verulamium Verulamium was a town in Roman Britain Roman Britain is the period in classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek Greek ...
. In 913, Hertfordshire was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at
Hertford Hertford ( ) is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synon ...
under the rule of
Edward the Elder Edward the Elder (– 17 July 924) was King of the Anglo-Saxons This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged from ...

Edward the Elder
. Hertford is derived from the
Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a who inhabited . They traced their origins to the 5th century settlement of incomers to Britain, who migrated to the island from the coastlands of . However, the of the Anglo-Saxons occurred within Britain, and the ide ...
''heort ford,'' meaning
deer Deer or true deer are ed s forming the Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the , including the , the (wapiti), the , and the ; and the , including the (caribou), , the , and the . Male deer of all species (except the Chinese ) as we ...

deer
crossing (of a watercourse). The name Hertfordshire is first recorded in the ''
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle The ''Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'' is a collection of annals in Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoke ...
'' in 1011. Deer feature in many county emblems. Many of the names of the current settlements date back to the Anglo-Saxon period, with many featuring standard placename suffixes attributed to the Anglo-Saxons: "ford", "ton", "den", "bourn", "ley", "stead", "ing", "lett", "wood", and "worth", are represented in this county by Hertford, Royston, Harpenden, Redbourn, Cuffley, Wheathampstead, Tring, Radlett, Borehamwood and Rickmansworth. There is evidence of human life in Hertfordshire from the
Mesolithic period The Mesolithic ( Greek: μέσος, ''mesos'' "middle"; λίθος, ''lithos'' "stone") is the Old World archaeological period between the Upper Paleolithic The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) also called the Late Stone Age is th ...
. It was first farmed during the
Neolithic period The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is the ...
and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric that was characterized by the use of , in some areas , and other early features of urban . The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the , as proposed in modern times by , for classifying and studying a ...
. This was followed by tribes settling in the area during the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, the aboriginal
Catuvellauni The Catuvellauni (Gaulish language, Gaulish: "war-chiefs") were a Celtic tribe or state of southeastern prehistoric Britain, Britain before the Roman conquest of Britain, Roman conquest, attested by inscriptions into the 4th century. The fortu ...
quickly submitted and adapted to the Roman life; resulting in the development of several new towns, including
Verulamium Verulamium was a town in Roman Britain Roman Britain is the period in classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek Greek ...
(St Albans) where in c. 293 the first recorded British martyrdom is traditionally believed to have taken place.
Saint Alban Saint Alban (; la, Albanus) is venerated as the first-recorded British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ...
, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill. His martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire as the yellow field to the stag or Hart representing the county. He is the Patron Saint of Hertfordshire. With the departure of the Roman Legions in the early 5th century, the now-unprotected territory was invaded and colonised by the
Anglo-Saxons The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Cultural identity is a part of a person's identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Identity (social science), personhood or group affiliation in psychology and sociology Group expression ...
. By the 6th century, the majority of the modern county was part of the East Saxon kingdom. This relatively short-lived kingdom collapsed in the 9th century, ceding the territory of Hertfordshire to the control of the West Anglians of
Mercia Mercia (, ang, Miercna rīċe; la, Merciorum regnum) was one of the kingdoms of the . The name is a of the or (West Saxon dialect; in the Mercian dialect itself), meaning "border people" (see ). Mercia dominated what would later become ...

Mercia
. The region finally became an English shire in the 10th century, on the merger of the West Saxon and Mercian kingdoms. In the midst of the Norse invasions, Hertfordshire was on the front lines of much of the fighting. King
Edward the Elder Edward the Elder (– 17 July 924) was King of the Anglo-Saxons This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged from ...

Edward the Elder
, in his reconquest of Norse-held lands in what was to become
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
, established a "
burh A burh () or burg was an Old English fortification or fortified settlement. In the 9th century, raids and invasions by Viking invasions of England, Vikings prompted Alfred the Great to develop a network of burhs and roads to use against such attack ...
" or fort in Hertford, which was to curb Norse activities in the area. His father,
King Alfred the Great Alfred the Great (848/49 – 26 October 899) was king of the West Saxons This is a list of monarchs of Wessex until 886 AD. For later monarchs, see the List of English monarchs. While the details of the later monarchs are confirmed by a number ...

King Alfred the Great
, established the River Lea as a boundary between his kingdom and that of the Norse lord
Guthrum Guthrum ( ang, Guðrum, c. 835 – c. 890) was King of East Anglia East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. This region was created in 1994 and was ...
, with the north and eastern parts of the county being within the
Danelaw The Danelaw (, also known as the Danelagh; ang, Dena lagu; da, Danelagen) was the part of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and ...
. There is little evidence however of
Norse Norse is demonym for Norsemen, a medieval North Germanic ethnolinguistic group ancestral to modern Scandinavians, defined as speakers of Old Norse from about the 9th to the 13th centuries. Norse may also refer to: Culture and religion * Norse m ...
placenames within this region, and many of the
Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a who inhabited . They traced their origins to the 5th century settlement of incomers to Britain, who migrated to the island from the coastlands of . However, the of the Anglo-Saxons occurred within Britain, and the ide ...
features remained intact to this day. The county however suffered from renewed Norse raids in the late 10th to early 11th centuries, as armies led by Danish kings
Swein Forkbeard Sweyn Forkbeard (; Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian was a North Germanic languages, North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their Viking expansion, overseas settlements from about the ...
and
Cnut the Great Cnut the Great (; ang, Cnut cyning; non, Knútr inn ríki ; or , no, Knut den mektige, sv, Knut den Store. died 12 November 1035), also known as Canute, was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England Th ...
harried the country as part of their attempts to undermine and overthrow English king Athelred the Unready. A century later,
William of Normandy William I (c. 1028Bates ''William the Conqueror'' p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first House of Normandy, Norman List of English monarchs, monarch of Engl ...

William of Normandy
received the surrender of the surviving senior English Lords and Clergy at
Berkhamsted Berkhamsted ( ) is a historic market town in Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater ...
, resulting in a new Anglicised title of
William the Conqueror William I (c. 1028Bates ''William the Conqueror'' p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identi ...

William the Conqueror
, before entering London unopposed and being crowned at
Westminster Westminster is a district in Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city sta ...

Westminster
. Hertfordshire was used for some of the new Norman castles at
Bishop's Stortford Bishop's Stortford is a historic market town in Hertfordshire, England, just west of the M11 motorway on the county boundary with Essex, north-east of central London, and by rail from Liverpool Street station. Bishop's Stortford had an estima ...
, and at
King's Langley Kings Langley is a village, former Manorialism, manor and civil parishes in England, civil parish in Hertfordshire, England, north-west of Westminster in the historic centre of London and to the south of the Chiltern Hills. It now forms part of ...
, a staging post between London and the royal residence of
Berkhamsted Berkhamsted ( ) is a historic market town in Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater ...
. The
Domesday Book Domesday Book () – the Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. The English language underwent ...
recorded the county as having nine
hundreds A hundred is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101. Hundred may also refer to: Units and divisions * Hundred (word) formerly also equal to 120 or other values * Hundred (unit) sometimes equal to 120 or other values ** Hundredweight (cw ...
.
Tring Tring is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Borough of Dacorum, Hertfordshire, England. It is situated in a gap passing through the Chiltern Hills, classed as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, from Central ...
and Danais became one
Dacorum The Borough of Dacorum is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district in Hertfordshire, England that includes the towns of Hemel Hempstead, Berkhamsted, Tring and Kings Langley. The district, which was formed in 1974, had a populat ...
from Danis Corum or Danish rule harking back to a
Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In ...

Viking
not
Saxon The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic langua ...

Saxon
past. The other seven were
Braughing Braughing is a village and civil parish, between the rivers River Quin, Quin and River Rib, Rib, in the non-metropolitan district of East Hertfordshire, part of the England, English county of Hertfordshire, England. Braughing gave its name to a ...
,
Broadwater
Broadwater
, Cashio, Edwinstree,
Hertford Hertford ( ) is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synon ...
,
Hitchin Hitchin () is a market town in the North Hertfordshire Districts of England, district in Hertfordshire, England, with an estimated population of 33,350. History Hitchin is first noted as the central place of the Hicce people, a tribe holding 30 ...
and
Odsey Odsey is a hamlet ''The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark'', often shortened to ''Hamlet'' (), is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (baptism, bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English pla ...
. In the later Plantagenet period, St. Albans Abbey was an initial drafting place of what was to become the Magna Carta. And in the later Wars of the Roses, St. Albans was the scene of two major battles between the Lancastrians and the Yorkists. In Tudor times, Hatfield House was often frequented by Queen Elizabeth I. Stuart King James I used the locale for hunting and facilitated the construction of a waterway, the New River, supplying
drinking water Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drinking, drink or use for food preparation. The amount of drinking water required to maintain good health varies, and depends on physical activity level, age, health-related ...

drinking water
to London. As London grew, Hertfordshire became conveniently close to the English capital; much of the area was owned by the
nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
and
aristocracy Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: A ...
, this
patronage Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows on another. In the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings, popes, and the wealthy have provided to artists su ...

patronage
helped to boost the local economy. However, the greatest boost to Hertfordshire came during the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
, after which the population rose dramatically. In 1903,
Letchworth Letchworth Garden City, commonly known as Letchworth, is a town in Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Esse ...
became the world's first
garden cityGarden City or Garden Suburb may refer to: Design and planning *Garden city movement, emphasizing self-contained communities surrounded by "greenbelts" *Town and Country Planning Association, originally known as the Garden City Association Plac ...
and
Stevenage Stevenage ( ) is a large town and Non-metropolitan district, borough in Hertfordshire, England, north of London. Stevenage is east of junctions 7 and 8 of the A1(M) motorway, A1(M), between Letchworth Garden City to the north and Welwyn Garde ...

Stevenage
became the first town to redevelop under the
New Towns Act 1946 The New Towns Acts were a series of Acts of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government, primary legislation and secondary legislation, the latter ...
. The first shooting-down of a
zeppelin A Zeppelin is a type of rigid airship 250px, Construction of USS Shenandoah (ZR-1), USS ''Shenandoah'' (ZR-1), 1923, showing the framework of a rigid airship. A rigid airship is a type of airship (or dirigible) in which the Aerostat, envelop ...

zeppelin
over Great Britain during WW1 happened in Cuffley. From the
1920s File:1920s decade montage.png, From left, clockwise: Third Tipperary Brigade Flying Column No. 2 under Seán Hogan during the Irish War of Independence; Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol in accordance to the Eighteenth Amendment to ...
until the late
1980s File:1980s replacement montage02.PNG, 420px, From left, clockwise: The first , ', lifts off in 1981; US president and ease tensions between the two superpowers, leading to the end of the ; The in 1989 is considered to be one of the most mome ...
, the town of
Borehamwood Borehamwood () (also Boreham Wood) is a town in southern Hertfordshire, England, from Charing Cross. Borehamwood has a population of 31,074, and is within the London commuter belt. The town's film and TV studios are commonly known as Elstree S ...
was home to one of the major British
film studio A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a major entertainment company or motion picture company that has its own privately owned studio A studio is an artist An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to cr ...
complexes, including the
MGM-British Studios MGM-British was a subsidiary of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. (also known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures or MGM) is an American media company, founded in 1924, that produces and distributes feature films and televisi ...
. Many well-known films were made here including the first three ''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture Cultural impact of S ...

Star Wars
'' movies ( IV, V, & VI). The studios generally used the name of
Elstree Elstree is a village in the Hertsmere Hertsmere is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district and borough in Hertfordshire, England. Its council is based in Borehamwood. Other settlements in the borough include Bushey, Elstree, ...
. American director
Stanley Kubrick Stanley Kubrick (; July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and photographer. He is frequently cited as one of the greatest filmmakers Filmmaking (or, in any context, film production) is ...
not only used to shoot in those studios but also lived in the area until his death. ''
Big Brother UK ''Big Brother'' is the British version of the international reality television franchise ''Big Brother (TV series), Big Brother'' created by producer John de Mol in 1997. Originally broadcast yearly between 2000 and 2018, the show followed the ...
'' and ''
Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? ''Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?'' (abbreviated ''WWTBAM'' and informally known as simply ''Millionaire'') is an international television game show franchise of British origin, created by David Briggs, Mike Whitehill and Steven Knight. In its ...
'' have been filmed there. ''
EastEnders ''EastEnders'' is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and ...

EastEnders
'' is filmed at Elstree. Hertfordshire has seen development at Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden; the ''Harry Potter'' series was filmed here and the 1995 James Bond film ''
GoldenEye ''GoldenEye'' is a 1995 spy film, the seventeenth in the List of James Bond films, ''James Bond'' series produced by Eon Productions, and the first to star Pierce Brosnan as the fictional Secret Intelligence Service, MI6 agent James Bond (lite ...
''. On 17 October 2000, the
Hatfield rail crash The Hatfield rail crash was a railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is a man-made device th ...
killed four people with over 70 injured. The crash exposed the shortcomings of
Railtrack Railtrack was a group of companies that owned the track Track or Tracks may refer to: Routes or imprints * Ancient trackway, any track or trail whose origin is lost in antiquity * Animal track, imprints left on surfaces that an animal walks a ...

Railtrack
, which consequently saw speed restrictions and major track replacement. On 10 May 2002, the second of the Potters Bar rail accidents occurred killing seven people; the train was at high speed when it derailed and flipped into the air when one of the carriages slid along the platform where it came to rest. In early December 2005, the 2005 Hemel Hempstead fuel depot explosions occurred at the
Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal Buncefield oil depot is operated by Hertfordshire Oil Storage Ltd (HOSL) and officially known as the Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal. It is an oil depot located on the edge of Hemel Hempstead to the north of London in the United Kingdom (UK). ...
.


Geography

Hertfordshire is the county immediately north of London and is part of the
East of England The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. This region was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics purposes from 1999. It includes the ceremonial counties of Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, ...
Government Office Region, region, a mainly statistical unit. To the east is
Essex Essex () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...

Essex
, to the west is
Buckinghamshire Buckinghamshire (), abbreviated Bucks, is a ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of Eng ...

Buckinghamshire
and to the north are
Bedfordshire Bedfordshire (; abbreviated Beds) is a Counties of England, county in the East of England. It is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and a Historic counties of England, historic county, covered by three Unitary authorities of Engl ...

Bedfordshire
and
Cambridgeshire Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chamber ...

Cambridgeshire
. A significant minority of the population across all districts Commuting, commute to Central London. The county's boundaries were roughly fixed by the Counties (Detached Parts) Act 1844#Hertfordshire, Counties (Detached Parts) Act 1844 which eliminated exclaves; amended when, in 1965 under the London Government Act 1963, East Barnet Urban District and Barnet Urban District were abolished, their area was transferred to form part of the present-day London Borough of Barnet and the Potters Bar Urban District of Middlesex was transferred to Hertfordshire. The highest point in the county is at (above sea level, AOD) on the Ridgeway long distance national path, on the border of Hastoe near
Tring Tring is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Borough of Dacorum, Hertfordshire, England. It is situated in a gap passing through the Chiltern Hills, classed as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, from Central ...
with Drayton Beauchamp, Buckinghamshire. At the 2011 census, among the county's ten districts, East Hertfordshire had the lowest population density (290 people per km2) and
Watford Watford () is a large town and borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, officia ...

Watford
the highest (4210 per km2). Compared with neighbouring Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire lacks large towns or cities on the scale of Luton or Milton Keynes, whose populations exceed 200,000, but its overall population (approximately 1 million) is greater than those of the two aforementioned counties. The River Lea near Harpenden runs through Wheathampstead, Welwyn Garden City, Hertford, Ware, and Broxbourne before reaching Cheshunt and ultimately the River Thames. The far west of the county is the most hilly, with the Chiltern Hills surrounding
Tring Tring is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Borough of Dacorum, Hertfordshire, England. It is situated in a gap passing through the Chiltern Hills, classed as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, from Central ...
,
Berkhamsted Berkhamsted ( ) is a historic market town in Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater ...
and the Ashridge estate. This Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty runs from near Hitchin in the north to Berkshire and Oxfordshire. Many of the county's major settlements are in the central, northern and southern areas, such as Watford, Hemel Hempstead, Kings Langley, Rickmansworth, St. Albans, Harpenden, Radlett,
Borehamwood Borehamwood () (also Boreham Wood) is a town in southern Hertfordshire, England, from Charing Cross. Borehamwood has a population of 31,074, and is within the London commuter belt. The town's film and TV studios are commonly known as Elstree S ...
, Potters Bar, Stevenage, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Welwyn and Welwyn Garden City, Hitchin, Letchworth and Baldock. These are all small to medium-sized locations, featuring a mix of post-WWII new towns and older/more historical locales. The St Albans, City of St. Albans is an example of a historical settlement, as its cathedral and abbey date to the Norman architecture, Norman period, and there are ruins from the Roman settlement of
Verulamium Verulamium was a town in Roman Britain Roman Britain is the period in classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek Greek ...
nearby the current city centre. Stevenage is a mix of post-WWII new town planning amidst its prior incarnation as a smaller town. The Old Town in Stevenage represents this historic core and has many shops and buildings reflecting its pre-WWII heritage. Hitchin also has a historic centre, with many House of Tudor, Tudor and House of Stuart, Stuart era buildings interspersed amongst more contemporary structures. Hertfordshire's eastern regions are predominantly rural and arable, intermixed with villages and small to medium-sized towns. Royston, Buntingford and Bishops Stortford, along with Ware, Hertfordshire, Ware and the county town of Hertford are major settlements in this regard. The physical geography of eastern Hertfordshire is less elevated than the far west, but with lower rising hills and prominent rivers such as the Stort. This river rises in
Essex Essex () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...

Essex
and terminates via a confluence with the Lea near to Ware. Apart from the Lea and Stort, the River Colne is the major watercourse in the county's west. This runs near Watford and Radlett, and has a complex system/drainage area running south into both Greater London and Buckinghamshire. An unofficial status, the purple star-shaped flower with yellow stamens, the Pulsatilla vulgaris, Pasqueflower is among endemic county flowers.


Geology

The rocks of Hertfordshire belong to the great shallow syncline known as the London Basin. The beds dip in a south-easterly direction towards the syncline's lowest point roughly under the River Thames. The most important formations are the Cretaceous Chalk, exposed as the high ground in the north and west of the county, forming the Chiltern Hills and the younger Palaeocene, Reading Beds and Eocene, London Clay which occupy the remaining southern part. The eastern half of the county was covered by glaciers during the Ice Age and has a superficial layer of glacial boulder clays.


Natural resources and environment

Much of the west – and much more in the east – have richly diverse countryside.''Hertfordshire A Landscape History'' Anne Rowe, Tom Williamson (2013), University of Hertfordshire Press at Introduction, e-page 18 https://www.google.co.uk/books/edition/Hertfordshire/rBleCUlsT_oC?hl=en&gbpv=1&pg=PT18 These range from beech woods of the Chiltern Hills, Chilterns, clayland buffer zone countryside of Braughing and the Hadhams across to ancient woodland, ancient hornbeam coppicing, coppices west of the upper Lea valley. The county has sweeping panoramas of chalklands near Royston, Hertfordshire, Royston, Baldock, Hexton and
Tring Tring is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Borough of Dacorum, Hertfordshire, England. It is situated in a gap passing through the Chiltern Hills, classed as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, from Central ...
. Large parts of the county are used for agriculture. Some quarrying of sand and gravel occurs around St Albans. In the past, clay has supplied local brick-making and still does in Bovingdon, just south-west of Hemel Hempstead. The chalk that is the bedrock of much of the county provides an aquifer that feeds streams and is also exploited to provide water supplies for much of the county and beyond. Chalk has also been used as a building material and, once fired, the resultant lime was spread on agricultural land to improve fertility. The mining of chalk since the early 18th century has left unrecorded underground galleries that occasionally collapse unexpectedly and endanger buildings. Fresh water is supplied to London from Ware, Hertfordshire, Ware, using the New River built by Hugh Myddleton and opened in 1613. Local rivers, although small, supported developing industries such as paper production at Nash Mills. Hertfordshire affords habitat for a variety of flora and fauna. A bird once common in the shire is the Hooded Crow#Cultural significance, Hooded Crow, the old name of which is the eponymous name of the regional newspaper, the Royston Crow (newspaper), ''Royston Crow'' published in Royston, Hertfordshire, Royston. A product, now largely defunct, was watercress, based in
Hemel Hempstead Hemel Hempstead () is a large town in Hertfordshire, England, located northwest of London, and part of the Greater London Urban Area. The population, according to the 2011 United Kingdom Census, 2011 Census, was 97,500. Developed after the Wor ...

Hemel Hempstead
and
Berkhamsted Berkhamsted ( ) is a historic market town in Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater ...
supported by reliable, clean chalk rivers.


Urban areas


Economy

This is a table of trends of regional gross value added of Hertfordshire at current basic prices with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. Hertfordshire has the main operational and/or headquarters UK site of some very large employers. Clockwise from north: In
Stevenage Stevenage ( ) is a large town and Non-metropolitan district, borough in Hertfordshire, England, north of London. Stevenage is east of junctions 7 and 8 of the A1(M) motorway, A1(M), between Letchworth Garden City to the north and Welwyn Garde ...

Stevenage
(a subsidiary of: BAE Systems, Airbus and Finmeccanica) MBDA, develops missiles. In the same town, Airbus Defence and Space, Airbus (Defence & Space Division) produces satellites. Hatfield was where de Havilland developed the first commercial jet liner, the de Havilland Comet, Comet. Now the site is a business park and new campus for the University of Hertfordshire. This major employment site notably hosts EE (telecommunications company), EE, Computacenter and Ocado groceries and other goods e-commerce. Welwyn Garden City hosts Tesco's UK base, hosts the UK Cereal Partners factory and in pharmaceuticals it hosts Roche UK's headquarters (subsidiary of the Swiss Hoffman-La Roche). GlaxoSmithKline has plants in Ware, Hertfordshire, Ware and
Stevenage Stevenage ( ) is a large town and Non-metropolitan district, borough in Hertfordshire, England, north of London. Stevenage is east of junctions 7 and 8 of the A1(M) motorway, A1(M), between Letchworth Garden City to the north and Welwyn Garde ...

Stevenage
.
Hemel Hempstead Hemel Hempstead () is a large town in Hertfordshire, England, located northwest of London, and part of the Greater London Urban Area. The population, according to the 2011 United Kingdom Census, 2011 Census, was 97,500. Developed after the Wor ...

Hemel Hempstead
has large premises of Dixons Carphone. The National Pharmacy Association (NPA), the trade association for UK pharmacies, is based in
St Albans St Albans () is a cathedral city in Hertfordshire, England and the main urban area in the St Albans City and District, City and District of St Albans. It lies east of Hemel Hempstead and west of Hatfield, Hertfordshire, Hatfield, about north-no ...

St Albans
. Kings Langley has the plant-office of Pure Digital, Pure, making Digital Audio Broadcasting, DAB digital radios.
Watford Watford () is a large town and borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, officia ...

Watford
hosts national companies such as J D Wetherspoon, Camelot Group, Bathstore, and Caversham Finance (BrightHouse). It is also the UK base of multi-nationals Hilton Worldwide, Total S.A., Total Oil, TK Maxx, Costco, JJ Kavanagh and Sons, Vinci (construction), Vinci and Beko. The 2006 World Golf Championship and the 2013 Bilderberg Conference, took place at The Grove, Watford, The Grove hotel. Warner Bros. owns and runs its main UK base since the 2000s, Warner Studios, in Leavesden, Watford. Rickmansworth hosts Skanska.


Sport

In 2012, the Broxbourne (canoeing venue), canoe and kayak slalom events of the 2012 Summer Olympics took place in Waltham Cross, Broxbourne (borough), Broxbourne.


Football

As of the 2021–22 season, there are four Professionalism in association football, professional football teams in Hertfordshire: Watford F.C., Stevenage F.C., Arsenal W.F.C. and Boreham Wood F.C.. Since 1922, Watford play their home games at Vicarage Road. The club joined the Football League in 1920 as a founding member of the Third Division and first played in the First Division of English football in 1982–83 Watford F.C. season, 1982, finishing as runners-up to champions Liverpool F.C., Liverpool. Watford currently play in the Premier League following a recent promotion from the Championship at the end of the 2020–2021 season. Stevenage F.C. was formed in 1976 as Stevenage Borough and have played at Broadhall Way since 1980. Stevenage was the first club to win a competitive match at the new Wembley Stadium, beating Kidderminster Harriers 3–2 in the 2007 FA Trophy Final. The club currently play in the EFL League Two and have been managed by former player Alex Revell since February 2020. Arsenal F.C., whilst based at the Emirates Stadium in the London Borough of Islington, has long held a training ground in the county. Until 1999, it held the London Colney University of London facility, until it built a new purpose-built compound adjacent to it. Watford FC currently utilises the old Arsenal training area as its training facility. Arsenal W.F.C. play at Meadow Park (Borehamwood), Meadow Park in
Borehamwood Borehamwood () (also Boreham Wood) is a town in southern Hertfordshire, England, from Charing Cross. Borehamwood has a population of 31,074, and is within the London commuter belt. The town's film and TV studios are commonly known as Elstree S ...
. The club was formed in 1987 and have played in the FA Women's Super League since its inaugural season in 2011 FA WSL, 2011. Hertfordshire has many semi-professional and amateur clubs. The highest placed are Hemel Hempstead Town F.C., Hemel Hempstead Town and St Albans City F.C., St Albans City, who play one division lower in the National League South.


Rugby


Rugby league

Hemel Stags are a rugby league team based in
Hemel Hempstead Hemel Hempstead () is a large town in Hertfordshire, England, located northwest of London, and part of the Greater London Urban Area. The population, according to the 2011 United Kingdom Census, 2011 Census, was 97,500. Developed after the Wor ...

Hemel Hempstead
. Hemel Stags have played at Pennine Way Stadium since the club's founding in 1981. Until 2018, the club played in League 1 (rugby league), league 1, the British rugby league system#Tier 3: League 1, third tier of the British rugby league system, and now compete in the Conference League South.


Rugby union

The Hertfordshire Rugby Football Union is the governing body for rugby union in Hertfordshire and is responsible for any interested parties involved in rugby. Tring Rugby play matches at Cow Lane, Tring. The first XV currently play in the London & South East Premier, a English rugby union system#Level 4: National League 2 South and National League 2 North, level 4 league.


Landmarks

Below is a list of notable visitor attractions in Hertfordshire: * Aldenham Country Park * Ashridge – the estate surrounding the neo-Gothic house by James Wyatt (not open to the public) is National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, National Trust land. ** Bridgewater Monument, built in 1832 in memory of Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater. tall and open to the public to ascend to the top * Berkhamsted Castle * Cedars Park, Broxbourne – historic park once the site of James I's favourite residence, Theobalds Palace. Maintained by Broxbourne Services and the Friends of Cedars Park. * de Havilland Aircraft Heritage Centre, between London Colney and South Mimms * Frogmore Paper Mill, Apsley, Hertfordshire, Apsley * Hatfield, Hertfordshire, Hatfield ** Hatfield House – Jacobean house, gardens and park ** Mill Green Watermill in Hatfield * Henry Moore Foundation, Much Hadham – sculpture park on the work of Henry Moore * Knebworth House, of country park, venue of many rock and pop festivals *
Leavesden Film Studios Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden is an studio complex in Leavesden in Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Esse ...
, home of the Warner Bros. ''Warner Bros. Studio Tour London – The Making of Harry Potter, Making of Harry Potter'' studio tour * Letchworth Garden City – the world's first Garden city movement, Garden City. Site of the first planned Green Belt, the UK's first roundabout, and a number of experiments in early town planning and house and factory design ** Spirella Building * Magic Roundabout (Hemel Hempstead) – a complex road junction * Royston Cave – in Royston, Hertfordshire, Royston town centre * Rye House Gatehouse in Hoddesdon (part of the Rye House Plot to assassinate Charles II of England, King Charles II) *
St Albans St Albans () is a cathedral city in Hertfordshire, England and the main urban area in the St Albans City and District, City and District of St Albans. It lies east of Hemel Hempstead and west of Hatfield, Hertfordshire, Hatfield, about north-no ...

St Albans
** Beech Bottom Dyke – large-scale
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
defensive or boundary ditch ** Sopwell Nunnery ** St Albans Cathedral **
Verulamium Verulamium was a town in Roman Britain Roman Britain is the period in classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek Greek ...
– Ancient Rome, Roman town remains, including museum of Roman life and the remains of a Roman amphitheatre * Scott's Grotto, Ware, Hertfordshire, Ware * Shaw's Corner, Ayot St Lawrence – home of George Bernard Shaw *
Stevenage Stevenage ( ) is a large town and Non-metropolitan district, borough in Hertfordshire, England, north of London. Stevenage is east of junctions 7 and 8 of the A1(M) motorway, A1(M), between Letchworth Garden City to the north and Welwyn Garde ...

Stevenage
– the first UK New towns in the United Kingdom, New Town **
Six Hills The Six Hills are a collection of Roman barrows situated alongside the old Great North Road on Six Hills Common in Stevenage Stevenage ( ) is a town and borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English- ...
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...

Roman
barrows site * Therfield Heath – a local nature reserve in the north of the county * University of Hertfordshire – a public research university based in Hatfield, Hertfordshire, Hatfield * Welwyn Roman Baths * Welwyn Viaduct to the north of Welwyn Garden City * Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum,
Tring Tring is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Borough of Dacorum, Hertfordshire, England. It is situated in a gap passing through the Chiltern Hills, classed as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, from Central ...
– a museum-annotated collection of dead mammals, birds, reptiles and insects * Watford Museum, fine art and local artefacts


Main footpaths

*The Ridgeway *Icknield Way Path, Icknield Way *Grand Union Canal 145 mile Race, Grand Union Canal Walk *Icknield Way Path, Harcamlow Way *Hertfordshire Way *Hertfordshire Chain Walk


Transport

Hertfordshire is a home county with many towns forming part of the London commuter belt and has some of the principal roads in England including the A1 road (Great Britain), A1, A1 road (Great Britain), A1(M), A41 road, A41, A414 road, A414, M1 motorway, M1, M11 motorway, M11, and the M25 motorway, M25. Four principal national railway lines pass through the county: * the West Coast Main Line from . Avanti West Coast operates high speed InterCity (British Rail), intercity services via to the Midlands, North Wales, the North West England and Scotland. West Midlands Trains provides local commuter and regional services. * the East Coast Main Line from . Local commuter and regional services are provided by Govia Thameslink Railway. London North Eastern Railway runs high speed intercity services via to the east coast of Northern England and Scotland * the Midland Main Line which forms part of the Thameslink, Thameslink route between Bedford railway station, Bedford and Brighton railway station, Brighton via Central London with services are provided by Govia Thameslink Railway. East Midlands Railway provide intercity services along the line from St Pancras railway station, London St Pancras to the East Midlands and Yorkshire * the West Anglia Main Line from Liverpool Street station, London Liverpool Street. Local commuter and regional services are provided by Greater Anglia (train operating company), Greater Anglia mainly in the east of the county A number of other local rail routes also cross Hertfordshire: * the London to Aylesbury Line from Marylebone railway station, London Marylebone runs via Rickmansworth station, Rickmansworth and Chorleywood station, Chorleywood * the Abbey Line, a local line from Watford to * the Cambridge Line, a branch of the East Coast line which runs via Royston railway station, Royston and Letchworth Garden City railway station, Letchworth to Three commuter lines operated by Transport for London enter the county: * the Lea Valley Lines, a suburban metro line from Liverpool Street to Cheshunt railway station, Cheshunt via Seven Sisters railway station, Seven Sisters * the Watford DC Line, a suburban metro line from Euston to Watford Junction * five stations on the London Underground Metropolitan line Stansted Airport and Luton Airport are both within of the county's borders. The commercial airfield at
Elstree Elstree is a village in the Hertsmere Hertsmere is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district and borough in Hertfordshire, England. Its council is based in Borehamwood. Other settlements in the borough include Bushey, Elstree, ...
is for light aircraft. The Grand Union Canal passes through Rickmansworth,
Watford Watford () is a large town and borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, officia ...

Watford
,
Hemel Hempstead Hemel Hempstead () is a large town in Hertfordshire, England, located northwest of London, and part of the Greater London Urban Area. The population, according to the 2011 United Kingdom Census, 2011 Census, was 97,500. Developed after the Wor ...

Hemel Hempstead
,
Berkhamsted Berkhamsted ( ) is a historic market town in Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater ...
and
Tring Tring is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Borough of Dacorum, Hertfordshire, England. It is situated in a gap passing through the Chiltern Hills, classed as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, from Central ...
.


Education

Hertfordshire has 26 independent schools and 73 state secondary schools. The state secondary schools are entirely comprehensive school, comprehensive, although 7 schools in the south and southwest of the county are partially selective school (England), partially selective (see Watford#Education, Education in Watford). All state schools have sixth forms, and there are no sixth form colleges. The tertiary colleges, each with multiple campuses, are Hertford Regional College, North Hertfordshire College, Oaklands College and West Herts College. The University of Hertfordshire is a modern university based largely in Hatfield, Hertfordshire, Hatfield. It has more than 23,000 students.


Literature

Hertfordshire is the location of Jack Worthing's country house in Oscar Wilde's play ''The Importance of Being Earnest''. Jane Austen's novel ''Pride and Prejudice (novel), Pride and Prejudice'' is primarily set in Hertfordshire. The location of Mr Jarndyce's Bleak House in Charles Dickens's ''Bleak House'' is near St Albans. The eponymous residence in E. M. Forster's novel ''Howards End'' was based on Rooks Nest House just outside
Stevenage Stevenage ( ) is a large town and Non-metropolitan district, borough in Hertfordshire, England, north of London. Stevenage is east of junctions 7 and 8 of the A1(M) motorway, A1(M), between Letchworth Garden City to the north and Welwyn Garde ...

Stevenage
. George Orwell based ''Animal Farm'' on Wallington, Hertfordshire, where he lived between 1936 and 1940. Manor Farm and The Great Barn both feature in the novel.


See also

* Lord Lieutenant of Hertfordshire * High Sheriff of Hertfordshire * Custos Rotulorum of Hertfordshire – Keeper of the Rolls * Hertfordshire (UK Parliament constituency) – Historical list of MPs for Hertfordshire constituency * List of Jewish communities in the United Kingdom#Hertfordshire, List of Jewish communities in Hertfordshire * Hertfordshire GAA


Notes


References


External links

*
Hertfordshire County Council website
{{authority control Hertfordshire, Non-metropolitan counties Home counties Counties of England established in antiquity