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Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the
field Field may refer to: Expanses of open ground * Field (agriculture), an area of land used for agricultural purposes * Airfield, an aerodrome that lacks the infrastructure of an airport * Battlefield * Lawn, an area of mowed grass * Meadow, a grassl ...
s. Reaping is the cutting of
grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album ...

grain
or
pulse In medicine Medicine is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge) ...
for harvest, typically using a
scythe A scythe is an agricultural Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated Domestica ...

scythe
,
sickle A sickle, bagging hook, reaping-hook or grasshook is a single-handed agricultural tool designed with variously curved blades and typically used for harvesting, or reaping, grain crops or cutting Succulent plant, succulent forage chiefly for feedi ...

sickle
, or
reaper A reaper is a agricultural machinery, farm implement or person that wikt:reap#Verb, reaps (cuts and often also gathers) crops at harvest when they are ripe. Usually the crop involved is a cereal grass. The first documented reaping machines were ...

reaper
. On smaller
farm A farm (also called an agricultural Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated ...

farm
s with minimal
mechanization Mechanization is the process of changing from working largely or exclusively by hand or with animals to doing that work with machinery. In an early engineering text a machine is defined as follows: In some fields, mechanization includes the ...
, harvesting is the most
labor Labour or labor may refer to: * , the delivery of a baby * , or work ** , physical work ** , a socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer Literature * , an American quarterly on the history of the labor movement * ', an academic ...
-intensive activity of the growing season. On large mechanized farms, harvesting uses the most expensive and sophisticated
farm machinery Agricultural machinery relates to the mechanical Mechanical may refer to: Machine * Mechanical system, a system that manages the power of forces and movements to accomplish a task * Machine (mechanical), a system of mechanisms that shape the ...
, such as the
combine harvester The modern combine harvester, or simply combine, is a versatile machine designed to efficiently harvest a variety of grain crops. The name derives from its combining four separate harvesting operations—, , gathering, and —into a single process ...

combine harvester
. Process automation has increased the efficiency of both the seeding and harvesting processes. Specialized harvesting equipment utilizing
conveyor belt A conveyor system is a common piece of mechanical handling equipment that moves materials from one location to another. Conveyors are especially useful in applications involving the transport of heavy or bulky materials. Conveyor systems allow ...

conveyor belt
s to mimic gentle gripping and mass-transport replaces the manual task of removing each
seedling A seedling is a young sporophyte '' Tortula muralis''. In mosses, the gametophyte is the dominant generation, while the sporophytes consist of sporangium-bearing stalks growing from the tips of the gametophytes A sporophyte () is the dip ...

seedling
by hand. The term "harvesting" in general usage may include immediate
postharvest s in Jiangxia District, Hubei, China In agriculture, postharvest handling is the stage of crop production immediately following harvest, including cooling, cleaning, sorting and packing. The instant a crop is removed from the soil, ground, or separ ...
handling, including cleaning, sorting, packing, and cooling. The completion of harvesting marks the end of the growing season, or the growing cycle for a particular crop, and the social importance of this event makes it the focus of
season A season is a division of the year based on changes in weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or ...

season
al celebrations such as
harvest festival A harvest festival is an annual celebration Celebration or Celebrations may refer to: Events *Celebration (party), a social gathering in honor of a specific person, day, or event *Festival, an event celebrated by a community, centering on s ...
s, found in many
religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...

religion
s.


Etymology

"
Harvest Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the field Field may refer to: Expanses of open ground * Field (agriculture), an area of land used for agricultural purposes * Airfield, an aerodrome that lacks the infrastructure of an ...

Harvest
", a noun, came from the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
word (coined before the Angles moved from
Angeln Anglia ( German and Low German: ''Angeln'', Danish language, Danish and South Jutlandic: ''Angel'', ang, Engla land) is a small peninsula within the larger Jutland, Jutland (Cimbric) Peninsula in the region of Southern Schleswig, which constitu ...

Angeln
to Great Britain) meaning "
autumn Autumn, also known as fall in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Curr ...

autumn
" (the season), "harvest-time", or "August". (It continues to mean "autumn" in British dialect, and "season of gathering crops" generally.) "The harvest" came to also mean the activity of reaping, gathering, and storing grain and other grown products during the autumn, and also the grain and other grown products themselves. "Harvest" was also verbified: "To
harvest Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the field Field may refer to: Expanses of open ground * Field (agriculture), an area of land used for agricultural purposes * Airfield, an aerodrome that lacks the infrastructure of an ...
" means to reap, gather, and store the harvest (or the crop). People who harvest and equipment that harvests are harvesters; while they do it, they are harvesting.


Crop failure

Crop failure (also known as harvest failure) is an absent or greatly diminished
crop yield In agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentism, sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domestication, domesticated specie ...
relative to expectation, caused by the plants being damaged, killed, or destroyed, or affected in some way that they fail to form edible fruit, seeds, or leaves in their expected abundance. Crop failures can be caused by catastrophic events such as
plant disease Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in ...
outbreaks (such as the Great Famine in Ireland), heavy rainfall,
volcanic eruption Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava Lava is magma once it has been expelled from the interior of a terrestrial planet (such as Earth) or a Natural satellite, moon onto its surface. Lava may be erupted at a volcano or t ...

volcanic eruption
s,
storm A storm is any disturbed state of an environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non-living things occurring naturally * Biophysical environment, the physical and biological factors along with t ...

storm
s,
flood A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the . Floods are an area of study of the discipline and are of significant concern in , a ...

flood
s, or
drought A drought is an event of prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric (below-average precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorolog ...

drought
, or by slow, cumulative effects of
soil degradation Soil retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable A stable is a building in which livestock Livestock is commonly defined as domesticated Domestication is a sust ...
, too-high
soil salinity 249x249px, Saline incrustation in a PVC irrigation pipe from Brazil Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization. Salts occur naturally within soils and water. Salination can ...
,
erosion In earth science Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific ...

erosion
,
desertification Desertification is a type of land degradation Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land. It is viewed as any change or distu ...
, usually as results of
drainage Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area with excess of water. The internal drainage of most agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agr ...

drainage
,
overdrafting Overdrafting is the process of extracting groundwater beyond the equilibrium yield of the aquifer. Groundwater is the fresh water Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorgan ...
(for
irrigation Irrigation is the agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in seden ...

irrigation
), overfertilization, or
overexploitation Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource File:Global Vegetation.jpg, Global vegetation A renewable resource, also known as a flow resource, is a natural resource which will replenish to replace th ...

overexploitation
. In history, crop failures and subsequent
famine A famine is a widespread scarcity of food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual con ...

famine
s have triggered
human migration Human migration involves the movement of people from one place to another with intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily, at a new location (geographic region). The movement often occurs over long distances and from one country ...

human migration
,
rural exodus Rural flight (or rural exodus) is the migratory pattern of peoples from rural areas A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000. In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outsid ...
, etc. The proliferation of
industrial Industrial may also refer to: Industry * Industrial archaeology, the study of the history of the industry * Industrial engineering, engineering dealing with the optimization of complex industrial processes or systems * Industrial loan company, a f ...
monoculture In agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentism, sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domestication, domesticated spe ...
s, with their reduction in
crop diversity Crop diversity is the variance in Genetics, genetic and Phenotype, phenotypic characteristics of plants used in agriculture. Over the past 50 years, there has been a major decline in two components of crop diversity; ...
and dependence on heavy use of artificial fertilizers and
pesticide Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests Pest or The Pest may refer to: Science and medicine * Pest (organism), an animal or plant detrimental to humans or human concerns ** Weed, a plant considered undesirable * Infectious d ...
s, has led to overexploited soils that are nearly incapable of
regeneration Regeneration may refer to: Science and technology * Regeneration (biology), the ability to recreate lost or damaged cells, tissues, organs and limbs * Regeneration in humans, the ability of humans to recreate, or induce the regeneration of, lost ...
. Over years,
unsustainable Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century The 21st (twenty-first) century is the current century in the '' Anno Domini'' era or Common Era, in accordance with the ...
farming of land degrades
soil fertility Soil fertility refers to the ability of soil File:Stagnogley.JPG, Surface-water-Gley soil, gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support li ...
and diminishes
crop yield In agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentism, sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domestication, domesticated specie ...
. With a steadily-increasing
world population In demography, demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have exceeded 7.9 billion people . It took over 2 million years of prehistory, human prehistory and human history, history fo ...

world population
and local
overpopulation Overpopulation or overabundance occurs when a species' population In biology, a population is a number of all the organisms of the same group or species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classifica ...

overpopulation
, even slightly diminishing yields are already the equivalent to a partial harvest failure. Fertilizers obviate the need for
soil regeneration Soil regeneration, as a particular form of ecological regeneration within the field of restoration ecology, is creating new soil and rejuvenating soil health by: minimizing the loss of topsoil, retaining more carbon than is depleted, boosting biodiv ...
in the first place, and
international trade International trade is the exchange of capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscul ...
prevents local crop failures from developing into famines.


Other uses

''Harvesting'' commonly refers to
grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double albu ...

grain
and produce, but also has other uses:
fishing Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. Around 99% of living fish species are ...

fishing
and
logging Logging is the process of cutting, processing, and moving trees to a location for transport. It may include skidder, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or trunk (botany), logs onto logging truck, trucks or flatcar#Skeleton car, s ...

logging
are also referred to as harvesting. The term harvest is also used in reference to harvesting grapes for
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flow ...

wine
. Within the context of
irrigation Irrigation is the agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in seden ...

irrigation
, ''water harvesting'' refers to the collection and run-off of rainwater for agricultural or domestic uses. Instead of ''harvest'', the term ''exploit'' is also used, as in exploiting fisheries or water resources. ''
Energy harvesting Energy harvesting (also known as power harvesting or energy scavenging or ambient power) is the process by which energy In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, ...
'' is the process of capturing and storing
energy In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regula ...

energy
(such as
solar power Solar power is the conversion of renewable energy Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resource File:Global Vegetation.jpg, Global vegetation A renewable resource, also known as a flow resource, is a natural re ...

solar power
, thermal energy,
wind energy Wind power or wind energy is the use of wind turbine A wind turbine is a device that converts Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination A religious denomination ...
, salinity gradients, and
kinetic energy In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular ...
) that would otherwise go unexploited. ''Body harvesting'', or ''
cadaver A cadaver or corpse is a dead human body that is used by medical students A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surg ...

cadaver
harvesting'', is the process of collecting and preparing cadavers for
anatomical Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, mo ...

anatomical
study. In a similar sense, ''
organ harvesting Organ procurement (also called organ harvesting) is a surgical procedure that removes organs or tissues for reuse, typically for organ transplantation. Procedures If the organ donor is human, most countries require that the donor be legally d ...
'' is the removal of tissues or organs from a donor for purposes of transplanting. In a non-agricultural sense, the word "harvesting" is an economic principle which is known as an exit event or liquidity event. For example, if a person or business was to cash out of an ownership position in a company or eliminate their investment in a product, it is known as a harvest strategy. Nauru Nauru phosphate harvesting is unique to the island. One of the only forms of harvesting which includes a resource such as phosphate.


Canada

''Harvesting'' or ''Domestic Harvesting'' in Canada refers to hunting, fishing, and plant gathering by
First Nations The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are groups of Canadian indigenous peoples, who are classified as distinct from the Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally s ...
,
Métis The Métis (; ) are Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), or au ...
, and
Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, ...
in discussions of aboriginal or treaty rights. For example, in the Gwich'in Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement, "Harvesting means gathering, hunting, trapping or fishing...". Similarly, in the Tlicho Land Claim and Self Government Agreement, Harvesting' means, in relation to wildlife, hunting, trapping or fishing and, in relation to plants or trees, gathering or cutting."


Gallery

File:Maissipelto Rantasalmi.jpg, Harvesting
maize Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be ...

maize
field in
Rantasalmi Rantasalmi is a municipalities of Finland, municipality of Finland. It is located in the Southern Savonia regions of Finland, region. The municipality has a population of () and covers an area of of which is water. The population density is . ...
,
South Savonia Southern Savonia or, officially, South Savo ( fi, Etelä-Savo; sv, Södra Savolax) is a Regions of Finland, region in the south-east of Finland. It borders the regions of Northern Savonia, Northern Savonia (North Savo), North Karelia, South Kare ...
,
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
File:Västerhejde socken, Gotland. Jordbruk, skörd - Nordiska Museet - NMA.0041371.jpg, Rye harvest on Gotland, Sweden, 1900–1910. File:Ropa Euro Tiger.JPG,
Sugar beet A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose Sucrose is a type of sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Table sugar, granulated ...
harvester. Baden-Württemberg,
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
. File:Segant arròs. Alginet, 1953 (País Valencià).jpg, Harvesting
rice Rice is the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was relea ...

rice
in
Alginet Alginet () is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subo ...

Alginet
,
Land of Valencia , native_name = , official_name = , settlement_type = Autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, co ...
, 1953.


See also

*
Combine harvester The modern combine harvester, or simply combine, is a versatile machine designed to efficiently harvest a variety of grain crops. The name derives from its combining four separate harvesting operations—reaping, threshing An animal-powered thre ...

Combine harvester
*
Harvest (wine) The harvesting of wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. The first yeast originated hundreds ...
*
Harvest festival A harvest festival is an annual celebration Celebration or Celebrations may refer to: Events *Celebration (party), a social gathering in honor of a specific person, day, or event *Festival, an event celebrated by a community, centering on s ...
*
Overharvesting Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource File:Global Vegetation.jpg, Global vegetation A renewable resource, also known as a flow resource, is a natural resource which will replenish to replace the ...
*
Threshing Threshing is the process of loosening the edible part of grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, o ...

Threshing
*
Winnowing Winnowing is a process by which chaff Chaff (; ) is the dry, scaly protective of s or similar fine, dry, scaly plant material (such as scaly parts of s or finely chopped ). Chaff is indigestible by humans, but can eat it. In it is use ...

Winnowing


References


External links

* * {{Portal bar, Fish, Agriculture, Food, Gardening, Bible, Catholic Church, Trains, Judaism