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Harvard College is the
undergraduate Undergraduate education is education conducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically includes all postsecondary programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin ''b ...
college of
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Harvard University
, an
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports teams, playing competitively against each other at the professional, collegiate, or high school l ...
research university in
Cambridge, Massachusetts Cambridge ( ) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', ...
. Founded in 1636, Harvard College is the original school of Harvard University, the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and among the most prestigious in the world. Part of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard College is Harvard University's traditional undergraduate program, offering AB and SB degrees. It is highly selective, with fewer than five percent of applicants being offered admission in recent years. Harvard College students participate in more than 450 extracurricular organizations and nearly all live on campus—first-year students in or near
Harvard Yard Harvard Yard, in Cambridge, Massachusetts Cambridge ( ) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Greater Boston, Boston metropolitan area as a major suburb of Boston. As of the 2020 United S ...

Harvard Yard
, and upperclass students in community-oriented "houses". The college has produced many distinguished alumni, including prominent politicians, scholars, and business leaders.


History

The school came into existence in 1636 by vote of the
Great and General Court The Massachusetts General Court (formally styled the General Court of Massachusetts) is the state legislature A state legislature is a Legislature, legislative branch or body of a State (country subdivision), political subdivision in a Federalism ...
of the
Massachusetts Bay Colony The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630–1691), more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of America around the Massachusetts Bay Massachusetts Bay is a bay on the Atlantic Ocean that forms part of t ...
—though without a single building, instructor, or student. In 1638, the college became home for North America's first known printing press, carried by the ship . Three years later, the college was renamed in honor of deceased
CharlestownCharlestown or Charles Town may refer to: Places Australia *Charlestown, New South Wales ** Electoral district of Charlestown, an electoral district in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly including the area * Charlestown, Queensland Ireland ...
minister John Harvard (1607–1638) who had bequeathed to the school his entire library and half of his monetary estate. Harvard's first headmaster was
Nathaniel Eaton Nathaniel Eaton (Christened 17 September 1609 in Great Budworth, Cheshire, England − Burial 11 May 1674 at St. George the Martyr, London, Southwark, Surrey) was an English academic and the first schoolmaster of Harvard College in Cambridge, Mass ...
(1610–1674); in 1639, he also became its first instructor to be dismissed, for overstrict discipline.Samuel Eliot Morison, ''Three Centuries of Harvard, 1636–1936'' (1986) The school's first students were graduated in 1642. The Harvard Indian College was established, with the capacity for four or five Native Americans, and in 1665
Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck (estimated 1644 – 1666) was the first Native American to graduate from Harvard University. Life Cheeshahteaumuck, the son of a Nobnocket (West Chop, Massachusetts, West Chop) sachem, was born into the Wampanoag people, Wa ...
(c. 1643–1666) "from the
Wampanoag The Wampanoag , also rendered Wôpanâak, are a Native American people. They were a loose confederation of several tribes in the 17th century, but today Wampanoag people encompass five officially recognized tribes. The Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe a ...
… did graduate from Harvard, the first Indian to do so in the colonial period." Currently, Harvard College is responsible for undergraduate admissions, advising, housing, student life, and athletics—generally all undergraduate matters except instruction, which is the purview of the
Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences The Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences (FAS) is the largest of the twelve faculties that constitute Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Establish ...
. The body known as the
President and Fellows of Harvard College The President and Fellows of Harvard College (also called the Harvard Corporation or just the Corporation) is the smaller and more powerful of Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In ...
retains its traditional name despite having governance of the entire University.
Radcliffe College Radcliffe College was a women's A woman is an adult female human. The term ''woman'' may also refer to a girl (a female child or Adolescence, adolescent). The plural ''women'' is sometimes used for female humans regardless of age, as in phr ...
, established in 1879, originally paid Harvard faculty to repeat their lectures for women. Since the 1970s, Harvard has been responsible for undergraduate matters for women, though women's Harvard diplomas were countersigned by the President of Radcliffe until a final merger in 1999.


Admissions

Admission is based on academic prowess, extracurricular activities, and personal qualities. For the undergraduate class of 2025, Harvard had 57,435 applications and accepted 1,968 (3.4% acceptance rate). For the undergraduate class of 2023, the middle 50% range of
SAT
SAT
scores of enrolled freshmen was 710–770 for reading and writing and 750–800 for math, while the middle 50% range of the ACT composite score was 33–35. The average high school grade point average (
GPA The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit SI derived units are units of measurement ' Measurement is the number, numerical quantification (science), quantification of the variable and attribute (research), attributes of an object or event, ...

GPA
) was 4.18. The acceptance rate for transfer students has been approximately 1%. Harvard College ended its
early admission Early admission is a college admission plan in which students apply earlier in the year than usual and receive their results early as well. This benefits students by reducing the number of applications to be completed at one time, and by providing ...
s program in 2007, but for the class of 2016 and beyond, an early action program was reintroduced. The freshman class that entered in the fall of 2017 was the first to be majority (50.8%) nonwhite. A federal lawsuit alleges that Harvard's admissions policies discriminate against Asian Americans, who tend to be overrepresented among students with high academic achievement. A 2019 district court decision in the case (which has since been appealed) found no evidence of explicit racial bias but did not rule out a small amount of implicit bias. Harvard has implemented more implicit bias training for its admissions staff in accordance with the court's recommendations. In addition, Harvard's admissions preference for children of alumni, employees, and donors has been criticized as favoring white and wealthy candidates. The median family income of Harvard students is $168,800, with 53% of students coming from the top 10% highest-earning families and 20% from the bottom 60%. As of 2019, Harvard College tuition was about $48,000 and total costs about $70,000. However, Harvard offers one of the most generous financial aid programs in the United States, with
need-blind admission Need-blind admission is a term used in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists ...
and 100% of financial need met for all students. Families with incomes below $65,000 pay nothing for their children to attend, while families earning up to $150,000 pay no more than 10% of their annual incomes. Financial aid is solely based on need; no merit or athletic scholarships are offered.


Academics

The four-year, full-time undergraduate program has a liberal arts and sciences focus. To graduate in the usual four years, undergraduates normally take four courses per semester. Midway through the second year, most undergraduates join one of fifty
academic majorAn academic major is the academic discipline to which an undergraduate student formally commits. A student who successfully completes all courses required for the major qualifies for an undergraduate degree. The word ''major'' is also sometimes us ...
s; many also declare a
minor Minor may refer to: * Minor (law), a person under the age of certain legal activities. ** A person who has not reached the age of majority * Academic minor, a secondary field of study in undergraduate education Music theory *Minor chord ** Barbe ...
(secondary field). Joint majors (combining the requirements of two majors) and special majors (of the student's own design) are also possible. Most majors lead to the ''Artium Baccalaureus'' (AB). Some award the ''Scientiae Baccalaureus'' (SB). There are also dual degree programs permitting students to earn both a Harvard AB and a Master of Music (MM) from either the
New England Conservatory of Music The New England Conservatory of Music (NEC) is a private music school in Boston, Massachusetts. It is the oldest independent music Music school, conservatory in the United States and among the most prestigious in the world. The conservatory is l ...
or the
Berklee College of Music Berklee College of Music is a Private university, private music college in Boston, Boston, Massachusetts. It is the largest independent college of contemporary music in the world. Known for the study of jazz and modern American music, it also of ...
over five years. In most majors, an honors degree requires advanced coursework and/or a senior thesis. Harvard College students must take a course in each of four General Education categories (Aesthetics and Culture; Ethics and Civics; Histories, Societies, Individuals; Science and Technology in Society) as well as a course in each of three academic divisions (Arts and Humanities; Social Sciences; Science and Engineering and Applied Science). They must also fulfill foreign language, expository writing, and quantitative reasoning with data requirements. Exposure to a range of intellectual areas in parallel with pursuit of a chosen major in depth fulfills the injunction of former Harvard president
Abbott Lawrence Lowell Abbott Lawrence Lowell (December 13, 1856 – January 6, 1943) was an American educator and legal scholar. He was President of Harvard University The president of Harvard University is the chief administrator of Harvard University Harvar ...

Abbott Lawrence Lowell
that liberal education should produce "men who know a little of everything and something well". Some introductory courses have large enrollments, but most courses are small: the median class size is 12 students. Funding and faculty mentorship for research is available in all disciplines for undergraduates at all levels.


Student life


House system

Nearly all undergraduates live on campus, for the first year in dormitories in or near
Harvard Yard Harvard Yard, in Cambridge, Massachusetts Cambridge ( ) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Greater Boston, Boston metropolitan area as a major suburb of Boston. As of the 2020 United S ...

Harvard Yard
and later in the upperclass houses—administrative subdivisions of the college as well as living quarters, providing a sense of community in what might otherwise be a socially incohesive and administratively daunting university environment. Each house is presided over by two faculty deans, while its Allston Burr Resident Dean—usually a junior faculty member—supervises undergraduates' day-to-day academic and disciplinary well-being. The faculty deans and resident dean are assisted by other members of the Senior
Common Room A common room is a type of shared lounge Lounge may refer to: Architecture * Lounge, the living room of a dwelling * Lounge, a public waiting area in a hotel's lobby (room), lobby * Lounge, a style of commercial alcohol-Bar (establishment), b ...

Common Room
—select graduate students (tutors), faculty, and university officials brought into voluntary association with each house. The faculty deans and resident dean reside in the house, as do resident tutors. Terms like tutor, Senior Common Room, and Junior Common Room reflect a debt to the
residential collegeA residential college is a division of a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic d ...
systems at Oxford and Cambridge from which Harvard's system took inspiration. The houses were created by President Lowell in the 1930s to combat what he saw as pernicious social stratification engendered by the private, off-campus living arrangements of many undergraduates at that time. Lowell's solution was to provide every man—Harvard was male-only at the time—with on-campus accommodations throughout his time at the college; Lowell also saw great benefits in other features of the house system, such as the relaxed discussions—academic or otherwise—which he hoped would take place among undergraduates and members of the Senior Common Room over meals in each house's dining hall. How students come to live in particular houses has changed greatly over time. Under the original "draft" system, masters (now faculty deans) negotiated privately over the assignment of students. From the 1960s to the mid-1990s, each student ranked the houses according to personal preference, with a lottery resolving the oversubscription of more popular houses. Today, groups of one to eight freshmen form a block which is then assigned, essentially at random, to an upperclass house. A total of nine "River Houses" are located south of Harvard Yard, near the
Charles River The Charles River (sometimes called the River Charles or simply the Charles) is an river in eastern Massachusetts. It flows northeast from Hopkinton, Massachusetts, Hopkinton to Boston, Massachusetts, Boston along a highly meandering route, t ...
: Adams,
Dunster Dunster is a village, civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or t ...

Dunster
, , Kirkland, Leverett,
Lowell Lowell may refer to: Places United States * Lowell, Massachusetts ** Lowell National Historical Park ** Lowell (MBTA station) ** Lowell Ordnance Plant * Lowell, Arkansas * Lowell, California * Lowell, Florida * Lowell, Idaho * Lowell, Indiana ...
, Mather, Quincy, and Winthrop. Their construction was financed largely by a 1928 gift from
Yale Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
alumnus
Edward Harkness Edward Stephen Harkness (January 22, 1874 – January 29, 1940) was an American philanthropist. Given privately and through his family's Commonwealth Fund, Harkness' gifts to private hospitals, art museums, and educational institutions in the Nort ...
, who, frustrated in his attempts to initiate a similar project at his alma mater, eventually offered $11 million to Harvard. Two of the houses, Dunster and Lowell, were completed in 1930. Construction of the first houses began in 1929, but the land on which they were built had been assembled decades before. After graduating from Harvard in 1895, Edward W. Forbes found himself inspired by the Oxford and Cambridge systems during two years of study in England; on returning to the United States he set out to acquire the land between Harvard Yard and the Charles River that was not already owned by Harvard or an associated entity. By 1918, that ambition had been largely fulfilled and the assembled land transferred to Harvard. The three " Quad Houses" enjoy a residential setting half a mile northwest of Harvard Yard. These were built by
Radcliffe College Radcliffe College was a women's A woman is an adult female human. The term ''woman'' may also refer to a girl (a female child or Adolescence, adolescent). The plural ''women'' is sometimes used for female humans regardless of age, as in phr ...
and housed
Radcliffe College Radcliffe College was a women's A woman is an adult female human. The term ''woman'' may also refer to a girl (a female child or Adolescence, adolescent). The plural ''women'' is sometimes used for female humans regardless of age, as in phr ...
students until the Harvard and Radcliffe residential systems merged in 1977. They are Cabot,
Currier A currier is a specialist in the leather Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhide and skins. The most common raw material is cattle hide. It can be produced at manufacturing scales ranging from artisa ...
, and Pforzheimer House. A thirteenth house, Dudley House, is nonresidential but fulfills, for some graduate students and the (very few) undergraduates living off campus, the administrative and social functions provided to on-campus residents by the other twelve houses. Harvard's residential houses are paired with Yale's residential colleges in sister relationships.


Student government

The Harvard Undergraduate Council (UC) is the 54-member student government of Harvard College. The student body at large elects the UC's president and vice president, while the twelve upperclass houses and five freshman neighborhoods each sends three representatives. (The Dudley Cooperative sends one representative.) The UC operates several committees on issues pertaining to undergraduates and allocates resources to student organizations.


Athletics

The
Harvard Crimson The Harvard Crimson are the intercollegiate athletic teams of Harvard College Harvard College is the undergraduate Undergraduate education is education conducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typicall ...

Harvard Crimson
fields 42 intercollegiate sports teams in the
NCAA The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and o ...
Division IDivision 1 and variants may refer to: Association football * Azadegan League, second tier of the men's senior football in Iran * Brisbane Premier League Division 1, second tier of the men's senior football in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia * Danis ...
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports teams, playing competitively against each other at the professional, collegiate, or high school l ...
, more than any other
NCAA Division I NCAA Division I (D-I) is the highest level of intercollegiate athletics College athletics encompasses non-professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. Th ...
college in the country. Every two years, the Harvard and Yale
track and field Track and field is a sport that includes Competition#Sports, athletic contests based on running, jumping, and throwing skills. The name is derived from where the sport takes place, a running track and a grass field for the throwing and some o ...
teams come together to compete against a combined
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
and
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...
team in the oldest continuous international amateur competition in the world. As with other Ivy League universities, Harvard does not offer
athletic scholarship An athletic scholarship is a form of scholarship A scholarship is an award of Student financial aid, financial aid for a student to further their education at a private elementary or secondary school, or a private or public post-secondary colle ...
s. Harvard's athletic rivalry with
Yale Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
is intense in every sport in which they meet, coming to a climax each fall in the annual
football Football is a family of s that involve, to varying degrees, a to score a . Unqualified, normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly called ''football'' include (known as ''soccer'' ...

football
meeting, which dates back to 1875 and is usually called simply " The Game". While Harvard's football team is no longer one of the best as it was in football's early days, both Harvard and Yale have influenced the way the game is played. In 1903,
Harvard Stadium Harvard Stadium is a U-shaped college football stadium in the northeast United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located ...

Harvard Stadium
introduced a new era into football with the first permanent reinforced concrete stadium of its kind in the country. Even older than HarvardYale football rivalry, the Harvard–Yale Regatta is held each June on the
Thames River The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernm ...
in eastern Connecticut. The Harvard crew is typically considered to be one of the top teams in the country in
rowing Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oars in the water by displacing water to propel the boat forward. Rowing and paddling are similar. However, rowing requires oars to have a mechanical connection with the boat, while p ...
. Other sports in which Harvard teams are particularly strong are men's ice hockey,
squash Squash may refer to: Sports * Squash (sport), the high-speed racquet sport also known as squash racquets * Squash (professional wrestling), an extremely one-sided match in professional wrestling * Squash tennis, a game similar to squash racquets ...
, and men's and women's
fencing Fencing is a group of three related combat sports. The three disciplines in modern fencing are the foil (fencing), foil, the épée, and the sabre (fencing), sabre (also ''saber''); winning points are made through the weapon's contact with an ...

fencing
. Harvard's men's ice hockey team won the school's first NCAA Championship in any team sport in 1989, and Harvard also won the Intercollegiate Sailing Association National Championships in 2003. Harvard was the first Ivy League school to win an NCAA Championship in a women's sport when its women's lacrosse team won in 1990. The school color is
crimson Crimson is a rich, deep red Red is the color at the long wavelength end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength Image:dominant wavelength.png, frame, Dominant/complementary wa ...

crimson
, which is also the name of Harvard's sports teams and the student newspaper, ''
The Harvard Crimson ''The Harvard Crimson'' is the daily student newspaper A student publication is a media outlet such as a newspaper, magazine, television show, or radio station produced by students at an educational institution. These publications typically c ...

The Harvard Crimson
''. The color was unofficially adopted (in preference to
magenta Magenta () is a color that is variously defined as purplish-red, reddish-purple Purple is any of a variety of color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States Eng ...

magenta
) by an 1875 vote of the student body, although the association with some form of red can be traced back to 1858, when
Charles William Eliot Charles William Eliot (March 20, 1834 – August 22, 1926) was an American academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary ...

Charles William Eliot
, a young graduate student who would later become Harvard's 21st and longest-serving president (1869–1909), bought red bandanas for his crew so they could more easily be distinguished by spectators at a regatta.


Fight songs

Harvard has several fight songs, the most played of which, especially at football, are "
Ten Thousand Men of Harvard "Ten Thousand Men of Harvard" is the most frequently performed of Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting succes ...
" and " Harvardiana". While " Fair Harvard" is actually the alma mater, "Ten Thousand Men" is better known outside the university. The Harvard University Band performs these fight songs and other cheers at football and hockey games. These were parodied by Harvard alumnus
Tom Lehrer Thomas Andrew Lehrer (; born April 9, 1928) is a retired American musician, singer-songwriter, satirist This is an incomplete list of writers, cartoonists and others known for involvement in satire Satire is a genre Genre () is any ...
in his song " Fight Fiercely, Harvard", which he composed while an undergraduate.


Athletics history

By the late 19th century, critics of intercollegiate athletics, including Harvard president
Charles William Eliot Charles William Eliot (March 20, 1834 – August 22, 1926) was an American academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary ...

Charles William Eliot
, believed that sports had become over-commercialized and took students away from their studies. They called for limitations on all sports. This opposition prompted Harvard's athletic committee to target "minor" sports—basketball and hockey—for reform in order to deflect attention from the major sports: football, baseball, track, and crew. The committee made it difficult for the basketball team to operate by denying financial assistance and limiting the number of overnight away games in which the team could participate.


Student organizations

Harvard has more than 450 undergraduate student organizations. The Phillips Brooks House Association acts as an umbrella service organization.


Notable alumni

;Athletics : Craig Adams :
Matt Birk Matthew Robert Birk (born July 23, 1976) is a former American football Center (American football), center. He was drafted by the Minnesota Vikings in the sixth round of the 1998 NFL Draft, and later played for the Baltimore Ravens. He played coll ...
:
Ryan Fitzpatrick Ryan Joseph Fitzpatrick (born November 24, 1982) is an American football quarterback for the Washington Football Team of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at Harvard Crimson football, Harvard, where he was the schoo ...
: Bobby Jones :
Jeremy Lin Jeremy Shu-How Lin (born August 23, 1988) is a Taiwanese-American Taiwanese Americans () are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of ...

Jeremy Lin
:
Dominic Moore Dominic Michael Moore (born August 3, 1980) is a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of ...

Dominic Moore
:
Christopher Nowinski } Christopher John Nowinski (born September 24, 1978) is a former American Professional wrestling, professional wrestler with World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE), subsequently author, co-founder and CEO of the Concussion Legacy Foundation, co-fo ...
:
Paul Wylie Paul Stanton Wylie (born October 28, 1964) is an American figure skater Figure skating is a sport in which individuals, pairs, or groups perform on figure skate Figure skates are a type of ice skate Ice skates are metal blades attached unde ...

Paul Wylie
;Biology :
John Tyler Bonner John Tyler Bonner (May 12, 1920 – February 7, 2019) was an American biologist who was a professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Princeton University Princeton University is a private Private or privates may refer ...
:
Jared Diamond Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist or humanist whose area of study is geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth d ...

Jared Diamond
:
Eric Kandel Eric Richard Kandel (; born Erich Richard Kandel, November 7, 1929) is an Austrian-born American medical doctor A physician (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or ...

Eric Kandel
:
George Minot George Richards Minot (December 2, 1885 – February 25, 1950) was an American medical researcher who shared the 1934 Nobel Prize with George Hoyt Whipple and William P. Murphy for their pioneering work on pernicious anemia Vitamin B12 defic ...
: Kiran Musunuru : Gregg L. Semenza :
Harold M. Weintraub Harold M. "Hal" Weintraub was an American scientist who lived from 1945 until his death in 1995 from an aggressive brain tumor. Only 49 years old, Weintraub left behind a legacy of research. Early life and education Born on June 2, 1945, in N ...
;Business :
Steve Ballmer Steven Anthony Ballmer (; March 24, 1956) is an American businessman and investor who served as the chief executive officer A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator officer, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporat ...

Steve Ballmer
:
Lloyd Blankfein Lloyd Craig Blankfein (born September 20, 1954) is an American investment banker who has served as senior chairman of Goldman Sachs The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., () is an American multinational investment bank and financial services compan ...
:
Jim Cramer James Joseph Cramer (born February 10, 1955) is an American television personality and host of '' Mad Money'' on CNBC. He is a former hedge fund manager as well as an author and a co-founder of TheStreet.com. Early life Cramer was born in 19 ...
:
Bill Gates William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term character ...
(did not graduate) :
Kenneth C. Griffin Kenneth Cordele "Ken" Griffin (born October 15, 1968) is an American hedge fund A hedge fund is a pooled investment fund that trades in relatively liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance ...
:
Trip Hawkins William Murray "Trip" Hawkins III (born December 28, 1953) is an American entrepreneur and founder of Electronic Arts, The 3DO Company, and Digital Chocolate. Career A fan of the Strat-O-Matic Football pen and paper games, Hawkins started his fir ...
:
William Randolph Hearst William Randolph Hearst Sr. (; April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American businessman, newspaper publisher, and politician known for developing the nation's largest newspaper chain and media company, . His flamboyant methods of influen ...

William Randolph Hearst
(did not graduate) :
Andy Jassy Andrew R. Jassy (born January 13, 1968) is an American businessman and the CEO of Amazon Web Services. He is also one of the minority owners of the Seattle Kraken of the National Hockey League. Jassy has led AWS since its inception in 2003. He wi ...
:
Sumner Redstone Sumner Murray Redstone ( Rothstein; May 27, 1923 – August 11, 2020) was an American billionaire businessman and media magnate. He was the founder and chairman of the second incarnation of ViacomViacom, an acronym of Video & Audio Communication ...

Sumner Redstone
:
Sheryl Sandberg Sheryl Kara Sandberg (born August 28, 1969) is an American business executive, billionaire and philanthropist. Sandberg is the chief operating officer A chief operating officer (COO), also called a chief operations officer, is one of the highest ...

Sheryl Sandberg
:
Eduardo Saverin Eduardo Luiz Saverin (; ; born 19 March 1982) is a Brazilian billionaire entrepreneur and angel investor An angel investor (also known as a business angel, informal investor, angel funder, private investor, or seed investor) is an individual w ...
:
Mark Zuckerberg Mark Elliot Zuckerberg (; born ) is an American media magnate, internet entrepreneur, and philanthropist Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of life Quality of life (QOL) is defined ...
(did not graduate) ;Chemistry : Martin Chalfie :
Walter Gilbert Walter Gilbert (born March 21, 1932) is an American biochemist, physicist, molecular biology pioneer, and Nobel laureate. Education and early life Walter Gilbert was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on March 21, 1932, the son of Emma (Cohen), a ...
:
Martin Karplus Martin Karplus (born March 15, 1930) is an Austrian and American theoretical chemist. He is the Director of the Biophysical Chemistry 300px, A biological_machine.html"_;"title="ribosome_is_a_biological_machine">ribosome_is_a_biological_machine_th ...
: William Standish Knowles :
Charles Sanders Peirce Charles Sanders Peirce ( ; September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American philosopher, ian, mathematician and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of ". He was known as a somewhat unusual character. Educated as a chemist an ...

Charles Sanders Peirce
:
Theodore William Richards Theodore William Richards (January 31, 1868 – April 2, 1928) was the first American scientist to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry Nobel may refer to: * Nobel Prize, awarded annually since 1901, from the bequest of Swedish inventor Alfred ...
:
William Howard Stein William Howard Stein (June 25, 1911 – February 2, 1980) was an American biochemist who collaborated in the determination of the ribonuclease sequence, as well as how its structure relates to catalytic activity, earning a Nobel Prize in Chemis ...
: James B. Sumner :
Roger Y. Tsien Roger Yonchien Tsien (February 1, 1952 – August 24, 2016) was an American biochemist Biochemists are scientists who are trained in biochemistry Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical process In a scientific ...
;Economics :
Ben Bernanke Ben Shalom Bernanke ( ; born December 13, 1953) is an American economist at the Brookings Institution The Brookings Institution, often referred to simply as Brookings, is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, ...

Ben Bernanke
:
Martin Feldstein Martin Stuart Feldstein ( , November 25, 1939 – June 11, 2019) was an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply t ...
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: Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. : Mark F. Pomerantz : John Roberts : David Souter ;Literature : James Agee : William S. Burroughs : Michael Crichton : E. E. Cummings : John Dos Passos : T. S. Eliot : Amanda Gorman : Norman Mailer : Maxwell Perkins : Erich Segal : Wallace Stevens : John Updike ;Mathematics : Manjul Bhargava : Buddy Fletcher : David Mumford : Daniel Quillen ;Performing arts : Tatyana Ali : Darren Aronofsky : Paris Barclay : Leonard Bernstein : Andy Borowitz : Amy Brenneman : Carter Burwell : Nestor Carbonell : Rivers Cuomo : Matt Damon (did not graduate) : Fred Gwynne : Rashida Jones : Tommy Lee Jones : Colin Jost :
Tom Lehrer Thomas Andrew Lehrer (; born April 9, 1928) is a retired American musician, singer-songwriter, satirist This is an incomplete list of writers, cartoonists and others known for involvement in satire Satire is a genre Genre () is any ...
: Jack Lemmon : Ryan Leslie : John Lithgow : Donal Logue : Yo-Yo Ma : Terrence Malick : Tom Morello : Dean Norris : Conan O'Brien : Natalie Portman : Joshua Redman : Meredith Salenger : Elisabeth Shue : Whit Stillman : Mira Sorvino : James Toback ;Philosophy : Donald Davidson (philosopher), Donald Davidson : Daniel Dennett : Ralph Waldo Emerson : William James (did not graduate) : Thomas Kuhn : George Santayana : Henry David Thoreau : Cornel West ;Physics : Philip W. Anderson : Percy Williams Bridgman : Roy J. Glauber : Theodore Hall : David Lee (physicist), David Lee : J. Robert Oppenheimer : Saul Perlmutter : Neil deGrasse Tyson : Kenneth G. Wilson ;Politics : John Adams : John Quincy Adams : Samuel Adams : Charlie Baker : Benazir Bhutto : Antony Blinken : Richard Blumenthal : Pete Buttigieg : Pedro Albizu Campos : Tom Cotton : Shaun Donovan : Sir George Downing, 1st Baronet, Sir George Downing : Al Franken : Rahul Gandhi (did not graduate) : Elbridge Gerry : Al Gore : John Hancock : Ted Kennedy : John F. Kennedy : Robert F. Kennedy : Henry Kissinger : Phil Murphy : Crown Princess Masako, Masako Owada : Deval Patrick : Gina Raimondo : Tom Ridge : Jay Rockefeller : Franklin D. Roosevelt : Theodore Roosevelt : Ben Sasse : Chuck Schumer : Pat Toomey ;Religion : Aga Khan IV : Cotton Mather : Increase Mather : Theodore Parker : Samuel Parris ;Miscellaneous : Buckminster Fuller (did not graduate) : Philip Johnson : Ted Kaczynski : Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. : Stephanie Wilson Cotton Mather.jpg, Minister, author, and pamphleteer Cotton Mather (AB,1678) US Navy 031029-N-6236G-001 A painting of President John Adams (1735-1826), 2nd president of the United States, by Asher B. Durand (1767-1845)-crop.jpg, US president John Adams (AB,1755) John Quincy Adams.jpg, US president John Quincy Adams (AB,1787) Ralph Waldo Emerson ca1857 retouched.jpg , Philosopher and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson (AB,1821) Benjamin D. Maxham - Henry David Thoreau - Restored - greyscale - straightened.jpg , Naturalist, poet and philosopher Henry David Thoreau (AB,1837) Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr circa 1930-edit.jpg, US supreme court justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (AB,1861) Charles Sanders Peirce.jpg , Philosopher and mathematician
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Bill Gates William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term character ...
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(AB,2010)


Footnotes


References


Further reading

* *


External links

* {{Coord, 42.374, -71.117, display=title, scale:10000 1636 establishments in Massachusetts Educational institutions established in the 1630s Harvard Square Harvard University, College Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences