Harvard University is a
Private or privates may refer to:
* "In Private", by Dusty Springfield from the 1990 album ''Reputation''
* Private (band), a Denmark-based band
* "Private" (Ryōko Hirosue song), from the 1999 album ''Private'', written and also recorded ... Ivy League research university
A research university or a research-intensive university is a university that is committed to research as a central part of its mission. They are the most important sites at which knowledge production occurs, along with "intergenerational kno ...
Cambridge ( ) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. As part of the Boston metropolitan area, the cities population of the 2020 U.S. census was 118,403, making it the fourth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, ...
. Founded in 1636 as
Harvard College is the undergraduate college of Harvard University, an Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636, Harvard College is the original school of Harvard University, the oldest institution of higher lea ...
and named for its first benefactor, the
The Puritans were English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England of Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Church of England had not been fully reformed and should become more Protestant. ...
clergyman John Harvard
, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious and highly ranked universities in the world.
The university is composed of ten academic faculties plus
Harvard Radcliffe Institute
The Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University—also known as the Harvard Radcliffe Institute—is a part of Harvard University that fosters interdisciplinary research across the humanities, sciences, social sciences, arts, a ...
. The Faculty of Arts and Sciences
offers study in a wide range of undergraduate and graduate
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary or tertiary higher learning (and generally also research or honorary membership). The name traces back to Plato's school of philosophy ...
s, and other faculties offer only graduate degrees, including professional degrees. Harvard has three main campuses:
the Cambridge campus centered on
Harvard Yard, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is the oldest part of the Harvard University campus, its historic center and modern crossroads. It contains most of the freshman dormitories, Harvard's most important libraries, Memorial Church, sever ...
; an adjoining campus immediately across
The Charles River (Massachusett: ''Quinobequin)'' (sometimes called the River Charles or simply the Charles) is an river in eastern Massachusetts. It flows northeast from Hopkinton to Boston along a highly meandering route, that doubles back ...
Allston is an officially recognized neighborhood within the City of Boston, Massachusetts, United States. It was named after the American painter and poet Washington Allston. It comprises the land covered by the zip code 02134. For the most part ...
Boston (), officially the City of Boston, is the state capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, as well as the cultural and financial center of the New England region of the United States. It is the 24th- m ...
; and the medical campus in Boston's Longwood Medical Area
is valued at $50.9 billion, making it the wealthiest academic institution
in the world.
[ Endowment income enables the undergraduate college to admit students regardless of financial need and provide generous financial aid with no loans. ] Harvard Library
Harvard Library is the umbrella organization for Harvard University's libraries and services. It is the oldest library system in the United States and both the largest academic library and largest private library in the world. Its collection ... is the world's largest academic library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding 20 million items.
Harvard's founding was authorized by the Massachusetts colonial legislature, "dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches, when our present ministers shall lie in the dust"; though never formally affiliated with any denomination, in its early years Harvard College primarily trained Congregational clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century. By the 19th century, Harvard emerged as the most prominent academic and cultural institution among the Boston elite. Following the American Civil War
The American Civil War (April 12, 1861 – May 26, 1865; also known by other names) was a civil war in the United States. It was fought between the Union ("the North") and the Confederacy ("the South"), the latter formed by states ..., under President Charles William Eliot
Charles William Eliot (March 20, 1834 – August 22, 1926) was an American academic who was president of Harvard University from 1869 to 1909the longest term of any Harvard president. A member of the prominent Eliot family of Boston, he transf ...'s long tenure (1869–1909), the college developed multiple affiliated professional schools that transformed the college into a modern research university
A research university or a research-intensive university is a university that is committed to research as a central part of its mission. They are the most important sites at which knowledge production occurs, along with "intergenerational kno .... In 1900, Harvard co-founded the Association of American Universities
The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of American research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research and education. Founded in 1900, it consists of 63 universities in the United States .... James B. Conant led the university through the Great Depression
The Great Depression (19291939) was an economic shock that impacted most countries across the world. It was a period of economic depression that became evident after a major fall in stock prices in the United States. The Financial contagion, ... and World War II, and liberalized admissions after the war.
Throughout its existence, Harvard alumni, faculty, and researchers have included numerous heads of state, Nobel laureates
The Nobel Prizes ( sv, Nobelpriset, no, Nobelprisen) are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make ou ..., Fields Medalists
The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years. The name of the award ho ..., members of Congress, MacArthur Fellows
The MacArthur Fellows Program, also known as the MacArthur Fellowship and commonly but unofficially known as the "Genius Grant", is a prize awarded annually by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation typically to between 20 and 30 indi ..., Rhodes Scholars
The Rhodes Scholarship is an international postgraduate award for students to study at the University of Oxford, in the United Kingdom.
Established in 1902, it is the oldest graduate scholarship in the world. It is considered among the world' ..., Marshall Scholars
The Marshall Scholarship is a postgraduate scholarship for "intellectually distinguished young Americans ndtheir country's future leaders" to study at any university in the United Kingdom. It is widely considered one of the most prestigious sc ..., and Fulbright Scholars
The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright–Hays Program, is one of several United States Cultural Exchange Programs with the goal of improving intercultural relations, cultural diplomacy, and intercultural competence between the people o ...; by most metrics, Harvard ranks at the top, or near the top, of all universities in the world in its alumni in each of these categories. Its alumni include eight U.S. presidents and 188 living billionaires, the most of any university. Fourteen Turing Award
The ACM A. M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) for contributions of lasting and major technical importance to computer science. It is generally recognized as the highest distinction in comput ... laureates have been Harvard affiliates. Students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards
The Academy Awards, better known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit for the American and international film industry. The awards are regarded by many as the most prestigious, significant awards in the entertainment ind ..., 48 Pulitzer Prize
The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine, online journalism, literature, and musical composition within the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of Joseph Pulitzer, who had ma ...s, and 110 Olympic medals (46 gold), and they have founded many notable companies.
Harvard was established in 1636 in the colonial, pre-Revolutionary era by vote of the Great and General Court of
Massachusetts Bay Colony
The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630–1691), more formally the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of North America around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the .... In 1638, the university acquired British North America's first known printing press.
In 1639, it was named Harvard College
Harvard College is the undergraduate college of Harvard University, an Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636, Harvard College is the original school of Harvard University, the oldest institution of higher lea ... after John Harvard, an English clergyman who had died soon after immigrating to Massachusetts, bequeathed it £780 and his library of some 320 volumes. The charter creating Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650.
A 1643 publication defined the university's purpose: "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust." The college trained many Puritan
The Puritans were English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England of Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Church of England had not been fully reformed and should become more Protestant. ... ministers in its early years
and offered a classic curriculum that was based on the English university modelmany leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge
, mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts.
Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge.
, established =
, other_name = The Chancellor, Masters and Schola ...but also conformed to the tenets of Puritanism
The Puritans were English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England of Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Church of England had not been fully reformed and should become more Protestant. P .... While Harvard never affiliated with any particular denomination, many of its earliest graduates went on to become Puritan clergymen.
Increase Mather (; June 21, 1639 Old Style – August 23, 1723 Old Style) was a New England Puritan clergyman in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and president of Harvard College for twenty years (1681–1701). He was influential in the administrati ... served as Harvard College's president from 1681 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett
John Leverett (baptized 7 July 1616 – 16 March 1678/79In the Julian calendar, then in use in England, the year began on 25 March. To avoid confusion with dates in the Gregorian calendar, then in use in other parts of Europe, dates between Ja ... became the first president who was not also a clergyman, marking a turning of the college away from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence.
In the 19th century, Enlightenment ideas of reason and free will were widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations at odds with more traditionalist,
Calvinism (also called the Reformed Tradition, Reformed Protestantism, Reformed Christianity, or simply Reformed) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John ... parties. When Hollis Professor of Divinity The Hollis Chair of Divinity is an endowed chair at Harvard Divinity School. It was established in 1721 by Thomas Hollis, a wealthy English merchant and benefactor of the university, at a salary of £80 per year. It is the oldest endowed chair in t ... David Tappan
David Tappan (1752–1803) was an American theologian. He occupied the Hollis Chair at Harvard Divinity School until his death in 1803. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1796. He graduated from Harvard Univer ... died in 1803 and President Joseph Willard died a year later, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected Hollis chair in 1805, and liberal Samuel Webber
Samuel Webber (1759 – July 17, 1810) was an American Congregational clergyman, mathematician, academic, and president of Harvard University from 1806 until his death in 1810.
Samuel Webber was born in Byfield, Massachusetts in 1759. H ... was appointed president two years later, signaling a shift from traditional ideas at Harvard to liberal, Arminian ideas.
Charles William Eliot
Charles William Eliot (March 20, 1834 – August 22, 1926) was an American academic who was president of Harvard University from 1869 to 1909the longest term of any Harvard president. A member of the prominent Eliot family of Boston, he transf ..., Harvard president from 1869–1909, eliminated the favored position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. Though Eliot was an influential figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated more by Transcendentalist Unitarian convictions influenced by William Ellery Channing
William Ellery Channing (April 7, 1780 – October 2, 1842) was the foremost Unitarian preacher in the United States in the early nineteenth century and, along with Andrews Norton (1786–1853), one of Unitarianism's leading theologians. Channi ..., Ralph Waldo Emerson, and others of the time than by secularism.
In 1816, Harvard launched new programs in the study of French and Spanish with George Ticknor as first professor for these language programs.
Harvard's graduate schools began admitting women in small numbers in the late 19th century. During World War II, students at
Radcliffe College was a women's liberal arts college in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and functioned as the female coordinate institution for the all-male Harvard College. Considered founded in 1879, it was one of the Seven Sisters colleges and h ... (which, since its 1879 founding, had been paying Harvard professors to repeat their lectures for women) began attending Harvard classes alongside men. In 1945, women were first admitted to the medical school
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians. Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS, MB ....
Since 1971, Harvard had controlled essentially all aspects of undergraduate admission, instruction, and housing for Radcliffe women; in 1999, Radcliffe was formally merged into Harvard.
In the 20th century, Harvard's reputation grew as its endowment burgeoned and prominent intellectuals and professors affiliated with the university. The university's rapid enrollment growth also was a product of both the founding of new graduate academic programs and an expansion of the undergraduate college. Radcliffe College emerged as the female counterpart of Harvard College, becoming one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States. In 1900, Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities
The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of American research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research and education. Founded in 1900, it consists of 63 universities in the United States ....
The student body in its first decades of the 20th century was predominantly "old-stock, high-status Protestants
Protestantism is a Christian denomination, branch of Christianity that follows the theological tenets of the Reformation, Protestant Reformation, a movement that began seeking to reform the Catholic Church from within in the 16th century agai ..., especially Episcopalians
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation, in the context of the Protestant Reformation in Europe. It is one of the ..., Congregationalists
Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches or Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Calvinist tradition practising congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs i ..., and Presbyterians
Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism that broke from the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland by John Knox, who was a priest at St. Giles Cathedral (Church of Scotland). Presbyterian churches derive their na ...," according to sociologist and author Jerome Karabel Jerome Bernard Karabel (born May 20, 1950) is an American sociologist, political and social commentator, and Professor of Sociology at the University of California at Berkeley. He has written extensively on American institutions of higher educatio .... In 1923, a year after the percentage of Jewish students at Harvard reached 20%, President A. Lawrence Lowell supported a policy change that would have capped the admission of Jewish students to 15% of the undergraduate population. But Lowell's idea was rejected. Lowell also refused to mandate forced desegregation in the university's freshman dormitories, writing that, "We owe to the colored man the same opportunities for education that we do to the white man, but we do not owe to him to force him and the white into social relations that are not, or may not be, mutually congenial."
President James B. Conant led the university from 1933 to 1953; Conant reinvigorated creative scholarship in an effort to guarantee Harvard's preeminence among the nation and world's emerging research institutions. Conant viewed higher education as a vehicle of opportunity for the talented rather than an entitlement for the wealthy. As such, he devised programs to identify, recruit, and support talented youth. An influential 268-page report issued by Harvard faculty in 1945 under Conant's leadership, '' General Education in a Free Society
''General Education in a Free Society'', also known as the Harvard Redbook, is a 1945 Harvard University report on the importance of general education in American secondary and post-secondary schools. It is among the most important works in ...'', remains one the most important works in curriculum studies
Curriculum studies (CS) is a concentration within curriculum and instruction concerned with understanding curricula as an active force of human educational experience.
Specific questions related to curriculum studies include the followin ....
Between 1945 and 1960, admissions standardized to open the university to a more diverse group of students; for example, after World War II, special exams were developed so veterans could be considered for admission. No longer drawing mostly from select New England prep schools, the undergraduate college became accessible to striving middle class students from public schools; many more Jews and Catholics were admitted, but still few Blacks, Hispanics, or Asians versus the representation of these demoraphics in the general population. Throughout the latter half of the 20th century, Harvard incrementally became vastly more diverse.
Drew Gilpin Faust
Catharine Drew Gilpin Faust (born September 18, 1947) is an American historian and was the 28th president of Harvard University, the first woman to serve in that role. She was Harvard's first president since 1672 without an undergraduate or grad ..., who was dean of Harvard Radcliffe Institute
The Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University—also known as the Harvard Radcliffe Institute—is a part of Harvard University that fosters interdisciplinary research across the humanities, sciences, social sciences, arts, a ..., became Harvard's first female president on July 1, 2007. In 2018, Faust retired and joined the board of Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs () is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company. Founded in 1869, Goldman Sachs is headquartered at 200 West Street in Lower Manhattan, with regional headquarters in London, Warsaw, Bangalore, Hon ....
On July 1, 2018, Lawrence Bacow was appointed Harvard's 29th president. Bacow intends to retire in 2023, and on December 15, 2022, it was announced that Claudine Gay
Claudine Gay is a political scientist and university administrator. On July 1, 2023 she will become the 30th and first Black President of Harvard University. She serves as Harvard's Wilbur A. Cowett Professor of Government and of African and Afr ... will succeed him.
Harvard's main campus is centered on
Harvard Yard, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is the oldest part of the Harvard University campus, its historic center and modern crossroads. It contains most of the freshman dormitories, Harvard's most important libraries, Memorial Church, sever ... ("the Yard") in Cambridge, about west-northwest of downtown Boston
Boston (), officially the City of Boston, is the state capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, as well as the cultural and financial center of the New England region of the United States. It is the 24th- m ..., and extends into the surrounding Harvard Square
Harvard Square is a triangular plaza at the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue, Brattle Street and John F. Kennedy Street near the center of Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. The term "Harvard Square" is also used to delineate the busi ... neighborhood. The Yard contains administrative offices such as University Hall and Massachusetts Hall Massachusetts Hall may refer to:
* Massachusetts Hall (Harvard University), in Cambridge, Massachusetts
* Massachusetts Hall, Bowdoin College, in Brunswick, Maine
Architectural disambiguation pages ...; libraries such as Widener, Pusey, Houghton, and Lamont; and Memorial Church.
The Yard and adjacent areas include the main academic buildings of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, including the college, such as Sever Hall
Sever may refer to:
Places in Portugal
* Sever (Santa Marta de Penaguião), a civil parish in the municipality of Santa Marta de Penaguião
* , a civil parish in Moimenta da Beira Municipality
* Sever do Vouga Municipality, a municipality in t ... and Harvard Hall
Harvard Hall is a Harvard University classroom building in Harvard Yard, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
First Harvard Hall
The present Harvard Hall replaces an earlier structure of the same name on the same site. The first Harvard Hall was built bet ....
Freshman dormitories are in, or adjacent to, the Yard. Upperclassmen live in the twelve residential housesnine south of the Yard near the Charles River
The Charles River (Massachusett: ''Quinobequin)'' (sometimes called the River Charles or simply the Charles) is an river in eastern Massachusetts. It flows northeast from Hopkinton to Boston along a highly meandering route, that doubles back ..., the others half a mile northwest of the Yard at the Radcliffe Quadrangle
The Radcliffe Quadrangle (or Rad Quad as it is known to students of the College) is the second quadrangle of University College, Oxford, England. The buildings have been Grade I listed since 1954.
The quadrangle was started in 1716 and finis ... (which formerly housed Radcliffe College
Radcliffe College was a women's liberal arts college in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and functioned as the female coordinate institution for the all-male Harvard College. Considered founded in 1879, it was one of the Seven Sisters colleges and h ... students). Each house is a community of undergraduates, faculty deans, and resident tutors, with its own dining hall, library, and recreational facilities.
Also in Cambridge are the Law
Law is a set of rules that are created and are enforceable by social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', 90. with its precise definition a matter of longstanding debate. It has been vari ..., Divinity
Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity. (theology), Engineering and Applied Science, [divine< ...](_blank) Design
A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype, product, or process. The verb ''to design'' ... (architecture), Education
Education is a purposeful activity directed at achieving certain aims, such as transmitting knowledge or fostering skills and character traits. These aims may include the development of understanding, rationality, kindness, and honesty. V ..., Kennedy
Kennedy may refer to:
* John F. Kennedy (1917–1963), 35th president of the United States
* John Kennedy (Louisiana politician), (born 1951), US Senator from Louisiana
* Kennedy (surname), a family name (including a list of persons with ... (public policy), and Extension schools, as well as the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study
The Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University—also known as the Harvard Radcliffe Institute—is a part of Harvard University that fosters interdisciplinary research across the humanities, sciences, social sciences, arts, a ... in Radcliffe Yard.
Harvard also has commercial real estate holdings in Cambridge.
Harvard Business School
Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate business school of Harvard University, a private research university in Boston, Massachusetts. It is consistently ranked among the top business schools in the world and offers a large full-time MBA p ..., Harvard Innovation Labs
Harvard Innovation Labs (i-Lab) is an institution which aims to promote team-based and entrepreneurial activities among Harvard students, faculty, entrepreneurs, and members of the Allston and Greater Boston communities. The i-Lab's mission is to ..., and many athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located on a campus in Allston
Allston is an officially recognized neighborhood within the City of Boston, Massachusetts, United States. It was named after the American painter and poet Washington Allston. It comprises the land covered by the zip code 02134. For the most part ...,
a Boston neighborhood just across the Charles River
The Charles River (Massachusett: ''Quinobequin)'' (sometimes called the River Charles or simply the Charles) is an river in eastern Massachusetts. It flows northeast from Hopkinton to Boston along a highly meandering route, that doubles back ... from the Cambridge campus. The John W. Weeks Bridge, a pedestrian bridge over the Charles River, connects the two campuses.
The university is actively expanding into Allston, where it now owns more land than in Cambridge.
Plans include new construction and renovation for the Business School, a hotel and conference center, graduate student housing, Harvard Stadium, and other athletics facilities.
In 2021, the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences will expand into a new, 500,000+ square foot Science and Engineering Complex (SEC) in Allston.
The SEC will be adjacent to the Enterprise Research Campus, the Business School, and the Harvard Innovation Labs to encourage technology- and life science-focused startups as well as collaborations with mature companies.
The schools of
Medicine is the science and practice of caring for a patient, managing the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, treatment, palliation of their injury or disease, and promoting their health. Medicine encompasses a variety of health care p ..., Dental Medicine, and Public Health
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals". Analyzing the det ... are located on a campus in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area in Boston, about south of the Cambridge campus.
Several Harvard-affiliated hospitals and research institutes are also in Longwood, including Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Children's Hospital
Boston Children's Hospital formerly known as Children's Hospital Boston until 2012 is a nationally ranked, freestanding acute care children's hospital located in Boston, Massachusetts, adjacent both to its teaching affiliate, Harvard Medical Scho ..., Brigham and Women's Hospital
Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) is the second largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School and the largest hospital in the Longwood Medical Area in Boston, Massachusetts. Along with Massachusetts General Hospital, it is one of the two ..., Dana–Farber Cancer Institute
Dana–Farber Cancer Institute is a comprehensive cancer treatment and research institution in Boston, Massachusetts. Dana–Farber is the founding member of Dana–Farber/Harvard Cancer Center, Harvard's Comprehensive Cancer Center designated ..., Joslin Diabetes Center, and the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering
The Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering (pronounced "veese") is a cross-disciplinary research institute at Harvard University focused on bridging the gap between academia and industry ( translational medicine) by drawing inspira .... Additional affiliates, most notably Massachusetts General Hospital
Massachusetts General Hospital (Mass General or MGH) is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School located in the West End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. It is the third oldest general hospital in the United Sta ..., are located throughout the Greater Boston area.
Harvard owns the
Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection
Dumbarton Oaks, formally the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, is a historic estate in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C. It was the residence and garden of wealthy U.S. diplomat Robert Woods Bliss and his wife, Mi ... in Washington, D.C., the Harvard Forest
Harvard Forest is an ecological research area of owned and managed by Harvard University and located in Petersham, Massachusetts. The property, in operation since 1907, includes one of North America's oldest managed forests, educational and re ... in Petersham, Massachusetts
Petersham is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 1,194 at the 2020 census. Petersham is home to a considerable amount of conservation land, including the Quabbin Reservation, Harvard Forest, the Swift R ..., the Concord Field Station in Estabrook Woods
The Estabrook Woods is a wild tract of more than of woodland, hills, ledge, and swamp straddling Concord and Carlisle Massachusetts, two miles (3 km) north of the center of Town of Concord. It is the largest contiguous and undeveloped woodla ... in Concord, Massachusetts
Concord () is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, in the United States. At the 2020 census, the town population was 18,491. The United States Census Bureau considers Concord part of Greater Boston. The town center is near where the conflu ...,
the Villa I Tatti
Villa I Tatti, The Harvard Center for Italian Renaissance Studies is a center for advanced research in the humanities located in Florence, Italy, and belongs to Harvard University. It houses a collection of Italian primitives, and of Chinese and ... research center in Florence
Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany region. It is the most populated city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants in 2016, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area.Bilancio demografico ..., Italy,
the Harvard Shanghai Center in Shanghai, China,
and the Arnold Arboretum
The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University is a botanical research institution and free public park, located in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale neighborhoods of Boston, Massachusetts. Established in 1872, it is the oldest public arboretum in N ... in the Jamaica Plain
Jamaica Plain is a neighborhood of in the City of Boston, Massachusetts, United States. Settled by Puritans seeking farmland to the south, it was originally part of the former Town of Roxbury, now also a part of the City of Boston. The comm ... neighborhood of Boston.
Organization and administration
Harvard is governed by a combination of its Board of Overseers and the
President and Fellows of Harvard College
The President and Fellows of Harvard College (also called the Harvard Corporation or just the Corporation) is the smaller and more powerful of Harvard University's two governing boards, and is now the oldest corporation in America. Together with ... (also known as the Harvard Corporation), which in turn appoints the President of Harvard University
The president of Harvard University is the chief academic administration, administrator of Harvard University and the ''Ex officio member, ex officio'' president of the President and Fellows of Harvard College, Harvard Corporation. Each is appoi ....
There are 16,000 staff and faculty,
including 2,400 professors, lecturers, and instructors.
The Faculty of Arts and Sciences is the largest Harvard faculty and has primary responsibility for instruction in Harvard College
Harvard College is the undergraduate college of Harvard University, an Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636, Harvard College is the original school of Harvard University, the oldest institution of higher lea ..., the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), and the Division of Continuing Education, which includes Harvard Summer School
Harvard Summer School, founded in 1871, is a summer school run by Harvard University. It serves more than 5,000 students per year.
Harvard Summer School was founded in 1871. It is the first academic summer session established and the ol ... and Harvard Extension School
Harvard Extension School (HES) is the extension school of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The school is one among 12 schools that grant degrees and falls under the Division of Continuing Education in the Harvard Faculty of Art .... There are nine other graduate and professional faculties as well as the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study
The Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University—also known as the Harvard Radcliffe Institute—is a part of Harvard University that fosters interdisciplinary research across the humanities, sciences, social sciences, arts, a ....
Joint programs with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a Private university, private Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1861, MIT has played a key role in the development of modern t ... include the Harvard–MIT Program in Health Sciences and Technology, the Broad Institute
The Eli and Edythe L. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard (IPA: , pronunciation respelling: ), often referred to as the Broad Institute, is a biomedical and genomic research center located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. The institut ..., The Observatory of Economic Complexity
The Observatory of Economic Complexity (OEC) is a data visualization site for international trade data created by the Macro Connections group at the MIT Media Lab. The goal of the observatory is to distribute international trade data in a visual f ..., and edX.
Harvard has the largest university endowment in the world, valued at about $50.9 billion as of 2022.
During the recession of 2007–2009, it suffered significant losses that forced large budget cuts, in particular temporarily halting construction on the Allston Science Complex.
The endowment has since recovered.]
About $2 billion of investment income is annually distributed to fund operations.
Harvard's ability to fund its degree and financial aid programs depends on the performance of its endowment; a poor performance in fiscal year 2016 forced a 4.4% cut in the number of graduate students funded by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Endowment income is critical, as only 22% of revenue is from students' tuition, fees, room, and board.
Since the 1970s, several student-led campaigns have advocated
In finance and economics, divestment or divestiture is the reduction of some kind of asset for financial, ethical, or political objectives or sale of an existing business by a firm. A divestment is the opposite of an investment. Divestiture is a ... Harvard's endowment from controversial holdings, including investments in apartheid
Apartheid (, especially South African English: , ; , "aparthood") was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa and South West Africa (now Namibia) from 1948 to the early 1990s. Apartheid wa ... South Africa, Sudan
Sudan ( or ; ar, السودان, as-Sūdān, officially the Republic of the Sudan ( ar, جمهورية السودان, link=no, Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa. It shares borders with the Central African Republic ... during the Darfur genocide
The Darfur genocide is the systematic killing of ethnic Darfuri people which has occurred during the ongoing conflict in Western Sudan. It has become known as the first genocide of the 21st century. The genocide, which is being carried out aga ..., and the tobacco, fossil fuel
A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon-containing material formed naturally in the Earth's crust from the remains of dead plants and animals that is extracted and burned as a fuel. The main fossil fuels are coal, oil, and natural gas. Fossil fuels m ..., and private prison
A private prison, or for-profit prison, is a place where people are imprisoned by a third party that is contracted by a government agency. Private prison companies typically enter into contractual agreements with governments that commit ... industries.
In the late 1980s, during the divestment from South Africa
Disinvestment (or divestment) from South Africa was first advocated in the 1960s, in protest against South Africa's system of apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant scale until the mid-1980s. The disinvestment campaign, after bei ... movement, student activists erected a symbolic "shantytown" on Harvard Yard and blockaded a speech by South African Vice Consul Duke Kent-Brown.
The university eventually reduced its South African holdings by $230 million (out of $400 million) in response to the pressure.
Teaching and learning
Harvard is a large, highly residential research university
offering 50 undergraduate
Undergraduate education is education conducted after secondary education and before postgraduate education. It typically includes all postsecondary programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree. For example, in the United States, an entry-lev ... majors,
134 graduate degrees,
and 32 professional degrees.
During the 2018–2019 academic year, Harvard granted 1,665 baccalaureate degrees, 1,013 graduate degrees, and 5,695 professional degrees.
The four-year, full-time undergraduate program has a liberal arts and sciences focus.
To graduate in the usual four years, undergraduates normally take four courses per semester.
In most majors, an honors degree requires advanced coursework and a senior thesis.
Though some introductory courses have large enrollments, the median class size is 12 students.
Harvard is a founding member of the
Association of American Universities
The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of American research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research and education. Founded in 1900, it consists of 63 universities in the United States ... and a preeminent research university with "very high" research activity (R1) and comprehensive doctoral programs across the arts, sciences, engineering, and medicine according to the Carnegie Classification.
With the medical school
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians. Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS, MB ... consistently ranking first among medical schools for research, biomedical research is an area of particular strength for the university. More than 11,000 faculty and over 1,600 graduate students conduct research at the medical school as well as its 15 affiliated hospitals and research institutes. The medical school and its affiliates attracted $1.65 billion in competitive research grants from the National Institutes of Health
The National Institutes of Health, commonly referred to as NIH (with each letter pronounced individually), is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research. It was founded in the late ... in 2019, more than twice as much as any other university.
Libraries and museums
Harvard Library is the umbrella organization for Harvard University's libraries and services. It is the oldest library system in the United States and both the largest academic library and largest private library in the world. Its collection ... system is centered in Widener Library
The Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library, housing some 3.5million books in its "vast and cavernous" stacks, is the centerpiece of the Harvard College Libraries (the libraries of Harvard's Faculty of Arts and Sciences) and, more broadly, of the ... in Harvard Yard
Harvard Yard, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is the oldest part of the Harvard University campus, its historic center and modern crossroads. It contains most of the freshman dormitories, Harvard's most important libraries, Memorial Church, sever ... and comprises nearly 80 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items.
According to the American Library Association
The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally. It is the oldest and largest library association in the world, with 49,727 members ..., this makes it the largest academic library in the world. [
Houghton Library, the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, and the Harvard University Archives consist principally of rare and unique materials. America's oldest collection of maps, gazetteers, and atlases both old and new is stored in Pusey Library and open to the public. The largest collection of East-Asian language material outside of East Asia is held in the Harvard-Yenching Library
The ] Harvard Art Museums
The Harvard Art Museums are part of Harvard University and comprise three museums: the Fogg Museum (established in 1895), the Busch-Reisinger Museum (established in 1903), and the Arthur M. Sackler Museum (established in 1985), and four research ... comprise three museums. The Arthur M. Sackler Museum
The Harvard Art Museums are part of Harvard University and comprise three museums: the Fogg Museum (established in 1895), the Busch-Reisinger Museum (established in 1903), and the Arthur M. Sackler Museum (established in 1985), and four research ... covers Asian, Mediterranean, and Islamic art, the Busch–Reisinger Museum (formerly the Germanic Museum) covers central and northern European art, and the Fogg Museum
The Harvard Art Museums are part of Harvard University and comprise three museums: the Fogg Museum (established in 1895), the Busch-Reisinger Museum (established in 1903), and the Arthur M. Sackler Museum (established in 1985), and four research ... covers Western art from the Middle Ages to the present emphasizing Italian early Renaissance
Renaissance art (1350 – 1620 AD) is the painting, sculpture, and decorative arts of the period of European history known as the Renaissance, which emerged as a distinct style in Italy in about AD 1400, in parallel with developments which oc ..., British pre-Raphaelite, and 19th-century French art. The Harvard Museum of Natural History includes the Harvard Mineralogical Museum, the Harvard University Herbaria featuring the Leopold and Rudolf Blaschka, Blaschka Glass Flowers exhibit, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Other museums include the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, designed by Le Corbusier and housing the film archive, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, specializing in the cultural history and civilizations of the Western Hemisphere, and the Harvard Museum of the Ancient Near East featuring artifacts from excavations in the Middle East.
Reputation and rankings
Among overall rankings, the ''Academic Ranking of World Universities'' (''ARWU'') has ranked Harvard as the world's top university every year since it was released.
When ''QS'' and ''Times Higher Education'' collaborated to publish the ''Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings'' from 2004 to 2009, Harvard held the top spot every year and continued to hold first place on ''World Reputation Rankings, THE World Reputation Rankings'' ever since it was released in 2011.
In 2019, it was ranked first worldwide by ''SCImago Institutions Rankings''. It was ranked in the first tier of American research universities, along with Columbia, MIT, and Stanford, in the 2019 report from the Center for Measuring University Performance. Harvard University is Higher education accreditation in the United States, accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education.
Among rankings of specific indicators, Harvard topped both the University Ranking by Academic Performance (2019–2020) and ''Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities'' (2011), which measured universities' numbers of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500, ''Fortune'' Global 500 companies.
According to annual polls done by The Princeton Review, Harvard is consistently among the top two most commonly named "dream colleges" in the United States, both for students and parents.
Additionally, having made significant investments in its Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, engineering school in recent years, Harvard was ranked third worldwide for Engineering and Technology in 2019 by ''Times Higher Education''.
Student life and activities are generally organized within each school.
The Harvard Undergraduate Council, Undergraduate Council represents College students. The Harvard Graduate Council, Graduate Council represents students at all twelve graduate and professional schools, most of which also have their own student government.
Both the undergraduate College and the graduate schools have intramural sports programs.
Harvard College competes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association, NCAA Division I (NCAA), Division I Ivy League conference. The school fields 42 intercollegiate sports teams, more than any other college in the country. Every two years, the Harvard and Yale track and field teams come together to compete against a combined Oxford University, Oxford and Cambridge University, Cambridge team in the oldest continuous international amateur competition in the world. As with other Ivy League universities, Harvard does not offer athletic scholarships. The school color is crimson.
Harvard's athletic rivalry with Yale Bulldogs, Yale is intense in every sport in which they meet, coming to a climax each fall in the Harvard–Yale football rivalry, annual football meeting, which dates back to 1875.
''Harvard University Gazette''
The Harvard Gazette, also called the ''Harvard University Gazette'', is the official press organ of Harvard University. Formerly a print publication, it is now a web site. It publicizes research, faculty, teaching and events at the university. Initiated in 1906, it was originally a weekly calendar of news and events. In 1968 it became a weekly newspaper.
When the ''Gazette'' was a print publication, it was considered a good way of keeping up with Harvard news: "If weekly reading suits you best, the most comprehensive and authoritative medium is the ''Harvard University Gazette''".
In 2010, the ''Gazette'' "shifted from a print-first to a digital-first and mobile-first" publication, and reduced its publication calendar to biweekly, while keeping the same number of reporters, including some who had previously worked for the ''Boston Globe'', ''Miami Herald'', and the Associated Press.
Over more than three and a half centuries, Harvard alumni have contributed creatively and significantly to society, the arts and sciences, business, and national and international affairs. Harvard's alumni include eight U.S. presidents, 188 List of universities by number of billionaire alumni, living billionaires, List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Harvard University, 79 Nobel laureates, 7 Fields Medal winners, 9 Turing Award laureates, 369
The Rhodes Scholarship is an international postgraduate award for students to study at the University of Oxford, in the United Kingdom.
Established in 1902, it is the oldest graduate scholarship in the world. It is considered among the world' ..., 252 Marshall Scholars
The Marshall Scholarship is a postgraduate scholarship for "intellectually distinguished young Americans ndtheir country's future leaders" to study at any university in the United Kingdom. It is widely considered one of the most prestigious sc ..., and 13 Mitchell Scholarship, Mitchell Scholars. Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards
The Academy Awards, better known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit for the American and international film industry. The awards are regarded by many as the most prestigious, significant awards in the entertainment ind ..., 48 Pulitzer Prize
The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine, online journalism, literature, and musical composition within the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of Joseph Pulitzer, who had ma ...s, and List of American universities with Olympic medals, 108 Olympic medals (including 46 gold medals), and they have founded List of companies founded by Harvard University alumni, many notable companies worldwide.
File:US Navy 031029-N-6236G-001 A painting of President John Adams (1735-1826), 2nd president of the United States, by Asher B. Durand (1767-1845)-crop.jpg, 2nd President of the United States John Adams (AB, 1755; AM, 1758)
File:John Quincy Adams.jpg, 6th President of the United States John Quincy Adams (AB, 1787; AM, 1790)
File:Ralph Waldo Emerson ca1857 retouched.jpg, Essayist, lecturer, philosopher, and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson (AB, 1821)
File:Benjamin D. Maxham - Henry David Thoreau - Restored - greyscale - straightened.jpg, Naturalist, essayist, poet, and philosopher Henry David Thoreau (AB, 1837)
File:President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880 Restored.jpg, 19th President of the United States Rutherford B. Hayes (LLB, 1845)
File:Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr circa 1930-edit.jpg, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (AB, 1861, LLB)
File:Charles Sanders Peirce.jpg, Philosopher, logician, and mathematician Charles Sanders Peirce (AB, 1862, SB 1863)
File:President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg, 26th President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Theodore Roosevelt (AB, 1880)
File:WEB DuBois 1918.jpg, Sociologist and civil rights activist
W. E. B. Du Bois (PhD, 1895)
File:FRoosevelt.png, 32nd President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt (AB, 1903)
File:Helen Keller circa 1920 - restored.jpg, Author, political activist, and lecturer Helen Keller (AB, 1904, Radcliffe College)
File:Thomas Stearns Eliot by Lady Ottoline Morrell (1934).jpg, Poet and Nobel laureate in literature T. S. Eliot (AB, 1909; AM, 1910)
File:JROppenheimer-LosAlamos.jpg, Physicist and leader of the Manhattan Project J. Robert Oppenheimer (AB, 1925)
File:Paul Samuelson.jpg, Economist and Nobel laureate in economics Paul Samuelson (AM, 1936; PhD, 1941)
File:Leonard Bernstein by Jack Mitchell.jpg, Musician and composer Leonard Bernstein (AB, 1939)
File:John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait.jpg, 35th President of the United States John F. Kennedy (AB, 1940)
File:Mary Robinson (2014).jpg, 7th President of Ireland and United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Mary Robinson (LLM, 1968)
File:Al Gore, Vice President of the United States, official portrait 1994.jpg, 45th Vice President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Al Gore (AB, 1969)
File:Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, April 2010.jpg, 24th President of Liberia and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (MPA, 1971)
File:Chuck Schumer official photo.jpg, Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer (AB, 1971; JD, 1975)
File:Benazir Bhutto.jpg, 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto (AB, 1973, Radcliffe College)
File:Ben Bernanke official portrait.jpg, 14th Chair of the Federal Reserve and Nobel laureate in economics Ben Bernanke (AB, 1975; AM, 1975)
File:George-W-Bush.jpeg, 43rd President of the United States George W. Bush (MBA, 1975)
File:Official roberts CJ.jpg, 17th Chief Justice of the United States John Roberts (AB, 1976; JD, 1979)
File:Bill Gates June 2015.jpg, Founder of Microsoft and philanthropist Bill Gates (College, 1977;
[Nominal Harvard College class year: did not graduate] LLD Honorary degree, hc, 2007)
File:Ban Ki-Moon Davos 2011 Cropped.jpg, 8th Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon (MPA, 1984)
File:Elena Kagan Official SCOTUS Portrait (2013).jpg, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Elena Kagan (JD, 1986)
File:Michelle Obama 2013 official portrait.jpg, Former First Lady of the United States Michelle Obama (JD, 1988)
File:Professor Jennifer Doudna ForMemRS.jpg, Biochemist and Nobel laureate in chemistry Jennifer Doudna (PhD, 1989)
File:Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg, 44th President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Barack Obama (JD, 1991)
File:KBJackson.jpg, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Ketanji Brown Jackson (AB, 1992; JD, 1996)
File:Mark Zuckerberg F8 2019 Keynote (32830578717) (cropped).jpg, Founder of Facebook Mark Zuckerberg (College, 2004; LLD Honorary degree, hc, 2017)
File:Louis Agassiz H6.jpg, Louis Agassiz
File:Danielle Allen 2017.jpg, Danielle Allen
File:Alan dershowitz 2009 retouched cropped.jpg, Alan Dershowitz
File:Paul_Farmer_2011.jpg, Paul Farmer
File:Jason Furman official portrait.jpg, Jason Furman
File:John Kenneth Galbraith 1982.jpg, John Kenneth Galbraith
File:Henry Louis Gates 2014 (cropped).jpg, Henry Louis Gates Jr.
File:Asa Gray 1870s.jpg, Asa Gray
File:Seamus Heaney Photograph Edit.jpg, Seamus Heaney
File:Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr c1879.jpg, Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr.
File:William James b1842c.jpg, William James
File:Timothy-Leary-Los-Angeles-1989.jpg, Timothy Leary
File:Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, photographed by Julia Margaret Cameron in 1868.jpg, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
File:James Russell Lowell - 1855.jpg, James Russell Lowell
File:GregoryMankiw.jpg, Greg Mankiw
File:102111 Pinker 344.jpg, Steven Pinker
File:Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. 1961.jpg, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.
File:Amartya Sen.jpg, Amartya Sen
File:B.F. Skinner at Harvard circa 1950 (cropped).jpg, B. F. Skinner
File:Lawrence Summers 2012.jpg, Lawrence Summers
File:Cass Sunstein (2008).jpg, Cass Sunstein
File:Elizabeth Warren 2016.jpg, Elizabeth Warren
File:Cornel West by Gage Skidmore.jpg, Cornel West
File:Plos wilson.jpg, E. O. Wilson
File:Shing-Tung Yau Screenshot (cropped).png, Shing-Tung Yau
File:Sec. Robert Reich.jpg, Robert Reich
Literature and popular culture
The perception of Harvard as a center of either elite achievement, or elitist privilege, has made it a frequent literary and cinematic backdrop. "In the grammar of film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a certain amount of stuffiness," film critic Paul Sherman has said.
* ''The Sound and the Fury'' (1929) and ''Absalom, Absalom!'' (1936) by William Faulkner both depict Harvard student life.
* ''Of Time and the River'' (1935) by Thomas Wolfe is a fictionalized autobiography that includes his alter ego's time at Harvard.
* ''The Late George Apley'' (1937) by John P. Marquand parodies Harvard men at the opening of the 20th century; it won the
The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine, online journalism, literature, and musical composition within the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of Joseph Pulitzer, who had ma ....
* ''The Second Happiest Day'' (1953) by John P. Marquand Jr. portrays the Harvard of the World War II generation.
Harvard permits filming on its property only rarely, so most scenes set at Harvard (especially indoor shots, but excepting aerial footage and shots of public areas such as Harvard Square) are in fact shot elsewhere.
* ''Love Story (1970 film), Love Story'' (1970) concerns a romance between a wealthy Harvard hockey player (Ryan O'Neal) and a brilliant Radcliffe student of modest means (Ali MacGraw): it is screened annually for incoming freshmen.
* ''The Paper Chase (film), The Paper Chase'' (1973)
* ''A Small Circle of Friends'' (1980)
* ''Prozac Nation (film), Prozac Nation'' (2001) is a psychological drama about a 19-year-old Harvard student with atypical depression.
* 2012 Harvard cheating scandal
* Academic regalia of Harvard University
* Gore Hall
* Harvard College social clubs
* Harvard University Police Department
* Harvard University Press
* Harvard/MIT Cooperative Society
* I, Too, Am Harvard
* List of oldest universities in continuous operation
* List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Harvard University
* Outline of Harvard University
* Secret Court of 1920
* Abelmann, Walter H., ed. ''The Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology: The First 25 Years, 1970–1995'' (2004). 346 pp.
* Beecher, Henry K. and Altschule, Mark D. ''Medicine at Harvard: The First 300 Years'' (1977). 569 pp.
* Bentinck-Smith, William, ed. ''The Harvard Book: Selections from Three Centuries'' (2d ed.1982). 499 pp.
* Bethell, John T.; Hunt, Richard M.; and Shenton, Robert. ''Harvard A to Z'' (2004). 396 pp
excerpt and text search
* Bethell, John T. ''Harvard Observed: An Illustrated History of the University in the Twentieth Century'', Harvard University Press, 1998,
* Bunting, Bainbridge. ''Harvard: An Architectural History'' (1985). 350 pp.
* Carpenter, Kenneth E. ''The First 350 Years of the Harvard University Library: Description of an Exhibition'' (1986). 216 pp.
* Cuno, James et al. ''Harvard's Art Museums: 100 Years of Collecting'' (1996). 364 pp.
* Elliott, Clark A. and Rossiter, Margaret W., eds. ''Science at Harvard University: Historical Perspectives'' (1992). 380 pp.
* Hall, Max. ''Harvard University Press: A History'' (1986). 257 pp.
* Hay, Ida. ''Science in the Pleasure Ground: A History of the Arnold Arboretum'' (1995). 349 pp.
* Hoerr, John, ''We Can't Eat Prestige: The Women Who Organized Harvard;'' Temple University Press, 1997,
* Howells, Dorothy Elia. ''A Century to Celebrate: Radcliffe College, 1879–1979'' (1978). 152 pp.
* Keller, Morton, and Phyllis Keller. ''Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University'' (2001), major history covers 1933 to 200
* Harry R. Lewis, Lewis, Harry R. ''Excellence Without a Soul: How a Great University Forgot Education'' (2006)
* Morison, Samuel Eliot. ''Three Centuries of Harvard, 1636–1936'' (1986) 512pp
excerpt and text search
* Powell, Arthur G. ''The Uncertain Profession: Harvard and the Search for Educational Authority'' (1980). 341 pp.
* Reid, Robert. ''Year One: An Intimate Look inside Harvard Business School'' (1994). 331 pp.
* Henry Rosovsky, Rosovsky, Henry. ''The University: An Owner's Manual'' (1991). 312 pp.
* Rosovsky, Nitza. ''The Jewish Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe'' (1986). 108 pp.
* Seligman, Joel. ''The High Citadel: The Influence of Harvard Law School'' (1978). 262 pp.
* Sollors, Werner; Titcomb, Caldwell; and Underwood, Thomas A., eds. ''Blacks at Harvard: A Documentary History of African-American Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe'' (1993). 548 pp.
* Trumpbour, John, ed., ''How Harvard Rules. Reason in the Service of Empire'', Boston: South End Press, 1989,
* Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher, ed.,
Yards and Gates: Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History
', New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. 337 pp.
* Winsor, Mary P. ''Reading the Shape of Nature: Comparative Zoology at the Agassiz Museum'' (1991). 324 pp.
* Wright, Conrad Edick. ''Revolutionary Generation: Harvard Men and the Consequences of Independence'' (2005). 298 pp.
1636 establishments in Massachusetts
Universities and colleges in Middlesex County, Massachusetts
Universities and colleges in Cambridge, Massachusetts
Educational institutions established in the 1630s
Private universities and colleges in Massachusetts