HOME
TheInfoList



Harvard University is a private
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising eight private research universities in the Northeastern United States. The term ''Ivy League'' is typically used beyond the sports co ...
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in va ...
in
Cambridge, Massachusetts Cambridge ( ) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Greater Boston, Boston metropolitan area as a major suburb of Boston. , it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, ...
. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and among the most prestigious in the world. The Massachusetts colonial legislature, the General Court, authorized Harvard's founding. In its early years,
Harvard College Harvard College is the undergraduate education, undergraduate college of Harvard University, an Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636, Harvard College is the original school of Harvard University, the oldest i ...
primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, although it has never been formally affiliated with any denomination. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among the Boston elite. Following the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by Names of the American Civil War, other names) was a civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865, fought between northern U.S. state, states loyal to the Union (American Civil War), Union and south ...
, President Charles William Eliot's long tenure (1869–1909) transformed the
college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A college may be a academic degree, degree-awarding Tertiary education, tertiary educational institution, a part of a collegiate un ...
and affiliated professional schools into a modern
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in va ...
; Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900. James B. Conant led the university through the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across the world; in most countries, it started in 1929 and l ...
and
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great ...
; he liberalized admissions after the war. The university is composed of ten academic faculties plus the
Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study Image:Radcliffe Yard, Cambridge MA.jpg, 250px, Radcliffe Yard The Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study is a part of Harvard University that fosters interdisciplinary research across the humanities, sciences, social sciences, arts, and professio ...
. Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Arts and Sciences offers study in a wide range of academic disciplines for undergraduates and for graduates, while the other faculties offer only graduate degrees, mostly professional degree, professional. Harvard has three main campuses: the Cambridge campus centered on Harvard Yard; an adjoining campus immediately across the Charles River in the Allston neighborhood of Boston; and the medical campus in Boston's Longwood Medical and Academic Area, Longwood Medical Area. Harvard University endowment, Harvard's endowment is valued at $41.9 billion, making it the List of colleges and universities in the United States by endowment, largest of any academic institution. Endowment income helps enable the undergraduate college to need-blind admission, admit students regardless of financial need and provide generous financial aid with no loans. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items. Harvard has more alumni, faculty, and researchers who have won List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation, Nobel Prizes (161) and List of Fields Medal winners by university affiliation, Fields Medals (18) than any other university in the world and more alumni who have been members of the United States Congress, U.S. Congress, MacArthur Fellows, Rhodes Scholarship, Rhodes Scholars (375), and Marshall Scholarship, Marshall Scholars (255) than any other university in the United States. Its alumni also include List of Presidents of the United States by education, eight U.S. presidents and List of universities by number of billionaire alumni, 188 living billionaires, the most of any university. Fourteen List of Turing Award laureates by university affiliation, Turing Award laureates have been Harvard affiliates. Students and alumni have also won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, and List of American universities with Olympic medals, 108 Olympic medals (46 gold), and they have founded List of companies founded by Harvard University alumni, many notable companies.


History


Colonial

File:A Westerly View of the Colledges in Cambridge New England by Paul Revere.jpeg, upright=1, Engraving of
Harvard College Harvard College is the undergraduate education, undergraduate college of Harvard University, an Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636, Harvard College is the original school of Harvard University, the oldest i ...
by Paul Revere, 1767 Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named
Harvard College Harvard College is the undergraduate education, undergraduate college of Harvard University, an Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636, Harvard College is the original school of Harvard University, the oldest i ...
after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge who had left the school £779 and his library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust." It trained many Puritan ministers in its early years and offered a classic curriculum based on the English university modelmany leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridgebut conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. Harvard has never affiliated with any particular denomination, though many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches. Increase Mather served as president from 1681 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett the Younger, John Leverett became the first president who was not also a clergyman, marking a turning of the college away from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence.


19th century

In the 19th century, Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment ideas of reason and free will were widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties.Gary J. Dorrien.
The Making of American Liberal Theology: Imagining Progressive Religion, 1805–1900, Volume 1
Westminster John Knox Press, 2001
When Hollis Chair of Divinity, Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and President of Harvard University, President Joseph Willard died a year later, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware (Unitarian), Henry Ware was elected to the Hollis chair in 1805, and the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency two years later, signaling the shift from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminianism, Arminian ideas. Charles William Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the favored position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. Though Eliot was the crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education but by Transcendentalism, Transcendentalist Unitarian convictions influenced by William Ellery Channing and Ralph Waldo Emerson.


20th century

In the 20th century, Harvard's reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the university's scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new graduate schools were begun and the Harvard College, undergraduate college expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as the female counterpart of Harvard College, became one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States. Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900. The student body in the early decades of the century was predominantly "old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians." A 1923 proposal by President A. Lawrence Lowell that Jews be limited to 15% of undergraduates was rejected, but Lowell did ban blacks from freshman dormitories. President James B. Conant reinvigorated creative scholarship to guarantee Harvard's preeminence among research institutions. He saw higher education as a vehicle of opportunity for the talented rather than an entitlement for the wealthy, so Conant devised programs to identify, recruit, and support talented youth. In 1943, he asked the faculty to make a definitive statement about what general education ought to be, at the secondary as well as at the college level. The resulting ''Report'', published in 1945, was one of the most influential manifestos in 20th century American education. Between 1945 and 1960, admissions were opened up to bring in a more diverse group of students. No longer drawing mostly from select New England University-preparatory school, prep schools, the Harvard College, undergraduate college became accessible to striving middle class students from public schools; many more Jews and Catholics were admitted, but few blacks, Hispanics, or Asians. Throughout the rest of the 20th century, Harvard became more diverse. Harvard's graduate schools began admitting women in small numbers in the late 19th century. During World War II, students at Radcliffe College (which since 1879 had been paying Harvard professors to repeat their lectures for women) began attending Harvard classes alongside men. Women were first admitted to the Harvard Medical School, medical school in 1945. Since 1971, Harvard has controlled essentially all aspects of undergraduate admission, instruction, and housing for Radcliffe women. In 1999, Radcliffe was formally merged into Harvard.


21st century

Drew Gilpin Faust, previously the dean of the
Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study Image:Radcliffe Yard, Cambridge MA.jpg, 250px, Radcliffe Yard The Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study is a part of Harvard University that fosters interdisciplinary research across the humanities, sciences, social sciences, arts, and professio ...
, became Harvard's first woman president on July 1, 2007. She was succeeded by Lawrence Bacow on July 1, 2018.


Campuses


Cambridge

Harvard's main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge, about west-northwest of downtown Boston, and extends into the surrounding Harvard Square neighborhood. Harvard Yard itself contains key administrative offices such as University Hall (Harvard University), University Hall and Massachusetts Hall (Harvard University), Massachusetts Hall; libraries such as Widener Library, Widener, Pusey Library, Pusey, Houghton Library, Houghton, and Lamont Library, Lamont; Memorial Church of Harvard University, Memorial Church; academic buildings such as Sever Hall and Harvard Hall (Harvard University), Harvard Hall; and most List of Harvard dormitories, freshman dormitories. Sophomore, junior, and senior undergraduates live in twelve Harvard House system, residential houses, nine of which are south of Harvard Yard along or near the Charles River. The other three are located in a residential neighborhood half a mile northwest of the Yard at the Quadrangle (Harvard), Quadrangle (commonly referred to as the "Quad") which housed Radcliffe College students until Radcliffe merged its residential system with Harvard. Each residential house is a community with undergraduates, faculty deans, and resident tutors, as well as a dining hall, library, and recreational spaces. The houses were made possible by a gift from Yale University alumnus Edward Harkness. Radcliffe Yard, formerly the center of the campus of Radcliffe College and now home to Harvard's
Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study Image:Radcliffe Yard, Cambridge MA.jpg, 250px, Radcliffe Yard The Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study is a part of Harvard University that fosters interdisciplinary research across the humanities, sciences, social sciences, arts, and professio ...
, is adjacent to the Harvard Graduate School of Education, Graduate School of Education and the Cambridge Common. Harvard has several commercial real estate holdings in Cambridge.


Allston

Harvard Business School, Harvard Innovation Labs, and many athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located on a campus in Allston, a Boston neighborhood just across the Charles River from the Cambridge campus. The John W. Weeks Bridge, a pedestrian bridge over the Charles River, connects the two campuses. The university is actively expanding into Allston, where it now owns more land than in Cambridge. Plans include new construction and renovation for the Business School, a hotel and conference center, graduate student housing, Harvard Stadium, and other athletics facilities. In 2021, the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences will expand into a new, 500,000+ square foot Science and Engineering Complex (SEC) in Allston. The SEC will be adjacent to the Enterprise Research Campus, the Business School, and the Harvard Innovation Labs to encourage technology- and life science-focused startups as well as collaborations with mature companies.


Longwood

The Harvard Medical School, Medical School, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, School of Public Health are located on a campus in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area in Boston about south of the Cambridge campus. Several Harvard-affiliated hospitals and research institutes are also in Longwood, including Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dana–Farber Cancer Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, and the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering. Additional affiliates, most notably Massachusetts General Hospital, are located throughout the Greater Boston area.


Other

Harvard also owns the Dumbarton Oaks, Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection in Washington, D.C., the Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts, the Concord Field Station in Estabrook Woods in Concord, Massachusetts, the Villa I Tatti research center in Florence, Italy, the Harvard Shanghai Center in Shanghai, China, and the Arnold Arboretum in the Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston.


Organization and administration


Governance

Harvard is governed by a combination of its Harvard Board of Overseers, Board of Overseers and the President and Fellows of Harvard College (also known as the Harvard Corporation), which in turn appoints the President of Harvard University. There are 16,000 staff and faculty, including 2,400 professors, lecturers, and instructors. The Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences is the largest Harvard faculty and has primary responsibility for instruction in
Harvard College Harvard College is the undergraduate education, undergraduate college of Harvard University, an Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636, Harvard College is the original school of Harvard University, the oldest i ...
, the Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, The John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), and the Harvard Division of Continuing Education, Division of Continuing Education, which includes Harvard Summer School and Harvard Extension School. There are nine other graduate and professional faculties as well as the
Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study Image:Radcliffe Yard, Cambridge MA.jpg, 250px, Radcliffe Yard The Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study is a part of Harvard University that fosters interdisciplinary research across the humanities, sciences, social sciences, arts, and professio ...
. Joint programs with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology include the Harvard–MIT Program in Health Sciences and Technology, the Broad Institute, The Observatory of Economic Complexity, and edX.


Endowment

Harvard has the largest List of colleges and universities in the United States by endowment, university endowment in the world, valued at about $41.9 billion as of 2020. During the Great Recession, recession of 2007–2009, it suffered significant losses that forced large budget cuts, in particular temporarily halting construction on the Allston Science Complex. The endowment has since recovered. About $2 billion of investment income is annually distributed to fund operations. Harvard's ability to fund its degree and financial aid programs depends on the performance of its endowment; a poor performance in fiscal year 2016 forced a 4.4% cut in the number of graduate students funded by the Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Endowment income is critical, as only 22% of revenue is from students' tuition, fees, room, and board.


Divestment

Since the 1970s, several student-led campaigns have advocated divestment, divesting Harvard's endowment from controversial holdings, including investments in apartheid South Africa, Sudan during the Darfur genocide, and the tobacco industry, tobacco, fossil fuel, and private prison industries. In the late 1980s, during the divestment from South Africa movement, student activists erected a symbolic "shantytown" on Harvard Yard and blockaded a speech by South African Vice Consul Duke Kent-Brown. The university eventually reduced its South African holdings by $230 million (out of $400 million) in response to the pressure.


Academics


Teaching and learning

Harvard is a large, highly residential research university offering 50 Harvard College, undergraduate majors, 134 graduate degrees, and 32 professional degrees. For the 2018–2019 academic year, Harvard granted 1,665 baccalaureate degrees, 1,013 graduate degrees, and 5,695 professional degrees. The four-year, full-time undergraduate program has a liberal arts education, liberal arts and sciences focus. To graduate in the usual four years, undergraduates normally take four courses per semester. In most majors, an honors degree requires advanced coursework and a senior thesis. Though some introductory courses have large enrollments, the median class size is 12 students.


Research

Harvard is a founding member of the Association of American Universities and a preeminent research university with "very high" research activity (R1) and comprehensive doctoral programs across the arts, sciences, engineering, and medicine according to the Carnegie Classification. With the Harvard Medical School, medical school consistently ranking first among medical schools for research, biomedical research is an area of particular strength for the university. More than 11,000 faculty and over 1,600 graduate students conduct research at the medical school as well as its 15 affiliated hospitals and research institutes. The medical school and its affiliates attracted $1.65 billion in competitive research grants from the National Institutes of Health in 2019, more than twice as much as any other university.


Libraries and museums

The Harvard Library system is centered in Widener Library in Harvard Yard and comprises nearly 80 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items. According to the American Library Association, this makes it the largest academic library in the world. Houghton Library, the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, and the Harvard University Archives consist principally of rare and unique materials. America's oldest collection of maps, gazetteers, and atlases both old and new is stored in Pusey Library and open to the public. The largest collection of East Asia, East-Asian language material outside of East Asia is held in the Harvard-Yenching Library. The Harvard Art Museums comprise three museums. The Arthur M. Sackler Museum covers Asian, Mediterranean, and Islamic art, the Busch–Reisinger Museum (formerly the Germanic Museum) covers central and northern European art, and the Fogg Museum covers Western art from the Middle Ages to the present emphasizing Italian Early Renaissance painting, early Renaissance, British pre-Raphaelite, and 19th-century French art. The Harvard Museum of Natural History includes the Harvard Mineralogical Museum, the Harvard University Herbaria featuring the Leopold and Rudolf Blaschka, Blaschka Glass Flowers exhibit, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Other museums include the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, designed by Le Corbusier and housing the film archive, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, specializing in the cultural history and civilizations of the Western Hemisphere, and the Harvard Museum of the Ancient Near East featuring artifacts from excavations in the Middle East.


Reputation and rankings

Among overall rankings, the ''Academic Ranking of World Universities'' (''ARWU'') has ranked Harvard as the world's top university every year since it was released. When ''QS'' and ''Times Higher Education'' collaborated to publish the ''Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings'' from 2004 to 2009, Harvard held the top spot every year and continued to hold first place on ''World Reputation Rankings, THE World Reputation Rankings'' ever since it was released in 2011. In 2019, it was ranked first worldwide by ''SCImago Institutions Rankings''. Among rankings of specific indicators, Harvard topped both the University Ranking by Academic Performance (2019–2020) and ''Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities'' (2011), which measured universities' numbers of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500, ''Fortune'' Global 500 companies. According to annual polls done by ''The Princeton Review'', Harvard is consistently among the top two most commonly named "dream colleges" in the United States, both for students and parents. Additionally, having made significant investments in its Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, engineering school in recent years, Harvard was ranked third worldwide for Engineering and Technology in 2019 by ''Times Higher Education''.


Student life


Student government

The Harvard Undergraduate Council and the Harvard Graduate Council are the chief organs of student government.


Athletics

The Harvard Crimson fields 42 intercollegiate sports teams in the National Collegiate Athletic Association, NCAA Division I (NCAA), Division I
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising eight private research universities in the Northeastern United States. The term ''Ivy League'' is typically used beyond the sports co ...
, more than any other college in the country. Every two years, the Harvard and Yale track and field teams come together to compete against a combined Oxford University, Oxford and Cambridge University, Cambridge team in the oldest continuous international amateur competition in the world. As with other Ivy League universities, Harvard does not offer athletic scholarships. The school color is crimson. Harvard's athletic rivalry with Yale Bulldogs, Yale is intense in every sport in which they meet, coming to a climax each fall in the Harvard–Yale football rivalry, annual football meeting, which dates back to 1875.


Notable people


Alumni

Over more than three and a half centuries, Harvard alumni have contributed creatively and significantly to society, the arts and sciences, business, and national and international affairs. Harvard's alumni include List of Presidents of the United States by education, eight U.S. presidents, 188 List of universities by number of billionaire alumni, living billionaires, List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Harvard University, 79 Nobel laureates, List of Fields Medal winners by university affiliation, 7 Fields Medal winners, List of Turing Award laureates by university affiliation, 9 Turing Award laureates, 369 Rhodes Scholarship, Rhodes Scholars, 252 Marshall Scholarship, Marshall Scholars, and 13 Mitchell Scholarship, Mitchell Scholars. Harvard students and alumni have also won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, and List of American universities with Olympic medals, 108 Olympic medals (including 46 gold medals), and they have founded List of companies founded by Harvard University alumni, many notable companies worldwide. File:US Navy 031029-N-6236G-001 A painting of President John Adams (1735-1826), 2nd president of the United States, by Asher B. Durand (1767-1845)-crop.jpg, 2nd President of the United States John Adams (AB, 1755; AM, 1758) File:John Quincy Adams.jpg, 6th President of the United States John Quincy Adams (AB, 1787; AM, 1790) Ralph Waldo Emerson ca1857 retouched.jpg , Essayist, lecturer, philosopher, and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson (AB, 1821) Benjamin D. Maxham - Henry David Thoreau - Restored - greyscale - straightened.jpg , Naturalist, essayist, poet, and philosopher Henry David Thoreau (AB, 1837) File:President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880 Restored.jpg, 19th President of the United States Rutherford B. Hayes (LLB, 1845) File:Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr circa 1930-edit.jpg , Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (AB, 1861, LLB) Charles Sanders Peirce.jpg , Philosopher, logician, and mathematician Charles Sanders Peirce (AB, 1862, SB 1863) File:President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg, 26th President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Theodore Roosevelt (AB, 1880) File:WEB DuBois 1918.jpg, Sociologist and civil rights activist
W. E. B. Du Bois (PhD, 1895) File:FRoosevelt.png, 32nd President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt (AB, 1903) File:Helen Keller circa 1920 - restored.jpg, Author, political activist, and lecturer Helen Keller (AB, 1904, Radcliffe College) Thomas Stearns Eliot by Lady Ottoline Morrell (1934).jpg, Poet and Nobel laureate in literature T. S. Eliot (AB, 1909; AM, 1910) JROppenheimer-LosAlamos.jpg, Physicist and leader of Manhattan Project J. Robert Oppenheimer (AB, 1925) Paul Samuelson.jpg, Economist and Nobel laureate in economics Paul Samuelson (AM, 1936; PhD, 1941) Leonard Bernstein by Jack Mitchell.jpg, Musician and composer Leonard Bernstein (AB, 1939) File:John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait.jpg, 35th President of the United States John F. Kennedy (AB, 1940) Mary Robinson (2014).jpg, 7th President of Ireland and United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Mary Robinson (LLM, 1968) File:Al Gore, Vice President of the United States, official portrait 1994.jpg, 45th Vice President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Al Gore (AB, 1969) File:Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, April 2010.jpg, 24th President of Liberia and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (MPA, 1971) File:Chuck Schumer official photo.jpg, Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer (AB, 1971; JD, 1975) File:Benazir Bhutto.jpg, 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto (AB, 1973, Radcliffe College) File:Ben Bernanke official portrait.jpg, 14th Chair of the Federal Reserve Ben Bernanke (AB, 1975; AM, 1975) File:George-W-Bush.jpeg, 43rd President of the United States George W. Bush (MBA, 1975) File:Official roberts CJ.jpg, 17th Chief Justice of the United States John Roberts (AB, 1976; JD, 1979) File:Bill Gates June 2015.jpg, Founder of Microsoft and philanthropist Bill Gates (College, 1977;Nominal Harvard College class year: did not graduate LLD Honorary degree, hc, 2007) File:Ban Ki-Moon Davos 2011 Cropped.jpg, 8th Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon (MPA, 1984) File:Elena Kagan SCOTUS portrait.jpg, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Elena Kagan (JD, 1986) Michelle Obama 2013 official portrait.jpg, Former First Lady of the United States Michelle Obama (JD, 1988) Professor Jennifer Doudna ForMemRS.jpg, Biochemist and Nobel laureate in chemistry Jennifer Doudna (PhD, 1989) File:Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg, 44th President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Barack Obama (JD, 1991)


Faculty

File:Louis Agassiz H6.jpg, Louis Agassiz File:Danielle Allen 2017.jpg, Danielle Allen File:Alan dershowitz 2009 retouched cropped.jpg, Alan Dershowitz File:PEF-with-mom-and-baby---Quy-Ton-12-2003 1-1-310.jpg, Paul Farmer File:Jason Furman official portrait.jpg, Jason Furman File:John Kenneth Galbraith 1982.jpg, John Kenneth Galbraith File:Henry Louis Gates 2014 (cropped).jpg, Henry Louis Gates Jr. File:Asa Gray 1870s.jpg, Asa Gray File:Seamus Heaney Photograph Edit.jpg, Seamus Heaney File:Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr c1879.jpg, Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. File:William James b1842c.jpg, William James File:Timothy-Leary-Los-Angeles-1989.jpg, Timothy Leary File:Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, photographed by Julia Margaret Cameron in 1868.jpg, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow File:James Russell Lowell - 1855.jpg, James Russell Lowell File:GregoryMankiw.jpg, Greg Mankiw File:102111 Pinker 344.jpg, Steven Pinker File:Michael Porter 2017.jpg, Michael Porter File:Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. 1961.jpg, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. File:Amartya Sen.jpg, Amartya Sen File:B.F. Skinner at Harvard circa 1950.jpg, B. F. Skinner File:Lawrence Summers 2012.jpg, Lawrence Summers File:Cass Sunstein (2008).jpg, Cass Sunstein File:Elizabeth Warren, official portrait, 114th Congress.jpg, Elizabeth Warren File:Cornel West by Gage Skidmore.jpg, Cornel West File:Alfred North Whitehead in 1936.jpg, Alfred North Whitehead File:Plos wilson.jpg, E. O. Wilson File:Shing-Tung Yau Screenshot (cropped).png, Shing-Tung Yau File:Sec. Robert Reich.jpg, Robert Reich


Literature and popular culture

The perception of Harvard as a center of either elite achievement, or elitist privilege, has made it a frequent literary and cinematic backdrop. "In the grammar of film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a certain amount of stuffiness," film critic Paul Sherman has said.


Literature

* ''The Sound and the Fury'' (1929) and ''Absalom, Absalom!'' (1936) by William Faulkner both depict Harvard student life. * ''Of Time and the River'' (1935) by Thomas Wolfe is a fictionalized autobiography that includes his alter ego's time at Harvard. * ''The Late George Apley'' (1937) by John P. Marquand parodies Harvard men at the opening of the 20th century; it won the Pulitzer Prize. * ''The Second Happiest Day'' (1953) by John P. Marquand Jr. portrays the Harvard of the World War II generation.


Film

Harvard's policy since 1970 (after the damage caused by ''Love Story'') has been to permit filming on its property only rarely, so most scenes set at Harvard (especially indoor shots, but excepting aerial footage and shots of public areas such as Harvard Square) are in fact shot elsewhere. * ''Love Story (1970 film), Love Story'' (1970) concerns a romance between a wealthy Harvard hockey player (Ryan O'Neal) and a brilliant Radcliffe student of modest means (Ali MacGraw): it is screened annually for incoming freshmen. * ''The Paper Chase (film), The Paper Chase'' (1973) * ''A Small Circle of Friends'' (1980)


See also

* 2012 Harvard cheating scandal * Academic regalia of Harvard University * Gore Hall * Harvard College social clubs * Harvard University Police Department * Harvard University Press * Harvard/MIT Cooperative Society * I, Too, Am Harvard * List of oldest universities in continuous operation * List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Harvard University * Outline of Harvard University * Secret Court of 1920


References


Bibliography

* Abelmann, Walter H., ed. ''The Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology: The First 25 Years, 1970–1995'' (2004). 346 pp. * Beecher, Henry K. and Altschule, Mark D. ''Medicine at Harvard: The First 300 Years'' (1977). 569 pp. * Bentinck-Smith, William, ed. ''The Harvard Book: Selections from Three Centuries'' (2d ed.1982). 499 pp. * Bethell, John T.; Hunt, Richard M.; and Shenton, Robert. ''Harvard A to Z'' (2004). 396 pp
excerpt and text search
* Bethell, John T. ''Harvard Observed: An Illustrated History of the University in the Twentieth Century'', Harvard University Press, 1998, * Bunting, Bainbridge. ''Harvard: An Architectural History'' (1985). 350 pp. * Carpenter, Kenneth E. ''The First 350 Years of the Harvard University Library: Description of an Exhibition'' (1986). 216 pp. * Cuno, James et al. ''Harvard's Art Museums: 100 Years of Collecting'' (1996). 364 pp. * Elliott, Clark A. and Rossiter, Margaret W., eds. ''Science at Harvard University: Historical Perspectives'' (1992). 380 pp. * Hall, Max. ''Harvard University Press: A History'' (1986). 257 pp. * Hay, Ida. ''Science in the Pleasure Ground: A History of the Arnold Arboretum'' (1995). 349 pp. * Hoerr, John, ''We Can't Eat Prestige: The Women Who Organized Harvard;'' Temple University Press, 1997, * Howells, Dorothy Elia. ''A Century to Celebrate: Radcliffe College, 1879–1979'' (1978). 152 pp. * Keller, Morton, and Phyllis Keller. ''Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University'' (2001), major history covers 1933 to 200
online edition
* Harry R. Lewis, Lewis, Harry R. ''Excellence Without a Soul: How a Great University Forgot Education'' (2006) * Morison, Samuel Eliot. ''Three Centuries of Harvard, 1636–1936'' (1986) 512pp
excerpt and text search
* Powell, Arthur G. ''The Uncertain Profession: Harvard and the Search for Educational Authority'' (1980). 341 pp. * Reid, Robert. ''Year One: An Intimate Look inside Harvard Business School'' (1994). 331 pp. * Henry Rosovsky, Rosovsky, Henry. ''The University: An Owner's Manual'' (1991). 312 pp. * Rosovsky, Nitza. ''The Jewish Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe'' (1986). 108 pp. * Seligman, Joel. ''The High Citadel: The Influence of Harvard Law School'' (1978). 262 pp. * Sollors, Werner; Titcomb, Caldwell; and Underwood, Thomas A., eds. ''Blacks at Harvard: A Documentary History of African-American Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe'' (1993). 548 pp. * Trumpbour, John, ed., ''How Harvard Rules. Reason in the Service of Empire'', Boston: South End Press, 1989, * Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher, ed.,
Yards and Gates: Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History
', New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. 337 pp. * Winsor, Mary P. ''Reading the Shape of Nature: Comparative Zoology at the Agassiz Museum'' (1991). 324 pp. * Wright, Conrad Edick. ''Revolutionary Generation: Harvard Men and the Consequences of Independence'' (2005). 298 pp.


External links

* * {{Authority control Harvard University, 1636 establishments in Massachusetts Universities and colleges in Middlesex County, Massachusetts Universities and colleges in Cambridge, Massachusetts Colonial colleges Educational institutions established in the 1630s Private universities and colleges in Massachusetts