Hanzhong (; abbreviation: Han), is a prefecture-level city
in the southwest
of Shaanxi province
, China, bordering the provinces of Sichuan
to the south and Gansu
to the west.
The founder of the Han dynasty
, Liu Bang
, was once enfeoffed as the king of the Hanzhong region after overthrowing the Qin dynasty
. During the Chu-Han contention
, Liu Bang shortened his title to the King of Han (), and later used it as the name of his imperial dynasty. In this way, Hanzhong was responsible for the naming of the Han dynasty, which was later hailed as the first golden age
in Chinese history and lends its name to the principal ethnic group in China
Hanzhong is located at the modern headwater
of the Han River, the largest tributary of the Yangtze River
. Hanzhong city covers and is centered around the Hantai District
. The prefecture-level city consists of two urban district and nine rural counties. In 2013, the population was approximately 3.84 million. The local dialect
of Hanzhong is the Chengdu-Chongqing dialect
of Southwestern Mandarin
Pre-Qin dynasty (before 220 BC)
There are few references to Hanzhong before the Qin dynasty
's unification of China in 221 BC. The ''Book of Documents
'' refers to an area called Liangzhou (), while Sima Qian
's book ''Records of the Grand Historian
'' speaks of a "Bao state" (, where the ancient beauty Bao Si
came from), both of which are believed to refer to the area now called Hanzhong.
From 900 BC, the area has been called Nanzheng (). The ancient geographical treatise entitled ''Shui Jing Zhu
'' records that Duke Huan of Zheng
, a vassal lord from the Western Zhou dynasty
, was slain in a battle with the nomadic Quanrong
people, and some of the Zheng citizens fled the capital
to establish a new settlement to the south, giving rise to the area's name. However, the veracity of this story is controversial.
Qin and Han dynasties (220 BC - 200 AD)
In the Qin dynasty
the area was governed as the Hanzhong Commandery, whose seat
was in current day Nanzheng County
, south of the Hanzhong urban area. In 207 BC, the Qin dynasty
collapsed. Liu Bang
, who would later become the founding emperor of the Han dynasty
, was made lord of Hanzhong. He spent several years there before raising an army to challenge his archrival, Xiang Yu
, during the Chu–Han Contention
. In 206 BC, after the victory at Gaixia
, Liu Bang named his imperial dynasty after his native district, as was customary. However, he chose Hanzhong rather than his birthplace Pei County
, Jiangsu Province
). Thus, Hanzhong gave its name to the Han dynasty.
In the second century AD, the Eastern Han dynasty gradually weakened. Outsiders from the Ba region
attacked the Hanzhong area, as they had in the past. The Han dynasty lost power. Zhang Lu
, supported by followers of a Taoist
sect, Way of the Celestial Masters
, led an independent theocratic government in Hanzhong. Thirty years later, after the Battle of Yangping
, Zhang Lu surrendered Zanghong to the warlord, Cao Cao
Prior to and during the Three Kingdoms
period, Hanzhong was a militarily strategically important site. It is located at a critical point along the route an army would take from the Central Plain
to the Sichuan Basin. At this time, Cao Cao lost control of Hanzhong to Liu Bei
, who assumed the title of King of Hanzhong. Ruins and landmarks of the Three Kingdoms era remaining in Hanzhong include the tomb of the Shu Han
chancellor Zhuge Liang
. Much of this period of Hanzhong's history is retold in the historical novel ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Tang, Song, and Yuan dynasties (618-1368)
In Hanzhong, between the end of the Han dynasty and the beginning of the Tang dynasty
there was political turmoil. In 784, when the capital, Chang'an
(modern Xi'an) was captured, the Emperor Dezong of Tang
fled to Hanzhong. During the Northern Song dynasty
(960 - 1127), however, Hanzhong became economically wealthy with city tax revenue just behind that of regional capitals such as Kaifeng
Ming and Qing dynasties, and the present (1368-present)
In 1331, during the Ming dynasty
in the reign of the Hongwu Emperor
, extensive renovations were made to Hanzhong's infrastructure. This work brought Zanghong to its present layout and form.
The Wanli Emperor
(r. 1572-1620) installed his fifth son, Zhu Changhao (), as king of Hanzhong. Changhao built a large, luxurious palace in what is now the Children's Park. The palace's Radiant Glass Wall () was demolished during road construction in 1935. Since then, a 13.6 m section has been rebuilt on the eastern end of Sanpu Street ().
In 1643, Zhu Changhao fled south to Sichuan ahead of Li Zicheng
's rebel army. As he departed, his Hanzhong palace was looted. Qing dynasty
historians remembered the massive but empty palace.
In December 1949, in the Chinese Civil War
, Hanzhong was captured by the People's Liberation Army
as the Communist Party of China
conquered the Kuomintang
The governance of Hanzhong, including the municipal executive, the legislature and the judiciary
are located in Hantai District
(). The offices of the Communist Party of China
and the Public Security Bureau
are also located in Hantai District
Hanzhong consists two urban districts and nine rural counties.
In 2013, the Hanzhong regional gross domestic product
was 88173 million yuan
. The annual gross domestic product per capita was 25769 yuan.
The 012 base was established in Hanzhong in the 1960s. It is responsible for military transport aircraft and Air-to-air missile
s in Yangxian County.
Hanzhong is located in southwestern Shaanxi, near the border with Gansu
Provinces. It is part of the Shannan region
. Hanzong lies in the centre of the Hanzhong Basin
, on the banks of the Han River
The Daba Mountains
rise to the south of the city. To the north are the Qin Mountains
. These mountains make a northern geographical limit of southern China. However, officially, Shaanxi is part of the northwest
. For more on the divisions between northern and southern China, see Northern and southern China
The coordinates of the city's prefecture ranges in latitude from 33° 02' to 33° 22' N and in longitude from 106° 51' to 107° 10' E. It covers . The northern part of the prefecture is elevated while the southern part is generally low lying. Height above sea level varies from around in the urban area to in the Qin Mountains.
The Wuchiapingian Age
in the Permian
Period of geological time is named from Wuchiaping (from ) in the Liangshan area of Hanzhong.
Hanzhong has a temperate and humid climate. It is classified as humid subtropical
''Cwa''), with cool, damp winters and hot, humid summers.
The Qin Mountains to the north help shield the city from cold Siberian winds
in the winter. Hence, the winter in Hanzhong is warmer than that at similar latitudes east of Shannan. This is despite Hanzhong's elevation and inland location.
In contrast, because of its elevation, Hanzhong summers are temperate, with average highs in July and August about . The area is far more humid than central
and northern Shaanxi
. In Hanzhong, there is precipitation annually, as compared to in Xi'an
, the provincial capital.
The chance of sunshine days per month varies from twenty-six percent in November and December to fifty percent in August. Hanzong receives 1,569 hours of bright sunshine each year. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from in January to in July. The annual mean is .
Hanzhong's transport needs are served by the Hanzhong Chenggu Airport
and Yangpingguan–Ankang Railway
. Hanzhong Airport
provides air access to Beijing
with daily flights to each.
Hanzhong railway station
lies in downtown Hanzhong, and is served by the Xi'an–Chengdu high-speed railway
and Yangpingguan–Ankang railway
Hanzhong is also part of a national system of highways. It joins the G5
Beijing-Kunming expressway and the G7011
Shiyan-Hanzhong-Tianshui expressway. National Highway 108
, China National Highway 316
, China National Highway 210
and the provincial roads 211 and 309 constitute the developed traffic network of Hanzhong.
At the end of 2012, Hanzhong had two hundred and seven middle schools and several centres of higher education.
* Shaanxi University of Technology
* Shaanxi Aviation Vocational College
* Shaanxi Institute of Aeronautical Technology
* Hanzhong Vocational Technical College
* Hanzhong Museum
* Zhangqian Memorial Museum
* Baijiang Platform
* Ancient Hutou Bridge
* Qingmuchuan Ancient Town
* Liping National Forest Park
* Janssen Pharmaceutica
Hanzhong government website
Hanzhong (China) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia