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en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = Postal code(s) , postal_code = 20001–21149, 22001–22769 , area_code_type = Area code(s) , area_code = 040 , registration_plate = , blank_name_sec1 = GRP (nominal) , blank_info_sec1 = €123 billion (2019) , blank1_name_sec1 = GRP per capita , blank1_info_sec1 = €67,000 (2019) , blank1_name_sec2 =
HDI The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and ot ...
(2018) , blank1_info_sec2 = 0.975
· 1st of 16 , iso_code = DE-HH , blank_name_sec2 =
NUTS Region
NUTS Region
, blank_info_sec2 = DE6 , website = , footnotes = , name = Hamburg Hamburg (, ; nds, label=
Low Saxon Low Saxon or Lower Saxon may refer to: Geography *Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state (''Land'') situated in Northern Germany, northwestern Germany. It is the second-large ...
, Hamborg ), officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (german: Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg; nds, label=Low Saxon, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),. is the second-largest city in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city l ...

Germany
after
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
, as well as the overall 7th largest city and largest non-
capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of the government. A capita ...
in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
with a population of over 1.84 million. Hamburg's urban area has a population of around 2.5 million and its
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...
is home to more than five million people. The city lies on the
River Elbe , german: Elbe, Low German , , (in a stricter sense) nl, Nedersaksisch da, Plattysk, , , (rarely) , states = Northern Germany, Northern and Western Germany, western GermanyEastern NetherlandsSouthern Denmark , ethnicity = D ...
and two of its
tributaries A tributary, or affluent, is a stream A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the stream bed, bed and Bank (geography), banks of a Channel (geography), channel. The flow of a stream is controlled by three inputs – ...
, the River Alster and the River Bille. One of Germany's 16
federated states A federated state (which may also be referred to as a state, a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territori ...

federated states
, Hamburg is surrounded by
Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein () is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany The Federal Republic of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , la ...

Schleswig-Holstein
to the north and
Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state The Federal Republic of Germany, as a federal state, consists of sixteen partly sovereign federated states (german: Land (state), plural (st ...
to the south. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval
Hanseatic League The Hanseatic League (; gml, Hanse, , ; german: label=German language, Modern German, Deutsche Hanse; nl, label=Dutch language, Dutch, De Hanze; la, Hansa Teutonica) was a Middle Ages, medieval commercial and defensive confederation of merchan ...
and a
free imperial city In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (german: Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (', la, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that h ...
of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
. Before the 1871
Unification of Germany The unification of Germany into the German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Benningto ...
, it was a fully
sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descende ...
city state A city-state is an independent sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance la ...
, and before 1919 formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary
grand burgher Grand Burgher aleor Grand Burgheress emale(from German: Großbürger ale Großbürgerin emale is a specific conferred or inherited title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify eit ...
s or . Beset by disasters such as the
Great Fire of Hamburg The Great fire of Hamburg began early on May 5, 1842, in Deichstraße and burned until the morning of May 8, destroying about one third of the buildings in the Altstadt, Hamburg, Altstadt. It killed 51 people and destroyed 1,700 residences and s ...
,
North Sea flood of 1962 The North Sea flood of 1962 was a natural disaster affecting mainly the coastal regions of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type ...
and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids, the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Hamburg is Europe's third largest port, after
Rotterdam Rotterdam ( , , ) is the second largest List of cities in the Netherlands by province, city and List of municipalities of the Netherlands, municipality in the Netherlands. It is in the Provinces of the Netherlands, province of South Holland, ...

Rotterdam
and
Antwerp Antwerp (; nl, Antwerpen ; french: Anvers ) is a city in Belgium and the capital of Antwerp (province), Antwerp province in the Flemish Region. With a population of 520,504,
Antwerp
. Major regional broadcaster NDR, the printing and publishing firm and the newspapers and are based in the city. Hamburg is the seat of Germany's oldest
stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an exchange Exchange may refer to: Places United States * Exchange, Indiana Exchange is an Unincorporated area, unincorporated community in Green Township, Morgan County, Indiana, Green To ...
and the world's oldest merchant bank,
Berenberg Bank The Berenberg family (Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Cast ...
. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals
Airbus Airbus SE (; ; ; ) is a European multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational s ...
, , , , and
Unilever Unilever PLC is a British multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a so ...

Unilever
. Hamburg is also a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. The city enjoys a very high quality of living, being ranked 19th in the 2019 Mercer Quality of Living Survey. Hamburg hosts specialists in world economics and international law, including
consular and diplomatic missions
consular and diplomatic missions
as the
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea 275px, ITLOS seen from Elbchaussee, close to the River Elbe ">Elbe.html" ;"title="Elbchaussee, close to the River Elbe">Elbchaussee, close to the River Elbe The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) is an intergovernmental organi ...
, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the
G20 The G20 or Group of Twenty is an intergovernmental forum comprising 19 countries and the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located ...
. Both former German chancellors
Helmut Schmidt Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt (; 23 December 1918 – 10 November 2015) was a German politician and member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; ...

Helmut Schmidt
and
Angela Merkel Angela Dorothea Merkel (; ; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician and scientist who served as the chancellor of Germany The chancellor of Germany, officially the federal chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Bundeskanz ...

Angela Merkel
were born in Hamburg. The former Mayor of Hamburg,
Olaf Scholz Olaf Scholz (; born ) is a German politician serving as chancellor of Germany since 8 December 2021. A member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party (SPD), he previously served as Vice Chancellor of Germany under Angel ...

Olaf Scholz
, is the current German chancellor since December 2021. Hamburg is a major international and domestic
tourist destination A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or an exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement. Types Places of natural b ...
. The and were declared
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
s by
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
in 2015. Hamburg's rivers and canals are crossed by around 2,500 bridges, making it the city with the highest number of bridges in Europe. Aside from its rich architectural heritage, the city is also home to notable cultural venues such as the and concert halls. It gave birth to movements like and paved the way for bands including
The Beatles The Beatles were an English rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compou ...
. Hamburg is also known for several
theatres Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage. The performe ...
and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's is among the best-known European entertainment districts.


Geography

Hamburg is at a sheltered natural harbour on the southern fanning-out of the
Jutland Peninsula Jutland (; da, Jylland ; german: Jütland ; ang, Ēota land ), known anciently as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula ( la, Cimbricus Chersonesus; da, Den Kimbriske Halvø, Den Jyske Halvø; german: Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of North ...
, between
Continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', lite ...

Continental Europe
to the south and
Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sa ...

Scandinavia
to the north, with the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
to the west and the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that a ...

Baltic Sea
to the northeast. It is on the
River Elbe , german: Elbe, Low German , , (in a stricter sense) nl, Nedersaksisch da, Plattysk, , , (rarely) , states = Northern Germany, Northern and Western Germany, western GermanyEastern NetherlandsSouthern Denmark , ethnicity = D ...

River Elbe
at its confluence with the
Alster The Alster () is a right tributary of the Elbe The Elbe (, ; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo), historically in English also Elve, is one of the major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usuall ...

Alster
and Bille. The city centre is around the
Binnenalster Binnenalster () or Inner Alster Lake is one of two artificial lake A reservoir (; from French ''réservoir'' ) is most commonly an enlarged natural or artificial lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surround ...

Binnenalster
("Inner Alster") and
Außenalster Außenalster () or Outer Alster Lake is the larger one of two artificial lake A reservoir (; from French ''réservoir'' ) is most commonly an enlarged natural or artificial lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin ...

Außenalster
("Outer Alster"), both formed by damming the River Alster to create lakes. The islands of
Neuwerk Neuwerk (; ('' Archaic English'': New Werk or Newark) is a tidal island in the Wadden Sea on the German North Sea The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain (England and Scotland), Denmark, Norway, Germany, ...

Neuwerk
, Scharhörn, and Nigehörn, away in the
Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park The Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park (german: Hamburgisches Wattenmeer) is the smallest of the three German Wadden Sea National Parks which protect the single ecological entity of the Waddensea of Hamburg (UNESCO biosphere reserve) reaching from ...
, are also part of the city of Hamburg. The neighborhoods of
Neuenfelde is a rural quarter located in the borough Harburg of Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central European Time, CET , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central European Summer ...
, Cranz, Francop and
Finkenwerder Finkenwerder (; Low German: ''Finkwarder'', ''Finkenwarder'' or ''- wärder''; German: ''Finkeninsel''; translation: Island of finches) is a quarter of Hamburg, Germany in the borough Hamburg-Mitte. It is the location of a plant of Airbus and its H ...

Finkenwerder
are part of the ''
Altes Land Altes Land is an area of land reclamation, reclaimed marshland straddling parts of Lower Saxony and Hamburg. The region is situated wikt:downstream, downstream from Hamburg on the Ordinal direction, southwestern riverside of the Elbe around the to ...
'' (old land) region, the largest contiguous fruit-producing region in
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both ...

Central Europe
.
Neugraben-Fischbek is a Boroughs and quarters of Hamburg, quarter of Hamburg, Germany belongs to the borough Harburg, Hamburg, Harburg. The quarter consists of the old settlements ''Neugraben'' and ''Fischbek'', and the more recently constructed area ''Neuwiedenthal' ...
has Hamburg's highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at
AMSL Height above mean sea level is a measure of the vertical distanceVertical position or vertical location is a position along a vertical direction above or below a given vertical datum A vertical datum, altimetric datum, or height datum is a re ...
. Hamburg borders the
states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...

states
of
Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein () is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany The Federal Republic of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , la ...

Schleswig-Holstein
and
Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state The Federal Republic of Germany, as a federal state, consists of sixteen partly sovereign federated states (german: Land (state), plural (st ...
.


Climate

Hamburg has an
oceanic climate An oceanic climate, also known as a maritime climate or marine climate, is the Köppen classification of climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the deg ...
( Köppen: ''Cfb''), influenced by its proximity to the coast and maritime influences that originate over the
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. The location in the north of
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city l ...

Germany
provides extremes greater than typical marine climates, but definitely in the category due to the prevailing westerlies. Nearby wetlands enjoy a maritime temperate climate. The amount of snowfall has varied greatly in recent decades. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, heavy snowfall sometimes occurred, the winters of recent years have been less cold, with snowfall just a few days per year. The warmest months are June, July, and August, with high temperatures of . The coldest are December, January, and February, with low temperatures of .


History


Origins

Claudius Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, ''Klaúdios Ptolemaîos'' ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics ...
(2nd century AD) reported the first name for the vicinity as Treva.


Etymology

The name Hamburg comes from the first permanent building on the site, a
castle A castle is a type of fortification, fortified structure built during the Middle Ages predominantly by the nobility or royalty and by Military order (monastic society), military orders. Scholars debate the scope of the word ''castle'', but u ...

castle
which the Emperor
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
ordered constructed in AD 808. It rose on rocky terrain in a marsh between the and the
River Elbe , german: Elbe, Low German , , (in a stricter sense) nl, Nedersaksisch da, Plattysk, , , (rarely) , states = Northern Germany, Northern and Western Germany, western GermanyEastern NetherlandsSouthern Denmark , ethnicity = D ...

River Elbe
as a defence against Slavic incursion, and acquired the name ''Hammaburg'', ''burg'' meaning castle or fort. The origin of the ''Hamma'' term remains uncertain, but its location is estimated to be at the site of today's Domplatz.


Medieval Hamburg

In 834, Hamburg was designated as the seat of a
bishopric In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided Roman province, prov ...
. The first bishop,
Ansgar Ansgar (8 September 801 – 3 February 865), also known as Anskar, Saint Ansgar, Saint Anschar or Oscar, was Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen This list records the bishops of the Roman Catholic diocese of Bremen (german: link=no, Bistum Bremen), supp ...

Ansgar
, became known as the Apostle of the North. Two years later, Hamburg was united with
Bremen Bremen (, also ; Low German : : : : : , minority = (70,000) (30,000) (8,000) , familycolor = Indo-European , fam2 = Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by t ...
as the Bishopric of Hamburg-Bremen. Verg (2007), p.15 Hamburg was destroyed and occupied several times. In 845, 600
Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Pro ...

Viking
ships sailed up the
River Elbe , german: Elbe, Low German , , (in a stricter sense) nl, Nedersaksisch da, Plattysk, , , (rarely) , states = Northern Germany, Northern and Western Germany, western GermanyEastern NetherlandsSouthern Denmark , ethnicity = D ...

River Elbe
and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around 500 inhabitants. In 1030, King
Mieszko II Lambert Mieszko II Lambert (; c. 990 – 10/11 May 1034) was King of Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivode ...

Mieszko II Lambert
of
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...
burned down the city.
Valdemar II of Denmark Valdemar II (9 May 117028 March 1241), called Valdemar the Victorious or Valdemar the Conqueror (''Valdemar Sejr''), was the King of Denmark from 1202 until his death in 1241. The nickname ''Sejr'' is a later invention and was not used during th ...
raided and occupied Hamburg in 1201 and in 1214. The
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by the plague bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bact ...

Black Death
killed at least 60% of the population in 1350. Hamburg experienced several great fires in the medieval period. In 1189, by imperial charter, granted Hamburg the status of a
Free Imperial City In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (german: Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (', la, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that h ...
and tax-free access (or
free-trade zone A free-trade zone (FTZ) is a class of special economic zone A special economic zone is an area in which the business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country. SEZs are located within a country's national borders, and their ...
) up the Lower Elbe into the North Sea. In 1265, an allegedly forged letter was presented to or by the Rath of Hamburg. Verg (2007), p. 26 This charter, along with Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
and
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that a ...

Baltic Sea
, quickly made it a major port in
Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern region of Europe. Narrower definitions may describe Northern Europe as being roughly north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, which is about 54th parallel north, 54°N, or may be based on other geographic ...
. Its trade alliance with
Lübeck Lübeck (; Low German Low German or Low Saxon (in the language itself: , and other names; german: Plattdeutsch, ) is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language variety spoken mainly in Northern Germany and the northeastern part of the ...

Lübeck
in 1241 marks the origin and core of the powerful Hanseatic League of trading cities. On 8 November 1266, a contract between
Henry IIIHenry III may refer to: * Henry III, Duke of Bavaria (940–989) * Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor (1017–1056) * Henry III, Count of Louvain (died 1095) * Henry III, Count of Luxembourg (died 1096) * Henry III, Duke of Carinthia (1050–1122) * Henr ...

Henry III
and Hamburg's traders allowed them to establish a ''hanse'' in London. This was the first time in history that the word ''hanse'' was used for the trading guild of the
Hanseatic League The Hanseatic League (; gml, Hanse, , ; german: label=German language, Modern German, Deutsche Hanse; nl, label=Dutch language, Dutch, De Hanze; la, Hansa Teutonica) was a Middle Ages, medieval commercial and defensive confederation of merchan ...
. Verg (2007), p. 30 In 1270, the solicitor of the
senate of Hamburg The government of Hamburg is divided into executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, a sen ...
, ''Jordan von Boitzenburg'', wrote the first description of civil, criminal and procedural law for a city in Germany in the German language, the ''Ordeelbook'' (''Ordeel'': sentence). On 10 August 1410, civil unrest forced a compromise (German: ''Rezeß'', literally meaning: withdrawal). This is considered the first constitution of Hamburg.


Modern times

In 1529, the city embraced Lutheranism, and it received Continental Reformed church, Reformed refugees from the Netherlands and France. When Jan van Valckenborgh introduced a second layer to the fortifications to protect against the Thirty Years War in the seventeenth century, he extended Hamburg and created a "New Town" (''Neustadt'') whose street names still date from the grid system of roads he introduced. Upon the dissolution of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
in 1806, the Free imperial city, Free Imperial City of Hamburg was not incorporated into a larger administrative area while retaining special privileges (German mediatisation, mediatised), but became a
sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descende ...
state with the official title of the ''Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg''. Hamburg was briefly annexed by Napoleon I to the First French Empire (1804–1814/1815). Russian forces under Levin August, Count von Bennigsen, General Bennigsen finally freed the city in 1814. Hamburg re-assumed its pre-1811 status as a city-state in 1814. The Congress of Vienna, Vienna Congress of 1815 confirmed Hamburg's independence and it became one of 39 sovereign states of the German Confederation (1815–1866). In 1842, about a quarter of the inner city was destroyed in the "Great Fire of Hamburg, Great Fire". The fire started on the night of 4 May and was not extinguished until 8 May. It destroyed three churches, the town hall, and many other buildings, killing 51 people and leaving an estimated 20,000 homeless. Reconstruction took more than 40 years. After periodic political unrest, particularly in Revolutions of 1848, 1848, Hamburg adopted in 1860 a semidemocratic constitution that provided for the election of the Senate, the governing body of the city-state, by adult taxpaying males. Other innovations included the separation of powers, the separation of Church and State, freedom of the press, of assembly and association. Hamburg became a member of the North German Confederation (1866–1871) and of the German Empire (1871–1918), and maintained its self-ruling status during the Weimar Republic (1919–1933). Accession of Hamburg to the German Customs Union (Zollverein), Hamburg acceded to the German Customs Union or Zollverein in 1888, the last (along with Bremen) of the German states to join. The city experienced its fastest growth during the second half of the 19th century when its population more than quadrupled to 800,000 as the growth of the city's Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic trade helped make it Europe's second-largest port. The Hamburg America Line, Hamburg-America Line, with Albert Ballin as its director, became the world's largest Atlantic Ocean, transatlantic shipping company around the start of the 20th century. Shipping companies sailing to South America, Africa, India and East Asia were based in the city. Hamburg was the departure port for many Germans and Eastern Europeans to emigrate to the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Trading communities from all over the world established themselves there. A major outbreak of cholera in 1892 was badly handled by the city government, which retained an unusual degree of independence for a German city. About 8,600 died in the largest German epidemic of the late 19th century, and the last major cholera epidemic in a major city of the Western world.


Second World War

Hamburg was a ''Gau'' within the administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1934 until 1945. During the Second World War, the bombing of Hamburg in World War II, Allied bombing of Hamburg devastated much of the city and the harbour. On 23 July 1943, the Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Force firebombing created a firestorm which spread from the ''Hauptbahnhof'' (main railway station) and quickly moved south-east, completely destroying entire boroughs such as Hammerbrook, Billbrook and Hamm, Hamburg, Hamm South. Thousands of people perished in these densely populated working class boroughs. The raids, codenamed Operation Gomorrah by the Royal Air Force, RAF, killed at least 42,600 civilians; the precise number is not known. About one million civilians were evacuated in the aftermath of the raids. While some of the boroughs destroyed were rebuilt as residential districts after the war, others such as Hammerbrook were entirely developed into office, retail and limited residential or industrial districts. The Hamburg Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery is in the greater Ohlsdorf Cemetery in the north of Hamburg. At least 42,900 people are thought to have perished in the Neuengamme concentration camp (about outside the city in the marshlands), mostly from epidemics and in the SS Cap Arcona (1927), bombing of Kriegsmarine evacuation vessels by the Royal Air Force, RAF at the end of the war. Systematic Deportation#Deportation in the Holocaust, deportations of Jewish Germans and Gentile Germans of Jewish descent started on 18 October 1941. These were all directed to Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe or to Nazi concentration camps, concentration camps. Most deported persons perished in the Holocaust. By the end of 1942 the ''Jüdischer Religionsverband in Hamburg'' was dissolved as an independent legal entity and its remaining assets and staff were assumed by the Reich Association of Jews in Germany (District Northwest). On 10 June 1943 the Reich Security Main Office dissolved the association by a decree. The few remaining employees not somewhat protected by a Anti-miscegenation laws#Nazi Germany, mixed marriage were deported from Hamburg on 23 June to Theresienstadt, where most of them perished.


Post-war history

The city was surrendered to British Armed Forces, British Forces on 3 May 1945, in the Battle of Hamburg (1945), Battle of Hamburg, three days after Adolf Hitler's death. After the Second World War, Hamburg formed part of the Allied-occupied Germany, British Zone of Occupation; it became a state of what was then West Germany in 1949. On 16 February 1962, a North Sea flood of 1962, North Sea flood caused the Elbe to rise to an all-time high, inundating one-fifth of Hamburg and killing more than 300 people. The Inner German border – only east of Hamburg – separated the city from most of its hinterland and reduced Hamburg's global trade. Since German reunification in 1990, and the accession of several
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both ...

Central Europe
an and Baltic states into the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
in 2004, the Port of Hamburg has restarted ambitions for regaining its position as the region's largest deep-sea port for container shipping and its major commercial and trading centre.


Demographics

On 31 December 2016, there were 1,860,759 people registered as living in Hamburg in an area of . The population density was . The metropolitan area of the Hamburg region (Hamburg Metropolitan Region) is home to 5,107,429 living on . There were 915,319 women and 945,440 men in Hamburg. For every 1,000 females, there were 1,033 males. In 2015, there were 19,768 births in Hamburg (of which 38.3% were to unmarried women); 6422 marriages and 3190 divorces, and 17,565 deaths. In the city, the population was spread out, with 16.1% under the age of 18, and 18.3% were 65 years of age or older. 356 people in Hamburg were over the age of 100.https://www.statistik-nord.de/fileadmin/Dokumente/Statistische_Berichte/bevoelkerung/A_I_S_1_j_H/A_I_S1_j16.pdf According to the Statistical Office for Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein, Schleswig Holstein, the number of people with a migrant background is at 34% (631,246).https://www.statistik-nord.de/fileadmin/Dokumente/Statistik_informiert_SPEZIAL/SI_SPEZIAL_V_2017_Korrektur.pdf Immigrants come from 200 different countries. 5,891 people have acquired German cititzenship in 2016.https://www.statistik-nord.de/fileadmin/Dokumente/Jahrb%C3%BCcher/Hamburg/JB16HH_Gesamt_Internet_min.pdf In 2016, there were 1,021,666 households, of which 17.8% had children under the age of 18; 54.4% of all households were made up of singles. 25.6% of all households were single parent households. The average household size was 1.8.Selectable data base:


Foreign citizens in Hamburg

Hamburg residents with a foreign citizenship as of 31 December 2016 is as follows


Language

Like elsewhere in Germany, Standard German is spoken in Hamburg, but as typical for northern Germany, the original language of Hamburg is Low German, usually referred to as ''Hamborger Platt'' (German ''Hamburger Platt'') or ''Hamburgisch, Hamborgsch''. Since large-scale Standard language, standardization of the German language beginning in earnest in the 18th century, various Low German-colored dialects have developed (contact-varieties of German on Low Saxon substrates). Originally, there was a range of such Missingsch varieties, the best-known being the low-prestige ones of the working classes and the somewhat more bourgeois ''Hanseatendeutsch'' (Hanseatic German), although the term is used in appreciation. All of these are now moribund due to the influences of Standard German used by education and media. However, the former importance of Low German is indicated by several songs, such as the famous sea shanty Hamborger Veermaster, written in the 19th century when Low German was used more frequently. Many toponyms and street names reflect Low Saxon vocabulary, partially even in Low Saxon spelling, which is not standardised, and to some part in forms adapted to Standard German.


Religion

65.2% of the population is not religious or adherent other religions. In 2018, 24.9% of the population belonged to the North Elbian Evangelical Lutheran Church, the largest religious body, and 9.9% to the Catholic Church, Roman Catholic Church. Hamburg is seat of one of the List of bishops of Hamburg#Bishops of Hamburg and Lübeck (as of 2008), three bishops of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany and seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hamburg. According to the publication "Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland" (''Muslim life in Germany'') estimated 141,900 Muslim migrants (counting in nearly 50 countries of origin) lived in Hamburg in 2008. About three years later (May 2011) calculations based on census data for 21 countries of origin resulted in the number of about 143,200 Muslim migrants in Hamburg, making up 8.4% percent of the population. As of 2021 there were more than 50 mosques in the city, including the Ahmadiyya run Fazle Omar Mosque, which is the oldest in the city, and it hosts the Islamic Centre Hamburg. A Jewish community exists.


Government

The city of Hamburg is one of 16 States of Germany, German states, therefore the Government of Hamburg, Mayor of Hamburg's office corresponds more to the role of a minister-president than to the one of a city mayor. As a States of Germany#Politics, German state government, it is responsible for public education, correctional institutions and public safety; as a municipality, it is additionally responsible for libraries, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply and welfare services. Since 1897, the seat of the government has been the Hamburg Rathaus (Hamburg City Hall), with the office of the mayor, the meeting room for the Senate and the floor for the Hamburg Parliament. From 2001 until 2010, the mayor of Hamburg was Ole von Beust, who governed in Germany's first statewide "black-green" coalition, consisting of the conservative Christian Democratic Union (Germany), CDU and the alternative GAL, which are Hamburg's regional wing of the Alliance '90/The Greens, Alliance 90/The Greens party. Von Beust was briefly succeeded by Christoph Ahlhaus in 2010, but the coalition broke apart on November, 28. 2010. On 7 March 2011
Olaf Scholz Olaf Scholz (; born ) is a German politician serving as chancellor of Germany since 8 December 2021. A member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party (SPD), he previously served as Vice Chancellor of Germany under Angel ...

Olaf Scholz
(Social Democratic Party of Germany, SPD) became mayor. After the 2015 election the Social Democratic Party of Germany, SPD and the Alliance '90/The Greens, Alliance 90/The Greens formed a coalition.


Boroughs

Hamburg is made up of seven boroughs (German: ''Bezirke'') and subdivided into 104 quarters (German: ''Stadtteile''). There are 181 localities (German: ''Ortsteile''). The urban organization is regulated by the Constitution of Hamburg and several laws.Borough Administration Act Most of the quarters were former independent cities, towns or villages annexed into Hamburg proper. The last large annexation was done through the Greater Hamburg Act of 1937, when the cities Altona, Hamburg, Altona, Harburg, Hamburg, Harburg and Hamburg-Wandsbek, Wandsbek were merged into the state of Hamburg.Greater Hamburg Act The ''Act of the Constitution and Administration of Hanseatic city of Hamburg'' established Hamburg as a state and a municipality.Reich Act of the Constitution and Administration of Hanseatic city of Hamburg Some of the boroughs and quarters have been rearranged several times. Each borough is governed by a Borough Council (German: ''Bezirksversammlung'') and administered by a Municipal Administrator (German: ''Bezirksamtsleiter''). The boroughs are not independent municipalities: their power is limited and subordinate to the Mayor of Hamburg, Senate of Hamburg. The borough administrator is elected by the Borough Council and thereafter requires confirmation and appointment by Hamburg's Senate. The quarters have no governing bodies of their own. In 2008, the boroughs were Hamburg-Mitte, Altona, Hamburg, Altona, Eimsbüttel, Hamburg-Nord, Wandsbek, Bergedorf and Harburg, Hamburg, Harburg.Hamburg Act of Areal Organization ''Hamburg-Mitte'' ("Hamburg Centre") covers mostly the urban centre of the city and consists of the quarters Billbrook, Billstedt, Borgfelde,
Finkenwerder Finkenwerder (; Low German: ''Finkwarder'', ''Finkenwarder'' or ''- wärder''; German: ''Finkeninsel''; translation: Island of finches) is a quarter of Hamburg, Germany in the borough Hamburg-Mitte. It is the location of a plant of Airbus and its H ...

Finkenwerder
, HafenCity, Hamm, Hamburg, Hamm, Hammerbrook, Horn, Hamburg, Horn, Kleiner Grasbrook,
Neuwerk Neuwerk (; ('' Archaic English'': New Werk or Newark) is a tidal island in the Wadden Sea on the German North Sea The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain (England and Scotland), Denmark, Norway, Germany, ...

Neuwerk
, Rothenburgsort, St. Georg, Hamburg, St. Georg, St. Pauli, Steinwerder, Veddel, Waltershof and Wilhelmsburg, Hamburg, Wilhelmsburg. The quarters Hamburg-Altstadt ("old town") and Neustadt, Hamburg, Neustadt ("new town") are the historical origin of Hamburg. ''Altona, Hamburg, Altona'' is the westernmost urban borough, on the right bank of the Elbe river. From 1640 to 1864, Altona was under the administration of the Monarchy of Denmark, Danish monarchy. Altona was an independent city until 1937. Politically, the following quarters are part of Altona: Altona-Altstadt, Altona-Nord, Bahrenfeld, Ottensen, Othmarschen, Groß Flottbek, Osdorf, Hamburg, Osdorf, Lurup, Nienstedten, Blankenese, Iserbrook, Sülldorf, Rissen, Sternschanze. ''Bergedorf'' consists of the quarters Allermöhe, Altengamme, Bergedorf (quarter), Bergedorf—the centre of the former independent town, Billwerder, Curslack, Kirchwerder, Lohbrügge, Moorfleet, Neuengamme, Hamburg, Neuengamme, Neuallermöhe, Ochsenwerder, Reitbrook, Spadenland and Tatenberg. ''Eimsbüttel'' is split into nine-quarters: Eidelstedt, Eimsbüttel (quarter), Eimsbüttel, Harvestehude, Hoheluft-West, Lokstedt, Niendorf, Hamburg, Niendorf, Rotherbaum, Schnelsen and Stellingen. Located within this borough is former Jewish neighbourhood Grindel. ''Hamburg-Nord'' contains the quarters Alsterdorf, Barmbek-Nord, Barmbek-Süd, Dulsberg, Eppendorf, Hamburg, Eppendorf, Fuhlsbüttel, Groß Borstel, Hoheluft-Ost, Hohenfelde, Hamburg, Hohenfelde, Langenhorn, Hamburg, Langenhorn, Ohlsdorf, Hamburg, Ohlsdorf with Friedhof Ohlsdorf, Ohlsdorf cemetery, Uhlenhorst and Winterhude. ''Harburg, Hamburg, Harburg'' lies on the southern shores of the river Elbe and covers parts of the port of Hamburg, residential and rural areas, and some research institutes. The quarters are Altenwerder, Cranz, Eißendorf, Francop, Gut Moor, Harburg (quarter), Harburg, Hausbruch, Heimfeld, Langenbek, Marmstorf, Moorburg,
Neuenfelde is a rural quarter located in the borough Harburg of Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central European Time, CET , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central European Summer ...
,
Neugraben-Fischbek is a Boroughs and quarters of Hamburg, quarter of Hamburg, Germany belongs to the borough Harburg, Hamburg, Harburg. The quarter consists of the old settlements ''Neugraben'' and ''Fischbek'', and the more recently constructed area ''Neuwiedenthal' ...
, Neuland, Hamburg, Neuland, Rönneburg, Sinstorf and Wilstorf. ''Wandsbek'' is divided into the quarters Bergstedt, Bramfeld, Duvenstedt, Eilbek, Farmsen-Berne, Hummelsbüttel, Jenfeld, Lemsahl-Mellingstedt, Marienthal, Hamburg, Marienthal, Poppenbüttel, Rahlstedt, Sasel, Steilshoop, Tonndorf, Hamburg, Tonndorf, Volksdorf, Wandsbek (quarter), Wandsbek, Wellingsbüttel and Wohldorf-Ohlstedt.


Cityscape


Architecture

Hamburg has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles and no skyscrapers (see List of tallest buildings in Hamburg). Churches are important landmarks, such as St. Nikolai, Hamburg, St Nicholas', which for a short time in the 19th century was the world's tallest building. The skyline features the tall spires of the most important churches (''Hauptkirchen'') St. Michaelis Church, Hamburg, St Michael's (nicknamed "Michel"), St. Peter's Church, Hamburg, St Peter's, St. Jacobi, Hamburg, St James's (''St. Jacobi'') and St. Catherine's Church, Hamburg, St. Catherine's covered with copper plates, and the Heinrich-Hertz-Turm, the radio and television tower (no longer publicly accessible). The many List of rivers of Hamburg, streams, rivers and canals are crossed by List of bridges in Hamburg, some 2,500 bridges, more than London, Amsterdam and Venice put together. Hamburg has more bridges inside its city limits than any other city in the world. The Köhlbrandbrücke, Freihafen Elbbrücken, and Lombardsbrücke and Kennedybrücke dividing Binnenalster from Aussenalster are important roadways. The Hamburg Rathaus, town hall is a richly decorated Neo-Renaissance building finished in 1897. The tower is high. Its façade, long, depicts the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, since Hamburg was, as a Free Imperial City, only under the sovereignty of the emperor. The Chilehaus, a Brick Expressionism, brick expressionist office building built in 1922 and designed by architect Johann Friedrich Höger, Fritz Höger, is shaped like an ocean liner. Europe's largest urban development since 2008, the HafenCity, will house about 10,000 inhabitants and 15,000 workers. The plan includes designs by Rem Koolhaas and Renzo Piano. The Elbphilharmonie ''(Elbe Philharmonic Hall)'', opened in January 2017, houses concerts in a sail-shaped building on top of an old warehouse, designed by architects ''Herzog & de Meuron''. The many parks are distributed over the whole city, which makes Hamburg a very verdant city. The biggest parks are the ''Hamburg Stadtpark, Stadtpark'', the Ohlsdorf Cemetery and Planten un Blomen. The ''Hamburg Stadtpark, Stadtpark'', Hamburg's "Central Park", has a great lawn and a huge water tower, which houses one of Europe's biggest planetarium, planetaria. The park and its buildings were designed by Fritz Schumacher (architect), Fritz Schumacher in the 1910s.


Parks and gardens

The lavish and spacious ''Planten un Blomen'' park (Low German dialect for "plants and flowers") located in the centre of Hamburg is the green heart of the city. Within the park are various thematic gardens, the biggest Japanese garden in Germany, and the ''Alter Botanischer Garten Hamburg'', which is a historic botanical garden that now consists primarily of greenhouses. The ''Botanischer Garten Hamburg'' is a modern botanical garden maintained by the University of Hamburg. Besides these, there are many more parks of various sizes. In 2014 Hamburg celebrated a birthday of park culture, where many parks were reconstructed and cleaned up. Moreover, every year there are the famous water-light-concerts in the ''Planten un Blomen'' park from May to early October.


Culture and contemporary life

Hamburg has more than 40 theatres, 60 museums and 100 music venues and clubs. In 2005, more than 18 million people visited concerts, exhibitions, theatres, cinemas, museums, and cultural events. More than 8,552 taxable companies (average size 3.16 employees) were engaged in the culture sector, which includes music, performing arts and literature. There are five companies in the creative sector per thousand residents (as compared to three in Berlin and 37 in London). Hamburg has entered the European Green Capital Award scheme, and was awarded the title of European Green Capital for 2011.


Theatres

The state-owned ''Deutsches Schauspielhaus'', the Thalia Theatre (Hamburg), Thalia Theatre, Ohnsorg-Theater, Ohnsorg Theatre, "Schmidts Tivoli" and the ''Kampnagel'' are well-known theatres. The English Theatre of Hamburg near U3 (Hamburg U-Bahn), U3 Mundsburg station was established in 1976 and is the oldest professional English-speaking theatre in Germany, and has exclusively English native-speaking actors in its company.


Museums

Hamburg has several large museums and galleries showing classical and contemporary art, for example the Kunsthalle Hamburg with its contemporary art gallery (''Galerie der Gegenwart''), the Museum for Art and Industry (''Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg, Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe'') and the Deichtorhallen/House of Photography. The Internationales Maritimes Museum Hamburg opened in the HafenCity quarter in 2008. There are various specialised museums in Hamburg, such as the Archaeological Museum Hamburg (''Archäologisches Museum Hamburg'') in Hamburg-Harburg, the Hamburg Museum of Work (''Museum der Arbeit''), and several museums of local history, for example the Kiekeberg Open Air Museum (''Freilichtmuseum am Kiekeberg''). Two ''museum ships'' near Landungsbrücken bear witness to the freight ship (''Cap San Diego'') and cargo sailing ship era (''Rickmer Rickmers''). In 2020 the Peking (ship), Peking returned to Hamburg as well. The world's largest model railway museum Miniatur Wunderland with total railway length is also situated near Landungsbrücken in a former warehouse. ''BallinStadt (Emigration City)'' is dedicated to the millions of Europeans who emigrated to North and South America between 1850 and 1939. Visitors descending from those overseas emigrants may search for their ancestors at computer terminals.


Music

Hamburg State Opera is a leading opera company. Its orchestra is the Philharmoniker Hamburg. The city's other well-known orchestra is the NDR Elbphilharmonie Orchestra. The main concert venue is the new concert hall Elbphilharmonie. Before it was the Laeiszhalle, ''Musikhalle Hamburg''. The Laeiszhalle also houses a third orchestra, the Hamburger Symphoniker. György Ligeti and Alfred Schnittke taught at the Hochschule für Musik und Theater Hamburg. Hamburg is the birthplace of Johannes Brahms, who spent his formative early years in the city, and the birthplace and home of the famous waltz composer Oscar Fetrás, who wrote the well-known "Mondnacht auf der Alster" waltz. Since the German premiere of ''Cats (musical), Cats'' in 1986, there have always been musical theatre, musicals running, including ''The Phantom of the Opera (1986 musical), The Phantom of the Opera'', ''The Lion King (musical), The Lion King'', ''Dirty Dancing#Stage version, Dirty Dancing'' and ''Dance of the Vampires (musical)''. This density, the highest in Germany, is partly due to the major musical production company ''Stage Entertainment'' being based in the city. In addition to musicals, opera houses, concert halls and theaters, the cityscape is characterized by a large music scene. This includes, among other things, over 110 music venues, several annual festivals and over 50 event organizers based in Hamburg. Larger venues include the Barclaycard Arena (Hamburg), Barclaycard Arena, the Trabrennbahn Bahrenfeld, Bahrenfeld harness racing track and Hamburg Stadtpark, Hamburg City Park. Hamburg was an important center of rock music in the early 1960s. The Beatles lived and played in Hamburg from August 1960 to December 1962. They proved popular and gained local acclaim. Prior to the group's initial recording and widespread fame, Hamburg provided residency and performing venues for the band during the time they performed there. One of the venues they performed at was the Star-Club, Star Club on St. Pauli. Hamburg has produced a number of successful (pop) musicians. Among the best known are Udo Lindenberg, Deichkind and Jan Delay. The singer Annett Louisan lives in Hamburg. An important meeting place for Hamburg musicians from the 1970s to the mid-80s was the jazz pub Onkel Pö, which was originally founded in the Pöseldorf neighborhood and later moved to Eppendorf. Many musicians who were counted as part of the "" met here. In addition to Udo Lindenberg, these included Otto Waalkes, Hans Scheibner and groups such as Torfrock and Frumpy. One of the members of the band Frumpy was the Hamburg-born singer and composer Inga Rumpf. Hamburg is famous for a special kind of German alternative music, the "Hamburger Schule", a term used for bands like Tocotronic, Blumfeld, Tomte (band), Tomte or Kante. The meeting point of the Hamburg School was long considered to be the in Altona's old town near the Fischmarkt. Alongside clubs such as the Pal, the Moondoo or the Waagenbau, today the Pudel is a central location of the Hamburg electro scene. Well-known artists of this scene include the DJ duo Moonbootica, Mladen Solomun and Helena Hauff. Hamburg is also home to many music labels, music distributors and publishers. These include Warner Music Group, Warner Music, Kontor Records, PIAS Recordings, PIAS, , Believe Digital and Indigo. The high proportion of independent labels in the city, which include Audiolith Records, Audiolith, Dial Records, Grand Hotel van Cleef, among others, is striking. Before its closure, the label L'Age D'Or also belonged to these. In addition, Hamburg has a considerable alternative rock, alternative and punk rock, punk scene, which gathers around the Rote Flora, a squatting, squatted former theatre located in the Sternschanze The city was a major centre for heavy metal music in the 1980s. Helloween, Gamma Ray (band), Gamma Ray, Running Wild (band), Running Wild and Grave Digger (band), Grave Digger started in Hamburg. The industrial rock band KMFDM was also formed in Hamburg, initially as a performance art project. The influences of these and other bands from the area helped establish the subgenre of power metal. In the late 90s, Hamburg was considered one of the strongholds of the German hip-hop scene. Bands like Beginner (band), Beginner shaped Hamburg's hip-hop style and made the city a serious location for the hip-hop scene through songs like "Hamburg City Blues." In addition to Beginner, several successful German hip-hop acts hail from Hamburg, such as Fünf Sterne deluxe, Fünf Sterne Deluxe, Samy Deluxe, Fettes Brot and 187 Strassenbande. Hamburg has a vibrant psychedelic trance community, with record labels such as Spirit Zone Records, Spirit Zone.


Festivals and regular events

Hamburg is noted for several festivals and regular events. Some of them are street festivals, such as the gay pride ''Hamburg Pride'' festival or the Alster fair (German: ''Alstervergnügen''), held at the ''
Binnenalster Binnenalster () or Inner Alster Lake is one of two artificial lake A reservoir (; from French ''réservoir'' ) is most commonly an enlarged natural or artificial lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surround ...

Binnenalster
''. The ''Hamburger DOM'' is northern Germany's biggest funfair, held three times a year. ''Hafengeburtstag'' is a funfair to honour the birthday of the port of Hamburg with a party and a ship parade. The annual biker's service in St. Michaelis Church, Hamburg, Saint Michael's Church attracts tens of thousands of Motorcycle, bikers. Christmas markets in December are held at the Hamburg Rathaus square, among other places. The ''long night of museums'' (German: ''Lange Nacht der Museen'') offers one entrance fee for about 40 museums until midnight. The sixth ''Festival of Cultures'' was held in September 2008, celebrating multi-cultural life. The Filmfest Hamburg — a film festival originating from the 1950s ''Film Days'' (German: ''Film Tage'') — presents a wide range of films. The ''Hamburg Messe und Congress, Hamburg Messe and Congress'' offers a venue for trade shows, such ''hanseboot'', an international boat show, or ''Du und deine Welt'', a large consumer products show. Regular sports events—some open to pro and amateur participants—are the cycling competition EuroEyes Cyclassics, the Hamburg Marathon, the biggest marathon in Germany after Berlin, the tennis tournament International German Open, Hamburg Masters and equestrian events like the Deutsches Derby. Hamburg is also known for its music and festival culture. For example, the Reeperbahn alone has between 25 - 30 million visitors every year. In addition, there are over a million visitors to the annual festivals and major music events. Hamburg's festivals include th
Elbjazz Festival
which takes place 2 days a year (usually on the Whitsun weekend) in Hamburg's harbor and HafenCity. For contemporary and experimental music, the
blurred edges
festival usually follows in May at various venues within Hamburg. In mid-August, the Dockville, MS Dockville music and arts festival has run annually since 2007 in the Wilhelmsburg, Hamburg, Wilhelmsburg district. This is followed at the end of September by the , which has been running since 2006. As Europe's largest club festival, it offers several hundred program points around the Reeperbahn in Hamburg over four days and is one of the most important meeting places for the music industry worldwide. In November, the ÜBERJAZZ Festival, which aims to expand the stylistic boundaries of the concept of jazz, starts every year at Kampnagel.


Cuisine

Original Hamburg dishes are ''Birnen, Bohnen und Speck'' (green beans cooked with pears and bacon), ''Aalsuppe'' (Hamburgisch dialect, Hamburgisch ''Oolsupp'') is often mistaken to be German for "eel soup" (''Aal''/''Ool'' translated 'eel'), but the name probably comes from the Low Saxon ''allns'' , meaning "all", "everything and the kitchen sink", not necessarily eel. Today eel is often included to meet the expectations of unsuspecting diners. There is ''Bratkartoffeln'' (Home fries, pan-fried potato slices), ''Finkenwerder Scholle'' (Low Saxon ''Finkwarder Scholl'', pan-fried plaice), ''Pannfisch'' (pan-fried fish with mustard sauce), ''Rødgrød, Rote Grütze'' (Low Saxon ''Rode Grütt'', related to Danish ''rødgrød'', a type of summer pudding made mostly from berries and usually served with cream, like Danish ''rødgrød med fløde'') and ''Labskaus'' (a mixture of corned beef, mashed potatoes and beetroot, a cousin of the Norwegian ''lapskaus'' and Liverpool's Scouse (food), lobscouse, all offshoots off an old-time one-pot meal that used to be the main component of the common sailor's humdrum diet on the high seas). ''Alsterwasser'' (in reference to the city's river, the
Alster The Alster () is a right tributary of the Elbe The Elbe (, ; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo), historically in English also Elve, is one of the major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usuall ...

Alster
) is the local name for a type of shandy, a concoction of equal parts of beer and carbonated lemonade (''Zitronenlimonade''), the lemonade being added to the beer. There is the curious regional dessert pastry called Franzbrötchen. Looking rather like a flattened croissant, it is similar in preparation but includes a cinnamon and sugar filling, often with raisins or brown sugar streusel. The name may also reflect to the roll's croissant-like appearance – ''franz'' appears to be a shortening of ''französisch'', meaning "French", which would make a ''Franzbrötchen'' a "French roll". Ordinary bread rolls tend to be oval-shaped and of the French bread variety. The local name is ''Schrippe'' (scored lengthways) for the oval kind and, for the round kind, ''Rundstück'' ("round piece" rather than mainstream German ''Brötchen'', diminutive form of ''Brot'' "bread"), a relative of Denmark's ''rundstykke''. In fact, while by no means identical, the cuisines of Hamburg and Denmark, especially of Copenhagen, have a lot in common. This also includes a predilection for open-faced sandwiches of all sorts, especially topped with cold-smoked or pickled fish. The American hamburger may have developed from Hamburg's ''Frikadeller'': a pan-fried patty (usually larger and thicker than its American counterpart) made from a mixture of ground beef, soaked staling, stale bread, egg, chopped onion, salt and pepper, usually served with potatoes and vegetables like any other piece of meat, not usually on a bun. The Oxford Dictionary defined a ''Hamburger steak'' in 1802: a sometimes-smoked and -salted piece of meat, that, according to some sources, came from Hamburg to America. The name and food, "hamburger", has entered all English-speaking countries, and derivative words in non-English speaking countries. There are restaurants which offer most of these dishes, especially in the HafenCity.


Main sights

File:Hamburg Elbphilharmonie 2016.jpg, ''Elbphilharmonie'' ("Elphi") File:Hamburger Hafen-St. Michaelis.jpg, Port of Hamburg File:Freedom-of-the-Seas--in-Hamburg.jpg, St. Pauli Piers and MS Freedom of the Seas, cruise ship File:Speicherstadt abends.jpg, ''Speicherstadt'' (Warehouse district) File:Rathaus Hamburg bei Nacht.jpg, Hamburg City Hall File:St. Michaelis.jpg, St. Michael's Church, Hamburg, St. Michael's Church ("Michel") File:Reeperbahn.jpg, ''Reeperbahn'', nightlife district of St. Pauli File:Hamburg-St. Pauli Spielbudenplatz 01.jpg, ''Spielbudenplatz'' at Reeperbahn File:Grosse Freiheit Hamburg.jpg, ''Große Freiheit'' ("Great Freedom") File:St. Nikolai Memorial Church.jpg, St. Nicholas' Church, Hamburg, Nikolai Memorial File:Sandtorpark 2013-05-24 12-03-35 Germany Hamburg-HafenCity 2h.jpg, HafenCity File:Dockland by Night.jpg, Dockland at night File:Alstereisvergnügen 11-02-2012 09.jpg, View over frozen
Alster The Alster () is a right tributary of the Elbe The Elbe (, ; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo), historically in English also Elve, is one of the major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usuall ...

Alster
towards Radisson Blu Hotel Hamburg, Radisson Hotel and Heinrich-Hertz-Turm, Hertz-Turm File:Hamburg Wallanlagen Brunnen.jpg, ''Planten un Blomen'' File:DE Hamburg Centerview.JPG, Jungfernstieg Boulevard File:Hamburg-Blankenese(01).JPG, Hills and mansions in Blankenese File:Laeisz-Halle (Hamburg-Neustadt).1.29179.ajb.jpg, ''Laeiszhalle'' concert venue File:2013-06-08 Highflyer HP L4729.JPG, Hamburg Hauptbahnhof, the busiest railway station in Germany File:Hamburg OLG 1.jpg, Hanseatisches Oberlandesgericht ("HansOLG"), upper court File:Neue Skyline Hamburg.JPG, List of tallest buildings in Hamburg, Highrises in St. Pauli (''Hafenkrone'') File:Köhlbrandbrücke 2010.jpg, Köhlbrand Bridge File:Heinrich-Hertz-Turm - PHB.jpg, Heinrich-Hertz-Turm, TV Tower File:HafenCity Traditionsschiffhafen Sandtorkai Hamburg 3943 v3.jpg, Traditional sailing ships at Sandtorkai in HafenCity File:HP_L4224.JPG, View over Hamburg and the
Alster The Alster () is a right tributary of the Elbe The Elbe (, ; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo), historically in English also Elve, is one of the major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usuall ...

Alster


Alternative culture

Hamburg has long been a centre of alternative music and counter-culture movements. The boroughs of St. Pauli, Sternschanze and Altona, Hamburg, Altona are known for being home to many radical left-wing and anarchist groups, culminating every year during the traditional May Day demonstrations. During the 2017 G20 Hamburg summit, 2017 G20 summit, which took place in Hamburg from 7–8 July that year, protestors clashed violently with the police in the Sternschanze area and particularly around the Rote Flora. On 7 July, several cars were set on fire and street barricades were erected to prevent the police from entering the area. In response to that, the police made heavy use of water cannons and tear gas in order to scatter the protestors. However, this was met with strong resistance by protestors, resulting in a total of 160 injured police and 75 arrested participants in the protests. After the summit, however, the Rote Flora issued a statement, in which it condemns the arbitrary acts of violence that were committed by some of the protestors whilst generally defending the right to use violence as a means of self-defence against police oppression. In particular, the spokesperson of the Rote Flora said that the autonomous cultural centre had a traditionally good relationship with its neighbours and local residents, since they were united in their fight against gentrification in that neighbourhood.


British culture

There are several English-speaking communities, such as the Caledonian Society of Hamburg, The British Club Hamburg, British and Commonwealth Luncheon Club, Anglo-German Club eingetragener Verein, e.V., Professional Women's Forum, The British Decorative and Fine Arts Society, The English Speaking Union of the Commonwealth, The Scottish Country Dancers of Hamburg, The Hamburg Players e.V. English Language Theatre Group, The Hamburg Exiles RFC, Hamburg Exiles Rugby Club, several cricket clubs, and The Morris Minor Register of Hamburg. Furthermore, the Anglo-Hanseatic Lodge No. 850 within the Grand Lodge of British Freemasons of Germany under the United Grand Lodges of Germany works in Hamburg, and has a diverse expat membership. There is also a 400-year-old Anglican church community worshipping at '. American and international English-speaking organisations include The American Club of Hamburg eingetragener Verein, e.V., the American Women's Club of Hamburg, the English Speaking Union, the German-American Women's Club, and The International Women's Club of Hamburg e.V. ''The American Chamber of Commerce'' handles matters related to business affairs. The International School of Hamburg serves school children. William Wordsworth, Dorothy Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge spent the last two weeks of September 1798 at Hamburg. Dorothy wrote a detailed journal of their stay, labelled "The Hamburg Journal (1798) by noted Wordsworth scholar Edward de Selincourt." A Hamburg saying, referring to its anglophile nature, is: "Wenn es in London anfängt zu regnen, spannen die Hamburger den Schirm auf." ... "When it starts raining in London, people in Hamburg open their umbrellas."


Memorials

A memorial for successful English engineer William Lindley, who reorganized, beginning in 1842, the drinking water and sewage system and thus helped to fight against cholera, is near Baumwall train station in Vorsetzen street. In 2009, more than 2,500 "stumbling blocks" ''(Stolpersteine)'' were laid, engraved with the names of deported and murdered citizens. Inserted into the pavement in front of their former houses, the blocks draw attention to the victims of Nazi persecution.


Economy

The Gross domestic product (GDP) of Hamburg was 119.0 billion € in 2018, accounting for 3.6% of German economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 59,600 € or 197% of the EU27 average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 132% of the EU average. The city has a relatively high employment rate, at 88 percent of the working-age population, employed in over 160,000 businesses. The average income in 2016 of employees was €49,332. The unemployment rate stood at 6.1% in October 2018 and was higher than the German average.


Banking

Hamburg has for centuries been a commercial centre of Northern Europe, and is the most important banking city of Northern Germany. The city is the seat of History of banking, Germany's oldest bank, the
Berenberg Bank The Berenberg family (Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Cast ...
, M.M.Warburg & CO and Hamburg Commercial Bank. The Hamburg Stock Exchange is the oldest of its kind in Germany.


Port

The most significant economic unit is the Port of Hamburg, which ranks third to
Rotterdam Rotterdam ( , , ) is the second largest List of cities in the Netherlands by province, city and List of municipalities of the Netherlands, municipality in the Netherlands. It is in the Provinces of the Netherlands, province of South Holland, ...

Rotterdam
and
Antwerp Antwerp (; nl, Antwerpen ; french: Anvers ) is a city in Belgium and the capital of Antwerp (province), Antwerp province in the Flemish Region. With a population of 520,504,
Antwerp
en in Europe and 17th-largest worldwide with transshipments of of cargo and 138.2 million tons of goods in 2016. International trade is also the reason for the large number of consulates in the city. Although situated up the Elbe, it is considered a sea port due to its ability to handle large ocean-going vessels.


Industrial production

Heavy industry of Hamburg includes the making of steel, aluminium, copper and various large shipyards such as Blohm + Voss. Hamburg, along with Seattle and Toulouse, is an important location of the civil aerospace industry.
Airbus Airbus SE (; ; ; ) is a European multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational s ...
, which operates the Airbus Hamburg-Finkenwerder, Hamburg-Finkenwerder assembly plant in
Finkenwerder Finkenwerder (; Low German: ''Finkwarder'', ''Finkenwarder'' or ''- wärder''; German: ''Finkeninsel''; translation: Island of finches) is a quarter of Hamburg, Germany in the borough Hamburg-Mitte. It is the location of a plant of Airbus and its H ...

Finkenwerder
, employs over 13,000 people.


HafenCity

The HafenCity is Europe's largest urban development project and is located in the Hamburg-Mitte district. It consists of the area of the Great Grasbrook, the northern part of the former Elbe island Grasbrook, and the warehouse district on the former Elbe island Kehrwieder and Wandrahm. It is bordered to the north, separated by the customs channel to Hamburg's city center, west and south by the Elbe and to the east, bounded by the upper harbor, Rothenburgsort. The district is full of rivers and streams and is surrounded by channels, and has a total area of about 2.2 square-kilometers. HafenCity has 155 hectares in the area formerly belonging to the free port north of the Great Grasbrook. Residential units for up to 12,000 people are planned to be built on the site by around the mid-2020s, and jobs for up to 40,000 people, mainly in the office sector, should be created. It is the largest ongoing urban development project in Hamburg. Construction work started in 2003, and in 2009 the first part of the urban development project was finished with the completion of the Dalmannkai / Sandtorkai neighborhood – which is the first stage of the HafenCity project. According to the person responsible for the development and commercialization of HafenCity, ''HafenCity Hamburg GmbH'', half of the master plan underlying structural construction is already completed, whereas the other half is either under construction or is in the construction preparation stages. Many companies operating in E-commerce, E-Commerce have moved into HafenCity or started there. In addition to cruise agents, many Start-up company, start-up companies that have no direct connection to the port or ships can be found in HafenCity.


Tourism

In 2017, more than 6,783,000 visitors with 13,822,000 overnight stays visited the city. The tourism sector employs more than 175,000 people full-time and brings in revenue of almost €9 billion, making the tourism industry a major economic force in the Hamburg Metropolitan Region. Hamburg has one of the fastest-growing tourism industries in Germany. From 2001 to 2007, the overnight stays in the city increased by 55.2% (Berlin +52.7%, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern +33%). A typical Hamburg visit includes a tour of the city hall and the grand church St. Michaelis Church, Hamburg, St. Michaelis (called the ''Michel''), and visiting the old warehouse district (''Speicherstadt'') and the Landungsbrücken, harbour promenade (''Landungsbrücken''). Sightseeing buses connect these points of interest. As Hamburg is one of the world's largest harbours many visitors take one of the harbour and/or canal boat tours (''Große Hafenrundfahrt'', ''Fleetfahrt'') which start from the ''Landungsbrücken''. Major destinations also include museums. The area of Reeperbahn in the quarter St. Pauli is Europe's largest red light district and home of strip clubs, brothels, bars and nightclubs. The singer and actor Hans Albers is strongly associated with St. Pauli, and wrote the neighbourhood's unofficial anthem, "Auf der Reeperbahn Nachts um Halb Eins" ("On the Reeperbahn at Half Past Midnight (song), On the Reeperbahn at Half Past Midnight") in the 1940s. The Beatles had stints on the Reeperbahn early in their careers. Others prefer the laid-back neighbourhood ''Schanze'' with its street cafés, or a barbecue on one of the beaches along the river Elbe. Hamburg's famous zoo, the Tierpark Hagenbeck, was founded in 1907 by Carl Hagenbeck as the first zoo with moated, barless enclosures. In 2016, the average visitor spent two nights in Hamburg. The majority of visitors come from Germany. Most foreigners are European, especially from Denmark (395,681 overnight stays), the United Kingdom (301,000 overnight stays), Switzerland (340,156 overnight stays), Austria (about 252,397 overnight stays) and the Netherlands (about 182,610 overnight stays). The largest group from outside Europe comes from the United States (206,614 overnight stays). The ''RMS Queen Mary 2, Queen Mary 2'' has docked regularly since 2004, and there were six departures planned from 2010 onwards.


Creative Industries

Media businesses employ over 70,000 people. The Norddeutscher Rundfunk which includes the television station NDR Fernsehen is based in Hamburg, including the very popular news program ''Tagesschau (German TV series), Tagesschau'', as are the commercial television station ''Hamburg 1'', the Christian television station ''Bibel TV'' and the civil media outlet ''Tide TV''. There are regional radio stations such as Radio Hamburg. Some of Germany's largest publishing companies, Axel Springer AG, Gruner + Jahr, Bauer Media Group are located in the city. Many national newspapers and magazines such as ''Der Spiegel'' and ''Die Zeit'' are produced in Hamburg, as well as some special-interest newspapers such as ''Financial Times Deutschland''. ''Hamburger Abendblatt'' and ''Hamburger Morgenpost'' are daily regional newspapers with a large circulation. There are music publishers, such as Warner Bros. Records Germany, and Information and communication technologies, ICT firms such as Adobe Systems and Google Germany. A total of about 2,000 companies are located in Hamburg that are active in the music industry. With over 17,000 employees and a gross value added of around 640 million euros, this industry is one of the strongest in the city. The and th
Clubkombinat
represent the companies in the industry. The interests of Hamburg musicians* are represented, for example, b
RockCity Hamburg e.V.
Hamburg was one of the locations for the James Bond (film series), James Bond series film ''Tomorrow Never Dies''. The ''Reeperbahn'' has been the location for many scenes, including the 1994 Beatles film ''Backbeat (film), Backbeat''. The film ''A Most Wanted Man (film), A Most Wanted Man'' was set in and filmed in Hamburg. Hamburg was also shown in ''An American Tail'' where Fievel Mousekewitz and his family immigrate to America in the hopes to escape cats.


Infrastructure


Health systems

Hamburg has 54 hospitals. The University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, with about 1,736 beds, houses a large medical school. There are also smaller private hospitals. On 1 January 2011 there were about 12,507 hospital beds. The city had 5,663 physicians in private practice and 456 pharmacies in 2010.


Transport

Hamburg is a major transportation hub, connected to four Autobahnen (motorways) and the most important railway junction on the route to Scandinavia. Bridges and tunnels connect the northern and southern parts of the city, such as the Elbe Tunnel (1911), old Elbe Tunnel (''Alter Elbtunnel'') or St. Pauli Elbtunnel (official name) which opened in 1911, now is major tourist sight, and the Elbe Tunnel (1975), Elbe Tunnel (''Elbtunnel'') the crossing of a Bundesautobahn 7, motorway. Hamburg Airport is the oldest airport in Germany still in operation. There is also the smaller Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport, used only as a company airport for
Airbus Airbus SE (; ; ; ) is a European multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational s ...
. Some airlines market Lübeck Airport in
Lübeck Lübeck (; Low German Low German or Low Saxon (in the language itself: , and other names; german: Plattdeutsch, ) is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language variety spoken mainly in Northern Germany and the northeastern part of the ...

Lübeck
as serving Hamburg. Hamburg's Vehicle registration plates of Germany, licence plate prefix was "HH" (Hansestadt Hamburg; English: Hanseatic City of Hamburg) between 1906 and 1945 and from 1956 onwards, rather than the single letter normally used for large cities since the federal registration reform in 1956, such as B for Berlin or M for Munich. "H" was Hamburg's prefix in the years between 1945 and 1947 (used by Hanover since 1956);


Public transport

Public transport by rail, bus and ship is organised by the ''Hamburger Verkehrsverbund'' ("Hamburg transit authority") (HVV). Tickets sold by one company are valid on all other HVV companies' services. The HVV was the first organisation of this kind worldwide. 33 mass transit rail lines across the city are the backbone of public transport. The Hamburg S-Bahn, S-Bahn (commuter train system) comprises six lines and the Hamburg U-Bahn, U-Bahn four lines – ''U-Bahn'' is short for ''Untergrundbahn'' (underground railway). Approximately of of the U-Bahn is underground; most is on embankments or viaduct or at ground level. Older residents still speak of the system as ''Hochbahn'' (elevated railway), also because the operating company of the subway is the ''Hamburger Hochbahn''. The AKN Eisenbahn, AKN railway connects satellite towns in Schleswig-Holstein to the city. On some routes regional trains of Germany's major railway company Deutsche Bahn, Deutsche Bahn AG and the regional ''metronom Eisenbahngesellschaft, metronom'' trains may be used with an HVV ticket. Except at the four bigger stations of the city, Hamburg Hauptbahnhof, Hauptbahnhof, Hamburg Dammtor station, Dammtor, Hamburg-Altona station, Altona and Hamburg-Harburg station, Harburg regional trains do not stop inside the city. The Trams in Hamburg, tram system was opened in 1866 and shut down in 1978. Gaps in the rail network are filled by more than 669 bus routes, operated by single-deck two-, three- and four-axle diesel buses. Hamburg has no trams or trolleybuses, but has hydrogen-fueled buses. The buses run frequently during working hours, with buses on some so-called MetroBus routes as often as every 2 minutes. On special weekday night lines the intervals can be 30 minutes or longer, on normal days (Monday-Friday) the normal buses stop running at night. (MetroBuses run all around the clock, every day at the year at least every half-hour.) There are eight ferry lines along the
River Elbe , german: Elbe, Low German , , (in a stricter sense) nl, Nedersaksisch da, Plattysk, , , (rarely) , states = Northern Germany, Northern and Western Germany, western GermanyEastern NetherlandsSouthern Denmark , ethnicity = D ...
, operated by ''HADAG Seetouristik und Fährdienst, HADAG'', that fall under the aegis of the HVV. While mainly used by citizens and dock workers, they can also be used for sightseeing tours. The international airport serving Hamburg, Hamburg Airport, Hamburg Airport Helmut Schmidt (International Air Transport Association, IATA: HAM, International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO: EDDH) is the fifth biggest and oldest airport in Germany, having been established in 1912 and located about from the city centre. About 60 airlines provide service to 125 destination airports, including some long-distance destinations like Newark, New Jersey on United Airlines, Dubai on Emirates (airline), Emirates, and Tehran on Iran Air. Hamburg is a secondary hub for Lufthansa, which is the largest carrier at the airport, and the airline also operates one of its biggest Lufthansa Technik maintenance facilities there. The second airport is located in Hamburg-Finkenwerder, officially named Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport (International Air Transport Association, IATA: XFW, International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO: EDHI). It is about from the city centre and is a nonpublic airport for the Airbus Operations GmbH, Airbus plant. It is the second biggest Airbus plant, after Toulouse, and the third biggest aviation manufacturing plant after Seattle and Toulouse; the plant houses the final assembly lines for Airbus A320 family, A318, A319, A320, A321 and Airbus A380, A380 aircraft.


Public transportation statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Hamburg, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 58 min. 16% of public transit riders, ride for more than two hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 11 min, while 11% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 8.9 km, while 21% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.


Utilities

Electricity for Hamburg and Northern Germany is largely provided by ''Vattenfall, Vattenfall Europe'', formerly the state-owned ''Hamburgische Electricitäts-Werke''. Vattenfall Europe used to operate the Brunsbüttel Nuclear Power Plant and Krümmel Nuclear Power Plant, both taken out of service as part of the Nuclear power in Germany#Closures and phase-out, nuclear power phase-out. In addition, E.ON operates the Brokdorf Nuclear Power Plant near Hamburg. There are also the coal-fired Wedel Power Station, Wedel, Tiefstack Power Station, Tiefstack and Moorburg Combined Heat And Power, CHP Plant, and the fuel-cell power plant in the HafenCity quarter. ''VERA Klärschlammverbrennung'' uses the biosolids of the Hamburg wastewater treatment plant; the ''Pumpspeicherwerk Geesthacht'' is a pump storage power plant and a solid waste combustion power station is ''Müllverwertung Borsigstraße''. In June 2019 City of Hamburg introduced a law governing the phasing out of coal based thermal and electric energy production ("Kohleausstiegsgesetz"). This move was the result of negotiations between parliamentary parties and representatives of the popular petition
Tschuess Kohle
("Goodbye Coal").'' Hamburg Ministry for Environment and Energy in 2020 announced a partnership with Namibia, which is a potential supplier of woody biomass from Bush encroachment, encroacher bush as replacement of coal.


Sports

Hamburger SV is a Association football, football team playing in the 2. Bundesliga (as of 2018). The HSV was the oldest team of the Bundesliga, playing in the league since its beginning in 1963 until a change of results saw them relegated from the Bundesliga in 2018. HSV is a six-time German champion, a three-time German cup winner and triumphed in the European Cup in 1983, and has played in the group stages of the UEFA Champions League, Champions League twice: in 2000–01 and in 2006–07. They play at the Volksparkstadion (average attendance in the 2012–13 Bundesliga, 12–13 season was 52,916). In addition, FC St. Pauli was a 2. Bundesliga, second division football club that came in second place in the 2009–10 Bundesliga, 2009–10 season and qualified to play alongside Hamburger SV in the Bundesliga, first division for the first time since the 2001–02 Bundesliga, 2001–02 season. St. Pauli's home games take place at the Millerntor-Stadion. The Hamburg Freezers represented Hamburg until 2016 in the Deutsche Eishockey Liga, DEL, the premier ice hockey league in Germany. HSV Hamburg, HSV Handball represented Hamburg until 2016 in the German Bundesliga (handball), handball league. In 2007, HSV Handball won the European Cupwinners Cup. The Club won the league in the 2010–11 season and had an average attendance of 10.690 in the O2 World Hamburg the same year. The most recent success for the team was the EHF Champions League win in 2013. Since 2014, the club has suffered from economic problems and was almost not allowed the playing licence for the 2014–15 season. But due to economic support from the former club president/sponsor Andreas Rudolf the club was allowed the licence in the last minute. On 20 January 2016 however, their licence was removed due to violations following the continued economic struggles. In 2016–17, they were not allowed to play in the first or second league. The team lives on through their former second team (now their main team) in the third division (2016-2018) and in second division (since 2018). The ''BCJ Hamburg'' played in the Basketball Bundesliga from 1999 to 2001. Since then, teams from Hamburg have attempted to return to Germany's elite league. The recently founded Hamburg Towers have already established themselves as one of the main teams in Germany's second division ProA and aim to take on the heritage of the BCJ Hamburg. The Towers play their home games at the ''Inselparkhalle'' in Wilhelmsburg, Hamburg, Wilhelmsburg. Hamburg is the nation's field hockey capital and dominates the men's as well as the women's Bundesliga. Hamburg hosts many top teams such as Uhlenhorster Hockey Club, Harvesterhuder Hockey Club and Club An Der Alster. The Hamburg Warriors are one of Germany's top lacrosse clubs. The club has grown immensely in the last several years and includes at least one youth team, three men's, and two women's teams. The team participates in the Deutsch Lacrosse Verein. The Hamburg Warriors are part of the Harvestehuder Tennis- und Hockey-Club e.V (HTHC). Hamburg Blue Devils was one of the prominent American Football teams playing in German Football League before its exit in 2017. Hamburg Sea Devils is a team of European League of Football (ELF) which is a planned professional league, that is set to become the first fully professional league in Europe since the demise of NFL Europe. The Sea Devils will start playing games in June 2021. There are also the Hamburg Dockers, an Australian rules football club. The FC St. Pauli team dominates women's rugby in Germany. Other first-league teams include VT Aurubis Hamburg (Volleyball) and Hamburger Polo Club. There are also several minority sports clubs, including four cricket clubs. The Centre Court of the Tennis Am Rothenbaum venue, with a capacity of 13,200 people, is the largest in Germany. Hamburg also hosts equestrianism, equestrian events at ''Reitstadion Klein Flottbek'' (Deutsches Derby in jumping and dressage) and ''Horner Rennbahn'' (Deutsches Derby flat racing). Besides Hamburg owns the famous harness racing track "Trabrennbahn Bahrenfeld". The Hamburg Marathon is the biggest marathon in Germany after Berlin's. In 2008 23,230 participants were registered. World Cup events in cycling, the UCI ProTour competition EuroEyes Cyclassics, and the triathlon International Triathlon Union, ITU World Cup event ''Hamburg City Man'' are also held in here. Volksparkstadion was used as a site for the 2006 FIFA World Cup, 2006 World Cup. In 2010 UEFA held the final of the UEFA Europa League in the arena. Hamburg made a bid for the 2024 Olympic Games, but 51.7 percent of those city residents participating in a referendum in November 2015 voted against continuing Hamburg's bid to host the games. Meanwhile, Hamburg's partner city Kiel voted in favour of hosting the event, with almost 66 percent of all participants supporting the bid. Opponents of the bid had argued that hosting the 33rd Olympic Games would cost the city too much in public funds.


Education

The school system is managed by the Ministry of Schools and Vocational Training (''Behörde für Schule und Berufsbildung''). The system had approximately 191,148 students in 221 primary education, primary schools and 188 secondary education, secondary schools in 2016. There are 32 public libraries in Hamburg. Nineteen universities are located in Hamburg, with about 100,589 university students in total, including 9,000 resident students. Six universities are public, including the largest, the University of Hamburg (Universität Hamburg) with the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, the Hochschule für Musik und Theater Hamburg, University of Music and Theatre, the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, the HafenCity University Hamburg and the Technical University of Hamburg, Hamburg University of Technology. Seven universities are private, like the Bucerius Law School, the Kühne Logistics University and the HSBA Hamburg School of Business Administration. The city has also smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as the Helmut Schmidt University (formerly the University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg). Hamburg is home to one of the oldest international schools in Germany, the International School of Hamburg.


Twin towns – sister cities

Hamburg is Sister city, twinned with: * Saint Petersburg, Russia (1957) * Marseille, France (1958) * Shanghai, China (1986) * Dresden, Germany (1987) * León, Nicaragua, León, Nicaragua (1989) * Osaka, Japan (1989) * Prague, Czech Republic (1990) * Chicago, United States (1994) * Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania (2010)


Notable people


See also

*Novo Hamburgo


References


External links

* * * *
Hamburg Panorama-View
{{Authority control Hamburg, City-states German state capitals Free imperial cities Members of the Hanseatic League NUTS 1 statistical regions of the European Union Port cities and towns in Germany Port cities and towns of the North Sea Populated places established in the 9th century States of the German Confederation States of the German Empire States of the North German Confederation States of the Weimar Republic Hanseatic Cities States of Germany