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The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Haus Habsburg, es, Casa de Habsburgo, hu, Habsburg-család), also House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich, es, link=no, Casa de Austria), was one of the most prominent royal houses of Europe in the 2nd millennium. The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day
Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_t ...
by Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh-generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg was elected King of the Romans. Taking advantage of the extinction of the Babenbergs and of his victory over Ottokar II of Bohemia at the battle on the Marchfeld in 1278, he subsequently moved the family's power base to
Vienna en, Viennese , iso_code = AT-9 , registration_plate = Vehicle registration plates of Austria, W , postal_code_type = Postal code , postal_code = , timezone ...
, where the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. The throne of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its D ...
was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and, after the death of Francis I, from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806. The house also produced kings of
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. Bohemia can also refer to a wider area consisting of the historical Lands of the Bohem ...
,
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a country in Central Europe. It borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest, and Austria to the west. ...

Hungary
,
Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* it, Repubblica di Croazia :* rue, Републіка Хорватія :* sr, Република Хрватска :* sk, Chorvátska republika :* sl, Republika H ...
,
Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_ ...
, Kingdom of Portugal, Portugal and Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Galicia, with their respective colonies; rulers of several principalities in the Habsburg Netherlands, Low Countries and Italy; and in the 19th century, Emperor of Austria, emperors of Austria and of Austria-Hungary as well as one Emperor of Mexico. The family split several times into parallel branches, most consequentially in the mid-16th century between its Spanish and Imperial/Austrian branches following the abdication of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. Although they ruled distinct territories, the different branches nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The house of Habsburg still exists and owns the Austrian branch of the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Order of St. George (Habsburg-Lorraine), Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. As of early 2021, the head of the family is Karl von Habsburg.


Name

The origins of Habsburg Castle's name are uncertain. There is disagreement on whether the name is derived from the High German ''Habichtsburg'' (hawk castle), or from the Middle High German word ''hab/hap'' meaning ''ford'', as there is a river with a ford nearby. The first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108. The Habsburg name was not continuously used by the family members, since they often emphasized their more prestigious princely titles. The dynasty was thus long known as the "house of Austria". Complementarily, in some circumstances the family members were identified by their place of birth. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V was known in his youth after his birthplace as Charles of Ghent. When he became king of Spain he was known as Charles of Spain, and after he was elected emperor, as Charles V (in French, ''Charles Quint''). In Spain, the dynasty was known as the ''Casa de Austria'', including illegitimate sons such as John of Austria and John Joseph of Austria. The arms displayed in their simplest form were those of Austria, which the Habsburgs had made their own, at times impaled with the arms of the Duchy of Burgundy (ancient). After Maria Theresa married Duke Francis Stephen of Lorraine, the idea of "Habsburg" as associated with ancestral Austrian rulership was used to show that the old dynasty continued as did all its inherited rights. When Francis I became Emperor of Austria, he adopted the old shield of Habsburg in his personal arms, together with Austria and Lorraine. This also reinforced the "Germanness" of the (French-speaking) Austrian Emperor and his claim to rule in Germany, not least against the Prussian Kings. Some younger sons who had no prospects of the throne were given the personal title of "count of Habsburg". The surname of more recent members of the family such as Otto von Habsburg and Karl von Habsburg is taken to be "von Habsburg" or more completely "von Habsburg-Lothringen". Princes and members of the house use the tripartite arms adopted in the 18th century by Francis Stephen.


History


Counts of Habsburg

The progenitor of the House of Habsburg may have been Guntram the Rich, a count in the Breisgau who lived in the 10th century, and forthwith farther back as the medieval Adalrich, Duke of Alsace, from the Etichonids from which Habsburg derives. His grandson Radbot of Klettgau founded the Habsburg Castle. That castle was the family seat during most of the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges, especially countship rights in Zürichgau, Aargau and Thurgau. In the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Alsace and Swabia. They were also able to gain high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they often profited from the extinction of other noble families such as the House of Kyburg.


Pivot to Eastern Alpine Duchies

By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph I of Germany, Rudolph IV (1218–1291) had become an influential territorial lord in the area between the Vosges Mountains and Lake Constance. On , he was elected as a compromise candidate as King of the Romans and received the name Rudolph I of Germany.Heinz-Dieter Heimann: ''Die Habsburger. Dynastie und Kaiserreiche''. . He then led a coalition against king Ottokar II of Bohemia who had taken advantage of the Great Interregnum in order to expand southwards, taking over the respective inheritances of the House of Babenberg, Babenberg (Duchy of Austria, Austria, Duchy of Styria, Styria, Mark an der Sann, Savinja) and of the House of Spanheim, Spanheim (Duchy of Carinthia, Carinthia and March of Carniola, Carniola). In 1278, Rudolph and his allies defeated and killed Ottokar at the Battle of Marchfeld, and the lands he had acquired reverted to the German crown. With the Georgenberg Pact of 1286, Rudolph secured for his family the duchies of Austria and Styria. The southern portions of Ottokar's former realm, Carinthia, Carniola, and Savinja, went to Rudolph's allies from the House of Gorizia. Following Rudolph's death in 1291, Albert I of Germany, Albert I's assassination in 1308, and Frederick the Fair's failure to secure the German/Imperial crown for himself, the Habsburgs temporarily lost their supremacy in the Empire. In the early 14th century they also focused on the Kingdom of Bohemia. After Václav III’s death on , there were no male heirs remaining in the Přemyslid dynasty. Habsburg scion Rudolph I of Bohemia, Rudolph I was then elected but only lasted a year. The Bohemian kingship was an elected position, and the Habsburgs were only able to secure it on a hereditary basis much later in 1626, following their submission of the Czech lands during the Thirty Years' War. After 1307, subsequent Habsburg attempts to gain the Bohemian crown were frustrated first by Henry of Bohemia (a member of the House of Gorizia) and then by the House of Luxembourg. Instead, they were able to expand southwards: in 1311, they took over Mark an der Sann, Savinja; after the death of Henry in 1335, they assumed power in March of Carniola, Carniola and Duchy of Carinthia, Carinthia; and in 1369, they succeeded his daughter Margaret, Countess of Tyrol, Margaret in County of Tyrol, Tyrol. After the death of Albert III of Gorizia in 1374, they gained a foothold at Pazin in central Istria, followed by Trieste in 1382. Meanwhile, the original home territories of the Habsburgs in what is now Switzerland, including the Aargau with Habsburg Castle, were lost in the 14th century to the expanding Old Swiss Confederacy, Swiss Confederacy after the battles of Battle of Morgarten, Morgarten (1315) and Battle of Sempach, Sempach (1386). Habsburg Castle itself was finally lost to the Swiss in 1415.


Albertinian / Leopoldian split and Imperial elections

Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, Rudolf IV's brothers Albert III, Duke of Austria, Albert III and Leopold III, Duke of Austria, Leopold III ignored his efforts to preserve the integrity of the family domains, and enacted the separation of the so-called Albertinian Line, Albertinian and Leopoldian line, Leopoldian family lines on by the Treaty of Neuberg. The former would maintain Austria proper (then called ''Niederösterreich'' but comprising modern Lower Austria and most of Upper Austria), while the latter would rule over lands then labeled ''Oberösterreich'', namely Inner Austria (''Innerösterreich'') comprising Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, and Further Austria (''Vorderösterreich'') consisting of Tyrol and the western Habsburg lands in Alsace and Swabia. By marrying Elisabeth of Luxembourg, the daughter of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Sigismund in 1437, Duke Albert II of Germany, Albert V of the Albertine line (1397–1439) became the ruler of Bohemia and Hungary, again expanding the family's political horizons. The next year, Albert was crowned as King of the Romans, known as such as Albert II of Germany, Albert II. Following his early death in a battle against the Ottomans in 1439 and that of his son Ladislaus Postumus in 1457, the Habsburgs lost Bohemia once more as well as Hungary, for several decades. However, with the extinction of the House of Celje in 1456 and the House of Wallsee, House of Wallsee-Enns in 1466/1483, they managed to absorb significant secular enclaves within their territories, and create a contiguous domain stretching from the border with Bohemia to the Adriatic sea. After the death of Leopold's eldest son William, Duke of Austria, William in 1406, the Leopoldian line was further split among his brothers into the Inner Austrian territory under Ernest, Duke of Austria, Ernest the Iron and a Tyrolean/Further Austrian line under Frederick IV, Duke of Austria, Frederick of the empty pockets. In 1440, Ernest's son Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick III was chosen by the Prince-elector, electoral college to succeed Albert II as the king. Several Habsburg kings had attempted to gain the imperial dignity over the years, but success finally arrived on , when Pope Nicholas V crowned Frederick III as the Holy Roman Emperor in a grand ceremony held in Rome. In Frederick III, the Pope found an important political ally with whose help he was able to counter the conciliarism, conciliar movement. While in Rome, Frederick III married Eleanor of Portugal, Holy Roman Empress, Eleanor of Portugal, enabling him to build a network of connections with dynasties in the west and southeast of Europe. Frederick was rather distant to his family; Eleanor, by contrast, had a great influence on the raising and education of Frederick's children and therefore played an important role in the family's rise to prominence. After Frederick III's coronation, the Habsburgs were able to hold the imperial throne almost continuously until 1806.


Archdukes

Through the forged document called ''privilegium maius'' (1358/59), Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, Duke Rudolf IV (1339–1365) introduced the title of Archduke to place the Habsburgs on a par with the Prince-electors of the Empire, since Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Charles IV had omitted to give them the electoral dignity in his Golden Bull of 1356. Charles, however, refused to recognize the title, as did his immediate successors. Duke Ernest of Austria (Habsburg), Ernest the Iron and his descendants unilaterally assumed the title "archduke". That title was only officially recognized in 1453 by Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Frederick III, himself a Habsburg. Frederick himself used just "Duke of Austria", never ''Archduke'', until his death in 1493. The title was first granted to Frederick's younger brother, Albert VI of Austria (died 1463), who used it at least from 1458. In 1477, Frederick granted the title ''archduke'' to his first cousin Sigismund of Austria, ruler of Further Austria. Frederick's son and heir, the future Emperor Maximilian I, apparently only started to use the title after the death of his wife Mary of Burgundy in 1482, as ''Archduke'' never appears in documents issued jointly by Maximilian and Mary as rulers in the Low Countries (where Maximilian is still titled "Duke of Austria"). The title appears first in documents issued under the joint rule of Maximilian and Philip I of Castile, Philip (his under-age son) in the Low Countries. ''Archduke'' was initially borne by those dynasts who ruled a Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg territory, i.e., only by males and their consorts, appanages being commonly distributed to cadets. These "junior" ''archdukes'' did not thereby become independent hereditary rulers, since all territories remained vested in the Austrian crown. Occasionally a territory might be combined with a separate gubernatorial mandate ruled by an archducal cadet. From the 16th century onward, ''archduke'' and its female form, ''archduchess'', came to be used by all the members of the House of Habsburg (e.g., Queen Marie Antoinette of France was born ''Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria''.


Re-unification and expansion

In 1457 Duke Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick V of Inner Austria also gained the Austrian archduchy after his Albertine cousin Ladislaus the Posthumous had died without issue. 1490 saw the reunification of all Habsburg lines when Archduke Sigismund, Archduke of Austria, Sigismund of Further Austria and Tyrol resigned in favor of Frederick's son Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I. As emperor, Frederick III took a leading role inside the family and positioned himself as the judge over the family's internal conflicts, often making use of the ''privilegium maius''. He was able to restore the unity of the house's Austrian lands, as the Albertinian line was now extinct. Territorial integrity was also strengthened by the extinction of the Tyrolean branch of the Leopoldian line. Frederick's aim was to make Austria a united country, stretching from the Rhine to the Mur (river), Mur and Leitha. On the external front, one of Frederick's main achievements was the Siege of Neuss (1474–75), in which he coerced Charles the Bold of Burgundy to give his daughter Mary of Burgundy as wife to Frederick's son Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian. The wedding took place on the evening of 16 August 1477 and ultimately resulted in the Habsburgs acquiring control of the Low Countries. After Mary's early death in 1482, Maximilian attempted to secure the Burgundian heritance to one of his and Mary's children Philip I of Castile, Philip the Handsome. Charles VIII of France contested this, using both military and dynastic means, but the Burgundian succession was finally ruled in favor of Philip in the Treaty of Senlis in 1493. After the death of his father in 1493, Maximilian was proclaimed the new King of the Romans, receiving the name Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I. Maximilian was initially unable to travel to Rome to receive the Imperial title from the Pope, due to opposition from Venice and from the French who were occupying Milan, as well a refusal from the Pope due to enemy forces being present on his territory. In 1508, Maximilian proclaimed himself as the "chosen Emperor," and this was also recognized by the Pope due to changes in political alliances. This had a historical consequence in that, in the future, the Roman King would also automatically become Emperor, without needing the Pope's consent. Emperor Charles V would be the last to be crowned by the Pope himself, at Bologna in 1530. Maximilian's rule (1493–1519) was a time of dramatic expansion for the Habsburgs. In 1497, Maximilian's son Philip I of Castile, Philip, known as the Handsome or the Fair, married Joanna of Castile, also known as Joan the Mad, heiress of the Crown of Castile, Castile. Phillip and Joan had six children, the eldest of whom became Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Charles V and ruled the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon (including their colonies in the New World), Southern Italy, Austria, and the Low Countries. The foundations for the later empire of Austria-Hungary were laid in 1515 by the means of a double wedding between Louis, only son of Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary, Vladislaus II, King of Bohemia and Hungary, and Maximilian's granddaughter Mary; and between her brother Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Archduke Ferdinand and Louis's sister Anna. The wedding was celebrated in grand style on . All these children were still minors, so the wedding was formally completed in 1521. Vladislaus died on 13 March 1516, and Maximilian died on 12 January 1519, but the latter's designs were ultimately successful: upon Louis's death in battle in 1526, Ferdinand became king of Bohemia and Hungary. The Habsburg dynasty achieved its highest position when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V was elected Holy Roman Emperor. Much of Charles's reign was dedicated to the fight against Protestantism, which led to its eradication throughout vast areas under Habsburg control.


Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs

After the abdication of Charles V in 1556, the Habsburg dynasty split into the branch of the Austrian (or German) Habsburgs, led by Ferdinand, and the branch of the Spanish Habsburgs, initially led by Charles's son Philip II of Spain, Philip. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand I, King of Bohemia, Hungary, and archduke of Austria in the name of his brother Charles V became suo jure monarch as well as the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor (designated as successor already Imperial election, 1531, in 1531). Philip became King of Spain and its colonial empire as Philip II of Spain, Philip II, and ruler of the Habsburg domains in Italy and the Low Countries. The Spanish Habsburgs also ruled Portugal for a time, known there as the Philippine dynasty (1580–1640). The Seventeen Provinces and the Duchy of Milan were in personal union under the King of Spain, but remained part of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its D ...
. Furthermore, the Spanish king had claims on Hungary and Bohemia. In the secret Oñate treaty of , the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs settled their mutual claims.


Habsburg inbreeding and extinction of the male lines

The Habsburgs sought to consolidate their power by frequent consanguineous marriages, resulting in a cumulatively deleterious effect on their gene pool. Health impairments due to inbreeding including epilepsy, insanity and death. A study of 3,000 family members over 16 generations by the University of Santiago de Compostela suggests inbreeding may have played a factor in their extinction. Numerous members of the family showed specific facial deformities: an enlarged lower jaw with an extended chin known as mandibular prognathism or "Habsburg jaw", a large nose with hump and hanging tip ("Habsburg nose"), and an everted lower lip ("Habsburg lip"). The latter two are signs of Maxillary hypoplasia, maxillary deficiency. A 2019 study found that the degree of mandibular prognasthism in the Habsburg family shows a statistically significant correlation with the degree of inbreeding. A correlation between maxillary deficiency and degree of inbreeding was also present but was not statistically significant. Other scientific studies, however, dispute the ideas of any linkage between fertility and consanguinity. The gene pool eventually became so small that the last of the Spanish line, Charles II of Spain, Charles II, who was severely disabled from birth, perhaps by genetic disorders, possessed a genome comparable to that of a child born to a brother and sister, as did his father, probably because of "remote inbreeding". The death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 led to the War of the Spanish Succession, and that of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Charles VI in 1740 led to the War of the Austrian Succession. In the former, the House of Bourbon won the conflict and put a final end to the Habsburg rule in Spain. The latter, however, was won by Maria Theresa and led to the succession of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German language, German: ''Haus Habsburg-Lothringen'') becoming the new main branch of the dynasty, in the person of Maria Theresa's son, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II. This new House was created by the marriage between Maria Theresa, Maria Theresa of Habsburg and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis Stephan, Duke of Lorraine (both of them were great-grandchildren of Habsburg emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III, but from different empresses) being this new House a cadet branch of the female line of the House of Habsburg and the male line of the House of Lorraine. It is thought that extensive intra-family marriages within Spanish and Austrian lines contributed to the extinction of the main line.


House of Habsburg-Lorraine

On 6 August 1806, Francis II of the Holy Roman Empire, Emperor Francis I dissolved the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its D ...
under pressure from Napoleon's reorganization of Germany. In anticipation of the loss of his title of Holy Roman Emperor, Francis had declared himself hereditary Emperor of Austria (as Francis I) on 11 August 1804, three months after Napoleon had declared himself Emperor of the French on 18 May 1804. Emperor Francis II of the Holy Roman Empire, Francis I of Austria used the official full list of titles: "Majestic plural, We, Francis the First, by the grace of God, Emperor of Austria; Kings of Jerusalem, King of Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Galicia and Lodomeria; Archduke of Austria; Duke of Lorraine (province), Lorraine, Salzburg, Würzburg, Franconia, Styria (duchy), Styria, Carinthia (duchy), Carinthia, and Carniola; Grand Duke of Grand Duchy of Cracow, Cracow; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Sandomierz, Sandomir, Masovia, Lublin, Upper and Lower Silesia, Oświęcim, Auschwitz and Zator, Cieszyn, Teschen, and Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Friule; Prince of Berchtesgaden and Mergentheim; Princely Count of Habsburg, Gorizia, and Gradisca d'Isonzo, Gradisca and of the German Tyrol, Tyrol; and Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and Istria". The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 created a real union, whereby the Kingdom of Hungary was granted co-equality with the Austrian Empire, Empire of Austria, that henceforth didn't include the Kingdom of Hungary as a crownland anymore. The Austrian and the Hungarian lands became independent entities enjoying equal status. Under this arrangement, the Hungarians referred to their ruler as king and never emperor (see Imperial and Royal, k. u. k.). This prevailed until the Habsburgs' deposition from both Austria and Hungary in 1918 following defeat in World War I. On 11 November 1918, with his empire collapsing around him, the last Habsburg ruler, Charles I of Austria (who also reigned as Charles IV of Hungary) issued a proclamation recognizing Austria's right to determine the future of the state and renouncing any role in state affairs. Two days later, he issued a separate proclamation for Hungary. Even though he did not officially abdication, abdicate, this is considered the end of the Habsburg dynasty. In 1919, the new republican Austrian government subsequently passed a law banishing the Habsburgs from Austrian territory until they renounced all intentions of regaining the throne and accepted the status of private citizens. Charles made several attempts to regain the throne of Hungary, and in 1921 the Hungarian government passed a law that revoked Charles' rights and dethroned the Habsburgs. The Habsburgs did not formally abandon all hope of returning to power until Otto von Habsburg, the eldest son of Charles I, on 31 May 1961 renounced all claims to the throne. In the interwar period, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazi Party, Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the United States. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies of World War II, Allies, were executed. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc.


Multilingualism

As they accumulated crowns and titles, the Habsburgs developed a unique family tradition of multilingualism that evolved over the centuries. The
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its D ...
had been multilingual from the start, even though most of its emperors were native German-speakers. The language issue within the Empire became gradually more salient as the non-religious use of Latin declined and that of Languages of Europe, national languages gained prominence during the High Middle Ages. Emperor Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles IV of Luxembourg was known to be fluent in Czech, French, German, Italian and Latin. The last section of his Golden Bull of 1356 specifies that the Empire's secular prince-electors "should be instructed in the varieties of the different dialects and languages" and that "since they are expected in all likelihood to have naturally acquired the German language, and to have been taught it from their infancy, [they] shall be instructed in the grammar of the Italian and Slavic tongues, beginning with the seventh year of their age so that, before the fourteenth year of their age, they may be learned in the same". In the early 15th century, Strasbourg-based chronicler Jakob Twinger von Königshofen asserted that Charlemagne had mastered six languages, even though he had a preference for German. In the early years of the family's ascendancy, neither Rudolf I of Germany, Rudolf I nor Albert I of Germany, Albert I appear to have spoken French. By contrast, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V of Habsburg is well known some having been fluent in several languages. He was native in French language, French and also knew Dutch language, Dutch from his youth in Flanders. He later added some Spanish language, Castilian Spanish, which he was required to learn by the Old Castile, Castilian ''Cortes Generales''. He could also speak some Basque language, Basque, acquired by the influence of the History of the Basques, Basque secretaries serving in the royal court. He gained a decent command of German language, German following the Imperial election of 1519, though he never spoke it as well as French. A witticism sometimes attributed to Charles was: "I speak Spanish/Latin [depending on the source] to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horse." Latin was the administrative language of the Empire until the aggressive Josephinism, promotion of German by Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II in the late 18th century, which was partly reversed by his successors. From the 16th century, most if not all Habsburgs spoke French as well as German, and many also spoke Italian. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand I, Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian II and Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolf II addressed the Bohemian Diet, Bohemian Assembly in Czech, even though it is not clear that they were fluent. By contrast, there is little evidence that later Habsburgs in the 17th and 18th centuries spoke Czech, with the probable exception of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III who made several stays in Bohemia and appears to have spoken Czech while there. In the 19th century, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis I had notions of Czech, and Ferdinand I of Austria, Ferdinand I spoke it decently. Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian II spoke Spanish, Latin, Hungarian and Italian in addition to French and German and his above-mentioned notions of Czech. Maria Theresa spoke German, Italian, French, Spanish, Latin, and added Hungarian before she became Empress. Franz Joseph I of Austria, Franz Joseph received a bilingual early education in French and German, then added Czech and Hungarian and later Italian and Polish. He also learned Latin and Greek. Even so, he viewed himself as German, and once wrote to Napoleon III ''"Nein, ich bin ein Deutscher Fürst"''. After the end of the Habsburg Monarchy, Otto von Habsburg was fluent in English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese.


Residences

File:Habsburg (Aargau, Switzerland).jpg, Habsburg Castle, Aargau, Switzerland File:Burgtor Graz.jpg, File:Linzcastle20050926.jpg, Linz Castle File:In der Burg Jan 2008 pano.jpg, Hofburg Palace, Vienna File:Innsbruck Hofburg inner court.jpg, Hofburg, Innsbruck File:Altes Schloss Schlosspark Laxenburg.jpg, Laxenburg castles, Old Laxenburg Castle File:Granada-Day2-3 (48004400267).jpg, Palace of Charles V, Granada File:Mechelen gerechtshof 11.JPG, Hof van Savoye, Palace of Margaret of Austria in Mechelen File:Pražský hrad s katedrálou z Petřína.JPG, Prague Castle File:Bratislava, Hrad, Slovensko.jpg, Bratislava Castle File:IMG 9009PALAZZO REALE 3.png, Royal Palace of Milan File:Napoli - Palazzo Reale19.jpg, Royal Palace of Naples File:Vista aerea del Monasterio de El Escorial.jpg, El Escorial, El Escorial Palace near Madrid File:Chateau ambras.jpg, Ambras Castle, Innsbruck File:Neugebäude Palace 2013 aerial (1).JPG, Schloss Neugebäude, Neugebäude Palace near Vienna File:Buda--Castles01.jpg, Buda Castle File:Godollocivertanlegifoto1.jpg, Royal Palace of Gödöllő near Budapest File:Palacio de Schönbrunn, Viena, Austria, 2020-02-02, DD 28.jpg, Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna File:IHetzendorfSchloss1.JPG, Schloss Hetzendorf, Hetzendorf Palace, Vienna File:Brussels Palace of Charles of Lorraine 02.jpg, Palace of Charles of Lorraine in Brussels File:Villa Reale di Monza (Giuseppe Piermarini, 1777-1780), veduta di tre quarti.jpg, Royal Villa of Monza File:Cieszyn 05.jpg, Habsburg Palace, Cieszyn, Habsburg Hunting Palace in Cieszyn, Poland File:Żywiec - Pałac Habsburgów.JPG, Habsburg Palace in Żywiec, Poland File:Parkring 8 Ansicht 2.jpg, ''Palais Archduke Wilhelm Franz of Austria, Erzherzog Wilhelm'' in Vienna File:Kaiservilla vorderansicht.jpg, ''Kaiservilla'' in Bad Ischl, Austria File:Miramare2.jpg, Miramare Castle, Trieste File:Reichenau an der Rax Villa Wartholz 1900.jpg, Villa Wartholz, Reichenau an der Rax File:Hietzing (Wien) - Hermesvilla.JPG, Hermesvilla in Vienna File:Konopiste CZ 02.jpg, Konopiště, Konopiště Castle near Benešov, Czechia File:Achilleion in Kerkyra.jpg, Achilleion (Corfu), Achilleion Palace in Corfu File:Schloss Wilhelminenberg Terrasse.jpg, Schloss Wilhelminenberg, Vienna File:Villa Swoboda (Salzburg) - Südseite.jpg, ''Casa Austria'' () outside Salzburg


Burials


List of Habsburg rulers

The Habsburgs' monarchical positions included: * Holy Roman Emperors (intermittently from 1273 until 1806) and List of German monarchs, Roman-German kings * Rulers of Austria (as dukes from 1278 until 1453; as archdukes from 1453 and as emperors from 1804 until 1918) * List of rulers of Bohemia, Kings of Bohemia (1306–1307, 1437–1439, 1453–1457, 1526–1918) * List of Spanish monarchs, Kings of Spain (1516–1700) * King of Hungary, Kings of Hungary and King of Croatia, Croatia (1526–1918) * List of Portuguese monarchs, Kings of Portugal (1581–1640) * List of rulers of Transylvania, Grand princes of Transylvania (1690–1867) * Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Kings of Galicia and Lodomeria (1772–1918) * Emperor of Mexico (1864–1867)


Ancestors

* Guntram, Count of Habsburg, Guntram the Rich (ca. 930–985 / 990) Father of:Hugh Massingberd, Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh. "Burke's Peerage, Burke’s Royal Families of the World: ''Volume I Europe & Latin America'', 1977, pp. 18, 32. The chronology of the Muri Abbey, burial place of the early Habsburgs, written in the 11th century, states that ''Guntramnus Dives'' (Guntram the Rich), was the ancestor of the House of Habsburg. Many historians believe this indeed makes Guntram the progenitor of the House of Habsburg. However, this account was 200 years after the fact, and much about him and the origins of the Habsburgs is uncertain. If true, as Guntram was a member of the Etichonids, Etichonider family, it would link the Habsburg lineage to this family. * Lanzelin, Count of Habsburg, Lanzelin of Altenburg (died 991). Besides Radbot, below, he had sons named Rudolph I, Count of Habsburg, Rudolph I, Werner I, Bishop of Strasbourg, Wernher, and Landolf.


Before the Albertine/Leopoldine division


Counts

Before Rudolph I of Germany, Rudolph rose to Holy Roman Emperor, German king, the Habsburgs were Counts of Baden in what is today southwestern Germany and
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. * Radbot, Count of Habsburg, Radbot of Klettgau, built the Habsburg Castle (c. 985 – 1035). Besides Werner I, he had two other sons: Otto I, Count of Habsburg, Otto I, who would become Count of Sundgau in the Alsace, and Albert I, Count of Habsburg, Albrecht I. Founded the Muri Abbey, which became the first burial place of members of the House of Habsburg. It is possible that Radbot founded the castle Habsburg Castle, Habichtsburg, the residence of the House of Habsburg, but another possible founder is Werner I, Count of Habsburg, Werner I. * Werner I, Count of Habsburg, Werner I, Count of Habsburg (1025/1030–1096). Besides Otto II, there was another son, Albert II, Count of Habsburg, Albert II, who was Vogt, reeve of Muri, Aargau, Muri from 1111–1141 after the death of Otto II. * Otto II of Habsburg; first to name himself as "of Habsburg" (died 1111) Father of: * Werner II, Count of Habsburg, Werner II of Habsburg (around 1135; died 1167) Father of: * Albert III, Count of Habsburg, Albrecht III of Habsburg (''the Rich''), died 1199. Under him, the Habsburg territories expanded to cover most of what is today the German language, German-speaking part of
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. Father of: * Rudolph II, Count of Habsburg, Rudolph II of Habsburg (b. c. 1160, died 1232) Father of: * Albert IV, Count of Habsburg, Albrecht IV of Habsburg, (died 1239 / 1240); father of Rudolph IV of Habsburg, who would later become king Rudolph I of Germany. Between Albrecht IV and his brother Rudolph III, Count of Habsburg, Rudolph III, the Habsburg properties were split, with Albrecht keeping the Aargau and the western parts, the eastern parts going to Rudolph III. Albrecht IV was also a mutual ancestor of Sophia Chotek and of her husband Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria


Kings of the Romans

*Rudolph I, Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph I, emperor 1273–1291 (never crowned) *Albert I, Holy Roman Emperor, Albert I, emperor 1298–1308 (never crowned)


King of Bohemia

* Rudolph I of Bohemia, Rudolph I, king of Bohemia 1306–1307


Dukes/Archdukes of Austria

* ''Rudolph II of Austria, Rudolph II'', son of Rudolph I of Germany, Rudolph I, duke of Austria and Styria together with his brother 1282–1283, was dispossessed by his brother, who eventually would be murdered by one of Rudolph's sons. * Albert I of Austria, Albert I (''Albrecht I''), son of Rudolph I of Germany, Rudolph I and brother of the above, duke from 1282–1308; was Holy Roman Emperor from 1298–1308. See also #House of Habsburg, below. * ''Rudolph III of Austria, Rudolph III'', the oldest son of Albert I, designated duke of Austria and Styria 1298–1307 * Frederick I of Austria (Habsburg), Frederick ''the Handsome'' (''Friedrich der Schöne''), brother of Rudolph III. Duke of Austria and Styria (with his brother Leopold I) from 1308–1330; officially co-regent of the emperor Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Louis IV since 1325, but never ruled. * Leopold I of Austria (Habsburg), Leopold I, brother of the above, duke of Austria and Styria from 1308–1326. * Albert II of Austria, Albert II (''Albrecht II''), brother of the above, duke of Further Austria from 1326–1358, duke of Austria and Styria 1330–1358, duke of Carinthia after 1335. * Otto, Duke of Austria, Otto ''the Jolly'' (''der Fröhliche''), brother of the above, duke of Austria and Styria 1330–1339 (together with his brother), duke of Carinthia after 1335. * Rudolph IV of Austria, Rudolph IV ''the Founder'' (''der Stifter''), oldest son of Albert II. Duke of Austria and Styria 1358–1365, Duke of German Tyrol, Tirol after 1363.


Division of Albertinian and Leopoldian lines

After the death of Rudolph IV, his brothers Albert III of Austria, Albert III and Leopold III of Austria (Habsburg), Leopold III ruled the Habsburg possessions together from 1365 until 1379, when they split the territories in the Treaty of Neuberg, Albert keeping the Duchy of Austria and Leopold ruling over Duchy of Styria, Styria, Duchy of Carinthia, Carinthia, Carniola, the Windic March, German Tyrol, Tirol, and Further Austria.


Kings of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors (Albertinian line)

*Albert II, Holy Roman Emperor, Albert II, emperor 1438–1439 (never crowned) -ancestor of Empress Catherine II of Russia *Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick III, emperor 1440–1493


Kings of Hungary and Bohemia (Albertinian line)

* Albert II, Holy Roman Emperor, Albert, king of Hungary and Bohemia (1437–1439) * Ladislaus Posthumus of Bohemia and Hungary, Ladislaus V Posthumus, king of Hungary (1444–1457) and Bohemia (1453–1457)


Kings of Bohemia (Albertinian line)

* Albert II, Holy Roman Emperor, Albert, king of Bohemia 1438–1439 * Ladislaus Posthumus of Bohemia and Hungary, Ladislaus Posthumus, king of Bohemia 1453–1457


Dukes of Austria (Albertinian line)

* Albert III of Austria, Albert III (''Albrecht III''), duke of Austria until 1395, from 1386 (after the death of Leopold) until 1395 also ruled over the latter's possessions. * Albert IV of Austria, Albert IV (''Albrecht IV''), duke of Austria 1395–1404, in conflict with Leopold IV. * Albert V of Austria, Albert V (''Albrecht V''), duke of Austria 1404–1439, Holy Roman Emperor from 1438–1439 as Albert II, Holy Roman Emperor, Albert II. See also #House of Habsburg, below. * Ladislaus Posthumus of Bohemia and Hungary, Ladislaus Posthumus, son of the above, duke of Austria 1440–1457.


Dukes of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol / Inner Austria (Leopoldian line)

* Leopold III of Austria (Habsburg), Leopold III, duke of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol, and Further Austria until 1386, when he was killed in the Battle of Sempach. * William of Austria, William (''Wilhelm''), son of the above, 1386–1406 duke in Inner Austria (Carinthia, Styria) * Leopold IV of Austria (Habsburg), Leopold IV, son of Leopold III, 1391 regent of Further Austria, 1395–1402 duke of Tyrol, after 1404 also duke of Austria, 1406–1411 duke of Inner Austria


=Leopoldian-Inner Austrian sub-line

= :* Ernest of Austria (Habsburg), Ernest ''the Iron'' (''der Eiserne''), 1406–1424 duke of Inner Austria, until 1411 together and competing with his brother Leopold IV. :* Frederick V of Austria, Frederick V (''Friedrich''), son of Ernst, became Holy Roman Emperor, emperor Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick III in 1440. He was duke of Inner Austria from 1424 on. Guardian of Sigismund of Austria, Sigismund 1439–1446 and of Ladislaus Posthumus of Bohemia and Hungary, Ladislaus Posthumus 1440–1452. See also #House of Habsburg, below. :* Albert VI of Austria, Albert VI (''Albrecht VI''), brother of the above, 1446–1463 regent of Further Austria, duke of Austria 1458–1463 :* ''Ernestine line'' of Rulers of Saxony, Saxon princes, ancestor of George I of Great Britain-descended from sister of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick III; also Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse King of Finland 1918


=Leopoldian-Tyrol sub-line

= :* Frederick IV of Austria, Frederick IV (''Friedrich''), brother of Ernst, 1402–1439 duke of Tyrol and Further Austria :* Sigismund of Austria, Sigismund, also spelled ''Siegmund'' or ''Sigmund'', 1439–1446 under the tutelage of the Frederick V above, then duke of Tyrol, and after the death of Albrecht VI in 1463 also duke of Further Austria.


Reunited Habsburgs until extinction of agnatic lines

Sigismund had no children and adopted Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, son of duke Frederick V (emperor Frederick III). Under Maximilian, the possessions of the Habsburgs would be united again under one ruler, after he had re-conquered the Duchy of Austria after the death of Matthias Corvinus, who resided in
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and styled himself duke of Austria from 1485–1490.


Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria

*Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, emperor 1508–1519 *Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, emperor 1519–1556, his arms are explained in an Coat of arms of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, article about them The abdications of Charles V in 1556 ended his formal authority over Ferdinand and made him ''suo jure'' ruler in Duchy of Austria, Austria,
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Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a country in Central Europe. It borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest, and Austria to the west. ...

Hungary
, as well as Holy Roman Emperor. *Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand I, emperor 1556–1564 (Imperial Crypt#Founders' Family, →Family Tree) *Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian II, emperor 1564–1576 *Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolf II, emperor 1576–1612 *Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, Matthias, emperor 1612–1619 Ferdinand's inheritance had been split in 1564 among his children, with Maximilian taking the Imperial crown and his younger brother Charles II, Archduke of Austria, Archduke Charles II ruling over Inner Austria (i.e. the Duchy of Styria, the Duchy of Carniola with March of Istria, the Duchy of Carinthia, the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, and the Trieste, Imperial City of Trieste, ruled from Graz). Charles's son and successor Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II in 1619 became Archduke of Austria and Holy Roman Emperor as well as Kingdom of Bohemia, King of Bohemia and
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Hungary
in 1620. The Further Austrian/Tyrolean line of Ferdinand's brother Archduke Leopold V, Archduke of Austria, Leopold V survived until the death of his son Sigismund Francis, Archduke of Further Austria, Sigismund Francis in 1665, whereafter their territories ultimately returned to common control with the other Austrian Habsburg lands. Inner Austrian stadtholders went on to rule until the days of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, Maria Theresa in the 18th century. *Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, emperor 1619–1637 *Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III, emperor 1637–1657 (Imperial Crypt#Emperor Ferdinand III's family, →Family Tree) *Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, emperor 1658–1705 *Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, Josef I, emperor 1705–1711 *Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI, emperor 1711–1740 *Maria Theresa of Austria, Habsburg heiress and wife of emperor Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis I Stephen, reigned as Archduchess of Austria and Queen of
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Hungary
and Bohemia 1740–1780.


Kings of Spain, Kings of Portugal (Spanish Habsburgs)

Habsburg Spain was a personal union between the Crowns of Crown_of_Castile, Castile and Crown_of_Aragon, Aragon; Aragon was itself divided into the Kingdoms of Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Majorca, Naples, Sicily, Malta and Sardinia. From 1581, they were kings of Portuguese_Restoration_War, Portugal until they renounced this title in the Treaty_of_Lisbon_(1668), 1668 Treaty of Lisbon. They were also Dukes of Milan, Lord of the Americas, and holder of multiple titles from territories within the Habsburg Netherlands. A full listing can be seen Philip II of Spain#Titles, honours and styles, here. *Philip I of Castile, Philip I of Castile the Handsome, second son of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, founded the Spanish Habsburgs in 1496 by marrying Joanna of Castile, Joanna the Mad, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella. Philip died in 1506, leaving the thrones of Castile and Aragon to be inherited and united into the throne of Spain by his son: *Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I 1516–1556, ''aka Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor; divided the House into Austrian and Spanish lines'' The meanings of his arms are analyzed Coat of arms of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, here. *Philip II of Spain, Philip II the Prudent 1556–1598, also Philip II of Spain, Philip I of Portugal 1581–1598 and Philip I of England with his wife Mary I of England 1554–1558. The meanings of his arms are analyzed Philip II of Spain#Heraldry, here. . *Philip III of Spain, Philip III the Pious also Philip III of Spain, Philip II of Portugal 1598–1621 *Philip IV of Spain, Philip IV the Great 1621–1665, also Philip IV of Spain, Philip III of Portugal 1621–1640 *Charles II of Spain, Charles II the Bewitched ( "El Hechizado") 1665–1700 The War of the Spanish Succession took place after the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg line, to determine the inheritance of Charles II.


Kings of Hungary (Austrian Habsburgs)

* Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand I, king of Hungary 1526–1564 * Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, king of Hungary 1563–1576 * Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolf I, king of Hungary 1572–1608 * Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, Matthias II, king of Hungary 1608–1619 * Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, king of Hungary 1618–1637 * Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III, king of Hungary 1625–1657 * Ferdinand IV of Germany, Ferdinand IV, king of Hungary 1647–1654 * Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, king of Hungary 1655–1705 * Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph I, king of Hungary 1687–1711 * Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles III, king of Hungary 1711–1740 * Maria Theresa of Austria, Maria Theresa, queen of Hungary 1741–1780


Kings of Bohemia (Austrian Habsburgs)

* Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand I, king of Bohemia 1526–1564 * Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, king of Bohemia 1563–1576 * Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph II, king of Bohemia 1572–1611 * Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, Matthias, king of Bohemia 1611–1618 * Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, king of Bohemia 1620–1637 * Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III, king of Bohemia 1625/37–1657 * Ferdinand IV of Germany, Ferdinand IV, king of Bohemia 1647–1654 (joint rule) * Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, king of Bohemia 1655–1705 * Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph I, king of Bohemia 1687–1711 * Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI, king of Bohemia 1711–1740 * Maria Theresa of Austria, Maria Theresa, queen of Bohemia 1743–1780


Titular Dukes of Burgundy, Lords of the Seventeen Provinces, Netherlands

Charles the Bold controlled not only Burgundy (both dukedom and county) but also Flanders and the broader Burgundian Netherlands. Frederick III managed to secure the marriage of Charles's only daughter, Mary of Burgundy, to his son Maximilian. The wedding took place on the evening of 16 August 1477, after the death of Charles.Heinz-Dieter Heimann: Die Habsburger. Dynastie und Kaiserreiche. . pp. 38–45. Mary and the Habsburgs lost the Duchy of Burgundy to France, but managed to defend and hold onto the rest what became the 17 provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. After Mary's death in 1482, Maximilian acted as regent for his son Philip the Handsome. *Philip the Handsome (1482–1506) *Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V (1506–1555) File:Arms of Philip IV of Burgundy.svg, 50px *Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy, regent (1507–1515) and (1519–1530) *Mary of Hungary (governor of the Netherlands), Mary of Hungary, dowager queen of Hungary, sister of Charles V, governor of the Netherlands, 1531–1555 *Margaret of Parma, illegitimate daughter of Charles V, Duchess of Parma, and mother of Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, governor 1559–1567 *John of Austria, Don John of Austria, illegitimate son of Charles V, victor of Lepanto, governor of the Netherlands, 1576–1578 *Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, son of Margaret of Parma, governor of the Netherlands, 1578–1592 The Netherlands were frequently governed directly by a List of Governors of the Habsburg Netherlands, regent or governor-general, who was a collateral member of the Habsburgs. By the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 Charles V combined the Netherlands into one administrative unit, to be inherited by his son Philip II. Charles effectively united the Netherlands as one entity. The Habsburgs controlled the 17 Provinces of the Netherlands until the Dutch Revolt in the second half of the 16th century, when they lost the seven northern Protestant provinces. They held onto the southern Catholic part (roughly modern Belgium and Luxembourg) as the Spanish Netherlands, Spanish and Austrian Netherlands until they were conquered by French Revolutionary armies in 1795. The one exception to this was the period of (1601–1621), when shortly before Philip II of Spain, Philip II died on 13 September 1598, he renounced his rights to the Netherlands in favor of his daughter Isabella Clara Eugenia, Isabella and her fiancé, Albert VII, Archduke of Austria, Archduke Albert of Austria, a younger son of Emperor Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian II. The territories reverted to Spain on the death of Albert in 1621, as the couple had no surviving offspring, and Isabella acted as regent-governor until her death in 1633: *the Archdukes Albert VII, Archduke of Austria, Albert and Isabella Clara Eugenia, Isabella, 1601-1621


Habsburg-Lorraine

The War of the Austrian Succession took place after the extinction of the male line of the Austrian Habsburg line upon the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI. The direct Habsburg line itself became totally extinct with the death of Maria Theresa of Austria, when it was followed by the House of Lorraine, styled ''of House of Habsburg-Lorraine, Habsburg-Lorraine''.


Holy Roman Emperors, Kings of Hungary and Bohemia, Archdukes of Austria (House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line)

*Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis I Stephen, emperor 1745–1765 (→Imperial Crypt#Emperor Ferdinand III's family, Family Tree) *Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II, emperor 1765–1790 *Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold II, emperor 1790–1792 (→Imperial Crypt#Empress Maria Theresia's Family, Family Tree) *Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II, emperor 1792–1806 (→Imperial Crypt#Emperor Leopold II's family, Family Tree) Queen Maria Christina of Austria of Spain, great-granddaughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor above. Wife of Alfonso XII of Spain and mother of Alfonso XIII of the House of Bourbon. Alfonso XIII's wife Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg was descended from King George I of Great Britain from the Habsburg Leopold Line . The House of Habsburg-Lorraine retained Austria and attached possessions after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire; see below. A son of Leopold II was Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria, Archduke Rainer of Austria whose wife was from the House of Savoy; a daughter Maria Adelaide of Austria, Adelaide, Queen of Sardina was the wife of King Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont, Savoy, and Sardinia and King of Italy. Their Children married into the Royal Houses of House of Bonaparte, Bonaparte; Saxe-Coburg and Gotha ; Savoy ; and the Dukedoms of Montferrat and Chablis.


Emperors of Austria (House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line)

*Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis I, Emperor of Austria 1804–1835: formerly ''Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor'' (→Imperial Crypt#ZegelChartFranz57, Family Tree) *Ferdinand I of Austria, Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria 1835–1848 *Francis Joseph of Austria, Francis Joseph, Emperor of Austria 1848–1916. *Charles I of Austria, Charles I, Emperor of Austria 1916–1918. He died in exile in 1922. His wife was of the Bourbon-Parma, House of Bourbon-Parma.


Kings of Hungary (Habsburg-Lorraine)

* Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II, king of Hungary 1780–1790 * Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold II, king of Hungary 1790–1792 * Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis, king of Hungary 1792–1835 * Ferdinand I of Austria, Ferdinand V, king of Hungary and Bohemia 1835–1848 * Francis Joseph of Austria, Francis Joseph I, king of Hungary 1867–1916 * Karl of Austria, Charles IV, king of Hungary 1916–1918


Kings of Bohemia (Habsburg-Lorraine)

* Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II, king of Bohemia 1780–1790 * Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold II, king of Bohemia 1790–1792 * Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II, king of Bohemia 1792–1835 * Ferdinand I of Austria, Ferdinand V, king of Bohemia 1835–1848 * Francis Joseph of Austria, Francis Joseph, king of Bohemia 1848–1916 * Karl of Austria, Charles I, king of Bohemia 1916–1918


Italian branches


Grand dukes of Tuscany (House of Habsburg-Lorraine)

*Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis Stephen 1737–1765 ''(later Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor)'' Francis Stephen assigned the grand duchy of Tuscany to his second son Peter Leopold, who in turn assigned it to his second son upon his accession as Holy Roman Emperor. Tuscany remained the domain of this cadet branch of the family until Italian unification. *Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Peter Leopold 1765–1790 ''(later Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor)'' *Ferdinand III of Tuscany, Ferdinand III 1790–1800, 1814–1824 (→Imperial Crypt#Tuscan line, Family Tree) *Leopold II of Tuscany, Leopold II 1824–1849, 1849–1859 *Ferdinand IV of Tuscany, Ferdinand IV 1859–1860


Dukes of Modena (Austria-Este branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine)

The duchy of Modena was assigned to a minor branch of the family by the Congress of Vienna. It was lost to Italian unification. The Dukes named their line the House of Austria-Este, as they were descended from the daughter of the last D'Este Duke of Modena. *Francis IV of Modena, Francis IV 1814–1831, 1831–1846 (→Imperial Crypt#Empress Maria Theresia's Family, Family Tree) *Francis V, Duke of Modena, Francis V 1846–1848, 1849–1859


Duchess of Parma (House of Habsburg-Lorraine)

The duchy of Parma was likewise assigned to a Habsburg, but did not stay in the House long before succumbing to Italian unification. It was granted to the second wife of Napoleon I of France, Maria Luisa Duchess of Parma, a daughter of the Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who was the mother of Napoleon II of France. Napoleon had divorced his wife Rose de Tascher de la Pagerie (better known to history as Josephine de Beauharnais) in her favor. *Marie Louise of Austria, Maria Luisa 1814–1847 (→Imperial Crypt#ZegelChartFranz57, Family Tree)


Other monarchies


King of England

*Philip II of Spain (''Jure uxoris'' King, with Mary I of England 1554–1558)


Empress consort of Empire of Brazil, Brazil and Queen consort of Kingdom of Portugal, Portugal (House of Habsburg-Lorraine)

Don (honorific), Dona Maria Leopoldina of Austria (22 January 1797 – 11 December 1826) was an archduchess of Austria, Empress consort of Empire of Brazil, Brazil and Queen consort of Kingdom of Portugal, Portugal.


Empress consort of France (House of Habsburg-Lorraine)

* Marie Louise of Austria 1810–1814


Emperor of Mexico (House of Habsburg-Lorraine)

Maximilian, the adventurous second son of Archduke Franz Karl, was invited as part of Napoleon III's manipulations to take the throne of Mexico, becoming Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico. The conservative Mexican nobility, as well as the clergy, supported this Second Mexican Empire. His consort, Charlotte of Belgium, a daughter of King Leopold I of Belgium and a princess of the Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, House of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, encouraged her husband's acceptance of the Mexican crown and accompanied him as Charlotte of Belgium, Empress Carlota of Mexico. The adventure did not end well. Maximilian was shot in Cerro de las Campanas, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro, in 1867 by the republican forces of Benito Juárez. *Maximilian of Mexico, Maximilian I (1864–1867) (→Imperial Crypt#ZegelChartFranz57, Family Tree)


List of post-monarchical Habsburgs


Main Habsburg-Lorraine line

Charles I was expelled from his domains after World War I and the empire was abolished. *Karl of Austria, Charles I (1918–1922) (→Imperial Crypt#ZegelChartFranz57, Family Tree) *Otto von Habsburg (1922–2007) *Zita of Bourbon-Parma, guardian (1922–1930) *Karl von Habsburg (2007–present)


House of Habsburg-Tuscany

* Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinand IV 1860–1908 * Archduke Josef Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany, Archduke Joseph Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany 1908–1942 * Archduke Peter Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany 1942–1948 * Archduke Gottfried, Prince of Tuscany 1948–1984 * Archduke Leopold Franz, Prince of Tuscany 1984–1993 * Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1993–present


House of Habsburg-Este

* Francis V, Duke of Modena, Francis V (1859–1875) * Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Este & Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary (1875–1914) * Karl I of Austria, Karl, Archduke of Austria-Este (1914–1917) * Robert, Archduke of Austria-Este (1917–1996) * Prince Lorenz of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este, Lorenz, Archduke of Austria-Este (1996–Present)


Portrait gallery

This gallery only features portraits believed to be based on likeness. It does not include possibly imaginary depictions, such as those of early Habsburg rulers created by Anton Boys for Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria, Archduke Ferdinand II in the late 16th century. It also does not display family members who failed to reach adult age or did not play any historically significant role, including most of those born in the late 19th and 20th century in line with the erosion of the Habsburg family's historical significance after World War I. Individuals are listed by chronological order of birth. The title of Archduke/Archduchess belonged by birthright to all Austrian Habsburgs, and is generally omitted unless the individual used no other title.


Main Habsburg line

File:Tomb of Rudolf I of Habsburg (detail) - Crypt - Speyer Cathedral - Speyer - Germany 2017.jpg, Rudolf I of Germany, King Rudolf I (1218-1291) File:Rudolf IV.jpg, Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, Duke Rudolf IV (1339-1365) File:Albrecht II. von Habsburg.jpg, Albert II of Germany, King Albert II (1397-1439) File:Hans Burgkmair d. Ä. 005.jpg, Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Frederick III (1415-1493) File:Innsbrucker Hofmaler - Bildnis Sigismund "der Münzreiche", Erzherzog von Tirol - 4890 - Kunsthistorisches Museum.jpg, Sigismund, Archduke of Austria, Sigismund, ruler of Tirol and Further Austria (1427-1496) File:Anonymous - Ladislaus the Postumous.jpg, Ladislaus the Posthumous, King Ladislaus the Posthumous (1440-1457) File:Albrecht Dürer 084.jpg, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Maximilian I (1459-1519) File:Kunigunde-Bavaria.JPG, Kunigunde of Austria, Kunigunde of Austria, Duchess of Bavaria (1465-1520) File:Meister der Magdalenenlegende 001.jpg, Philip I of Castile, Philip the Handsome, King of Castile (1478-1506) File:Archduchess Margaret of Austria by Conrat Meit.JPG, Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy (1480-1530) File:Leonor de Austria.jpg, Eleanor of Austria, Eleanor of Austria, Queen of Portugal then of France (1498-1558) File:Titian - Portrait of Charles V Seated (cropped) 2.jpg, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Charles V (1500-1558) File:Gent STAM Isabella van Habsburg (1501-1526) 12-10-2010 11-47-03.JPG, Isabella of Austria, Isabella of Austria, Queen of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (1501-1526) File:Lucas Cranach (I) - Bildnis König Ferdinand I.jpg, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Ferdinand I (1503-1564) File:Krell, Hans - Mary of Habsburg - Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen.jpg, Mary of Hungary (governor of the Netherlands), Mary of Hungary, Governor of the Netherlands (1505-1558) File:Anonym, Portrait du prince-évêque Georges d'Autriches, Grand Curtius, Liège.jpg, George of Austria, George of Austria, Prince-Bishop of Liège (1505-1557) File:MargarethevonParma02.jpg, Margaret of Parma (1522-1586) File:Cranach the Younger Elizabeth of Austria.jpg, Elizabeth of Austria (1526–1545), Elizabeth of Austria, Queen of Poland (1526–1545) File:Philip II of Spain by Antonio Moro.jpg, Philip II of Spain, King Philip II (1527-1598) File:Nicolas Neufchâtel 003.jpg, Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Maximilian II (1527-1576) File:Maria of Spain 1557.jpg, Maria of Austria, Holy Roman Empress (1528-1603) File:Anna Habsburżanka.jpg, Archduchess Anna of Austria, Anna of Austria, Duchess of Bavaria (1528-1590) File:Francesco Terzio 003.jpg, Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria, Ferdinand II, ruler of Tirol and Further Austria (1529-1595) File:Pompeo leoni, medaglia di maria d'austria come regina di boemia (1562).JPG, Maria of Austria, Duchess of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (1531-1581) File:Giuseppe Arcimboldi 004.jpg, Archduchess Magdalena of Austria, Magdalena of Austria, abbess of Hall in Tirol (1532-1590) File:Catherine of Austria.jpg, Catherine of Austria, Queen of Poland (1533-1572) File:EleonoreofAustria (1534-1594).jpg, Archduchess Eleanor of Austria, Eleanor of Austria, Duchess of Mantua (1534-1594) File:Joana de Áustria, Prinzessin von Portugal.jpg, Joanna of Austria, Princess of Portugal (1535-1573) File:Barbara d'Este of Austria MET 61746.jpg, Archduchess Barbara of Austria, Barbara of Austria, Duchess of Ferrara (1539-1572) File:Charles II, Archduke of Austria by Bacciarelli.png, Charles II, Archduke of Austria, Charles II, ruler of Inner Austria (1540-1590) File:Alonso Sánchez Coello - Prince Don Carlos of Austria - WGA20718.jpg, Carlos, Prince of Asturias (1545-1568) File:Alessandro Allori 033.jpg, Joanna of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany (1547-1578) File:Messina Monumento a Don Giovanni D'Austria (Andrea Calamech).jpg, John of Austria (1547-1578) File:Giuseppe Arcimboldi 007.jpg, Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain (1549-1580) File:Emperor Rudolph II (14362609122).jpg, Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Rudolf II (1552-1612) File:Martino Rota 002.jpg, Archduke Ernest of Austria, Ernest of Austria, ruler of Inner Austria, governor of the Spanish Netherlands (1553-1595) File:Jooris van der straten-isabel de austria 1573-patrimonio-detalle.jpg, Elisabeth of Austria, Queen of France (1554-1592) File:Lucas van Valckenborch - Emperor Matthias as Archduke with baton.png, Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Matthias (1557-1619) File:Portret van kardinaal Andreas van Oostenrijk Atrium Heroicum (serietitel), RP-P-1908-675.jpg, Margrave Andrew of Burgau, Cardinal Andrew of Austria (1558-1600) File:Henseiller Maximilian III of Austria.jpg, Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria, Maximilian III, ruler of Further Austria (1558-1618) File:Albert de Habsbourg.jpg, Albert VII, Archduke of Austria, Albert (VII), ruler of the Spanish Netherlands (1559-1621) File:Karl-von-Burgau (nach 1606).jpg, Charles, Margrave of Burgau, Charles of Austria, Margrave of Burgau (1560-1618) File:Atelier van Frans Pourbus II (1569-1622) - Portret van aartshertogin Isabella -Noordbrabants Museum 's-Hertogenbosch 26-8-2016.JPG, Isabella Clara Eugenia, Isabella Clara Eugenia, ruler of the Spanish Netherlands (1566-1633) File:Sor Margarita de la Cruz.jpg, Archduchess Margaret of Austria (1567–1633), Margaret of Austria, poor Clare (1567–1633) File:Catherine Michelle of Spain by Alonso Sánchez Coello.jpg, Catalina Micaela of Spain, Catalina Micaela of Spain, Duchess of Savoy (1567-1597) File:Szwankowski Anna of Austria.jpg, Anne of Austria, Queen of Poland (1573-1598) File:Báthori Zsigmond felesége Mária Christierna.jpg, Maria Christina, Princess of Transylvania (1574-1621) File:Velázquez (Felipe III).jpg, Philip III of Spain, King Philip III (1578-1621) File:Justus Sustermans 015.jpg, Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Ferdinand II (1578-1637) File:Eleonor of Austria by F.Pourbus Jr. (c. 1603, Kunsthistorisches Museum).jpg, Archduchess Eleanor of Austria (1582–1620), Eleanor of Austria, nun in Hall in Tirol (1582–1620) File:Joseph Heintz d. A. 006 detail.jpg, Archduke Maximilian Ernest of Austria, Maximilian Ernest of Austria, Coadjutor of the Teutonic Order (1583-1616) File:Hans von Aachen Maria of Austria.jpg, Archduchess Maria of Austria (1584–1649), Maria of Austria, nun in Innsbrück (1584–1649) File:Margarita de Austria, reina de España (Museo del Prado).jpg, Margaret of Austria, Queen of Spain (1584-1611) File:Frans Pourbus d. J. 002.jpg, Anna of Tyrol, Anna of Tyrol, Holy Roman Empress (1585-1618) File:Leopold V d'Autriche-Tyrol.png, Leopold V, Archduke of Austria, Leopold V, ruler of Tirol and Further Austria (1586-1632) File:Frans Pourbus d. J. 005.jpg, Constance of Austria, Constance of Austria, Queen of Poland (1588-1631) File:Allori, Cristofano - Portrait of Maria Magdalena of Austria (Pitti).jpg, Archduchess Maria Maddalena of Austria, Maria Maddalena of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany (1589-1631) File:Justus Sustermans 012.jpg, Charles of Austria, Bishop of Wroclaw, Charles of Austria, Bishop of Breslau (1590-1624) File:Peter Paul Rubens - Anna van Oostenrijk.jpg, Anne of Austria, Anne of Austria, Queen of France (1601-1666) File:Rubens - Portrait of Philips IV.jpg, Philip IV of Spain, King Philip IV (1605-1665) File:Retrato de la infanta doña María, reina de Hungría, by Diego Velázquez.jpg, Maria Anna of Spain, Maria Anna of Spain, Holy Roman Empress (1606-1646) File:1607 Carlos.JPG, Infante Carlos of Spain (1607–1632), Infante Carlos of Spain (1607–1632) File:Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor.jpg, Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Ferdinand III (1608-1657) File:Gaspar de Crayer (and studio) - Cardinal Infante Fernando of Austria.jpg, Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria (1609 or 1610-1641) File:Joachim von Sandrart - Erzherzogin Maria Anna (1610-1665), Kurfürstin von Bayern.jpg, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (born 1610), Maria Anna, Electress of Bavaria (1610-1665) File:Cecilia Renata by Danckers de Rij.jpg, Cecilia Renata of Austria, Cecilia Renata of Austria, Queen of Poland (1611-1644) File:Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria.jpg, Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria, Leopold Wilhelm of Austria (1614-1662) File:Frans Luycx - Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Further Austria.jpg, Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Austria, Ferdinand Charles, ruler of Further Austria including Tirol (1628-1662) File:Juan Jose de Austria.jpg, John Joseph of Austria (1629-1679) File:1629 Isabella Clara.jpg, Archduchess Isabella Clara of Austria, Isabella Clara of Austria, Duchess of Mantua, Montferrat, Nevers, Mayenne and Rethel (1629-1685) File:Giovanni Maria Morandi 002.jpg, Sigismund Francis, Archduke of Austria, Sigismund Francis, ruler of Further Austria including Tirol (1630-1665) File:Empress Maria Leopoldine of Austria.jpg, Maria Leopoldine of Austria, Maria Leopoldine of Austria, Holy Roman Empress (1632-1649) File:Frans Luyckx - Ferdinand IV, King of the Romans (2).jpg, Ferdinand IV, King of the Romans (1633-1654) File:Claudio coello-retrato de marian de austria.jpg, Mariana of Austria, Mariana of Austria, Queen of Spain (1634-1696) File:Anonymous - Marie Thérèse of Austria, Queen of France - Carnavalet P 2142.jpg, Maria Theresa of Spain, Maria Theresa, Queen of France (1638-1683) File:Benjamin von Block - Emperor Leopold I.png, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Leopold I (1640-1705) File:Margarita Teresa of Spain.jpg, Margaret Theresa of Spain, Margaret Theresa of Spain, Holy Roman Empress (1651-1673) File:Eleonora Wiśniowiecka.jpg, Eleonore of Austria, Queen of Poland (1653-1697) File:Claudia Felicitas of Tirol1.jpg, Claudia Felicitas of Austria, Claudia Felicitas of Austria, Holy Roman Empress (1653-1676) File:Anonym Erzherzogin Maria Anna Josepha.jpg, Archduchess Maria Anna Josepha of Austria, Maria Anna Josepha of Austria, Electress of the Palatinate (1654-1689) File:Charles II of Spain anonymous portrait.jpg, Charles II of Spain, King Charles II (1661-1700) File:Von Block - Maria Antonia of Austria - KHM (cropped).png, Maria Antonia of Austria, Maria Antonia of Austria, Electress of Bavaria (1669-1692) File:Jožef I. (1705-1711).jpg, Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Joseph I (1678-1711) File:Jan van Orley - Maria Elisabeth of Austria.jpg, Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria (governor), Maria Elisabeth of Austria, governor of the Austrian Netherlands (1680-1741) File:D. Maria Anna de Austria.png, Maria Anna of Austria, Maria Anna of Austria, Queen of Portugal (1683-1754) File:Gemälde von Kaiser Karl VI.png, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Charles VI (1685-1740) File:Maria Magdalena, Archid. Austria (1689-1743).png, Archduchess Maria Magdalena of Austria (1689–1743), Maria Magdalena of Austria (1689–1743) File:Silvestre, attributed to - Maria Josepha of Habsburg (cropped).png, Maria Josepha of Austria, Maria Josepha of Austria, Queen of Poland (1699-1757) File:Desmarées, circle of - Maria Amalia of Austria, Electress of Bavaria.jpg, Maria Amalia, Holy Roman Empress (1701-1756) File:Jean-Étienne Liotard - Maria Theresia im pelzbesetzten Kleid (1743).jpg, Maria Theresa, Maria Theresa of Austria, Holy Roman Empress (1717-1780) File:Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria, miniature3 - Hofburg.png, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (governor), Maria Anna of Austria, governor of the Austrian Netherlands (1718-1744)


Habsburg-Lorraine

File:Erzherzogin Maria Anna von Habsburg-Lothringen.jpg, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (born 1738), Maria Anna (1738-1789) File:Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, profile miniature.png, Emperor Joseph II (1741-1790) File:Bacciarelli Marie Christine 1766.jpg, Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen (1742-1798) File:Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria - Diözesanmuseum Brixen.png, Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria (born 1743), Maria Elisabeth, abbess of Innsbrück (1743-1808) File:Maria Amalia, Duchess of Parma.png, Maria Amalia, Duchess of Parma (1746-1804) File:Austrian School (18) - Emperor Leopold II.png, Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Leopold II (1747-1792) File:Angelini - Maria Carolina of Austria.jpg, Maria Carolina of Austria, Maria Carolina of Austria, Queen of Naples and Sicily (1752-1814) File:Alexander Kucharski, La Reine Marie-Antoinette (années 1790).jpg, Marie Antoinette, Marie Antoinette, Queen of France (1755-1793) File:Foelix - Maximilian Franz of Austria.jpg, Archduke Maximilian Francis of Austria, Maximilian Francis of Austria, Elector of Cologne (1756-1801) File:Attributed to Weikert - Maria Theresa of Austria, Queen of Saxony.png, Maria Theresa of Austria (1767–1827), Maria Theresa of Austria, Queen of Saxony (1767–1827) File:Friedrich von Amerling - Kaiser Franz I. von Österreich - 2680 - Kunsthistorisches Museum.jpg, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Francis II and I (1768-1835) File:Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria - Racconigi.png, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (born 1770), Maria Anna of Austria, Princess-Abbess of the Theresian Institution in Prague (1770-1809) File:Anton Einsle - Erherzog Carl von Österreich.jpg, Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen (1771-1847) File:Alexander Leopold Habsburg 1772 1795 Palatin.jpg, Archduke Alexander Leopold of Austria, Alexander Leopold of Austria, Palatine of Hungary (1772-1795) File:Anton Einsle - József nádor.jpg, Archduke Joseph of Austria (Palatine of Hungary), Joseph of Austria, Palatine of Hungary (1776-1847) File:Füger - Maria Clementina of Austria.jpg, Archduchess Maria Clementina of Austria, Maria Clementina of Austria, Princess of Naples (1777-1801) File:Anton Einsle - Archduke Anton Victor, portrait in uniform with the Grand Master’s Cross of the Teutonic Order.jpg, Archduke Anton Victor of Austria, Anton Victor of Austria, Elector of Cologne (1779-1835) File:Franz Russ der Ältere - Erzherzog Johann von Österreich.jpg, Archduke John of Austria, John of Austria, Regent of the German Empire (1782-1859) File:Erzherzog Rainer c1840.jpg, Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria, Rainer Joseph of Austria, Viceroy of Lombardy-Venetia (1783-1853) File:Erzherzog Ludwig von Österreich (1784-1864).jpg, Archduke Louis of Austria (1784-1864) File:Archduke Rudolph.jpg, Archduke Rudolf of Austria, Rudolf of Austria, Cardinal-Archbishop of Olmütz (1788-1831) File:MariaLouisa.jpg, Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, Marie Louise, Empress of the French, Duchess of Parma (1791-1847) File:Ferdinand V.jpg, Ferdinand I of Austria, Emperor Ferdinand I (1793-1875) File:LeopoldinaInfo.jpg, Maria Leopoldina of Austria, Maria Leopoldina of Austria, Queen of Portugal, Empress of Brazil (1797-1826) File:Archduchess Clementina of Austria, Princess of Salerno in her final years.jpg, Archduchess Clementina of Austria, Clementina of Austria, Princess of Salerno (1798-1881) File:Erzherzog Leopold von Österreich (1823-1898).jpg, Archduke Leopold Ludwig of Austria, Leopold Ludwig of Austria, Viceadmiral in the Austro-Hungarian Navy (1800-1856) File:KarolinavonSachsen.jpg, Archduchess Marie Caroline of Austria, Marie Caroline of Austria, Crown Princess of Saxony (1801-1832) File:Erzherzog Franz Karl.JPG, Archduke Franz Karl of Austria (1802-1878) File:Erzherzogin Maria Anna Litho.jpg, Archduchess Marie Anne of Austria (1804-1858) File:Maria Theresa of Austria (1816–1867), Queen of the Two Sicilies.jpg, Maria Theresa of Austria (1816–1867), Maria Theresa of Austria, Queen of the Two Sicilies (1816–1867) File:Feldmarschall Erzherzog Albrecht 1895 Hof-Atelier Adele.jpg, Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen, Albrecht, Duke of Teschen (1817-1895) File:L'archiduchesse Hermine de Habsbourg-Autriche (1817-1842), abbesse du chapitre des dames de Prague.jpg, Archduchess Hermine of Austria, Hermine of Austria, Princess-Abbess of the Theresian Institution (1817-1842) File:Die Gartenlaube (1864) b 485.jpg, Archduke Stephen of Austria (Palatine of Hungary), Stephen of Austria, Palatine of Hungary (1817-1867) File:Karl Ferdinand Habsburg Kriehuber 1853.jpg, Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria, Lieutenant Field Marshal Karl Ferdinand of Austria (1818-1874) File:Erzherzog Friedrich Stadler 1841.jpg, Archduke Friedrich of Austria (1821–1847), Friedrich of Austria, Commander-in-Chief of the Austrian Navy (1821–1847) File:Queen Adelaide of Sardinia.jpg, Adelaide of Austria, Adelaide of Austria, Queen of Sardinia (1822-1855) File:Ernő főherceg (1824-1899) 1899-15.JPG, Archduke Ernest of Austria (1824–1899), Ernest of Austria, General of the Cavalry (1824–1899) File:Maria Carolina de Áustria-Teschen.jpg, Archduchess Maria Karoline of Austria, Maria Karoline of Austria, Princess-Abbess of the Theresian Institution (1825-1915) File:Erzherzog Rainer 1911 Hofphotograph Knozer.png, Archduke Rainer Ferdinand of Austria, Rainer Ferdinand, Minister-President of Austria (1827-1913) File:Hoch- und Deutschmeister FZM Erzherzog Wilhelm 1894 Th. Mayerhofer.png, Archduke Wilhelm Franz of Austria, Wilhelm Franz of Austria, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights (1827-1894) File:Henrik főherceg.JPG, Archduke Heinrich Anton of Austria, Lieutenant Field Marshal Heinrich Anton of Austria (1828-1891) File:Leopold Horowitz Kaiser Franz Joseph.jpg, Franz Joseph I of Austria, Emperor Franz Joseph I (1830-1916) File:Elisabeth Archduchess of Austria, Princess of Hungary and Bohemia (1831, 1903).jpg, Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria (1831-1903) File:Maximilian by Winterhalter extrait.jpg, Maximilian I of Mexico (1832-1867) File:Erzherzog Joseph 1905.jpg, Archduke Joseph Karl of Austria, Joseph Karl of Austria, Palatine of Hungary (1833-1905) File:Karl Ludwig von Oesterreich Franz Wuerbel.jpg, Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria (1833-1896) File:Queen Maria Henriette of the Belgians (1836-1902).jpg, Marie Henriette of Austria, Marie Henriette of Austria, Queen of the Belgians (1836-1902) File:Franz, Count of Meran.jpg, Franz, Count of Meran (1839-1891) File:Archduke Ludwig Viktor of Austria by L Agerer.jpg, Archduke Ludwig Viktor of Austria (1842-1919) File:Carl Atzker Erzherzog Friedrich.jpg, Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen, Friedrich, Duke of Teschen (1856-1936) File:María Cristina de Habsburgo-Lorena (Museo del Prado).jpg, Maria Christina of Austria, Maria Christina of Austria, Queen of Spain (1858-1929) File:Tadeusz Ajdukiewicz - Portret arcyksięcia Karola Stefana Habsburga.jpg, Archduke Charles Stephen of Austria, Charles Stephen of Austria, Grand Admiral in the Austro-Hungarian Navy (1860-1933) File:Eugene, Archduke of Austria.jpg, Archduke Eugen of Austria, Eugen of Austria, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights (1863-1954) File:Hans Canon - Prinzessin Gisela von Bayern, Erzherzogin von Österreich 1879.jpg, Archduchess Gisela of Austria, Gisela of Austria, Princess of Bavaria (1856-1932) File:Crown Prince Rudolf 1886 (cropped).jpg, Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria (1858-1889) File:HGM Wilhelm Vita Porträt Franz Ferdinand.jpg, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (1863-1914) File:Erzherzog Otto.JPG, Archduke Otto of Austria (1865–1906), Archduke Otto of Austria (1865–1906) File:Marie-Dorothée-duchesse-d'Orleans.jpg, Archduchess Maria Dorothea of Austria, Maria Dorothea of Austria, Duchess of Orléans (1867-1932) File:Marie Valerie Austria (2).jpg, Archduchess Marie Valerie of Austria (1868-1924) File:Ferdinand Karl Austria 1868 1915 photo1901.jpg, Archduke Ferdinand Karl of Austria (1868-1915) File:Archduchess Margarete Sophie of Austria.JPG, Archduchess Margarete Sophie of Austria, Margarete Sophie of Austria, Duchess of Württemberg (1870-1902) File:Habsburg–Lotaringiai Margit Klementina Mária főhercegnő.jpg, Archduchess Margarethe Klementine of Austria, Margarethe Klementine of Austria, Princess of Thurn and Taxis (1870-1955) File:Joseph August of Austria (1872-1962) in 1917.jpg, Archduke Joseph August of Austria, Field Marshal Joseph August of Austria (1872-1962) File:Hans Zatzka Erzherzogin Maria Annunziata.jpg, Archduchess Maria Annunciata of Austria, Maria Annunciata of Austria, Princess-Abbess of the Theresian Institution (1876-1961) File:Elisabeth Amalie Austria.jpg, Archduchess Elisabeth Amalie of Austria, Elisabeth Amalie of Austria, Princess of Liechtenstein (1878-1960) File:Hereditary Princess Emanuel zu Salm-Salm, née Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria.jpg, Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria (1879–1962), Maria Christina of Austria, Hereditary Princess of Salm-Salm (1879–1962) File:Habsburg–Tescheni Mária Anna 1902-52.jpg, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (born 1882), Maria Anna of Austria, Princess of Bourbon-Parma (born 1882) File:Archduchess Maria Henrietta of Austria (1883-1956).jpg, Archduchess Maria Henrietta of Austria, Maria Henrietta of Austria, Princess of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst (1883-1956) File:Elisabeth, Erzherzogin von Österreich.jpg, Archduchess Elisabeth Marie of Austria, "Red Archduchess" Elisabeth Marie of Austria (1883-1963) File:Eleonore Maria Immakulata.jpg, Archduchess Eleonora of Austria (1886-1974) File:Theodor Mayerhofer Kaiser Karl I von österreich 1917.jpg, Charles I of Austria, Emperor Charles I (1887-1922) File:Portret arcyksiężniczki Renaty - Kossak.jpg, Archduchess Renata of Austria, Renata of Austria, Princess Radziwiłł (1888-1935) File:Archduchess Isabella of Austria.jpg, Archduchess Isabella of Austria, Isabella of Austria, Princess of Bavaria (1888-1973) File:Stefan Matejko - Portret Karola Albrechta Habsburga 1916.jpg, Archduke Karl Albrecht of Austria (1888-1951) File:Archduchess Mechthildis of Austria photopgrah.jpg, Archduchess Mechthildis of Austria, Mechthildis of Austria, Princess Czartoryski (1891-1966) File:Archduke Albrecht Franz, Duke of Teschen.jpg, Archduke Albrecht Franz, Duke of Teschen, Albrecht Franz, Duke of Teschen (1897-1955) File:Otto Habsburg 001.jpg, Otto von Habsburg (1912-2011) File:L’archiduc Charles d’Autriche.jpg, Karl von Habsburg (1961-)


Habsburg-Este (first line)

File:Mayr, Peter - Archduke Ferdinand Karl of Austria-Este.png, Ferdinand Karl, Archduke of Austria-Este, Ferdinand Karl, titular Duke of Modena and Reggio (1754-1806) File:Maria Theresa of Austria-Este, miniature.png, Maria Theresa of Austria-Este, Queen of Sardinia (1773-1832) File:Leopoldine of Archduchess of Austria-Este, Countess of Arco-Zinneberg.png, Archduchess Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este, Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este, Electress of Bavaria (1776-1848) File:Francesco IV d'austria este Duca Modena.jpg, Francis IV, Duke of Modena, Francis IV, Duke of Modena, Reggio and Mirandola (1779-1846) File:Ferdinand Karl Joseph Austria 1781 1850 lithocolor.jpg, Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este, Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este, Governor of Galicia 1781-1850) File:Archduke Maximilian Joseph of Austria-Este (1782–1863), as Grand Master of the Teutonic Order.jpg, Archduke Maximilian of Austria-Este, Maximilian of Austria-Este, grand master of the Teutonic Knights (1782-1863) File:Karl Ambrosius Austria Este Archbishop 1785 1809.jpg, Archduke Karl Ambrosius of Austria-Este, Karl Ambrosius of Austria-Este, Archbishop of Esztergom (1785-1809) File:Empress Maria Ludovica (1787-1816).jpg, Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este, Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este, Empress of Austria (1787-1816) File:Maria Theresia, Gräfin von Chambord.jpg, Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria-Este (1817–1886), Maria Theresa of Austria-Este, Countess of Chambord (1817–1886) File:Duca Francesco V di Modena.jpg, Francis V, Duke of Modena, Francis V, Duke of Modena, Reggio and Guastalla (1819-1875) File:Ritratto Ferdinando Carlo d’Asburgo Este.png, Archduke Ferdinand Karl Viktor of Austria-Este, Lieutenant Field Marshal Ferdinand Karl Viktor of Austria-Este (1821-1849) File:Marie Therese von Österreich-Este.jpg, Maria Theresa of Austria-Este (1849–1919), Maria Theresa of Austria-Este, Queen of Bavaria (1849–1919)


Habsburg-Tuscany

File:F X Hornöck Portrait Kurfürst Ferdinand von Salzburg 1804 crop.jpg, Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1769-1824) File:Leopoldo II di Toscana.jpg, Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1797-1870) File:Arciduchessa Maria Luigia d'Austria, princesa di Toscana (cropped).jpg, Archduchess Maria Luisa of Austria (1798–1857), Maria Luisa of Austria, Princess of Tuscany (1798–1857) File:Portrait of Queen Maria Teresa of Savoy (2).png, Maria Theresa of Austria (1801–1855), Maria Theresa of Austria, Queen of Sardinia (1801–1855) File:Augusteaustria.jpg, Archduchess Auguste Ferdinande of Austria, Auguste Ferdinande of Austria, Princess of Bavaria (1825-1864) File:Maria Isabella di Toscana.jpg, Archduchess Maria Isabella of Austria, Maria Isabella of Austria, Countess of Trapani (1834-1901) File:Ferdinand IV. von Toskana.jpg, Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1835-1908) File:Karl Salvator Austria 1839 1892.jpg, Archduke Karl Salvator of Austria (1839-1892) File:Maria Luise Annunziata, Erzherzogin von Österreich-Toskana (1845 - 1917).jpg, Archduchess Maria Luisa of Austria, Princess of Tuscany, Maria Luisa of Austria, Princess of Tuscany (1845-1917) File:Ludwig Salvatorp.jpg, Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria (1847-1915) File:Erzherzog Johann Salvator von Österreich, 1878.jpg, Archduke Johann Salvator of Austria (1852-1911) File:Marie Antoinette von Österreich-Toskana.jpg, Archduchess Maria Antonietta of Austria (1858–1883), Maria Antonietta of Austria, Princess of Tuscany (1858–1883) File:Marii Teresy Habsburg-Toskańskiej.jpg, Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria (1862–1933), Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria (1862–1933) File:Leopold Salvator, Erzherzog von Österreich-Toskana (1863 - 1931).jpg, Archduke Leopold Salvator of Austria (1863-1931) File:Franz Salvator, Erzherzog von Österreich-Toskana.jpg, Archduke Franz Salvator of Austria, Franz Salvator of Austria, Prince of Tuscany (1866-1939) File:Archduke Leopold Ferdinand of Austria.jpg, Archduke Leopold Ferdinand of Austria (1868-1935) File:1869 Karoline.jpg, Archduchess Karoline Marie of Austria, Karoline Marie of Austria, Princess of Tuscany (1869-1945) File:Luise von Österreich-Toskana.jpg, Archduchess Louise of Austria, Louise of Austria, Crown Princess of Saxony (1870-1947) File:Joseph Ferdinand Salvator Austria 1872 1942 photo1916.jpg, Archduke Joseph Ferdinand of Austria, ''Generaloberst'' Joseph Ferdinand of Austria (1872-1942) File:Erzherzog Peter Ferdinand.jpg, Archduke Peter Ferdinand of Austria (1874-1948) File:Archduke Anton of Austria in the Challenge International de Tourisme 1930, in Warsaw.jpg, Archduke Anton of Austria, Anton of Austria, pretender to the Spanish throne (1901-1987) File:Erzherzog Gottfried.jpg, Archduke Gottfried of Austria, Gottfried of Austria, titular Grand Duke of Tuscany (1902-1984) File:Archduke Franz Josef of Austria, Prince of Tuscany.jpg, Archduke Franz Josef of Austria, Prince of Tuscany, Franz Josef of Austria, pretender to the Spanish throne (1905-1975) File:Archduke Karl Pius of Austria, Prince of Tuscany.jpg, Archduke Karl Pius of Austria, Prince of Tuscany, Karl Pius of Austria, pretender to the Spanish throne (1909-1953) File:Elisabeth, Dominic si Maria Magdalena.jpg, Dominic von Habsburg, Dominic von Habsburg, pretender to the Spanish throne (1937-) (center)


Habsburg-Este (later line)

File:Robert, Archduke of Austria-Este (1915-1996).jpg, Robert, Archduke of Austria-Este (1915-1996) File:Prince Lorenz of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este.jpg, Prince Lorenz of Belgium, Prince Lorenz of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este (1955-)


Heraldry

A complete listing of the arms can be found at the :fr:Armorial des Habsbourg, Habsburg Armory.


Arms of Dominion of the Austro-Hungarian Empire

The arms of dominion began to take on a life of their own in the 19th century as the idea of the state as independent from the Habsburg dynasty took root. They are the national arms as borne by a sovereign in his capacity as head of state and represent the state as separate from the person of the monarch or his dynasty. That very idea had been, heretofore, foreign to the concept of the Habsburg state. The state had been the personal property of the Habsburg dynasty. Since the states, territories, and nationalities represented were in many cases only united to the Austro-Hungarian Empire by their historic loyalty to the head of the house of Habsburg as hereditary lord, these full ("grand") arms of dominion of Austria-Hungary reflect the complex political infrastructure that was necessarily to accommodate the many different nationalities and groupings within the empire after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. After 1867 the eastern part of the empire, also called Transleithania, was mostly under the domination of the Kingdom of Hungary. The shield integrated the Coat of Arms of Hungary, arms of the kingdom of Hungary, with two angels and supporters and the crown of St. Stephen, along with the territories that were subject to it: The Kingdom of Dalmatia, the Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg), Kingdom of Croatia, the Kingdom of Slavonia (conjoined with Croatia as the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia - formally known as the Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia, although the claim to Dalmatia was mostly de jure), the Principality of Transylvania (1711–1867), Great Principality of Transylvania, the Bosnia and Herzegovina in Austria-Hungary, Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1915–1918), Corpus separatum (Fiume), the City of Fiume and its district (modern Rijeka), and in the center, the Kingdom of Hungary. The western or Austrian part of the empire, ''Cisleithania'', continued using the shield of the Empire in 1815 but with the seals of various member territories located around the central shield. Paradoxically, some of these coats of arms belonged to the territories that were part of the Hungarian part of the empire and shield. This shield, the most frequently used until 1915, was known as the middle shield. There was also the small shield, with just the personal arms of the Habsburgs, as used in 1815. In 1915, in the middle of World War I, Austria-Hungary adopted a heraldic composition uniting the shield that was used in the Hungarian part, also known as the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen, with a new version of the medium shield of the Austrian part as depicted above in the section on the mainline of the Emperors of Austria. Before 1915, the arms of the different territories of the Austrian part of the Empire (heraldry was added to some areas not shown in the previous version and to the left to the Hungarian part) appeared together in the shield positioned on the double-headed eagle coat of arms of the Austrian Empire as an inescutcheon. The eagle was inside a shield with a goldfield. The latter shield was supported by two griffins and was topped by the Austrian Imperial Crown (previously these items were included only in the large shield). Then, shown in the center of both arms of dominion, as an inescutcheon to the inescutcheon, is the small shield, i.e. personal arms, of the Habsburgs. All this was surrounded by the collar Order of the Golden Fleece. In the heraldic composition of 1915, the shields of the two foci of the empire, Austria and Hungary, were brought together. The griffin supporter on the left was added for Austria and an angel on the right as a supporter for Hungary. The center featured the personal arms of the Habsburgs (Habsburg, Austria, and Lorraine). This small shield was topped with a royal crown and surrounded by the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece, below which was the Military Order of Maria Theresa, below which was the collars of the Orders of Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary, St. Stephen's and Order of Leopold (Austria), Leopold. At the bottom was the motto that read "AC INDIVISIBILITER INSEPARABILITER" ("indivisible and inseparable"). Other simplified versions did not have the supports depicted, and the simple shields of Austria and Hungary. These were the arms of the Empire of Austria with an inescutcheon of Austria, and the Arms of Hungary (with chequer of Croatia at the tip).


Family trees


Ancestors of the Habsburgs

Fragmentary references (see below) cite the Habsburgs as descendants of the early Germanic Etichonids, Etichonider, probably of Franks, Frankish, Burgundians, Burgundian or Visigoths, Visigothic origin, who ruled the Duchy of Alsace in the Early Middle Ages (7th–10th centuries). The dynasty is named for Adalrich, Duke of Alsace, Eticho (also known as Aldarich) who ruled from 662 to 690.


Early Habsburgs

Family tree of the ancestors of the Habsburg family, largely before becoming Holy Roman Emperors and (Arch)Dukes of Austria. This family tree only includes male scions of the House of Habsburg from 920 to 1308. Otto II was probably the first to take the Habsburg Castle name as his own, adding "von Habsburg" to his title and creating the House of Habsburg. See below for more references.


Middle Habsburgs


Later Habsburgs

Similarly, this family tree only includes male scions of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine who survived to adulthood:


See also

* A.E.I.O.U. * Habsburg Monarchy * Habsburg Spain * Royal intermarriage * House of France * House of Savoy


Notes


References


Sources

* Agamov, A. M. ''Dynasties of Europe 400–2016: Complete Genealogy of Sovereign Houses'' (in Russian). Moscow, 2017. pp. 27-33. * * Brewer-Ward, Daniel A. ''The House of Habsburg: A Genealogy of the Descendants of Empress Maria Theresia''. Clearfield, 1996. * Crankshaw, Edward. ''The Fall of the House of Habsburg''. Sphere Books Limited, London, 1970. (First published by Longmans in 1963.) * Evans, Robert J. W. ''The Making of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1550–1700: An Interpretation''. Clarendon Press, 1979. * * McGuigan, Dorothy Gies. ''The Habsburgs''. Doubleday, 1966. * * Palmer, Alan. ''Napoleón and Marie Louise: The Emperor's Second Wife''. St. Martin's Press, 2001. * Rady, Martyn. ''The Habsburgs: To Rule the World''. Basic Books, 2020. * Wandruszka, Adam. ''The House of Habsburg: Six Hundred Years of a European Dynasty''. Doubleday, 1964 (Greenwood Publishing Group, Greenwood Press, 1975).


External links


"Erzherzog Dr. Otto von Habsburg" (Autorisierte Ehrenseite) in German

Habsburg Biographies
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The World of the Habsburgs
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