HOME
TheInfoList



Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked
province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outs ...
in the
southwest region
southwest region
of the
People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...
. Its capital and largest city is Guiyang, in the center of the province. Guizhou borders the autonomous region of
Guangxi Guangxi (; alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), ...
to the south,
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Kunm ...
to the west,
Sichuan Sichuan (, Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ; Postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the ...
to the northwest, the municipality of
Chongqing Chongqing ( Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a Mandarin Chinese#Subgrouping, dialect of Mandarin that em ...
to the north, and
Hunan Hunan () is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roma ...

Hunan
to the east. The population of Guizhou stands at 34 million, ranking 19th among the provinces in China. The Dian Kingdom, which inhabited the present-day area of Guizhou, was annexed by the
Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and ...
in 106 BC. Guizhou was formally made a province in 1413 during the
Ming dynasty#REDIRECT Ming dynasty {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
. After the overthrow of the Qing in 1911 and following the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
, the
Communist Party of China The Communist Party of China (CPC), commonly known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and One-party state, sole Ruling party, governing political party of the China, People's Republic of China (PRC). The CCP leads List of pol ...
took refuge in Guizhou during the Long March between 1934 and 1935. After the establishment of the
People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...
,
Mao Zedong Mao Zedong (; pronounced , (formerly Romanization of Chinese, romanized as Mao Tse-tung), December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese Communism, communist revolutionary who was the List of national founder ...

Mao Zedong
promoted the relocation of heavy industry into inland provinces such as Guizhou, to better protect them from potential foreign attacks. Compared to other provinces of China, Guizhou has not benefited substantially from the Chinese economic reform. Guizhou is rich in natural, cultural and environmental resources. Its natural industry includes timber and forestry, and the Energy industry, energy and mining industries constitute an important part of its economy. Notwithstanding, Guizhou is considered a relatively poor and economically undeveloped province, with the List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capita, seventh-lowest GDP per capita in China as of 2019. However, it is also one of China's fastest-growing economies. The Chinese government is looking to develop Guizhou as a data hub. Guizhou is a mountainous province, with its higher altitudes in the west and centre. It lies at the eastern end of the Yungui Plateau. Demographically, it is one of China's most diverse provinces. Minority groups account for more than 37% of the population, including sizable populations of the Miao people, Miao, Bouyei people, Bouyei, Kam people, Dong, Tujia people, Tujia and Yi people, Yi peoples, all of whom speak languages distinct from Chinese. The main language spoken in Guizhou is Southwestern Mandarin, a variety of Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin.


Name

The area was first organized as an History of Chinese administrative regions, administrative region of a imperial China, Chinese empire under the Tang dynasty, Tang, when it was named Juzhou (), pronounced ''Kjú-jyuw'' in the Middle Chinese of the period. During the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty, the character (''ju'', "carpenter's square") was changed to the more refined (''gui'', "precious or expensive"). The region formally became a province in 1413, with an eponymous capital then also called "Guizhou" but now known as Guiyang.


History

Evidence of settlement by humans during the Middle Palaeolithic is indicated by stone artefacts, including Levallois technique, Levallois pieces, found during archaeological excavations at Guanyindong Cave. These artefacts have been dated to approximately 170,000–80,000 years ago using optically stimulated luminescence methods. From around 1046 BCE to the emergence of the Qin (state), State of Qin, northwest Guizhou was part of the Shu (state), State of Shu. During the Warring States period, the Chinese state of Chu (state), Chu conquered the area, and control later passed to the Dian Kingdom. During the Chinese Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), to which the Dian was tributary, Guizhou was home to the Yelang collection of tribes, which largely governed themselves before the Han consolidated control in the southwest and established the Lingnan province. During the Three Kingdoms period, parts of Guizhou were governed by the Shu Han state based in
Sichuan Sichuan (, Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ; Postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the ...
, followed by Cao Wei (220–265) and the Jin Dynasty (265–420), Jin Dynasty (265–420). During the 8th and 9th centuries in the Tang dynasty, Chinese soldiers moved into Guizhou (Kweichow) and married native women. Their descendants are known as ''Lǎohànrén'' (), in contrast to new Chinese who populated Guizhou at later times. They still speak an archaic dialect. Many immigrants to Guizhou were descended from these soldiers in garrisons who married these pre-Chinese women. Kublai Khan and Möngke Khan conquered the Chinese southwest in the process of defeating the Song during the Mongol conquest of China, Mongol invasion of China, and the newly established Yuan dynasty (1279–1368) saw the importation of Chinese Muslim administrators and settlers from Bukhara in Central Asia. It was during the following
Ming dynasty#REDIRECT Ming dynasty {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
, which was once again led by Han Chinese, that Guizhou was formally made a province in 1413. The Ming established many garrisons in Guizhou from which to pacify the Yao people, Yao and Miao people, Miao minorities during the Miao Rebellions (Ming dynasty), Miao Rebellions. Chinese-style agriculture flourished with the expertise of farmers from Sichuan,
Hunan Hunan () is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roma ...

Hunan
and its surrounding provinces into Guizhou. Wu Sangui was responsible for the ousting the Ming in Guizhou and Yunnan during the Transition from Ming to Qing, Manchu conquest of China. During the governorship-general of the Qing Dynasty's nobleman Ortai, the ''tusi'' system of indirect governance of the southwest was abolished, prompting rebellions from disenfranchised chieftains and the further centralization of government. After the Second Opium War, criminal Triad (organized crime), triads set up shop in Guangxi and Guizhou to sell British opium. For a time, Taiping Rebellion, Taiping Rebels took control of Guizhou, but they were ultimately suppressed by the Qing. Concurrently, Han Chinese soldiers moved into the Taijiang region of Guizhou, married Miao women, and their children were brought up as Miao. More unsuccessful Miao rebellions occurred during the Qing, in Miao Rebellion (1735–36), 1735, from Miao Rebellion (1795–1806), 1795–1806 and from Miao Rebellion (1854–73), 1854–1873. After the overthrow of the Qing in 1911 and following
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
, the Communist Party of China, Communists took refuge in Guizhou during the Long March (1934–1935). While the province was formally ruled by the Warlord era, warlord Wang Jialie, the Zunyi Conference in Guizhou established
Mao Zedong Mao Zedong (; pronounced , (formerly Romanization of Chinese, romanized as Mao Tse-tung), December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese Communism, communist revolutionary who was the List of national founder ...

Mao Zedong
as the leader of the Communist Party. As the Second Sino-Japanese War pushed China's Nationalist Government to its southwest base of
Chongqing Chongqing ( Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a Mandarin Chinese#Subgrouping, dialect of Mandarin that em ...
, transportation infrastructure improved as Guizhou was linked with the Burma Road. After the end of the War, a Chinese Revolution (1949), 1949 Revolution swept Mao into power, who promoted the relocation of heavy industry into inland provinces such as Guizhou, to better protect them from Soviet Union, Soviet and American attacks. The 1957–1958 influenza pandemic, 1957 influenza pandemic started in Guizhou and killed a million people around the world. After the Chinese economic reform began in 1978, geographical factors led Guizhou to become the poorest province in China, with a GDP growth average of 9 percent from 1978–1993.


Geography

Guizhou is a mountainous province, although its higher altitudes are in the west and centre. It lies at the eastern end of the Yungui Plateau. At above sea level, Jiucaiping is Guizhou's highest point. Guizhou has a humid subtropical climate. There are few seasonal changes. Its annual average temperature is roughly 10 to 20 °C, with January temperatures ranging from 1 to 10 °C and July temperatures ranging from 17 to 28 °C. Like in China's other southwest provinces, rural areas of Guizhou suffered severe drought during spring 2010. One of China's poorest provinces, Guizhou is experiencing serious environmental problems, such as desertification and persistent water shortages. From 3–5 April 2010, China's Premier Wen Jiabao went on a three-day inspection tour in the southwest drought-affected province of Guizhou, where he met villagers and called on agricultural scientists to develop drought-resistant technologies for the area.


Biodiversity

The border mountains of Guizhou, Guangxi, and Hunan have been identified as one of the eight plant diversity hotspots in China. The main ecosystem types include evergreen broad-leaved forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, and montane elfin forest. Plant species endemic to this region include ''Abies ziyuanensis'', ''Cathaya argyrophylla'', and ''Keteleeria pubescens''. In broad terms, the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau is one of the vertebrate diversity hotspots of China. At the level of counties, Xingyi, Guizhou, Xingyi is one of nine Chinese vertebrate (excluding birds) diversity hotspots. Animals only known from Guizhou include Leishan moustache toad, Kuankuoshui salamander, Shuicheng salamander, Guizhou salamander, and Zhijin warty newt. Caohai Lake with its surroundings is a wetland that is an important overwintering site for many birds. It is a Protected areas of China, National Nature Reserve and an Important Bird Area identified by BirdLife International.


Politics


Administrative divisions

Guizhou is divided into nine Administrative divisions of China#Prefectural level, prefecture-level divisions: six Prefecture-level city, prefecture-level cities and three autonomous prefectures: These nine prefecture-level divisions are in turn subdivided into 88 county-level divisions (14 District of China, districts, 7 county-level cities, 55 County (People's Republic of China), counties, and 11 Autonomous counties of the People's Republic of China, autonomous counties and one District of China, special district).


Urban areas


Economy

As of the mid-19th century, Guizhou exported Mercury (element), mercury, gold, iron, lead, tobacco, incense and drugs. Its natural industry includes timber and forestry. Guizhou is also the third largest producer of tobacco in China, and home to the well-known brand Guizhou Tobacco.http://thechinaperspective.com/topics/province/guizhou-province/ Other important industries in the province include energy (electricity generation) - a large portion of which is exported to Guangdong and other provinces - and mining, especially in coal, limestone, arsenic, gypsum, and oil shale. Guizhou's total output of coal was 118 million tons in 2008, a 7% growth from the previous year. Guizhou's export of power to Guangdong equaled 12% of Guangdong's total power consumption. Over the next 5 years Guizhou hopes to increase this by as much as 50%.


Economic and Technological Development Zones

* Guiyang Economic & Technological Development Zone, created in February 2000


Transportation

In 2017, Sun Zhigang incident, Sun Zhigang, the governor of Guizhou, has announced the plans to build 10,000 kilometers of highways, 17 airports, of inland waterways, and of high-speed rail lines in three years, in an effort to boost the tourism in the province.


Rail

Guizhou's rail network consists primarily of a cross formed by the Sichuan–Guizhou railway, Sichuan–Guizhou, Guizhou–Guangxi Railway, Guangxi–Guizhou and Shanghai–Kunming railway, Shanghai–Kunming railways, which intersect at the provincial capital, Guiyang, near the center of the province. The Liupanshui–Baiguo railway, Liupanshui–Baiguo, Pan County West Railway, Pan County West and Weishe–Hongguo railway, Weishe–Hongguo railways form a rail corridor along Guizhou's western border with
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Kunm ...
. This corridor connects the Neijiang–Kunming railway, which dips into northwestern Guizhou at Weining Yi, Hui, and Miao Autonomous County, Weining, with the Nanning–Kunming railway, which skirts the southwestern corner of Guizhou at Xingyi City, Xingyi. As of 2018, Shanghai–Kunming high-speed railway, Shanghai–Kunming and Guiyang–Guangzhou high-speed railway, Guiyang–Guangzhou high-speed railways are operational. Chengdu–Guiyang high-speed railway is under construction.


Demographics

In 1832, the population was estimated at five million. Guizhou is demographically one of China's most diverse provinces. Minority groups account for more than 37% of the population and they include Miao people, Miao (including Gha-Mu people, Gha-Mu and A-Hmao), Yao people, Yao, Yi people, Yi, Qiang people, Qiang, Dong people, Dong, Zhuang people, Zhuang, Bouyei people, Bouyei, Bai people, Bai, Tujia people, Tujia, Gelao people, Gelao and Sui people, Sui. 55.5% of the province area is designated as autonomous regions for ethnic minorities. Guizhou is the province with the highest Total fertility rate, fertility rate in China, standing at 2.19 (Urban-1.31, Rural-2.42).


Religion

The predominant religions in Guizhou are Chinese folk religions, Taoism, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 31.18% of the population believes and is involved in Chinese ancestral religion, ancestor veneration, while 0.99% of the population identifies as Christianity, Christian, decreasing from 1.13% in 2004. The reports did not give figures for other types of religion; 67.83% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religion, worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese salvationist religions, folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims. There are significant ethnic minority populations (the Miao people, Miao and the Buyei people, Buyei) who traditionally follow their autochthonous religions.


Cuisine

Guizhou is the home of the well-known Alcoholic drinks in China, Chinese liquor Moutai.


Tourism

The province has many covered bridges, called ''Wind and Rain Bridges''. These were built by the Dong people. The southeastern corner of the province is known for its unique Dong minority culture. Towns such as Rongjiang County, Rongjiang, Liping County, Liping, Diping and Zhaoxing are scattered amongst the hills along the border with Guangxi.


Heritage-based tourism

The World Bank "Strategic Environmental Assessment Study: Tourism Development in the Province of Guizhou, China" (May 25, 2007) (needs a direct cite) points to three different forms of tourism that should be fostered and developed in Guizhou, China: Nature-based, Heritage-based and Rural Tourism. Heritage-based tourism provides ethnic minority groups with an opportunity to preserve their unique heritage while still making a living.


Colleges and universities

*Guizhou University (Guiyang) *Guizhou Normal University (Guiyang) *Guiyang Medical University (Guiyang) *Guizhou Nationalities University (Guiyang) *Guizhou Institute of Technology (Guiyang) *Zunyi Medical College (Zunyi) *Moutai University (Zunyi)


Media

*''Guizhou Daily''


Notable people

* Shi Jinmo (1881-1969), founder of medical colleges * Huang Xiaoyun (1998-), singer and actress


See also

* Major national historical and cultural sites (Guizhou), Major national historical and cultural sites in Guizhou * 2020 Guizhou bus crash


Notes


References


Citations


Works cited

*


External links


Guizhou government website

Guiyang Government websiteTownship level administrative map of Guizhou
{{Authority control Guizhou, Provinces of the People's Republic of China South China Western China