NameThe area was first organized as an History of Chinese administrative regions, administrative region of a imperial China, Chinese empire under the Tang dynasty, Tang, when it was named Juzhou (), pronounced ''Kjú-jyuw'' in the Middle Chinese of the period. During the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty, the character (''ju'', "carpenter's square") was changed to the more refined (''gui'', "precious or expensive"). The region formally became a province in 1413, with an eponymous capital then also called "Guizhou" but now known as Guiyang.
HistoryEvidence of settlement by humans during the Middle Palaeolithic is indicated by stone artefacts, including Levallois technique, Levallois pieces, found during archaeological excavations at Guanyindong Cave. These artefacts have been dated to approximately 170,000–80,000 years ago using optically stimulated luminescence methods. From around 1046 BCE to the emergence of the Qin (state), State of Qin, northwest Guizhou was part of the Shu (state), State of Shu. During the Warring States period, the Chinese state of Chu (state), Chu conquered the area, and control later passed to the Dian Kingdom. During the Chinese Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), to which the Dian was tributary, Guizhou was home to the Yelang collection of tribes, which largely governed themselves before the Han consolidated control in the southwest and established the Lingnan province. During the Three Kingdoms period, parts of Guizhou were governed by the Shu Han state based in During the 8th and 9th centuries in the Tang dynasty, Chinese soldiers moved into Guizhou (Kweichow) and married native women. Their descendants are known as ''Lǎohànrén'' (), in contrast to new Chinese who populated Guizhou at later times. They still speak an archaic dialect. Many immigrants to Guizhou were descended from these soldiers in garrisons who married these pre-Chinese women. Kublai Khan and Möngke Khan conquered the Chinese southwest in the process of defeating the Song during the Mongol conquest of China, Mongol invasion of China, and the newly established Yuan dynasty (1279–1368) saw the importation of Chinese Muslim administrators and settlers from Bukhara in Central Asia. It was during the following Chinese-style agriculture flourished with the expertise of farmers from Sichuan, Concurrently, Han Chinese soldiers moved into the Taijiang region of Guizhou, married Miao women, and their children were brought up as Miao. More unsuccessful Miao rebellions occurred during the Qing, in Miao Rebellion (1735–36), 1735, from Miao Rebellion (1795–1806), 1795–1806 and from Miao Rebellion (1854–73), 1854–1873. After the overthrow of the Qing in 1911 and following , the Communist Party of China, Communists took refuge in Guizhou during the Long March (1934–1935). While the province was formally ruled by the Warlord era, warlord Wang Jialie, the Zunyi Conference in Guizhou established After the end of the War, a Chinese Revolution (1949), 1949 Revolution swept Mao into power, who promoted the relocation of heavy industry into inland provinces such as Guizhou, to better protect them from Soviet Union, Soviet and American attacks. The 1957–1958 influenza pandemic, 1957 influenza pandemic started in Guizhou and killed a million people around the world. After the Chinese economic reform began in 1978, geographical factors led Guizhou to become the poorest province in China, with a GDP growth average of 9 percent from 1978–1993.
GeographyGuizhou is a mountainous province, although its higher altitudes are in the west and centre. It lies at the eastern end of the Yungui Plateau. At above sea level, Jiucaiping is Guizhou's highest point. Guizhou has a humid subtropical climate. There are few seasonal changes. Its annual average temperature is roughly 10 to 20 °C, with January temperatures ranging from 1 to 10 °C and July temperatures ranging from 17 to 28 °C. Like in China's other southwest provinces, rural areas of Guizhou suffered severe drought during spring 2010. One of China's poorest provinces, Guizhou is experiencing serious environmental problems, such as desertification and persistent water shortages. From 3–5 April 2010, China's Premier Wen Jiabao went on a three-day inspection tour in the southwest drought-affected province of Guizhou, where he met villagers and called on agricultural scientists to develop drought-resistant technologies for the area.
BiodiversityThe border mountains of Guizhou, Guangxi, and Hunan have been identified as one of the eight plant diversity hotspots in China. The main ecosystem types include evergreen broad-leaved forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, and montane elfin forest. Plant species endemic to this region include ''Abies ziyuanensis'', ''Cathaya argyrophylla'', and ''Keteleeria pubescens''. In broad terms, the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau is one of the vertebrate diversity hotspots of China. At the level of counties, Xingyi, Guizhou, Xingyi is one of nine Chinese vertebrate (excluding birds) diversity hotspots. Animals only known from Guizhou include Leishan moustache toad, Kuankuoshui salamander, Shuicheng salamander, Guizhou salamander, and Zhijin warty newt. Caohai Lake with its surroundings is a wetland that is an important overwintering site for many birds. It is a Protected areas of China, National Nature Reserve and an Important Bird Area identified by BirdLife International.
Administrative divisionsGuizhou is divided into nine Administrative divisions of China#Prefectural level, prefecture-level divisions: six Prefecture-level city, prefecture-level cities and three autonomous prefectures: These nine prefecture-level divisions are in turn subdivided into 88 county-level divisions (14 District of China, districts, 7 county-level cities, 55 County (People's Republic of China), counties, and 11 Autonomous counties of the People's Republic of China, autonomous counties and one District of China, special district).
EconomyAs of the mid-19th century, Guizhou exported Mercury (element), mercury, gold, iron, lead, tobacco, incense and drugs. Its natural industry includes timber and forestry. Guizhou is also the third largest producer of tobacco in China, and home to the well-known brand Guizhou Tobacco.http://thechinaperspective.com/topics/province/guizhou-province/ Other important industries in the province include energy (electricity generation) - a large portion of which is exported to Guangdong and other provinces - and mining, especially in coal, limestone, arsenic, gypsum, and oil shale. Guizhou's total output of coal was 118 million tons in 2008, a 7% growth from the previous year. Guizhou's export of power to Guangdong equaled 12% of Guangdong's total power consumption. Over the next 5 years Guizhou hopes to increase this by as much as 50%.
Economic and Technological Development Zones* Guiyang Economic & Technological Development Zone, created in February 2000
TransportationIn 2017, Sun Zhigang incident, Sun Zhigang, the governor of Guizhou, has announced the plans to build 10,000 kilometers of highways, 17 airports, of inland waterways, and of high-speed rail lines in three years, in an effort to boost the tourism in the province.
RailGuizhou's rail network consists primarily of a cross formed by the Sichuan–Guizhou railway, Sichuan–Guizhou, Guizhou–Guangxi Railway, Guangxi–Guizhou and Shanghai–Kunming railway, Shanghai–Kunming railways, which intersect at the provincial capital, Guiyang, near the center of the province. The Liupanshui–Baiguo railway, Liupanshui–Baiguo, Pan County West Railway, Pan County West and Weishe–Hongguo railway, Weishe–Hongguo railways form a rail corridor along Guizhou's western border with . This corridor connects the Neijiang–Kunming railway, which dips into northwestern Guizhou at Weining Yi, Hui, and Miao Autonomous County, Weining, with the Nanning–Kunming railway, which skirts the southwestern corner of Guizhou at Xingyi City, Xingyi. As of 2018, Shanghai–Kunming high-speed railway, Shanghai–Kunming and Guiyang–Guangzhou high-speed railway, Guiyang–Guangzhou high-speed railways are operational. Chengdu–Guiyang high-speed railway is under construction.
DemographicsIn 1832, the population was estimated at five million. Guizhou is demographically one of China's most diverse provinces. Minority groups account for more than 37% of the population and they include Miao people, Miao (including Gha-Mu people, Gha-Mu and A-Hmao), Yao people, Yao, Yi people, Yi, Qiang people, Qiang, Dong people, Dong, Zhuang people, Zhuang, Bouyei people, Bouyei, Bai people, Bai, Tujia people, Tujia, Gelao people, Gelao and Sui people, Sui. 55.5% of the province area is designated as autonomous regions for ethnic minorities. Guizhou is the province with the highest Total fertility rate, fertility rate in China, standing at 2.19 (Urban-1.31, Rural-2.42).
ReligionThe predominant religions in Guizhou are Chinese folk religions, Taoism, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 31.18% of the population believes and is involved in Chinese ancestral religion, ancestor veneration, while 0.99% of the population identifies as Christianity, Christian, decreasing from 1.13% in 2004. The reports did not give figures for other types of religion; 67.83% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religion, worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese salvationist religions, folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims. There are significant ethnic minority populations (the Miao people, Miao and the Buyei people, Buyei) who traditionally follow their autochthonous religions.
CuisineGuizhou is the home of the well-known Alcoholic drinks in China, Chinese liquor Moutai.
TourismThe province has many covered bridges, called ''Wind and Rain Bridges''. These were built by the Dong people. The southeastern corner of the province is known for its unique Dong minority culture. Towns such as Rongjiang County, Rongjiang, Liping County, Liping, Diping and Zhaoxing are scattered amongst the hills along the border with Guangxi.
Heritage-based tourismThe World Bank "Strategic Environmental Assessment Study: Tourism Development in the Province of Guizhou, China" (May 25, 2007) (needs a direct cite) points to three different forms of tourism that should be fostered and developed in Guizhou, China: Nature-based, Heritage-based and Rural Tourism. Heritage-based tourism provides ethnic minority groups with an opportunity to preserve their unique heritage while still making a living.
Colleges and universities*Guizhou University (Guiyang) *Guizhou Normal University (Guiyang) *Guiyang Medical University (Guiyang) *Guizhou Nationalities University (Guiyang) *Guizhou Institute of Technology (Guiyang) *Zunyi Medical College (Zunyi) *Moutai University (Zunyi)
Notable people* Shi Jinmo (1881-1969), founder of medical colleges * Huang Xiaoyun (1998-), singer and actress
See also* Major national historical and cultural sites (Guizhou), Major national historical and cultural sites in Guizhou * 2020 Guizhou bus crash