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''Guinness World Records'', known from its inception in 1955 until 1999 as ''The Guinness Book of Records'' and in previous United States editions as ''The Guinness Book of World Records'', is a
reference book A reference work is a work such as a book or periodical (or its electronic equivalent) to which one can refer for information. The information is intended to be found quickly when needed. Reference works are usually ''referred'' to for particula ...
published annually, listing
world record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill, sport, or other kind of activity. The book ''Guinness World Records'' collates and publishes notable record ...
s both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world. The brainchild of Sir
Hugh Beaver Sir Hugh Eyre Campbell Beaver, KBE (4 May 1890 – 16 January 1967) was an English-South African engineer, industrialist, and founder of the ''Guinness World Records'' (then known as Guinness Book of Records). References External linksH ...
, the book was co-founded by twin brothers
Norris Norris or Noris may refer to: Places In Canada *Norris, Ontario, in Algoma District In the United Kingdom *Hampstead Norreys (or Norris), Berkshire In the United States * Norris, Illinois * Norris, Missouri * Norris, Nebraska * Norris, South ...
and
Ross McWhirter Alan Ross McWhirter (12 August 1925 – 27 November 1975) was, with his twin brother, Norris, the co-founder in 1955 of ''Guinness Book of Records'' (known since 2000 as ''Guinness World Records'') and a contributor to the television programme ...
in
Fleet Street Fleet Street is a major street mostly in the City of London. It runs west to east from Temple Bar at the boundary with the City of Westminster to Ludgate Circus at the site of the London Wall and the River Fleet from which the street was named. ...

Fleet Street
,
London London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its estuary leading to the North Sea. London has been a major settlement for two millen ...
, in August 1954. As of the 2021 edition, it is now in its 66th year of publication, published in 100 countries and 23 languages, and maintains over 53,000 records in its database. The international
franchise Franchise may refer to: Business and law * Franchising, a business method that involves licensing of trademarks and methods of doing business to franchisees * Franchise, a privilege to operate a type of business such as a cable television pro ...
has extended beyond print to include television series and museums. The popularity of the franchise has resulted in ''Guinness World Records'' becoming the primary international authority on the cataloguing and verification of a huge number of world records. The organisation employs record adjudicators to verify the authenticity of the setting and breaking of records.


History

On 10 November 1951, Sir Hugh Beaver, then the managing director of the
Guinness Guinness () is a dark Irish dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness at St. James's Gate, Dublin, Ireland, in 1759. It is one of the most successful alcohol brands worldwide, brewed in almost 50 countries, and available in ov ...

Guinness
Breweries, went on a shooting party in the
North Slob The North Slob is an area of mud-flats at the estuary of the River Slaney at Wexford Harbour, Ireland. The North Slob is an area of that was reclaimed in the mid-19th century by the building of a sea wall.River Slaney The River Slaney () is a large river in the southeast of Ireland. It rises on Lugnaquilla Mountain in the western Wicklow Mountains and flows west and then south through counties Wicklow, Carlow and Wexford for 117.5 km (73 mi), befor ...
in
County Wexford County Wexford ( ga, Contae Loch Garman) is a county in Ireland. It is in the province of Leinster and is part of the South-East Region. Named after the town of Wexford, it was based on the historic Gaelic territory of Hy Kinsella (''Uí Ceinnsea ...
, Ireland. After missing a shot at a
golden plover '' Pluvialis '' is a genus of plovers, a group of wading birds comprising four species that breed in the temperate or Arctic Northern Hemisphere. In breeding plumage, they all have largely black underparts, and golden or silvery upperparts. They ...
, he became involved in an argument over which was the fastest
game bird Galliformes is an order of heavy-bodied ground-feeding birds that includes turkey, chicken, quail, and other landfowl. Gallinaceous birds, as they are called, are important as seed dispersers and predators in the ecosystems they inhabit, and are ...
in Europe, the golden plover or the
red grouse The red grouse (''Lagopus lagopus scotica'') is a medium-sized bird of the grouse family which is found in heather moorland in Great Britain and Ireland. It is usually classified as a subspecies of the willow ptarmigan but is sometimes considered ...

red grouse
– it is the plover. That evening at
Castlebridge Castlebridge () is a small town on the R741 regional road in County Wexford, Ireland, north of Wexford Town. It is located near the River Slaney and just north of Wexford Harbour. Castlebridge is a rapidly expanding suburb of Wexford Town; its ...
House, he realised that it was impossible to confirm in reference books whether or not the golden plover was Europe's fastest game bird. Beaver knew that there must have been numerous other questions debated nightly in pubs throughout Ireland and abroad, but there was no book in the world with which to settle arguments about records. He realised then that a book supplying the answers to this sort of question might prove successful. Beaver's idea became reality when Guinness employee
Christopher Chataway Sir Christopher John Chataway (31 January 1931 – 19 January 2014) was a British middle- and long-distance runner, television news broadcaster, and Conservative politician. Education He was born in Chelsea, London, the son of James Denys Per ...
recommended university friends Norris and Ross McWhirter, who had been running a fact-finding agency in London. The twin brothers were commissioned to compile what became ''The Guinness Book of Records,'' in August 1954. A thousand copies were printed and given away. After the founding of ''The Guinness Book of Records'' office at 107
Fleet Street Fleet Street is a major street mostly in the City of London. It runs west to east from Temple Bar at the boundary with the City of Westminster to Ludgate Circus at the site of the London Wall and the River Fleet from which the street was named. ...

Fleet Street
, London, the first 198-page edition was bound on 27 August 1955 and went to the top of the British best seller lists by Christmas. The following year, it launched in the US, and sold 70,000 copies. Since then, ''Guinness World Records'' has sold more than 100 million copies in 100 countries and 37 languages. Because the book became a surprise hit, many further editions were printed, eventually settling into a pattern of one revision a year, published in September/October, in time for Christmas. The McWhirters continued to compile it for many years. Both brothers had an encyclopedic memory; on the TV series ''
Record Breakers ''Record Breakers'' is a British children's TV show, themed around world records and produced by the BBC. It was broadcast on BBC1 from 15 December 1972 to 21 December 2001. It was originally presented by Roy Castle with Guinness World Records f ...
'', based upon the book, they would take questions posed by children in the audience on various world records and were able to give the correct answer. Ross McWhirter was assassinated by the
Provisional Irish Republican Army The Irish Republican Army (IRA; ), also known as the Provisional Irish Republican Army, and informally as the Provos, was an Irish republican paramilitary organisation that sought to end British rule in Northern Ireland, facilitate Irish reunif ...
in 1975. Following Ross's assassination, the feature in the show where questions about records posed by children were answered was called ''Norris on the Spot''. Guinness Superlatives, later Guinness World Records Limited, was formed in 1954 to publish the first book.
Sterling Publishing Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. is a publisher of a broad range of subject areas, with multiple imprints and more than 5,000 titles in print. Founded in 1949, Sterling also publishes books for a number of brands, including AARP, Hasbro, Hearst Ma ...
owned the rights to the ''Guinness'' book in the US for decades. The group was owned by Guinness PLC and subsequently
Diageo Diageo plc () is a British multinational beverage alcohol company, with its headquarters in London, England. It operates in more than 180 countries and produces in more than 140 sites around the world. It was the world's largest distiller until ...
until 2001, when it was purchased by
Gullane Entertainment Gullane Entertainment PLC was a British independent production company which produced children's programming, including ''Thomas & Friends'', ''Shining Time Station'', and ''The Magic Adventures of Mumfie''. The company was purchased by HIT Entert ...
for $65 million. Gullane was itself purchased by
HIT Entertainment Hit means to strike someone or something. Hit or HIT may also refer to: Arts, entertainment and media Fictional entities * Hit, a fictional character from ''Dragon Ball Super'' * Homicide International Trust, or HIT, a fictional organization in ...
in 2002. In 2006,
Apax Partners Apax Partners LLP is a British private equity firm, headquartered in London, England. The company also operates out of six other offices in New York, Hong Kong, Mumbai, Tel Aviv, Munich and Shanghai. As of December 2017, the firm, including its va ...
purchased HIT and subsequently sold Guinness World Records in early 2008 to the
Jim Pattison Group The Jim Pattison Group is a Canadian conglomerate based in Vancouver. In a recent survey by the Financial Post, the firm was ranked as Canada's 62nd largest company. Jim Pattison, a Vancouver-based entrepreneur, is the chairman, CEO, and sole own ...
, the parent company of
Ripley EntertainmentRipley Entertainment Inc. is an entertainment and edutainment holding company owned by the Jim Pattison Group of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The company has its headquarters in an unincorporated part of southern Orange County, Florida, near ...
, which is licensed to operate Guinness World Records' Attractions. With offices in New York City and Tokyo, Guinness World Records' global headquarters remain in London, while its museum attractions are based at Ripley headquarters in
Orlando, Florida Orlando () is a city in the U.S. state of Florida and is the county seat of Orange County. In Central Florida, it is the center of the Orlando metropolitan area, which had a population of 2,509,831, according to U.S. Census Bureau figures release ...
, US.


Evolution

Recent editions have focused on record feats by person competitors. Competitions range from obvious ones such as
Olympic weightlifting Olympic weightlifting, or Olympic-style weightlifting, often simply referred to as weightlifting, is a sport in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates. The two competition lifts in order are ...
to the longest egg tossing distances, or for longest time spent playing ''
Grand Theft Auto IV ''Grand Theft Auto IV'' is a 2008 action-adventure game developed by Rockstar North and published by Rockstar Games. It is the first main entry in the ''Grand Theft Auto'' series since 2004's ''Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas''. Set within the fi ...
'' or the number of hot dogs that can be consumed in three minutes. Besides records about competitions, it contains such facts such as the heaviest tumour, the most poisonous fungus, the longest-running soap opera and the most valuable life-insurance policy, among others. Many records also relate to the youngest people to have achieved something, such as the youngest person to visit all nations of the world; it is
Maurizio Giuliano Maurizio Giuliano (born 1975) is a British-Italian United Nations official, traveller, author and journalist. As of 2004 he was, according to the ''Guinness Book of World Records'', the youngest person to have visited all sovereign nations of the wo ...
. Each edition contains a selection of the records from the Guinness World Records database, as well as select new records, with the criteria for inclusion changing from year to year. The retirement of Norris McWhirter from his consulting role in 1995 and the subsequent decision by Diageo Plc to sell The Guinness Book of Records brand have shifted the focus of the books from text-oriented to illustrated reference. A selection of records are curated for the book from the full archive but all existing Guinness World Records titles can be accessed by creating a login on the company's website. Applications made by individuals for existing record categories are free of charge. There is an administration fee of $5 to propose a new record title. A number of spin-off books and television series have also been produced. ''Guinness World Records'' bestowed the record of "Person with the most records" on
Ashrita Furman Ashrita Furman (born Keith Furman, September 16, 1954) is a ''Guinness World Records'' record-breaker. As of 2017, Furman has set more than 600 official Guinness Records and currently holds 531 records, thus holding the Guinness world record for the ...
of Queens, NY, in April 2009; at that time, he held 100 records and currently holds over 220. In 2005, Guinness designated 9 November as ''International Guinness World Records Day'' to encourage breaking of world records. In 2006, an estimated 100,000 people participated in over 10 countries. Guinness reported 2,244 new records in 12 months, which was a 173% increase over the previous year. In February 2008,
NBC The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English-language commercial terrestrial radio and television network owned by NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, ...
aired ''The Top 100 Guinness World Records of All Time'' and Guinness World Records made the complete list available on their website.


Defining records

alt=The team achieved 14 performance based Guinness World Records and other records., Fiann_Paul,_Alex_Gregory_and_Carlo_Facchino_aboard_Polar_Row,_the_most_record_breaking_expedition_in_history..html" ;"title="Alex_Gregory.html" ;"title="Fiann Paul,
Fiann_Paul,_Alex_Gregory_and_Carlo_Facchino_aboard_Polar_Row,_the_most_record_breaking_expedition_in_history.">Alex_Gregory.html"_;"title="Fiann_Paul,_Alex_Gregory">Fiann_Paul,_Alex_Gregory_and_Carlo_Facchino_aboard_Polar_Row,_the_most_record_breaking_expedition_in_history. For_many_records,_''Guinness_World_Records''_is_the_effective_authority_on_the_exact_requirements_for_them_and_with_whom_records_reside,_the_company_providing_adjudicators_to_events_to_determine_the_veracity_of_record_attempts._The_list_of_records_which_the_''Guinness_World_Records''_covers_is_not_fixed,_records_may_be_added_and_also_removed_for_various_reasons._The_public_are_invited_to_submit_applications_for_records,_which_can_be_either_the_bettering_of_existing_records_or_substantial_achievements_which_could_constitute_a_new_record._The_company_also_provides_corporate_services_for_companies_to_"harness_the_power_of_record-breaking_to_deliver_tangible_success_for_their_businesses."


_Ethical_and_safety_issues

''Guinness_World_Records''_states_several_types_of_records_it_will_not_accept_for_ethical_reasons,_such_as_those_related_to_the_killing_or_harming_of_animals. Several_world_records_that_were_once_included_in_the_book_have_been_removed_for_ethical_reasons,_including_concerns_for_the_well-being_of_potential_record_breakers._For_example,_following_publication_of_the_"heaviest_fish"_record,_many_fish_owners_overfed_their_pets_beyond_the_bounds_of_what_was_healthy,_and_therefore_such_entries_were_removed._The_Guinness_Book_also_dropped_records_within_their_"eating_and_drinking_records"_section_of_Human_Achievements_in_1991_over_concerns_that_potential_competitors_could_harm_themselves_and_expose_the_publisher_to_potential_
Fiann_Paul,_Alex_Gregory_and_Carlo_Facchino_aboard_Polar_Row,_the_most_record_breaking_expedition_in_history.">Alex_Gregory.html"_;"title="Fiann_Paul,_Alex_Gregory">Fiann_Paul,_Alex_Gregory_and_Carlo_Facchino_aboard_Polar_Row,_the_most_record_breaking_expedition_in_history. For_many_records,_''Guinness_World_Records''_is_the_effective_authority_on_the_exact_requirements_for_them_and_with_whom_records_reside,_the_company_providing_adjudicators_to_events_to_determine_the_veracity_of_record_attempts._The_list_of_records_which_the_''Guinness_World_Records''_covers_is_not_fixed,_records_may_be_added_and_also_removed_for_various_reasons._The_public_are_invited_to_submit_applications_for_records,_which_can_be_either_the_bettering_of_existing_records_or_substantial_achievements_which_could_constitute_a_new_record._The_company_also_provides_corporate_services_for_companies_to_"harness_the_power_of_record-breaking_to_deliver_tangible_success_for_their_businesses."


_Ethical_and_safety_issues

''Guinness_World_Records''_states_several_types_of_records_it_will_not_accept_for_ethical_reasons,_such_as_those_related_to_the_killing_or_harming_of_animals. Several_world_records_that_were_once_included_in_the_book_have_been_removed_for_ethical_reasons,_including_concerns_for_the_well-being_of_potential_record_breakers._For_example,_following_publication_of_the_"heaviest_fish"_record,_many_fish_owners_overfed_their_pets_beyond_the_bounds_of_what_was_healthy,_and_therefore_such_entries_were_removed._The_Guinness_Book_also_dropped_records_within_their_"eating_and_drinking_records"_section_of_Human_Achievements_in_1991_over_concerns_that_potential_competitors_could_harm_themselves_and_expose_the_publisher_to_potential_lawsuit">litigation A_lawsuit_is_a_proceeding_by_a_party_or_parties_against_another_in_the_civil_court_of_law._The_archaic_term_"suit_in_law"_is_found_in_only_a_small_number_of_laws_still_in_effect_today._The_term_"lawsuit"_is_used_in_reference_to_a_civil_action_...
._These_changes_included_the_removal_of_all_distilled_beverage.html" "title="lawsuit.html" "title="Alex Gregory">Fiann Paul, Alex Gregory and Carlo Facchino aboard Polar Row, the most record breaking expedition in history.">Alex_Gregory.html" ;"title="Fiann Paul, Alex Gregory">Fiann Paul, Alex Gregory and Carlo Facchino aboard Polar Row, the most record breaking expedition in history. For many records, ''Guinness World Records'' is the effective authority on the exact requirements for them and with whom records reside, the company providing adjudicators to events to determine the veracity of record attempts. The list of records which the ''Guinness World Records'' covers is not fixed, records may be added and also removed for various reasons. The public are invited to submit applications for records, which can be either the bettering of existing records or substantial achievements which could constitute a new record. The company also provides corporate services for companies to "harness the power of record-breaking to deliver tangible success for their businesses."


Ethical and safety issues

''Guinness World Records'' states several types of records it will not accept for ethical reasons, such as those related to the killing or harming of animals. Several world records that were once included in the book have been removed for ethical reasons, including concerns for the well-being of potential record breakers. For example, following publication of the "heaviest fish" record, many fish owners overfed their pets beyond the bounds of what was healthy, and therefore such entries were removed. The Guinness Book also dropped records within their "eating and drinking records" section of Human Achievements in 1991 over concerns that potential competitors could harm themselves and expose the publisher to potential lawsuit">litigation A lawsuit is a proceeding by a party or parties against another in the civil court of law. The archaic term "suit in law" is found in only a small number of laws still in effect today. The term "lawsuit" is used in reference to a civil action ...
. These changes included the removal of all distilled beverage">spirit In folk belief, spirit is the vital principle or animating force within all living things. As far back as 1628 and 1633 respectively, both William Harvey and René Descartes speculated that somewhere within the body, in a special locality, there ...
, wine and beer drinking records, along with other unusual records for consuming such unlikely things as bicycles and trees. Other records, such as sword swallowing and rally driving (on public roads), were closed from further entry as the current holders had performed beyond what are considered safe human tolerance levels. There have been instances of closed categories being reopened. For example, the sword swallowing category was listed as closed in the 1990 ''Guinness Book of World Records'', but has since been reopened with
Johnny Strange Johnny Strange (born 6 December 1988), nicknamed "the man with ears of steel", is an English world record breaking performance artist, producer and street performer based in London, England. He is known for performing daredevil stunts with a co ...
breaking a sword swallowing record on Guinness World Records Live. Similarly, the speed beer drinking records which were dropped from the book in 1991, reappeared 17 years later in the 2008 edition, but were moved from the "Human Achievements" section of the older book to the "Modern Society" section of the newer edition. , it is required in the guidelines of all "large food" type records that the item be fully edible, and distributed to the public for consumption, to prevent food wastage.
Chain letter A chain letter is a message that attempts to convince the recipient to make a number of copies and pass them on to a certain number of recipients. The "chain" is an exponentially growing pyramid (a tree graph) that cannot be sustained indefinitely ...

Chain letter
s are also not allowed: "Guinness World Records does not accept any records relating to chain letters, sent by post or e-mail." At the request of the
U.S. Mint#REDIRECT United States Mint {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
, in 1984, the book stopped accepting claims of large hoardings of pennies or other currency.


Difficulty in defining records

For some potential categories, ''Guinness World Records'' has declined to list some records that are too difficult or impossible to determine. For example, its website states: "We do not accept any claims for beauty as it is not objectively measurable." An example of this was the record for the Worlds Fastest Violinist, which was suspended as the Guinness World Records released a statement about this on one of the records on their YouTube Channel, due to pressure from YouTube personalities Brett Yang and Eddy Chen, who are the heads of the channel
Twoset Violin TwoSet Violin is a comedy duo consisting of Australian violinists Brett Yang and Eddy Chen. The pair are best known for their musical comedy on their YouTube channel, which has reached over 3.1 million subscribers and 797 million views as of 4 A ...
. Guinness World Records stated that they could not determine if the Violinist in question was playing the notes correctly, and other attributes, such as clearness and articulation. However, other categories of human skill relating to measurable speed such as "Worlds Fastest Clapper" were instated. On 27 July 2010, Connor May (NSW, Australia) set the record for 743 claps in 1 minute. On 10 December 2010, ''Guinness World Records'' stopped its new "
dreadlock Dreadlocks, also locs, dreads, or in Sanskrit, Jaṭā, are rope-like strands of hair formed by locking or braiding hair. Origins In ancient Egypt, examples of Egyptians wearing locked hairstyles and wigs have appeared on bas-reliefs, statuary a ...
" category after investigation of its first and only female title holder, Asha Mandela, determining it was impossible to judge this record accurately.


Change in business model

Traditionally, the company made a large amount of its revenue via book sales to interested readers, especially children. The rise of the Internet began to cut into book sales in the 2000s and forward, part of a general decline in the book industry. According to a 2017 story by
Planet Money ''Planet Money'' is an American podcast and blog produced by NPR. Using "creative and entertaining" dialogue and narrative, ''Planet Money'' claims to be "The Economy Explained." History The podcast was created by Alex Blumberg and Adam Davidson ...
of
NPR National Public Radio (NPR, stylized in all lowercase, npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit media organization based in Washington, D.C. NPR is based in two locations: main NPR headquarters in Washington, D.C. (often refe ...
, Guinness began to realise that a lucrative new revenue source to replace falling book sales was the would-be record-holders themselves. While any person can theoretically send in a record to be verified for free, the process is slow and manual for this. Would-be record breakers that paid fees ranging from US$12,000 to US$500,000 would be given advisors, adjudicators, help in finding good records to break as well as suggestions for how to do it, prompt service, and so on. In particular, corporations and celebrities seeking a
publicity stunt, 1910: "Little Hip" the elephant, advertising newspaper & theater. , circa 1951. To promote the A40 Sports, Leonard Lord, Chairman of Austin, bet Alan Hess of the company's publicity department that he could not drive round the world in 30 days in t ...
to launch a new product or draw attention to themselves began to hire Guinness World Records, paying them for finding a record to break or to create a new category just for them. ''Guinness World Records'' was criticised by television talk show host
John Oliver John William Oliver (born 23 April 1977) is a British-American comedian, writer, producer, political commentator, actor, and television host. Oliver started his career as a stand-up comedian in the United Kingdom. He came to wider attention fo ...
on the program ''
Last Week Tonight with John Oliver ''Last Week Tonight with John Oliver'' (often abridged as ''Last Week Tonight'') is an American late-night talk and news satire television program hosted by comedian John Oliver. The half-hour-long show premiered in April 2014 on HBO. ''Last Week ...
'' in August 2019. Oliver pointed serious criticism at Guinness for taking money from authoritarian governments for pointless vanity projects as it related to the main focus of his story,
President of Turkmenistan The president of Turkmenistan is the head of state and head of government, of Turkmenistan. The president is the chief executive of the union government and is also the commander in chief of the Armed Forces of Turkmenistan. Gurbanguly Berdimuhame ...
Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow Gurbanguly Mälikgulyýewiç Berdimuhamedow, (Turkmen pronunciation: ) (born 29 June 1957) or Gurbanguly Malikgulyevich Berdymukhammedov is a Turkmen politician who has been serving as the president of Turkmenistan since February 2007. A dentis ...
. Oliver asked for Guinness to work with ''Last Week Tonight'' to adjudicate a record for "Largest cake featuring a picture of someone falling off a horse," but according to Oliver, the offer did not work out after Guinness insisted on a non-disparagement clause. ''Guinness World Records'' denied the accusations and stated that they declined Oliver's offer to participate because "it was merely an opportunity to mock one of our record-holders," and that Oliver did not specifically request the record for the largest marble cake. As of 2021, the Guinness World Record for "Largest marble cake" remains with Betty Crocker Middle East, set in Saudi Arabia.


Museums

In 1976, a ''Guinness Book of World Records'' museum opened in the
Empire State Building The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, United States. It was designed by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon and built from 1930 to 1931. Its name is derived from "Empire State", the nickname of ...
. Speed shooter
Bob Munden Born Robert William Munden, Jr (February 8, 1942 – December 10, 2012), Bob Munden was an American exhibition shooter who performed with handguns, rifles and shotguns. He is most well known for holding 18 world records in the sport of Fast Draw a ...
then went on tour promoting ''The Guinness Book of World Records'' by performing his record fast draws with a standard weight single-action revolver from a Western movie-type holster. His fastest time for a draw was 0.02 seconds. Among exhibits were life-size statues of the world's tallest man,
Robert Wadlow Robert Pershing Wadlow (February 22, 1918 July 15, 1940), also known as the Alton Giant and the Giant of Illinois, was an American man who was the tallest person in recorded history for whom there is irrefutable evidence. He was born and raised ...
, and world's largest
earthworm An earthworm is a terrestrial invertebrate that belongs to the phylum Annelida. They exhibit a tube-within-a-tube body plan, are externally segmented with corresponding internal segmentation, and usually have setae on all segments. They occur wor ...

earthworm
, an X-ray photo of a sword swallower, repeated lightning strike victim Roy Sullivan's hat complete with lightning holes and a pair of gem-studded golf shoes on sale for $6,500. The museum closed in 1995. In more recent years, the Guinness company has permitted the
franchising Franchising is based on a marketing concept which can be adopted by an organization as a strategy for business expansion. Where implemented, a franchisor licenses its know-how, procedures, intellectual property, use of its business model, brand, ...
of small museums with displays based on the book, all currently () located in towns popular with tourists:
Tokyo Tokyo ( , ; Japanese: 東京, ''Tōkyō'' ), officially the Tokyo Metropolis (Japanese: 東京都, ''Tōkyō-to''), is the de facto capitalNo Japanese law has designated Tokyo as the Japanese capital. and most populous prefecture of Japan. ...
,
Copenhagen Copenhagen ( da, København ) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of 1 January 2020, the city had a population of 794,128 with 632,340 in Copenhagen Municipality, 104,305 in Frederiksberg Municipality, 42,989 in Tårnby Municip ...
,
San Antonio ("Cradle of Freedom") , image_map = Bexar SanAntonio.svg , mapsize = 280px , map_caption = Location within Bexar County , pushpin_map = Texas#USA#North America ...
. There were once Guinness World Records museums and exhibitions at the
London Trocadero The London Trocadero was an entertainment complex on Coventry Street, with a rear entrance in Shaftesbury Avenue, London. It was originally built in 1896 as a restaurant, which closed in 1965. In 1984, the complex reopened as an exhibition and ent ...
,
Bangalore Bangalore , officially known as Bengaluru (), is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of more than and a metropolitan population of around , making it the third most populous city and fifth m ...
,
San Francisco San Francisco (/ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish for "Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a cultural, commercial, and financial center in Northern California. San Francisco is the 16th most populous city in ...
,
Myrtle Beach Myrtle Beach is a coastal city on the East Coast of the United States in Horry County, South Carolina. It is in the center of a long and continuous stretch of beach known as "The Grand Strand" in northeastern South Carolina. Ranked as the second ...

Myrtle Beach
,
Orlando Orlando () is a city in the U.S. state of Florida and is the county seat of Orange County. In Central Florida, it is the center of the Orlando metropolitan area, which had a population of 2,509,831, according to U.S. Census Bureau figures release ...
,
Atlantic City Atlantic City, often known by its initials A.C., is a coastal resort city in Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States, known for its casinos, boardwalk, and beaches. In 2010, the city had a population of 39,558. It was incorporated on May 1, ...
, New Jersey, and
Las Vegas Las Vegas (; Spanish for "The Meadows"), officially the City of Las Vegas and often known simply as Vegas, is the 28th-most populous city in the United States, the most populous city in the state of Nevada, and the county seat of Clark Count ...
,
Nevada Nevada (, ) is a state in the Western region of the United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast, and Utah to the east. Nevada is the 7th-most extensive, the ...
. The Orlando museum, which closed in 2002, was branded ''The Guinness Records Experience''; the Hollywood,
Niagara Falls Niagara Falls is a group of three waterfalls at the southern end of Niagara Gorge, spanning the border between the province of Ontario in Canada and the state of New York in the United States. The largest of the three is Horseshoe Falls, als ...
, Copenhagen, and
Gatlinburg Gatlinburg is a mountain resort city in Sevier County, Tennessee, United States. It is located southeast of Knoxville and had a population of 3,944 at the 2010 Census and an estimated U.S. Census population of 4,144 in 2018. It is a popular vacat ...
, Tennessee museums also previously featured this branding.


Television series

Guinness World Records has commissioned various television series documenting world record breaking attempts, including: Specials: * ''Guinness World Records: 50 Years, 50 Records'' - on ITV (UK), 11 September 2004 With the popularity of reality television, Guinness World Records began to market itself as the originator of the television genre, with slogans such as ''we wrote the book on Reality TV''.


Gamer's edition

In 2008, Guinness World Records released its gamer's edition, a branch that keeps records for popular video game high scores, code and feats in association with
Twin Galaxies Twin Galaxies is an organization and social media platform that facilitates interaction, achievement, recognition, and competition between people involved in the culture and activity of playing video games. Twin Galaxies is the official supplier ...
. The Gamer's Edition contains 258 pages, over 1,236 video game related world records and four interviews including one with Twin Galaxies founder
Walter Day Walter Day (born May 14, 1949) is an American businessman and the founder of Twin Galaxies, an organization that tracks world records for video games and conducts a program of electronic-gaming promotions. Biography Day was born in Oakland, Cali ...
. The most recent edition is the ''Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition 2020,'' which was released 5 September 2019.


''The Guinness Book of British Hit Singles''

''The Guinness Book of British Hit Singles'' was a music reference book first published in 1977. It was compiled by BBC Radio 1 DJs Paul Gambaccini and Mike Read with brothers Tim Rice and Jonathan Rice. It was the first in a number of music reference books that were to be published by Guinness Publishing with sister publication ''The Guinness Book of British Hit Albums'' coming in 1983. After being sold to Hit Entertainment, the data concerning the Official Chart Company's singles and albums charts were combined under the title ''
British Hit Singles & Albums ''British Hit Singles & Albums'' (originally known as ''The Guinness Book of British Hit Singles'' and ''The Guinness Book of British Hit Albums'') was a music reference book originally published in the United Kingdom by the publishing arm of th ...
'', with Hit Entertainment publishing the book from 2003 to 2006 (under the Guinness World Records brand). After Guinness World Records was sold to The Jim Pattison Group, it was effectively replaced by a series of books published by Ebury Publishing/Random House with the '' Virgin Book of British Hit Singles'' first being published in 2007 and with a ''Hit Albums'' book following two years later.''The Virgin Book of British Hit Albums'' by Martin Roach (Ebury Publishing/Random House ISBN: 9780753517000)


Other media and products


Board game

In 1975,
Parker Brothers Parker Brothers is the main board game division of Hasbro, formerly an American toy and game manufacturer which in 1991 became a brand of Hasbro. More than 1,800 games were published under the Parker Brothers name since 1883. Among its products we ...

Parker Brothers
marketed a board game, ''The Guinness Game of World Records'', based on the book. Players compete by setting and breaking records for activities such as the longest streak of rolling dice before rolling doubles, stacking plastic pieces, and bouncing a ball off alternating sides of a card, as well as answering trivia questions based on the listings in the Guinness Book of World Records.


Video games

A
video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, controller, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual feedback for a player. This feedback is shown on a video ...
, '' Guinness World Records: The Video Game'', was developed by
TT Fusion TT Games Limited is a British holding company and a subsidiary of Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment. The company was established in 2005 through the merger of developer Traveller's Tales and publisher Giant Interactive (now TT Games Publish ...
and released for
Nintendo DS The is a handheld game console produced by Nintendo, released globally across 2004 and 2005. The DS, an initialism for "Developers' System" or "Dual Screen", introduced distinctive new features to handheld games: two LCD screens working in tan ...
,
Wii The Wii ( ) is a home video game console developed and marketed by Nintendo. It was first released on November 19, 2006 in North America and in December 2006 for most other regions. It is Nintendo's fifth major home game console, following ...

Wii
and
iOS iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that powers many of the company's mobile devices, including the iPhone and iPod Touch; the term a ...
in November 2008.


Film

In 2012, Warner Bros. announced the development of a live-action film version of ''Guinness World Records'' with
Daniel Chun Daniel Chun is a Korean American comedy writer. He has written for ''The Office'' and ''The Simpsons''. He received a Writers Guild Award nomination and an Annie Award for his work on ''The Simpsons''. He was once head writer and an executive produc ...
as scriptwriter. The film version will apparently use the heroic achievements of record holders as the basis for a narrative that should have global appeal.


References


External links

* * {{Authority control Book series introduced in 1955 Publications established in 1955 Trivia books World record databases Reference publishers Articles containing video clips Records (superlatives) Annual publications 1955 non-fiction books 1955 establishments in the United Kingdom Gullane Entertainment