HOME

TheInfoList



The Government of India (
ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in food, the World Health Or ...
: ) (often abbreviated as GoI), also known as the Central or Union Government or simply the Centre, is the Union government created by the
Constitution of India The Constitution of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic lan ...

Constitution of India
as the
legislative A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday l ...
, executive and
judicial The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authori ...

judicial
authority to govern the union of twenty eight
states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
and eight
union territories A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India. Unlike the states of India, which have their own governments, union territories are f ...
. The seat of the government is located in
New Delhi New Delhi (, ''Naī Dillī'') is the Capital city, capital of India and a part of the NCT Delhi, National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is the seat of all three branches of the government of India, hosting the Rashtrapati Bhavan, Pa ...

New Delhi
,
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. * * * Straddling the Yamuna river, but primarily ...
.


Basic structure

The government Of India (GOI) also known as the Union of India (According to Article 300 of Indian Constitution) is modelled after the
Westminster system The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary system of government that incorporates a series of Parliamentary procedure, procedures for operating a legislature that was first developed in England, key aspects of which ...
for governing the state, the Union government is mainly composed of the
executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, a senior management role in an organization ** Chief exec ...
, the
legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Executive (government), executive and Judiciary, ...
, and the
judiciary The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authori ...
, in which all powers are vested by the
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

constitution
in the
prime minister
prime minister
,
parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws and overseeing the g ...
and the
supreme court The supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of ...

supreme court
. The
president of India The President of India ( IAST: ), officially the President of the Republic of India, is the ceremonial head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foak ...
is the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "
he head of state He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Modern English, ''he'' is a Grammatical number, singular, Grammatical gender, masculine, Grammatical person, third-person personal pronoun, pronoun. Morphology In Standard English, Standard M ...
being an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international perso ...
and the commander-in-chief of the
Indian Armed Forces The Indian Armed Forces are the armed forces, military forces of the India, Republic of India. It consists of three professional uniformed services: the Indian Army, Indian Navy, and Indian Air Force.—— Additionally, the Indian Armed Forces ...
whilst the elected
prime minister
prime minister
acts as the head of the executive, and is responsible for running the Union government. The parliament is
bicameral Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature divided into two separate Deliberative assembly, assemblies, chambers, or houses, known as a bicameral legislature. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deli ...
in nature, with the
Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha, wikisource:Constitution_of_India/Part_V#Article_93, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's Bicameralism, bicameral Parliament of India, Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Me ...
being the
lower house A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide, the lower house has come to wield more power or oth ...
, and the
Rajya Sabha The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of India The Parliament of India ( IAST: ) is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. It is a bicameral legislature composed of the ...

Rajya Sabha
the upper house. The judiciary systematically contains an apex
supreme court The supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of ...

supreme court
, 25 high courts, and several district courts, all inferior to the supreme court. The basic
civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil (journalism), a platform for independent journalism *Civilian, someone not a member ...
and criminal laws governing the citizens of India are set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the
civil procedure code Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil (journalism), a platform for independent journalism *Civilian, someone not a member ...
, the
penal code A criminal code (or penal code) is a document that compiles all, or a significant amount of, a particular jurisdiction's criminal law. Typically a criminal code will contain Crime, offences that are recognised in the jurisdiction, penalties that ...
, and the
criminal procedure code Criminal procedure is the adjudication process of the criminal law. While criminal procedure differs dramatically by jurisdiction, the process generally begins with a formal criminal charge with the person on trial either being free on bail or in ...
. Similar to the Union government, individual State governments each consist of executive, legislative and judiciary. The legal system as applicable to the Union and individual State governments is based on the English Common and
Statutory Law Statutory law or statute law is written law Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses) of the Hebrew Bi ...
. The full name of the country is the ''Republic of India''. India and Bharat are equally official short names for the Republic of India in the Constitution, and both names appears on legal banknotes, in treaties and in legal cases. The terms "Union government", "Central government" and "" are often used officially and unofficially to refer to the Government of India. The term ''New Delhi'' is commonly used as a
metonym Metonymy () is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of pe ...
for the Union government, as the seat of the government is in
New Delhi New Delhi (, ''Naī Dillī'') is the Capital city, capital of India and a part of the NCT Delhi, National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is the seat of all three branches of the government of India, hosting the Rashtrapati Bhavan, Pa ...

New Delhi
.


Legislature

The powers of the legislature in India are exercised by the Parliament, a bicameral legislature consisting of the
Rajya Sabha The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of India The Parliament of India ( IAST: ) is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. It is a bicameral legislature composed of the ...

Rajya Sabha
and the
Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha, wikisource:Constitution_of_India/Part_V#Article_93, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's Bicameralism, bicameral Parliament of India, Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Me ...
. Of the two houses of parliament, the Rajya Sabha (or the 'Council of States') is considered to be the upper house and consists of members appointed by the president and elected by the state and territorial legislatures. The Lok Sabha (or the 'House of the People') is considered the
lower house A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide, the lower house has come to wield more power or oth ...
. The parliament does not have complete control and
sovereignty Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body, or institution that has the ultimate au ...
, as its laws are subject to
judicial review Judicial review is a process under which executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, ...
by the
Supreme Court The supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of ...

Supreme Court
. However, it does exercise some control over the
executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, a senior management role in an organization ** Chief exec ...
. The members of the
Council of MinistersThe Council of Ministers is a traditional name given to the supreme executive organ in some governments. The term is usually equivalent to the word " cabinet" ( Council of State is a similar term that also may refer to a Cabinet. However, the terms ...
, including
the prime minister
the prime minister
, are either chosen from parliament or elected thereto within six months of assuming office. The council as a whole is responsible to the Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha is a temporary house and can be dissolved only when the party in power loses the support of the majority of the house. The Rajya Sabha is a permanent house and can never be dissolved. The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected for a six-year term.


Executive

The
executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, a senior management role in an organization ** Chief exec ...
of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the
separation of powers Separation of powers refers to the division of a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' ( ...
.


President

The executive power is vested mainly in the
President of India The President of India ( IAST: ), officially the President of the Republic of India, is the ceremonial head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foak ...
, as per Article 53(1) of the constitution. The president has all
constitutional A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents A precedent is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case A legal case is in a general sense a dispute between opposing parties which may be ...

constitutional
powers and exercises them directly or through subordinate officers as per the aforesaid Article 53(1). The president is to act in accordance with aid and advice tendered by the Prime Minister, who leads the Council of Ministers as described in Article 74 of the Constitution. The council of ministers remains in power during the 'pleasure' of the president. However, in practice, the council of ministers must retain the support of the Lok Sabha. If a president were to dismiss the council of ministers on his or her own initiative, it might trigger a constitutional crisis. Thus, in practice, the Council of Ministers cannot be dismissed as long as it holds the support of a majority in the
Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha, wikisource:Constitution_of_India/Part_V#Article_93, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's Bicameralism, bicameral Parliament of India, Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Me ...
. The President is responsible for appointing many high officials in India. These high officials include the
governors A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (p ...
of the 28
states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
; the
chief justice The chief justice is the Chief judge, presiding member of a supreme court in any of many countries with a justice system based on English common law, such as the High Court of Australia, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of Ghana, the C ...
; other judges of the
supreme court The supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of ...

supreme court
and high courts on the advice of other judges; the
attorney general In most common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ''Black's Law Dictionar ...
; the
comptroller and auditor generalAn auditor general, also known in some countries as a comptroller general or comptroller and auditor general, is a senior civil servant The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired ...
; the chief election commissioner and other election commissioners; the chairman and members of the
Union Public Service Commission The Union Public Service Commission (ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as C ...
; the officers of the
All India Services The All India Services (AIS) comprises Civil Services of India, namely the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), the Indian Forest Service (IFS) and the Indian Police Service The Indian Police Service (IPS) is a civil service under the ...
(
IASIAS may refer to: Science * Institute for Advanced Study The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), located in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent postdoctoral research center for theoretical research and intellectua ...
, IFoS and IPS) and Central Civil Services in group 'A'; and the
ambassador An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sov ...
s and high commissioners to other countries on the recommendations of the Council of Ministers. The President, as the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "
he head of state He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Modern English, ''he'' is a Grammatical number, singular, Grammatical gender, masculine, Grammatical person, third-person personal pronoun, pronoun. Morphology In Standard English, Standard M ...
being an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international perso ...
, also receives the credentials of
ambassador An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sov ...
s from other countries, whilst the
prime minister
prime minister
, as
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presides over a cabinet (gover ...
, receives credentials of high commissioners from other
members of the Commonwealth
members of the Commonwealth
, in line with historical tradition. The President is the ''
de jure In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its ...
'' commander-in-chief of the
Indian Armed Forces The Indian Armed Forces are the armed forces, military forces of the India, Republic of India. It consists of three professional uniformed services: the Indian Army, Indian Navy, and Indian Air Force.—— Additionally, the Indian Armed Forces ...
. The
President of India The President of India ( IAST: ), officially the President of the Republic of India, is the ceremonial head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foak ...
can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence of a convicted person once, particularly in cases involving punishment of death. The decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the president are independent of the opinion of the prime minister or the Lok Sabha majority. In most other cases, however, the president exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the prime minister.Kumar; Rajesh
Universal's Guide to the Constitution of India
Pg no. 72.
Presently, the President of India is
Ram Nath Kovind Ram Nath Kovind (born 1 October 1945) is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current President of India. Prior to his Presidency, he served as the 26th Governor of Bihar from 2015 to 2017 and as a Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha ...

Ram Nath Kovind
.


Vice president

The vice president is the second highest constitutional position in India after the president. The vice president represents the nation in the absence of the
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
and takes charge as acting president in the incident of resignation impeachment or removal of the president. The vice president also has the legislative function of acting as the chairman of the
Rajya Sabha The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of India The Parliament of India ( IAST: ) is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. It is a bicameral legislature composed of the ...

Rajya Sabha
. The vice president is elected indirectly by members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both the houses of the parliament in accordance with the system of
proportional representation#REDIRECT Proportional representation Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. The concept applies mainly to geographical, and to ideolog ...

proportional representation
by means of the
single transferable vote The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve or closely approach proportional representation Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected pro ...
and the voting is by secret ballot conducted by the
election commission An election commission is a body charged with overseeing the implementation of electioneering process of any country. The formal names of election commissions vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and may be styled an electoral commission, a cen ...
.


Prime minister

The
Prime Minister of India The prime minister of India (), officially the prime minister of the Republic of India is the head of government, head of the executive branch of the government of India. The prime minister is the presiding member of the Union Council of Mi ...

Prime Minister of India
, as addressed in the
Constitution of India The Constitution of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic lan ...

Constitution of India
, is the chief of the government, chief adviser to the
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
, head of the
council of ministersThe Council of Ministers is a traditional name given to the supreme executive organ in some governments. The term is usually equivalent to the word " cabinet" ( Council of State is a similar term that also may refer to a Cabinet. However, the terms ...
and the leader of the majority party in the parliament. The prime minister leads the executive of the Government of India. The prime minister is the senior member of cabinet in the executive of government in a parliamentary system. The prime minister selects and can dismiss other members of the cabinet; allocates posts to members within the Government; is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet and is responsible for bringing a proposal of legislation. The resignation or death of the prime minister dissolves the cabinet. The prime minister is appointed by the president to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive.


Cabinet, ministries and agencies

The
Union Council of Ministers The Union Council of Ministers exercises executive authority in the Republic of India. Wikisource:Constitution of India/Part V#Article 74 .7BCouncil of Ministers to aid and advise President.7D It consists of senior ministers, called 'cabinet ...
includes the prime minister,
Cabinet Ministers A cabinet is a body of high-ranking State (polity), state officials, typically consisting of the Executive (government), executive branch's top leaders. Members of a cabinet are usually called cabinet Minister (government), ministers or secret ...
and
Ministers of State Minister of State is a title borne by politicians or officials in certain countries governed under a parliamentary system. In some countries a 'Minister of State' is a junior minister, who is assigned to assist a specific cabinet minister. ...
(MoS). Each minister must be a member of one of the houses of the parliament. The cabinet is headed by the
prime minister
prime minister
, and is advised by the
cabinet secretary#REDIRECT Cabinet secretary {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalization ...
, who also acts as the head of the
Indian Administrative Service The Indian Administrative Service (IAS) is the Public administration, administrative arm of the All India Services of Government of India. Considered the premier and best civil service, central civil service of India, followed by the Indian Poli ...
and other civil services. Other members of the council are either union cabinet ministers, who are heads of various ministries; or ministers of state, who are junior members who report directly to one of the cabinet ministers, often overseeing a specific aspect of government; or ministers of state (independent charges), who do not report to a cabinet minister. As per article 88 of the constitution, every minister shall have the right to speak in, and to take part in the proceedings of, either house, any joint sitting of the houses, and any committee of parliament of which he may be named a member, but shall ''not'' be entitled to a vote in the house where he is not a member.


Secretaries

A
secretary to the Government of India Secretary to the Government of India, often abbreviated as Secretary, GoI, or simply as Secretary, is a post and a rank under the Central Staffing Scheme of the Government of India. The authority for the creation of this post solely rests with ...
, a
civil servant The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leaders ...
, generally an
Indian Administrative Service The Indian Administrative Service (IAS) is the Public administration, administrative arm of the All India Services of Government of India. Considered the premier and best civil service, central civil service of India, followed by the Indian Poli ...
(IAS) officer, is the administrative head of the ministry or department, and is the principal adviser to the minister on all matters of policy and administration within the ministry/department. Secretaries to the Government of India rank 23rd on
Indian order of precedence The order of precedence of the Republic of India is the protocol list (hierarchy of important positions) in which the functionaries, dignitaries and officials are listed according to their rank and office in the Government of India. The order i ...
. Secretaries at the higher level are assisted by one or many additional secretaries, who are further assisted by joint secretaries. At the middle they are assisted by directors/deputy secretaries and under secretaries. At the lower level, there are section officers, assistant section officers, upper division clerks, lower division clerks and other secretarial staff.


Civil services

The Civil Services of India are the civil services and the permanent
bureaucracy The term bureaucracy () may refer both to a body of non-elected governing officials (bureaucrats A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration of any organization of any size, although the term usually connotes ...
of India. The
executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, a senior management role in an organization ** Chief exec ...
decisions are implemented by the Indian civil servants. In the
parliamentary democracy A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance Governance comprises all of the processes of governing – whether undertaken by the government of a state (polity), state, by a market (economics), mar ...
of India, the ultimate responsibility for running the administration rests with the elected representatives of the people which are the ministers. These ministers are accountable to the legislatures which are also elected by the people on the basis of
universal adult suffrage Universal suffrage (also called universal franchise, general suffrage, and common suffrage of the common man) gives the right to vote to all adult citizens Citizenship is the Status (law), status of a person recognized under the law of a cou ...
. The ministers are indirectly responsible to the people themselves. But the handful of ministers are not expected to deal personally with the various problems of modern administration. Thus the ministers lay down the policy and it is for the civil servants to enforce it.


Cabinet secretary

The cabinet secretary (
IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages. It is based on a scheme that ...
: ) is the top-most executive official and senior-most civil servant of the Government of India. The cabinet secretary is the ''
ex-officio An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office. The term ''ex officio An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) ...
'' head of the Civil Services Board, the Cabinet Secretariat, the
Indian Administrative Service The Indian Administrative Service (IAS) is the Public administration, administrative arm of the All India Services of Government of India. Considered the premier and best civil service, central civil service of India, followed by the Indian Poli ...
(IAS) and head of all civil services under the rules of business of the government. The cabinet secretary is generally the senior-most officer of the
Indian Administrative Service The Indian Administrative Service (IAS) is the Public administration, administrative arm of the All India Services of Government of India. Considered the premier and best civil service, central civil service of India, followed by the Indian Poli ...
. The cabinet secretary ranks 11th on the
Indian order of precedence The order of precedence of the Republic of India is the protocol list (hierarchy of important positions) in which the functionaries, dignitaries and officials are listed according to their rank and office in the Government of India. The order i ...
. The cabinet secretary is under the direct charge of the . Presently, the
Cabinet Secretary of India The Cabinet Secretary ( IAST: ) is the top-most executive official and senior-most civil servant of the Government of India. The Cabinet Secretary is the '' ex-officio'' head of the Civil Services Board, the Cabinet Secretariat, the Indian Ad ...
is
Rajiv Gauba Rajiv Gauba (born 15 August 1959; International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, IAST: ) is an Indian civil servant serving as the current Cabinet Secretary of India since 2019. He is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer belonging ...
,
IASIAS may refer to: Science * Institute for Advanced Study The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), located in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent postdoctoral research center for theoretical research and intellectua ...
.


Judiciary

India's independent union judicial system began under the British, and its concepts and procedures resemble those of
Anglo-Saxon countries The Anglosphere is a group of English-speaking world, English-speaking nations that share common cultural and historical ties to the United Kingdom, and which today maintain close political, diplomatic and military co-operation. While the nation ...
. The
Supreme Court of India The Supreme Court of India (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, IAST: ) is the supreme judicial body government of India, of India and the highest court of the Republic of India under the Constitution of India, constitution. It i ...

Supreme Court of India
consists of the
chief justice The chief justice is the Chief judge, presiding member of a supreme court in any of many countries with a justice system based on English common law, such as the High Court of Australia, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of Ghana, the C ...
and 33 associate justices, all appointed by the president on the advice of the
Chief Justice of India Chief may refer to: Title or rank Military and law enforcement * Chief master sergeant, is the ninth, and highest, enlisted rank in the U.S. Air Force, * Chief of police, the head of a police department * Chief of the boat, the senior enlis ...
. The jury trials were abolished in India in the early 1960s, after the famous case '' KM Nanavati v. State of Maharashtra'', for reasons of being vulnerable to media and public pressure, as well as to being misled. Unlike its United States counterpart, the Indian justice system consists of a unitary system at both state and union level. The judiciary consists of the
Supreme Court of India The Supreme Court of India (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, IAST: ) is the supreme judicial body government of India, of India and the highest court of the Republic of India under the Constitution of India, constitution. It i ...

Supreme Court of India
, high courts at the state level, and district courts and
Sessions Court A Sessions Court or even known as the Court of Sessions Judge is a court of law A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a ...
s at the
district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, counties, several Municipality, municipali ...
level.


Supreme Court

The
Supreme Court of India The Supreme Court of India (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, IAST: ) is the supreme judicial body government of India, of India and the highest court of the Republic of India under the Constitution of India, constitution. It i ...

Supreme Court of India
is situated in
New Delhi New Delhi (, ''Naī Dillī'') is the Capital city, capital of India and a part of the NCT Delhi, National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is the seat of all three branches of the government of India, hosting the Rashtrapati Bhavan, Pa ...

New Delhi
, the capital region of
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the
Constitution of India The Constitution of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic lan ...

Constitution of India
, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review. Consisting of the
Chief Justice of India Chief may refer to: Title or rank Military and law enforcement * Chief master sergeant, is the ninth, and highest, enlisted rank in the U.S. Air Force, * Chief of police, the head of a police department * Chief of the boat, the senior enlis ...
and 33 sanctioned other judges, it has extensive powers in the form of
original Originality is the aspect of created or invented works as being new or novel, and thus replica, reproductions, clones, forgery, forgeries, or derivative works. An original work is one not received from others nor one copied from or based upon the ...
,
appellate In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by ...
and
advisory jurisdictions Advisory may refer to: * Advisory board, a body that provides advice to the management of a corporation, organization, or foundation * Boil-water advisory, a public health directive given by government to consumers when a community's drinking water ...
. As the
final court of appeal The supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of ...
of the country, it takes up appeals primarily against verdicts of the high courts of various states of the Union and other courts and tribunals. It safeguards
fundamental rights Fundamental rights are a group of rights that have been recognized by a high degree of protection from encroachment. These rights are specifically identified in a constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or establ ...
of citizens and settles disputes between various governments in the country. As an advisory court, it hears matters which may specifically be referred to it under the
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

constitution
by the president. It also may take cognisance of matters on its own (or 'suo moto'), without anyone drawing its attention to them. The law declared by the supreme court becomes binding on all courts within India and also by the union and state governments. Per Article 142, it is the duty of the
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
to enforce the decrees of the supreme court. In addition, Article 32 of the constitution gives an extensive original jurisdiction to the supreme court in regard to enforcing fundamental rights. It is empowered to issue directions, orders or writs, including
writ In common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ''Black's Law Dictionary ...

writ
s in the nature of ''
habeas corpus (; Medieval Latin meaning a Court, command] that you have the body [of the detainee brought before is a Legal recourse, recourse in law through which a person can report an Arbitrary arrest and detention, unlawful detention or imprisonment ...
'', ''mandamus'', ''prohibition'', ''quo warranto'' and ''certiorari'' to enforce them. The supreme court has been conferred with power to direct transfer of any civil or criminal case from one state high court to another state high court, or from a court subordinate to another state high court and the supreme court. Although the proceedings in the supreme court arise out of the judgment or orders made by the subordinate courts, of late the supreme court has started entertaining matters in which interest of the public at large is involved. This may be done by any individual or group of persons either by filing a ''
writ In common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ''Black's Law Dictionary ...

writ
petition'' at the filing counter of the court, or by addressing a letter to the
Chief Justice of India Chief may refer to: Title or rank Military and law enforcement * Chief master sergeant, is the ninth, and highest, enlisted rank in the U.S. Air Force, * Chief of police, the head of a police department * Chief of the boat, the senior enlis ...
, highlighting the question of public importance for redress. These are known as public interest litigations.


Elections and voting

India has a quasi-federal form of government, called "union" or "central" government, with elected officials at the union, state and local levels. At the national level, the
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presides over a cabinet (gover ...
, the , is appointed by the
president of India The President of India ( IAST: ), officially the President of the Republic of India, is the ceremonial head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foak ...
from the party or coalition that has the majority of seats in the
Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha, wikisource:Constitution_of_India/Part_V#Article_93, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's Bicameralism, bicameral Parliament of India, Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Me ...
. The members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected for a term of five years by
universal adult suffrage Universal suffrage (also called universal franchise, general suffrage, and common suffrage of the common man) gives the right to vote to all adult citizens Citizenship is the Status (law), status of a person recognized under the law of a cou ...
through a
first-past-the-post In a first-past-the-post electoral system An electoral system or voting system is a set of rules that determine how elections and Referendum, referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Political electoral systems are org ...
voting system. Members of the
Rajya Sabha The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of India The Parliament of India ( IAST: ) is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. It is a bicameral legislature composed of the ...

Rajya Sabha
, which represents the
states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
, are elected by the members of State legislative assemblies by
proportional representation#REDIRECT Proportional representation Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. The concept applies mainly to geographical, and to ideolog ...

proportional representation
, except for 12 members who are nominated by the president. India is currently the largest democracy in the world, with around 900 million eligible voters, as of 2019.


State and local governments

State government A state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The S ...
s in India are the governments ruling
states of India State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine ''State Magazine'' is a digital magazine published by the U.S. Department of State's Bureau of Global Talent Management. Its mission is to acquaint Department of ...
and the chief minister heads the state government. Power is divided between union government and state governments. State government's legislature is
bicameral Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature divided into two separate Deliberative assembly, assemblies, chambers, or houses, known as a bicameral legislature. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deli ...
in 5 states and
unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliament'' or ''unicameral legislature'' is a legislature which con ...
in the rest. Lower house is elected with 5 years term, while in upper house 1/3 of the total members in the house gets elected every 2 years with 6-year term. Local governments function at the basic level. It is the third level of government apart from union and state governments. It consists of
panchayats The Panchayat raj (''panchayat'' "village council", ''wikt:raj, raj'' "rule") is a political system, originating from the Indian subcontinent, found mainly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Panchayat (Nepal), Nepal. It is the old ...
in rural areas and
municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
in urban areas. They are elected directly or indirectly by the people.


Finance


Taxation

India has a three-tier tax structure, wherein the
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

constitution
empowers the union government to levy
income tax An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) in respect of the income or profits earned by them (commonly called taxable income). Income tax generally is computed as the product of a tax rate times the taxable income. Taxa ...
, tax on capital transactions (
wealth tax A wealth tax (also called a capital tax or equity tax) is a tax on an entity's holdings of asset In financial accountancy, financial accounting, an asset is any resource owned or controlled by a business or an economic entity. It is anyth ...
,
inheritance tax An inheritance tax is a tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that h ...
),
sales tax A sales tax is a tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has c ...
, service tax, customs and
excise file:Lincoln Beer Stamp 1871.JPG, upright=1.2, 1871 U.S. Revenue stamp for 1/6 barrel of beer. Brewers would receive the stamp sheets, cut them into individual stamps, cancel them, and paste them over the bung of the beer barrel so when the barrel ...
duties and the state governments to levy sales tax on intrastate sale of goods, tax on
entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and Interest (emotion), interest of an audience or gives pleasure and delight. It can be an idea or a task, but is more likely to be one of the activities or events that have develo ...
and
profession A Profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to ethical standards and who hold themselves out as, and are accepted by the public as possessing special knowledge and skills in a widely recognised body of learning derived from re ...

profession
s, excise duties on manufacture of
alcohol File:Alcohol general.svg, upright=0.8, The bond angle between a hydroxyl group (-OH) and a chain of carbon atoms (R) In chemistry, alcohol is an organic compound that carries at least one hydroxyl functional group (−OH) bound to a Saturated ...
, stamp duties on transfer of property and collect land revenue (levy on land owned). The
local governments Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geograp ...
are empowered by the state government to levy
property tax A property tax or millage rate is an ad valorem tax An ''ad valorem'' tax (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the a ...
and charge users for
public utilities A public utility company (usually just utility) is an organization that maintains the infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a ...
like
water supply Water supply is the provision of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of al ...
,
sewage Sewage, or domestic/municipal wastewater, is a type of wastewater that is produced by a community of people. It is characterized by volume Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the sp ...
etc. More than half of the revenues of the union and state governments come from taxes, of which 3/4 come from direct taxes. More than a quarter of the union government's tax revenues is shared with the state governments.Tax revenue was 88% of total union government revenue in 1950–51 and has come down to 73% in 2003–04, as a result of increase in non-tax revenue. Tax revenues were 70% of total state government revenues in 2002 to 2003. Indirect taxes were 84% of the union governments total tax revenue and have come down to 62% in 2003–04, mostly because of cuts in import duties and rationalisation. The states share in union government's tax revenue is 28.0% for the period 2000 to 2005 as per the recommendations of the eleventh finance commission. In addition, states that do not levy sales tax on sugar, textiles and tobacco, are entitled to 1.5% of the proceeds. The tax reforms, initiated in 1991, have sought to rationalise the tax structure and increase compliance by taking steps in the following directions: *Reducing the rates of individual and corporate income taxes, excises, customs and making it more progressive *Reducing exemptions and concessions *Simplification of laws and procedures *Introduction of
permanent account number A permanent account number (PAN) is a ten-character alphanumeric identifier, issued in the form of a laminated "PAN card", by the Indian Income Tax Department, to any "person" who applies for it or to whom the department allots the number without ...
(PAN) to track monetary transactions *21 of the 29 states introduced
value added tax A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally. It is levied on the price of a product or service at each stage of production, distribution, or sale to the end ...
(VAT) on 1 April 2005 to replace the complex and multiple sales tax system The non-tax revenues of the central government come from services, interest receipts, public sector dividends, etc., while the non-tax revenues of the States are grants from the central government, interest receipts, dividends and income from general, economic and social services. Inter-state share in the union tax pool is decided by the recommendations of the
Finance Commission The Finance Commissions (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic lang ...
to the president. Total tax receipts of Centre and State amount to approximately 18% of national GDP. This compares to a figure of 37–45% in the OECD.


Union budget

The Finance minister of India usually presents the annual
union budget The Union Budget of India, also referred to as the ''Annual Financial Statement'' in Article 112 of the Constitution of India The Constitution of India (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, IAST: ) is the supreme law of India ...
in the
parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws and overseeing the g ...
on the last
working day A business day means any day except any Saturday, any Sunday, or any day which is a federal legal holiday or any day on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close. The definition of a busin ...
of February. However, for the F.Y. 2017–18, this tradition had been changed. Now budget will be presented on the 1st day of February. The budget has to be passed by the
Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha, wikisource:Constitution_of_India/Part_V#Article_93, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's Bicameralism, bicameral Parliament of India, Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Me ...
before it can come into effect on 1 April, the start of India's
fiscal year A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is used in government accounting, which varies between countries, and for budget purposes. It is also used for financial report Financial statements (or financial reports) are formal ...
. The Union budget is preceded by an economic survey which outlines the broad direction of the budget and the economic performance of the country for the outgoing financial year India's non-development revenue expenditure had increased nearly five-fold in 2003–04 since 1990–91 and more than tenfold since 1985–1986. Interest payments are the single largest item of expenditure and accounted for more than 40% of the total non-development expenditure in the 2003–04 budget. Defence expenditure increased fourfold during the same period and has been increasing to defend from a difficult neighborhood and external terror threats. In 2020-21, India's defence budget stood at ₹4,71,378 crores (US$65.86 Billion).


Issues


Corruption

Several ministers are accused of corruption and nearly a quarter of the 543 elected members of parliament had been charged with crimes, including murder, in 2009.Washington Post:When the Little Ones Run the Show (quote from the New Delhi based Association for Democratic Reform)
retrieved 14 May 2009
Many of the biggest scandals since 2010 have involved high level government officials, including cabinet ministers and chief ministers, such as the Concerns and controversies over the 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2010 Commonwealth Games scam (), the Adarsh Housing Society scam, the Coal Mining Scam (), the Mining scams in India#Illegal iron ore mining in Karnataka, mining scandal in Karnataka and the Cash-for-votes scandal, cash for vote scandal.


See also

* Foreign relations of India * india.gov.in, National Portal of India * My Gov, National Social-media Portal * Parliamentary democracy * List of Government of India agencies * Union Government ministries of India


References


Further reading

* Subrata K. Mitra and V.B. Singh (1999). ''Democracy and Social Change in India: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the National Electorate''. New Delhi: Sage Publications. (India HB), (US HB).


External links

*
Official Portal of the Indian Government
{{Authority control Government of India,