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This is a list of terms and symbols used in
scientific name In taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only ...
s for organisms, and in describing the names. For proper parts of the names themselves, see
List of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names This list of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names is intended to help those unfamiliar with classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication ...
. Note that many of the abbreviations are used with or without a
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Naming standards and taxonomic organizations and their codes and taxonomies

* ICTV –
International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) authorizes and organizes the Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic classification of and the nomenclatures for viruses. The ICTV has developed a universal taxonomic scheme for viruses, and thus h ...
* ICSP –
International Committee on Systematics of ProkaryotesThe International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP), formerly the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology (ICSB), is the body that oversees the nomenclature of prokaryotes, determines the rules by which prokaryotes are named ...
** formerly the ICSB – International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology ** publishes the ICNP –
International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) formerly the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB) or Bacteriological Code (BC) governs the scientific name In taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and scien ...
*** formerly the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB) or Bacteriological Code (BC) * ICZN –
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is an organization dedicated to "achieving stability and sense in the scientific naming of animals". Founded in 1895, it currently comprises 24 commissioners from 18 countries. Organ ...
** publishes ''ICZN'' the ''
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * C ...
'' or "ICZN Code" * IBC –
International Botanical Congress International Botanical Congress (IBC) is an international meeting of botanist Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist ...
** publishes ''ICN'' the ''
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants The ''International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants'' (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical name A botanical name is a formal scientific name In taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is ...
'' *** formerly ''ICBN'' or the ''International Code of Botanical Nomenclature'' (current version the
Shenzhen Code Shenzhen (; ; ), also known as Sham Chun, is a major Sub-provincial division, sub-provincial city and one of the Special economic zones of China, special economic zones of China. The city is located on the east bank of the Pearl River (China), ...
) ** also publishes ''ICNCP'' or the ''
International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants The ''International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants'' (ICNCP), also known as the Cultivated Plant Code, is a guide to the rules and regulations for naming cultigen A cultigen (from the Latin ''cultus'' – cultivated, and ''gens'' – ...
'' * IAPT –
International Association for Plant Taxonomy The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) is an organization established to promote an understanding of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Ener ...
** publishes ''
Taxon In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechani ...
'' ** also publishes ''
Regnum Vegetabile The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) is an organization established to promote an understanding of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Ener ...
'' which contains the IBC's ''ICN'', the ''
Index Nominum Genericorum Index may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Fictional entities * Index (''A Certain Magical Index''), a character in the light novel series ''A Certain Magical Index'' * The Index, an item on a Halo megastructure in the ''Halo'' series ...
'', and the ''
Index Herbariorum The Index Herbariorum provides a global directory of herbaria A herbarium (plural: herbaria) is a collection of preserved plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms t ...
''


General terms

*
clade A clade (), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyly, monophyletic – that is, composed of a common ancestor and all its lineage (evolution), lineal descendants - on a phylogenetic tree. R ...

clade
, cladistics * phylum, phylogeny * taxon, Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy; ''Taxon'' is a journal of the IAPT, where proposals are made * Synonym (taxonomy), synonym : a name for a taxon different from the currently accepted name ** ''pro parte'' (abbreviation ''p. p.''; "for part" in Latin) ** senior synonym, (zoology) : the earliest (correctly published) name ** junior synonym, (zoology) : any later name ** homotypic synonym (botany) ** heterotypic synonym (botany) : (or taxonomic synonym) a synonym that comes into being when a taxon is reduced in status ("reduced to synonymy") and becomes part of a different taxon; the zoological equivalent is "subjective synonym" ** objective synonym (zoology) ** subjective synonym (zoology): ''see'' taxonomic synonym ** taxonomic synonym (botany): ''see'' taxonomic synonym * basionym or basyonym (botany), or protonym or original combination (zoology): original name on which the current name is based; in bacteriology "basonym" * ''combinatio nova'' (''comb. nov.'') : new combination; when a taxon has been given a new name, preserving one of the previous components * ''status novus'' (abbr. ''stat. nov.'') : new status; when a taxon has been given a new rank * Homonym (biology), homonym : names spelled identically, but, in some codes, names spelled similarly, as defined by the code ** senior homonym (zoology) : the first legitimate use of the name which generally takes priority ** junior homonym (zoology), later homonym (botany) : a later and generally illegitimate use, though in some circumstances the later name is allowed to stand ** hemihomonym: a homonym across naming authorities that is permitted because any confusion is improbable ** parahomonym: names that are similar enough to be likely to be confused * isonym (botany) an identical name based on the same type, but published later * Principle of the First Reviser * Principle of Priority * Principle of Typification * taxonomic authority * binomial authority * binomial nomenclature (also "binominal") * trinomial nomenclature (also "trinominal") * hybrid name (botany) : either two parent binomials, separated by a "×" (q.v.) or a given binomial, with or without an intercalated "×" * chresonym published usage of a name. ** orthochresonym ** heterochresonym * taxon (plural "taxa") ** wastebasket taxon (also "wastebin taxon", "dustbin taxon" or "catch-all taxon") ** form taxon ** Lazarus taxon ** Elvis taxon ** sister taxon ** zombie taxon ** node-based taxon ** parataxon ** ichnotaxon (ichnogenus (igen.), ichnospecies (isp.), etc.) : a taxon (genus, species, etc.) only known by its work, e.g. footprints, nests, or bite marks ** ootaxon (oospecies, etc.) : a taxon known from fossil eggs ** sciotaxon a taxon known from partial evidence but believed to be identical to an orthotaxon * polyphyletic taxon * monophyletic taxon : a taxon consisting of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants; a
clade A clade (), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyly, monophyletic – that is, composed of a common ancestor and all its lineage (evolution), lineal descendants - on a phylogenetic tree. R ...

clade
* paraphyletic taxon * species complex : a group of closely related species very similar in appearance, generally constituting a monophyletic taxon * species aggregate or aggregate species : a grouping of closely related species that are treated like a single species for practical purposes * Alliance (taxonomy), alliance : a group of species or genera that have at some time been considered provisionally related * conspecific : of the same species; e. g. of two taxa previously thought to be different species * Congener (biology), congeners : items of the same genus * Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscription : the limits of a taxon as laid down by its description * ''sensu'' ("sense" in Latin) : as in ' (''s. s.'') (in the strict sense), ' (in a broad sense), etc.; see ''sensu'' for more variants and details * ''secundum'' ("following" in Latin) : e. g. "''secundum'' Smith" * form classification


Types

* Type (biology), Type * Type genus * Type series * Type species * Type specimen ** Allotype (nomenclature), Allotype : a designated type of opposite sex to the holotype ** Clonotype ** Epitype : an additional or clarifying Type (biology), type ** Ergatotype ** Hapantotype ** Holotype ** Isotype (biology), Isotype : a type identical to the holotype ** Isolectotype : ** Lectotype a type specimen selected from a group of syntypes ** Name-bearing type ** Neotype : a replacement for the holotype ** Paralectotype : a remaining syntype once the lectotype and any isolectotypes are excluded (bot.) ** Paratype : a member of a type series apart from the holotype or Isotype (biology), isotype (zoology); a syntype that is not a member of the type series (botany) ** Syntype : a specimen cited in the original description of the taxon (botany) * Type locality (biology), Type locality or location: where the type specimen was found * Type host: in parasitology, the host species from which the type specimen was recovered


Rank names

The main ranks are kingdom (biology), kingdom (''regnum''), phylum or division (''divisio''), class (biology), class (''classis''), order (biology), order (''ordo''), family (biology), family (''familia''), genus and species. The ranks of section (botany), section and series (botany), series are also used in botany for groups within genera, while section (zoology), section is used in zoology for a division of an order. Further levels in the hierarchy can be made by the addition of prefixes such as sub-, super-, infra-, and so on. Divisions such as "morph", "form", "variety", "strain", "breed", "cultivar", hybrid (biology), hybrid (nothospecies) and "landrace" are used to describe various sub-specific groups in different fields. It is possible for a
clade A clade (), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyly, monophyletic – that is, composed of a common ancestor and all its lineage (evolution), lineal descendants - on a phylogenetic tree. R ...

clade
to be unranked, for example Psoroptidia (Yunker, 1955) and the SAR supergroup. Sometimes a rank is described as ''clade'' where the traditional hierarchy cannot accommodate them..


Latin descriptions of names or taxa

Note that in zoology the English descriptions, such as "conserved name", for example, are acceptable and generally used. These descriptions can be classified between accepted names (''nom. cons., nom. nov., nom. prot.'') and unaccepted combinations for different reasons (''nom. err., nom. illeg., nom. nud., nom. rej., nom. supp., nom. van.''), with some cases in between regarding the use (''nom. dub.'': used but not fully accepted; ''nom. obl.'': accepted but not fully used, so it yields precedence to a ''nom. prot''). * ''Candidatus'' (''Ca.'') - a taxon proposed from incomplete information, such as uncultured bacteria known from metagenomics * ''ex errore'' – made in error * ''incertae sedis'' – of uncertain placement * ''nomen alternativum'' (''nom. alt.''; plural: ''nomina alternativa'') – an alternative name, wikt:-aceae#Usage notes, as for certain plant families * ''Conserved name, nomen conservandum'' (''nom. cons.''; plural: ''nomina conservanda'') – a conserved name * ''nomen dubium'' (''nom. dub.''; plural: ''nomina dubia'') (zoo. bact. bot.(informal)) – a name of questionable application ** ''Nomen dubium#In bacteriology, nomen ambiguum'' (plural: ''nomina ambigua''), (bot.) a name that has been used with more than one meaning ** ''Nomen dubium#In bacteriology, nomen confusum'' (plural: ''nomina confusa''), (bact.) a name based on a mixed bacterial culture ** ''Nomen dubium#In bacteriology, nomen perplexum'' (plural: ''nomina perplexa''), a name confusingly similar to another name or names ** ''Nomen dubium#In bacteriology, nomen periculosum'' (plural: ''nomina periculosa''), an name which can lead to dangerous outcomes, through confusion * ''nomen erratum'' (''nom. err.''; plural: ''nomina errata'') - a name given in error * ''nomen illegitimum'' (''nom. illeg.''; plural: ''nomina illegitima'') – an illegitimate name * ''nomen invalidum'' (''nom. inval.''; plural: ''nomina invalida'') – an invalid name * ''nomen manuscriptum'' - a name that appears in a manuscript * ''nomen monstrositatum'' (''nom. monstr.'') – a name based on a monstrosity (fasciation, phyllody or similar deformities) * ''nomen novum'' (''nom. nov.''; plural: ''nomina nova'') – a replacement name * ''nomen nudum'' (''nom. nud.''; plural: ''nomina nuda'') – a name published without an accompanying description * ''nomen oblitum'' (''nom. obl.''; plural: ''nomina oblita'') – a name which has been overlooked (literally, forgotten) and is no longer valid * ''Nomen oblitum, nomen protectum'' (''nom. prot.''; plural: ''nomina protecta'') – a name granted protection * ''Conserved name, nomen rejiciendum'' (''nom. rej.''; plural: ''nomina rejicienda'') – a name that has been rejected and cannot be used * ''nomen suppressum'' (''nom. supp.''; plural: ''nomina suppressa'') – a name that has been suppressed and cannot be used * ''nomen vanum'' (plural: ''nomina vana'') - not a useful term, has been used to mean either a ''nomen dubium'' (see above in this list), or an invalid change in spelling, better called an unjustified emendationOn the use of the term ''nomen vanum'' in taxonomy. John Chorn and Kenneth N. Whetstone. Museum of Natural History, Kansas, Lawrence 66045. Journal of Paleontology vol 52 no. 2, March 1978 * ''species inquirenda'', a species of doubtful identity requiring further investigation


Latin abbreviations

* ''cf.'' : ''confer''; literally "compare", indicates approximate placement * ''f.'' : ''forma''; form (botany), form * ''nothovar.'' : ''nothovarietas''; hybrid variety * ''nob.'' : ''nobis''): by us, indicates the writers are the authority of a scientific name * ''p. p.'' : ''pro parte''; "for part" * ''pro syn.'' : ''pro synonymo''; "as synonym" * ''sensu auct.'' : ''sensu auctorum''; in the sense of certain authors (generally referring to an invalid usage) * ''s.l.'' : ''sensu lato''; in the broad (loose) sense * ''sp.'' (plural ''spp.'') : ''species'' (identical in English) * '' sp. nov.'' (plural ''spp. nov.'') : ''species nova'' (''species novae'') : new species (singular) * ''s.s.'' : ''sensu stricto''; in the strict (narrow or precise) sense * ''ssp.'' (plural ''sspp.'' or ''subspp'') : ''subspecies'' (identical in English) * ''subf.'' : ''subforma''; subform * ''subsp.'' (plural ''subspp.'') : ''subspecies'' (identical in English) * ''subvar.'' : ''subvarietas''; subvariety * ''var.'' : ''varietas''; variety (botany), variety


English abbreviations

* ''bot.'' - botany * ''zoo.'' - zoology


Symbols

* × : cross; indicates a hybrid (biology), hybrid * † : extinct * + : graft or chimera; indicates a graft hybrid


See also

* Alpha taxonomy * Cladistics * Glossary of botanical terms * Species description


References

{{Use dmy dates, date=May 2020 Glossaries of biology, Naming Glossaries of botany Glossaries of zoology, scientific naming