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The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga, An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus), the invasion also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch, was the deposition of
James II and VII James II and VII (14 October 1633Old Style and New Style dates, O.S.16 September 1701) was King of England and King of Ireland as James II, and King of Scotland as James VII from the death of his elder brother, Charles II of England, Charles II ...
, king of
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
,
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...
and
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
and replacement by his daughter
Mary II Mary II (30 April 166228 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Gr ...
and her husband,
William III of Orange William is a popular given name of an old Germanic origin.Hanks, Hardcastle and Hodges, ''Oxford Dictionary of First Names'', Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press of University of Oxford. It is the la ...
,
stadtholder In the Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in No ...
and de facto ruler of the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
. A term first used by
John Hampden John Hampden (24 June 1643) was an English landowner and politician whose opposition to arbitrary taxes imposed by Charles I of England, Charles I made him a national figure. An ally of Roundhead, Parliamentarian leader John Pym, and cousin to Ol ...
in late 1689, historian Jeremy Black suggests it can be seen as both the last successful invasion of England and also an internal coup. Despite his
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ri ...

Catholicism
, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support as many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 16381651
Wars of the Three Kingdoms The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place between 1639 and 1653 in the kingdoms of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country tha ...
. Over the next three years, he alienated his supporters by suspending the
Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Scotland *Scottish English *Scottish national identity, the Scottish iden ...
and English Parliaments in 1685 and ruling by personal decree. Despite this, it was considered a short-term issue, as James was 52, and since his second marriage was childless after 11 years, the
heir presumptive An heir presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession ...
was his Protestant daughter Mary. Two events in June 1688 turned dissent into a political crisis. The first was the birth of
James Francis Edward James Francis Edward Stuart (10 June 16881 January 1766), nicknamed The Old Pretender by Whigs, was the son of King James II and VII James II and VII (14 October 1633 O.S.16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that J ...
on 10 June, displacing Mary as heir which created the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. The second was the prosecution of the
Seven Bishops The Seven Bishops were members of the Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church which is the established church of England. The archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior clergy, cleric, although the Monarchy ...

Seven Bishops
on 15 June; one in a series of perceived assaults on the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
, their acquittal on the 30th sparked anti-Catholic riots and destroyed James's political authority. The combination convinced a broad coalition of English politicians to issue an
Invitation to William The ''Invitation to William'' was a letter sent by seven notable English nobles, later called "the Immortal Seven", to stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, received by him on 30 June 1688 (Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed b ...
, inviting him to secure the English throne for his wife Mary. With
Louis XIV of France Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the of any monarch of a sovereign country in ...

Louis XIV of France
preparing to attack the Dutch, William viewed this as an opportunity to secure English resources for the
Nine Years' War The Nine Years' War (1688–1697), often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg, was a conflict between France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a ...
, which began in September 1688. On 5 November, he landed in
Brixham Brixham is a fishing town and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counti ...

Brixham
in
Torbay Torbay is a borough A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit,Article 3(1). country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar t ...

Torbay
with 14,000 men. As he advanced on
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
, most of the 30,000-strong Royal Army joined him. James went into exile on 23 December and in April 1689,
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
made William and Mary
joint monarchs A coregency or co-principality is the situation where a monarchical position (such as prince, princess, king, queen, emperor or empress), normally held by only a single person, is held by two or more. It is to be distinguished from diarchies or ...
of England and Ireland. A separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. While the Revolution itself was quick and relatively bloodless, pro-
Stuart
Stuart
revolts in
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...
and
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...
caused significant casualties. Although
Jacobitism Jacobitism (; gd, Seumasachas, ; ga, Seacaibíteachas, ) was a largely 17th- and 18th-century movement that supported the restoration of the senior line of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a royal house ...
persisted into the late 18th century, the Revolution ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the
Bill of Rights 1689 The Bill of Rights 1689, also known as the Bill of Rights 1688, is a landmark Act in the constitutional law The principles from the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen still have constitutional importance Constitutiona ...
. The
Toleration Act 1688 The Toleration Act 1688 (1 Will & Mary c 18), also referred to as the Act of Toleration, was an Acts of Parliament in the United Kingdom, Act of the Parliament of England, which received the royal assent on 24 May 1689. The Act allowed freedom of ...
granted freedom of worship to nonconformist Protestants, but restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish
Test Act The Test Acts were a series of English penal laws In English history, the penal laws were a series of laws that sought to uphold the establishment of the Church of England against Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that orig ...
s remained in force until 1828; while religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were removed in 2015, those applying to the monarch remain.


Background

Despite his Catholicism, James became king in 1685 with widespread support, as demonstrated by the rapid defeat of the
Argyll Argyll (; archaically Argyle, in Scottish Gaelic language, modern Gaelic, ), sometimes called Argyllshire, is a Counties of Scotland, historic county and registration county of western Scotland. Argyll is of ancient origin, and corresponds to ...
and
Monmouth Rebellion The Monmouth Rebellion, also known as the Pitchfork Rebellion, the Revolt of the West or the West Country rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow James II. He had become king of England, List of Scottish monarchs, Scotland, and Monarchy of Irela ...
s; less than four years later, he was forced into exile. Often seen as an exclusively English event, modern historians argue James failed to appreciate the extent to which Royal power relied on support from the county gentry, the vast majority of whom were members of the Protestant
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
and
Scottish kirk
Scottish kirk
. Although they were willing to accept his personal Catholicism, his policies of "tolerance" and the methods used to overcome opposition ultimately alienated his supporters in
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
and
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...
, while destabilising Catholic-majority
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
. Stuart political ideology derived from
James VI and I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of gover ...

James VI and I
, who in 1603 created a vision of a centralised state, run by a monarch whose authority came from God, and where the function of
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
was simply to obey. Disputes over the relationship between king and Parliament led to the
War of the Three Kingdoms War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurgents, and militias. It is generally characterized by extreme violence ...
and continued after the 1660
Stuart Restoration The Restoration of the Stuart monarchy The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a dynasty, royal house of Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland, Kingdom of England, England, Kingdom of Ireland, Ireland and later Kingdom of Great Britain, Grea ...
.
Charles II
Charles II
came to rely on the
Royal Prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege and immunity, recognized in common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi- ...
since measures passed in this way could be withdrawn when he decided, rather than Parliament. However, it could not be used for major legislation or taxation. Concern that James intended to create an
absolute monarchy Absolute monarchy (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocracy, autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often hereditary monar ...
led to the 1679 to 1681
Exclusion Crisis The Exclusion Crisis ran from 1679 until 1681 in the reign of King Charles II of England, Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland. Three Exclusion bills sought to exclude the King's brother and heir presumptive, James II of England, James, Duk ...
, dividing the English political class into those who wanted to 'exclude' him from the throne, mostly Whigs, and their opponents, mostly
Tories A Tory () is a person who holds a political philosophy Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions and the relationships between ...
. However, in 1685 many Whigs feared the consequences of bypassing the 'natural heir', while Tories were often strongly anti-Catholic and their support assumed the continued primacy of the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
. Most importantly, it was seen as a short-term issue; James was 52, his marriage to
Mary of Modena Mary of Modena (, or ; ) was Queen of England, Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mai ...
remained childless after 11 years, and the heirs were his Protestant daughters, Mary and
Anne Anne, alternatively spelled Ann, is a form of the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...

Anne
. There was much greater sympathy in Scotland for a 'Stuart heir', and the 1681 Succession Act confirmed the duty of all to support him, 'regardless of religion.' Unlike England, over 95 percent of Scots belonged to the
Church of Scotland The Church of Scotland (CoS; sco, The Scots Kirk; gd, Eaglais na h-Alba), also known by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis ...

Church of Scotland
, or kirk; even other Protestant sects were banned, and by 1680, Catholics were a tiny minority confined to parts of the aristocracy and the remote Highlands.
Episcopalians Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition Christian tradition is a collection of tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world ...
had regained control of the kirk in 1660, leading to a series of
Presbyterian Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of ...
uprisings, but the bitter religious conflicts of the civil war period meant the majority preferred stability. In England and Scotland, most of those who backed James in 1685 wanted to retain existing political and religious arrangements, but this was not the case in Ireland. While he was guaranteed support from the Catholic majority, James was also popular among Irish Protestants. The
Church of Ireland The Church of Ireland ( ga, Eaglais na hÉireann, ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ul ...
depended on the Crown for its survival, while
Ulster Ulster (; ga, Ulaidh or ''Cúige Uladh'' ; sco, label= Ulster Scots, Ulstèr or ''Ulster'') is one of the four traditional Irish provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative ...

Ulster
was dominated by Presbyterians who supported his tolerance policies. However, religion was only one factor; of equal concern for Catholics were laws barring them from serving in the military or holding public office, and land reform. In 1600, 90% of Irish land was owned by Catholics but following a series of confiscation during the 17th century, this had dropped to 22% in 1685. Catholic and Protestant merchants in
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_ ...

Dublin
and elsewhere objected to commercial restrictions placing them at a disadvantage to their English competitors.


The political background in England

While James' supporters viewed hereditary succession as more important than his personal Catholicism, they opposed its extension into public life; from the start, opposition to his religious policies was led by devout
Anglicans Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *W ...
. In an age when oaths were seen as fundamental to a stable society, he had sworn to uphold the supremacy of the Church of England, a commitment viewed by many as incompatible with 'Tolerance'. In demanding Parliament approve these measures, James was not only breaking his own word but requiring others to do the same; they refused to comply, despite being "the most Loyal Parliament a
Stuart
Stuart
ever had". Although historians generally accept James wished to promote Catholicism, not establish an
Absolute monarchy Absolute monarchy (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocracy, autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often hereditary monar ...
, his stubborn and inflexible reaction to opposition had the same result. When the English and Scottish Parliaments refused to repeal the 1678 and 1681
Test Act The Test Acts were a series of English penal laws In English history, the penal laws were a series of laws that sought to uphold the establishment of the Church of England against Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that orig ...
s, he suspended them in November 1685 and ruled by decree. Attempts to form a 'King's party' of Catholics,
English Dissenters English Dissenters or English Separatists were Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and ...
and dissident Scottish Presbyterians was politically short-sighted, since it rewarded those who joined the 1685 rebellions and undermined his supporters. Demanding tolerance for Catholics was also badly timed. In October 1685
Louis XIV of France Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the of any monarch of a sovereign country in ...

Louis XIV of France
issued the
Edict of Fontainebleau The Edict of Fontainebleau in the Archives Nationales The Edict of Fontainebleau (22 October 1685) was an edict An edict is a decree or announcement of a law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrela ...

Edict of Fontainebleau
revoking the 1598
Edict of Nantes The Edict of Nantes () was signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV and granted the Calvinist Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protesta ...
which had given
French Protestants French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consistin ...
the right to practise their religion; over the next four years, an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 went into exile, 40,000 of whom settled in London. Combined with Louis' expansionist policies and the killing of 2,000 Vaudois Protestants in 1686, it led to fears Protestant Europe was threatened by a Catholic counter-reformation. These concerns were reinforced by events in Ireland; the
Lord Deputy The Lord Deputy was the representative of the monarch and head of the Irish executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of s ...
, the
Earl of Tyrconnell The title Earl of Tyrconnell has been created four times in the Peerage of Ireland. It was first created in 1603, for Rory O'Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, formerly king of Tyrconnell, along with the subsidiary title Baron Donegal. The 1st Earl ...

Earl of Tyrconnell
, wanted to create a Catholic establishment able to survive James' death, which meant replacing Protestant officials at a pace that was inherently destabilising.


Timeline of events: 1686 to 1688

The majority of those who backed James in 1685 did so because they wanted stability and the rule of law, qualities frequently undermined by his actions. After suspending Parliament in November 1685, he sought to rule by decree; although the principle was not disputed, the widening of its scope caused considerable concern, particularly when judges who disagreed with its application were dismissed. He then alienated many by perceived attacks on the established church; Henry Compton, Bishop of London, was suspended for refusing to ban John Sharp from preaching after he gave an anti-Catholic sermon. He often made things worse by political clumsiness; to general fury, the Ecclesiastical Commission of 1686 established to discipline the Church of England included suspected Catholics like the
Earl of Huntingdon Earl of Huntingdon is a title which has been created several times in the Peerage of England. The medieval title (1065 creation) was associated with the ruling house of Scotland (David I of Scotland, David of Scotland). The seventh and most rece ...
. This was combined with an inability to accept opposition; in April 1687, he ordered
Magdalen College, Oxford Magdalen College ( ) is a constituent college A collegiate university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) educ ...

Magdalen College, Oxford
to elect a Catholic sympathiser named
Anthony Farmer Anthony Farmer (born 1657Jerome Bertram‘Farmer, Anthony (b. 1657)’ ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography The ''Dictionary of National Biography'' (''DNB'') is a standard work of reference on notable figures from History of the British I ...
as president, but as he was ineligible under the college statutes, the
fellow A fellow is a broad concept whose exact meaning depends on context. In learned Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and preferences. The abil ...
s elected
John HoughJohn Hough may refer to: * John Hough (director) (born 1941), British film and television director *John Simpson Hough (1833-1919), American entrepreneur on the Santa Fe Trail, builder of the Baca House and Outbuilding, Baca House in Trinidad, Colora ...
instead. Both Farmer and Hough withdrew in favour of another candidate selected by James, who then demanded the fellows personally apologise on their knees for 'defying' him; when they refused, they were replaced by Catholics. Attempts to create an alternative 'Kings Party' were never likely to succeed since English Catholics were only 1.1% of the population and
Nonconformists Nonconformity or nonconformism may refer to: Culture and society * Insubordination, the act of willfully disobeying an order of one's superior *Dissent, a sentiment or philosophy of non-agreement or opposition to a prevailing idea or entity ** O ...
4.4%. Both groups were divided; since private worship was generally tolerated, Catholic moderates feared greater visibility would provoke a backlash. Among Nonconformists, while
Quakers Quakers are people who belong to a historically Protestant Christian Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Ref ...

Quakers
and Congregationalists supported repeal of the Test Acts, the majority wanted to amend the 1662 Act of Uniformity and be allowed back into the Church of England. When James ensured the election of the Presbyterian Sir John Shorter as
Lord Mayor of London The Lord Mayor of London is the mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organi ...
in 1687, he insisted on complying with the Test Act, reportedly due to a 'distrust of the King's favour...thus encouraging that which His Majesties whole Endeavours were intended to disannull.' To ensure a compliant Parliament, James required potential
MPs A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) ...
to be approved by their local
Lord Lieutenant A lord-lieutenant () is the British monarch's personal representative in each lieutenancy area Lieutenancy areas are the separate areas of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as ...
; eligibility for both offices required positive answers in writing to the 'Three Questions', one being a commitment to repeal of the Test Act. In addition, local government and town corporations were purged to create an obedient electoral machine, further alienating the county gentry who had formed the majority of those who backed James in 1685. On 24 August 1688, writs were issued for a general election. The expansion of the military caused great concern, particularly in England and Scotland, where memories of the civil war left huge resistance to
standing armies A standing army is a permanent, often professional, army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sens ...
. In Ireland, Talbot replaced Protestant officers with Catholics; James did the same in England, while basing the troops at
Hounslow Hounslow () is a large suburban district of West London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east ...

Hounslow
appeared a deliberate attempt to overawe Parliament. In April 1688, he ordered his
Declaration of Indulgence The Declaration of Indulgence, also called Declaration for Liberty of Conscience, was a pair of proclamation A proclamation (Lat. ''proclamare'', to make public by announcement) is an official declaration issued by a person of authority to mak ...
read in every church; when the
Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Cat ...
and six other bishops refused, they were charged with
seditious libel Sedition is overt conduct, such as speech Speech is human vocal communication using language. Each language uses Phonetics, phonetic combinations of vowel and consonant sounds that form the sound of its words (that is, all English words sound ...
and confined in the
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle A castle is a type of structure built during the predominantly by the or royalty and by . Scholars debate the sc ...

Tower of London
. Two events turned dissent into a crisis; the birth of
James Francis Edward Stuart James Francis Edward Stuart (10 June 16881 January 1766), nicknamed the Old Pretender by Whigs (British political party), Whigs, was the son of King James II of England, James II and VII of Kingdom of England, England, Kingdom of Sco ...
on 10 June created the prospect of a Catholic dynasty, while the acquittal of the
Seven Bishops The Seven Bishops were members of the Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church which is the established church of England. The archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior clergy, cleric, although the Monarchy ...

Seven Bishops
on 30th destroyed James' political authority.


Dutch intervention


Prelude: 1685 to June 1688

In 1677, James' elder daughter and heir Mary married her Protestant cousin
William of Orange
William of Orange
,
stadtholder In the Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in No ...
of the main provinces of the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
. The two initially shared common objectives in wanting Mary to succeed her father, while French ambitions in the
Spanish Netherlands Spanish Netherlands es, Países Bajos Españoles; nl, Spaanse Nederlanden; french: Pays-Bas espagnols; german: Spanische Niederlande. (historically in Spanish: ''Flandes'', the name "Flanders" was used as a ''pars pro toto ''Pars pro toto'' (, ...

Spanish Netherlands
threatened both English and Dutch trade. Although William sent James
troops A troop is a military sub-subunit Sub-subunit or sub-sub-unit is a subordinated element below platoon level of company-sized units or sub-units which normally might not be separately identified in authorization documents by name, number, o ...
to help suppress the 1685
Monmouth Rebellion The Monmouth Rebellion, also known as the Pitchfork Rebellion, the Revolt of the West or the West Country rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow James II. He had become king of England, List of Scottish monarchs, Scotland, and Monarchy of Irela ...
, their relationship deteriorated thereafter. The
Franco-Dutch War The 1672 to 1678 Franco-Dutch War, also known as the Dutch War (french: Guerre de Hollande; nl, Hollandse Oorlog), was fought between France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a Li ...
, continued French expansion, and expulsion of the Huguenots meant William assumed another war was inevitable, and although the
States General of the Netherlands The States General of the Netherlands ( nl, Staten-Generaal ) is the Parliamentary sovereignty, supreme Bicameralism, bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Netherlands), Senate () and the House of Representatives (Nethe ...
preferred peace, the majority accepted he was correct. This view was widely shared throughout Protestant Europe; in October 1685,
Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg Frederick William (german: Friedrich Wilhelm; 16 February 1620 – 29 April 1688) was Elector of Brandenburg and Duke A duke (male) can either be a monarch ranked below the emperor, king, and grand duke ruling over a duchy or a member o ...
renounced his French alliance for one with the Dutch. In July 1686, other Protestant states formed the anti-French
League of Augsburg The Grand Alliance is the anti-French coalition formed on 20 December 1689 between England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland t ...

League of Augsburg
, with Dutch support; securing or neutralising English resources, especially the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
, now became key to both sides. Following a skirmish between French and Dutch naval vessels in July 1686, William concluded English neutrality was not enough and he needed their active support in the event of war. His relationship with James was affected by the fact both men relied on advisors with relatively limited views; in William's case, mainly English and Scots Presbyterian exiles, the latter with close links to the Protestant minority in Ireland, who saw Tyrconnell's policies as a threat to their existence. Having largely alienated his Tory support base, James depended on a small circle of Catholic converts like
Sunderland Sunderland () is a port city and the administrative centre of the City of Sunderland metropolitan borough in Tyne and Wear, North East England. Sunderland is situated near the mouth of the River Wear which flows through the city and as well as ...
, Melfort and
Perth Perth () is the list of Australian capital cities, capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia (WA). It is Australia's list of cities in Australia by population, fourth-most populous city, with a population of 2.1 mi ...
. Suspicions increased when James sought William's backing for repealing the
Test Acts The Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and Nonconformist (Protestantism), nonconformists. The underlying principle was that onl ...
; he predictably refused, further damaging their relationship. Having previously assumed he was guaranteed English support in a war with France, William now worried he might face an Anglo-French alliance, despite assurances by James he had no intention of doing so. Historians argue these were genuine, but James did not appreciate the distrust caused by his domestic policies. In August 1687, William's cousin de Zuylestein travelled to England with condolences on the death of
Mary of Modena Mary of Modena (, or ; ) was Queen of England, Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mai ...
's mother, allowing him to make contact with the political opposition. Throughout 1688, his English supporters provided William detailed information on public opinion and developments, very little of which was intercepted. In October 1687, after fourteen years of marriage and multiple miscarriages, it was announced the Queen was pregnant, Melfort immediately declaring it was a boy. When James then wrote to Mary urging her to convert to Catholicism, it convinced many he was seeking a Catholic heir, one way or the other and may have been a deciding factor in whether to invade. Early in 1688, a
pamphlet A pamphlet is an unbound book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more te ...

pamphlet
circulated in England written by Dutch Grand Pensionary
Gaspar Fagel Gaspar Fagel (25 January 1634 – 15 December 1688) was a Dutch politician, jurist, and diplomat who authored correspondence from and on behalf of William III, Prince of Orange during the English Revolution of 1688. Early life Fagel was b ...

Gaspar Fagel
; this guaranteed William's support for freedom of worship for Dissenters ''and'' retaining the Test Acts, unlike James who offered tolerance in return for repeal. In April 1688,
Louis XIV Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the List of longest-reigning mo ...

Louis XIV
announced tariffs on Dutch
herring Herring are forage fish Forage fish, also called prey fish or bait fish, are small pelagic fish which are preyed on by larger predators for food. Predators include other larger fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Typical ocean forage fish feed ...

herring
imports, along with plans to support the Royal Navy in the
English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" (Cotentinais Cotentinais is the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two ...

English Channel
. James immediately denied making any such request, but fearing it was the prelude to a formal alliance, the Dutch began preparing a military intervention. On the pretext of needing additional resources to deal with
French privateers Piracy is an act of robbery or crime, criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable goods. Those who conduct acts of piracy are called pirates ...
, in July the States General authorised an additional 9,000 sailors and 21 new warships.


Invitation to William

English support was vital for a successful invasion, and at the end of April William met with Edward Russell, who was acting as unofficial envoy for the Whig opposition. In a conversation recorded by the exiled
Gilbert Burnet Gilbert Burnet (18 September 1643 – 17 March 1715) was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Sc ...

Gilbert Burnet
, he asked for a formal invitation from key leaders asking him to "rescue the nation and the religion", with a projected date of end September. William later claimed he was 'forced' to take control of the conspiracy when Russell warned him the English would rise against James even without his help and he feared this would lead to a republic, depriving his wife of her inheritance. This version is disputed, but in June he sent Zuylestein to England once again, ostensibly to congratulate James on his new son, in reality to co-ordinate with his supporters. The birth of the Prince of Wales and prospect of a Catholic successor ended the 'wait for better times' policy advocated by those like
Halifax Halifax commonly refers to: *Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada *Halifax, West Yorkshire, England *Halifax (bank), a British bank Halifax may also refer to: Places Australia *Halifax, Queensland *Halifax Bay, North Queensland Canada Nova Scotia *Hali ...

Halifax
. This led to the production of the
Invitation to William The ''Invitation to William'' was a letter sent by seven notable English nobles, later called "the Immortal Seven", to stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, received by him on 30 June 1688 (Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed b ...
, signed by seven representatives from the key constituencies whose support William needed in order to commit to an invasion. They included the land magnates Danby and
Devonshire Devon (, also known as Devonshire) is a Counties of England, county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is part of South West England, bounded by Cornwall to the west, Somerset to ...

Devonshire
, one a Whig, one a Tory; Henry Compton, Bishop of London, for the church;
Shrewsbury Shrewsbury ( , ) is a market town and the county town of Shropshire, England. The town is situated on the River Severn, north-west of London, and the 2011 census recorded a population of 71,715. The town centre has a largely unspoilt mediev ...
and
Lumley
Lumley
the army, and finally Russell and
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...
for the navy. Intended for public consumption, the Invitation was drafted by Sidney, later described as "the great wheel on which the Revolution rolled". It claimed "nineteen parts of twenty...throughout the kingdom desired a change", that "much the greatest part of the nobility and gentry" were dissatisfied, that the army was divided, while "very many of the common soldiers do daily shew such an aversion to the Popish religion, that there is the greatest probability imaginable of great numbers of deserters ... and amongst the seamen...there is not one in ten who would do them any service in such a war". They promised to rally to William upon his landing in England and to "do all that lies in our power to prepare others to be in as much readiness as such an action is capable of"; finally, they stressed the importance of acting quickly. On 30 June, the same day the bishops were acquitted, the Invitation was carried to The Hague by
Rear Admiral Herbert
Rear Admiral Herbert
, disguised as a common sailor. Meanwhile, William's confidante Willem Bentinck launched a propaganda campaign in England; in numerous
pamphlet A pamphlet is an unbound book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more te ...

pamphlet
s, William was presented as a true Stuart, but unlike James and his brother Charles, one free from the vices of crypto-Catholicism, absolutism, and debauchery. Much of the "spontaneous" support for William on his landing was organised by Bentinck and his agents.


Dutch preparations: July to September 1688

William's key strategic purpose was containing French expansion, an objective not shared by the majority of his English supporters. In 1672, an alliance with the
Electorate of Cologne The Electorate of Cologne (german: Kurfürstentum Köln), sometimes referred to as Electoral Cologne (german: Kurköln, links=no), was an ecclesiastical principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical ...
enabled France to bypass Dutch forward defences and nearly over-run the Republic, so ensuring an anti-French ruler was vital to prevent a repetition. As an
ecclesiastical principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of ...

ecclesiastical principality
of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
, Cologne's ruler was nominated by
Pope Innocent XI Pope Innocent XI ( la, Innocentius XI; 16 May 1611 – 12 August 1689), born Benedetto Odescalchi, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations ...

Pope Innocent XI
, in conjunction with
Emperor Leopold Leopold I (full name: ''Leopold Ignaz Joseph Balthasar Felician''; hu, I. Lipót; 9 June 1640 – 5 May 1705) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator Romanorum ...
. Both Louis and James were in dispute with Innocent over the right to appoint Catholic bishops and clergy; when the old Elector died in June 1688, Innocent and Leopold ignored the French candidate in favour of
Joseph Clemens of Bavaria Joseph Clemens of Bavaria (german: Joseph Clemens von Bayern) (5 December 1671 – 12 November 1723) was a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty of Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officiall ...

Joseph Clemens of Bavaria
. After 1678, France continued its expansion into the
Rhineland The Rhineland (german: Rheinland; french: Rhénanie; nl, Rijnland; ksh, Rhingland; Latinised name: ''Rhenania'') is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly Middle Rhine, its middle section. Term ...

Rhineland
, including the 1683 to 1684
War of the Reunions The War of the Reunions (1683–84) was a conflict involving France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France ...
, demands in the Palatinate and construction of forts at
Landau Landau ( pfl, Landach), officially Landau in der Pfalz, is an autonomous (''kreisfrei'') town surrounded by the Südliche Weinstraße Südliche Weinstraße ( pfl, Siedlischi Woischdrooß; en, "Southern Wine Route") is a district (''Kreis'') in ...

Landau
and
Traben-Trarbach Traben-Trarbach on the Middle Moselle is a town in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western states of Germany, state of Germany. It covers and has about 4.05 million ...
. This presented an existential threat to Habsburg dominance, guaranteeing Leopold's support for the Dutch, and negating French attempts to build German alliances. William's envoy Johann von Görtz assured Leopold English Catholics would not be persecuted and intervention was to elect a free Parliament, not depose James, a convenient fiction that allowed him to remain neutral. Although his English supporters considered a token force sufficient, William assembled 260 transport ships and 14,000 men, nearly half the 30,000 strong
Dutch States Army The Dutch States Army ( nl, Staatse leger) was the army of the Dutch Republic. It was usually called this, because it was formally the army of the States-General of the Netherlands, the sovereign power of that federal republic. This mercenary army ...
. With France on the verge of war, their absence was of great concern to the States General and Bentinck hired 13,616 German mercenaries to man Dutch border fortresses, freeing elite units like the Scots Brigade for use in England. The increase could be presented as a limited precaution against French aggression, as the Dutch would typically double or triple their army strength in wartime; William instructed his experienced deputy Schomberg to prepare for a campaign in Germany.


Decision to invade

At the beginning of September, an invasion remained in the balance, with the States General fearing a French attack via
Flanders Flanders (, ; Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * ...

Flanders
while their army was in England. However, the surrender of
Belgrade Belgrade ( ; sr-cyr, Београд, Beograd, lit='White City', ; Names of European cities in different languages: B, names in other languages) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Serbia, largest city of Serbia. It is located ...
on 6 September seemed to presage an Ottoman collapse and release Austrian resources for use in Germany. Hoping to act before Leopold could respond and relieve pressure on the Ottomans, Louis attacked
Philippsburg Philippsburg () is a town in Germany, in the district of Karlsruhe (district), Karlsruhe in Baden-Württemberg. History Before 1632, Philippsburg was known as "Udenheim". The city was a possession of the Bishopric of Speyer, Bishop of Speyer ...
. With France now committed in Germany, this greatly reduced the threat to the Dutch. Instead, Louis attempted to intimidate the States General, and on 9 September, his envoy D'Avaux handed them two letters. The first warned an attack on James meant war with France, the second any interference with French operations in Germany would end with the destruction of the Dutch state. Both misfired; convinced Louis was trying to drag him into war, James told the Dutch there was no secret Anglo-French alliance against them, although his denials only increased their suspicions. By confirming France's primary objective was the Rhineland, the second allowed William to move troops from the eastern border to the coast, even though most of the new mercenaries had yet to arrive. On 22 September, the French seized over 100 Dutch ships, many owned by Amsterdam merchants; in response, on 26 September the Amsterdam City Council agreed to back William. This was a significant decision since the Council dominated the
States of Holland The States of Holland Holland is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteristics ( human geography), and the interaction of humanity ...
, the most powerful political body in the Dutch Republic which contributed nearly 60% of its budget. French troops entered the Rhineland on 27 September and in a secret session held on 29th, William argued for a
pre-emptive strike A preemptive war is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its bro ...
, as Louis and James would "attempt to bring this state to its ultimate ruin and subjugation, as soon as they find the occasion". This was accepted by the States, with the objective left deliberately vague, other than making the English "King and Nation live in a good relation, and useful to their friends and allies, and especially to this State". Following their approval, the Amsterdam financial market raised a loan of four million guilders in only three days, with further financing coming from various sources, including two million guilders from the banker
Francisco Lopes Suasso
Francisco Lopes Suasso
. The biggest concern for Holland was the potential impact on the Dutch economy and politics of William becoming ruler of England; the claim he had no intention of "removing the King from the throne" was not believed. These fears were arguably justified; William's access to English resources permanently diminished Amsterdam's power within the Republic and its status as the world's leading commercial and financial centre.


English defensive strategy

Neither James nor Sunderland trusted Louis, correctly suspecting his support would continue only so long as it coincided with French interests, while Mary of Modena claimed his warnings were simply an attempt to drag England into an unwanted alliance. As a former naval commander, James appreciated the difficulties of a successful invasion, even in good weather, and as they moved into autumn the likelihood seemed to diminish. With the Dutch on the verge of war with France, he did not believe the States General would allow William to make the attempt; if they did, his army and navy were strong enough to defeat it. Reasonable in theory, his reliance on the loyalty and efficiency of the military proved deeply flawed. Both remained overwhelmingly Protestant and anti-Catholic; in July, only personal intervention by James prevented a naval mutiny when a Catholic captain held
Mass Mass is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by assigning a numerical value ...
on his ship. The transfer of 2,500 Catholics from the
Royal Irish Army Royal may refer to: People * Royal (name) Royal can be a surname or a given name. Bearers include: Surname * Billy Joe Royal (1942–2015), American country music and pop singer * Calvin Royal III, American ballet dancer * Darrell Royal (1924 ...
to England in September led to clashes with Protestant troops, some of his most reliable units refused to obey orders, and many of their officers resigned. When James demanded the repatriation of all six regiments of the Scots Brigade in January 1688, William refused but used the opportunity to purge those considered unreliable, a total of 104 officers and 44 soldiers. Some may have been Williamite agents, such as Colonel Belasyse, a Protestant with over 15 years of service who returned to his family estates in
Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the most northern area of England England ...

Yorkshire
and made contact with Danby. The promotion of Catholic former Brigade officers like Thomas Buchan and
Alexander Cannon Alexander Cannon, also spelt Cannan, was a Scottish professional soldier in the second half of the 17th century, who served in the armies of William of Orange and James VII and II James II and VII (14 October 1633 O.S.16 September 1701An ass ...
to command positions led to the formation of the Association of Protestant Officers, which included senior veterans like Charles Trelawny,
Churchill Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, (30 November 187424 January 1965) was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the highe ...

Churchill
and
Percy Kirke Lieutenant General Lieutenant general or lieutenant-general (Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a Three-star rank, three-star military rank (NATO code OF-9) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of ...

Percy Kirke
. On 14 August, Churchill offered their support to William, helping convince him it was safe to risk an invasion; although James was aware of the conspiracy, he took no action. One reason may have been fears over the impact on the army; with a notional strength of 34,000, it looked impressive on paper but morale was brittle while many were untrained or lacked weapons. It also had to fill policing roles previously delegated to the militia, which had been deliberately allowed to decay; most of the 4,000 regular troops brought from Scotland in October had to be stationed in London to keep order. In October, attempts were made to restore the militia but many members were reportedly so angry at the changes made to local corporations, James was advised it was better not to raise them. Widespread discontent and growing hostility to the Stuart regime was particularly apparent in North-East and South-West England, the two landing places identified by William. A Tory whose brother Jonathan was one of the Seven Bishops, Trelawny's commitment confirmed support from a powerful and well-connected
West Country The West Country is a loosely defined area of south-western England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is sep ...

West Country
bloc, allowing access to the ports of
Plymouth Plymouth () is a port city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: ...

Plymouth
and Torbay. In the north, a force organised by Belasyse and Danby prepared to seize
York York is a cathedral city City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United ...

York
, its most important city, and
Hull Hull may refer to: Structures * Chassis, of an armored fighting vehicle * Fuselage, of an aircraft * Hull (botany), the outer covering of seeds * Hull (watercraft), the body or frame of a ship * Submarine hull Mathematics * Affine hull, in affin ...
, its largest port. Herbert had been replaced by Dartmouth as commander of the fleet when he defected in June but many captains owed him their appointments and were of doubtful loyalty. Dartmouth suspected Berkeley and Grafton of plotting to overthrow him; to monitor them, he placed their ships next to his and minimised contact between the other vessels to prevent conspiracy. Lack of funds meant exclusive of fireships and light scouting vessels, only 16 warships available in early October, all
third rate In the rating system of the Royal Navy, a third rate was a ship of the line which from the 1720s mounted between 64 and 80 guns, typically built with two gun decks (thus the related term two-decker). Years of experience proved that the third ra ...
s or
fourth rate Image:The British vessel Europa approaching Port Mahon, Minorca - Anton Schranz.jpg, HMS ''Europa'' approaching Port Mahon, link=Special:FilePath/The_British_vessel_Europa_approching_Port_Mahon,_Minorca_-_Anton_Schranz.jpg In the rating system o ...
s, short of both men and supplies. While The Downs was the best place to intercept a cross-Channel attack, it was also vulnerable to a surprise assault, even for ships fully manned and adequately provisioned. Instead, James placed his ships in a strong defensive position near
Chatham Dockyard Chatham Dockyard was a Royal Navy Dockyard located on the River Medway in Kent. Established in Chatham, Kent, Chatham in the mid-16th century, the dockyard subsequently expanded into neighbouring Gillingham, Kent, Gillingham (at its most extensi ...
, believing the Dutch would seek to establish naval superiority before committing to a landing. While this had been the original plan, winter storms meant conditions deteriorated rapidly for those on the transports; William therefore decided to sail in convoy and avoid battle. The easterly winds that allowed the Dutch to cross prevented the Royal Navy leaving the
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernm ...

Thames
estuary and intervening. The English fleet was outnumbered 2:1, undermanned, short of supplies and in the wrong place. Key landing locations in the South-West and Yorkshire had been secured by sympathisers, while both army and navy were led by officers whose loyalty was questionable. Even early in 1686, foreign observers doubted the military would fight for James against a Protestant heir and William claimed only to be securing the inheritance of his wife Mary. While still a dangerous undertaking, the invasion was less risky than it seemed.


Invasion


Embarkation of the army and the Declaration of The Hague

The Dutch preparations, though carried out with great speed, could not remain secret. The English envoy Ignatius White, the Marquess d'Albeville, warned his country: "an absolute conquest is intended under the specious and ordinary pretences of religion, liberty, property and a free Parliament". Louis threatened an immediate declaration of war if William proceeded and sent James 300,000 livres. Embarkations, started on 22 September (
Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, speci ...
), had been completed on 8 October, and the expedition was that day openly approved by the States of Holland; the same day James issued a proclamation to the English nation that it should prepare for a Dutch invasion to ward off conquest. On 30 September/10 October ( Julian/
Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, speci ...
s) William issued the ''Declaration of The Hague'' (actually written by Fagel), of which 60,000 copies of the English translation by Gilbert Burnet were distributed after the landing in England, in which he assured that his only aim was to maintain the Protestant religion, install a free parliament and investigate the legitimacy of the Prince of Wales. He would respect the position of James. William declared: William went on to condemn James's advisers for overturning the religion, laws, and liberties of England, Scotland, and Ireland by the use of the suspending and dispensing power; the establishment of the "manifestly illegal" commission for ecclesiastical causes and its use to suspend the
Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary (church officer), ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers of 17 boroughs of Greater London north of the Thames, River Thames (historically the ...
and to remove the Fellows of
Magdalen College, Oxford Magdalen College ( ) is a constituent college A collegiate university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) educ ...

Magdalen College, Oxford
. William also condemned James's attempt to repeal the
Test Act The Test Acts were a series of English penal laws In English history, the penal laws were a series of laws that sought to uphold the establishment of the Church of England against Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that orig ...
s and the penal laws through pressuring individuals and waging an assault on parliamentary boroughs, as well as his purging of the judiciary. James's attempt to pack Parliament was in danger of removing "the last and great remedy for all those evils". "Therefore", William continued, "we have thought fit to go over to England, and to carry over with us a force sufficient, by the blessing of God, to defend us from the violence of those evil Counsellors ... this our Expedition is intended for no other design, but to have, a free and lawful Parliament assembled as soon as is possible". On 4/14 October, William responded to the allegations by James in a second declaration, denying any intention to become king or to conquer England. Whether he had intention any, at that moment, is still controversial. The swiftness of the embarkations surprised all foreign observers. Louis had in fact delayed his threats against the Dutch until early September because he assumed it then would be too late in the season to set the expedition in motion anyway, if their reaction proved negative; typically such an enterprise would take at least some months. Being ready after the last week of September / first week of October would normally have meant that the Dutch could have profited from the last spell of good weather, as the autumn storms tend to begin in the third week of that month. However, this year they came early. For three weeks, the invasion fleet was prevented by adverse south-westerly gales from departing from the naval port of
Hellevoetsluis 275px, ''Dutch Topographic map of Hellevoetsluis (town), Sept. 2014'' Hellevoetsluis (; population: in ) is a small city and municipality in the western Netherlands The Netherlands ( nl, Nederland ), informally referred to as Holland, is a cou ...
and Catholics all over the Netherlands and the British kingdoms held prayer sessions that this "popish wind" might endure. However, on 14/24 October, it became the famous "
Protestant Wind The phrase Protestant Wind has been used in more than one context, notably: #The storm that lashed the Spanish Armada. The wind wrecked the Spanish fleet and thus saved England from invasion by the army of Philip II of Spain Philip II ( es, Fe ...
" by turning to the east.


Crossing and landing

The invasion was officially a private affair, with the States General allowing William use of the Dutch army and fleet. For propaganda purposes, English admiral
Arthur Herbert
Arthur Herbert
was nominally in command, but in reality operational control remained with
Lieutenant-Admiral Lieutenant admiral is a senior naval military rank in some countries of the world. In the Royal Netherlands Navy the rank of lieutenant admiral (Dutch language, Dutch: ''luitenant-admiraal'') is a four star rank, senior to a vice-admiral (Dutch: ' ...
Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest and Vice-Admiral Philips van Almonde. Accompanied by Willem Bastiaensz Schepers, the Rotterdam shipping magnate who organised the transport fleet, William boarded the frigate ''Den Briel'' on Old Style and New Style dates, 16/26 October. The invasion fleet consisted of 463 ships and 40,000 men on board, roughly twice the size of the Spanish Armada, with 49 warships, 76 fluyt, transports carrying soldiers and 120 for the five thousand horses required by the cavalry and supply train. Having departed on 19/29 October, the expedition was halfway across the North Sea when it was scattered by a gale, forcing the ''Brill'' back to
Hellevoetsluis 275px, ''Dutch Topographic map of Hellevoetsluis (town), Sept. 2014'' Hellevoetsluis (; population: in ) is a small city and municipality in the western Netherlands The Netherlands ( nl, Nederland ), informally referred to as Holland, is a cou ...
on 21/31 October. William refused to go ashore and the fleet reassembled, having lost only one ship but nearly a thousand horses; press reports deliberately exaggerated the damage and claimed the expedition would be postponed till the spring. Dartmouth and his senior commanders considered blockading Hellevoetsluis but decided against it, partly because the stormy weather made it dangerous but also because they could not rely on their men. William replaced his losses and departed when the wind changed on 1/11 November, this time heading for Harwich where Bentinck had prepared a landing site. It has been suggested this was a feint to divert some of Dartmouth's ships north, which proved to be the case and when the wind shifted again, the Dutch fleet sailed south into the Strait of Dover. In doing so they twice passed the English fleet, which was unable to intercept because of the adverse winds and tides. On 3/13 November, the invasion fleet entered the
English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" (Cotentinais Cotentinais is the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two ...

English Channel
in an enormous formation 25 ships deep, the troops lined up on deck, firing musket volleys, colours flying and military bands playing. Intended to awe observers with its size and power, Rapin de Thoyras later described it as "the most magnificent and affecting spectacle...ever seen by human eyes". The same wind blowing the Dutch down the Channel kept Dartmouth confined in the Thames estuary; by the time he was able to make his way out, he was too far behind to stop William reaching Torbay on 5 November. As anticipated, the French fleet remained in the Mediterranean, in order to support an attack on the Papal States if needed, while a south-westerly gale now forced Dartmouth to shelter in Portsmouth harbour and kept him there for two days, allowing William to complete his disembarkation undisturbed. His army totalled around 15,000 men, consisting of 11,212 infantry, among them nearly 5,000 members of the elite Anglo-Scots Brigade and Dutch Blue Guards, 3,660 cavalry and an artillery train of twenty-one 24-pounder cannon. He also brought weapons to equip 20,000 men, although he preferred deserters from the Royal Army and most of the 12,000 local volunteers who joined by 20 November were told to go home.


The collapse of James's rule

Panicked by the prospect of invasion, James met with the bishops on 28 September, offering concessions; five days later they presented demands returning the religious position to that of February 1685 and calling a free Parliament. They hoped this would be enough for James to remain king but there was little chance of this; at a minimum, James would have to disinherit his son, enforce the Test Acts and accept the supremacy of Parliament, all of which were unacceptable. By now his Whig opponents did not trust him to keep his promises, while Tories like Danby were too committed to William to escape punishment. While his veterans were potentially capable of defeating the Royal Army, William and his English supporters wanted to avoid bloodshed and allow the regime to collapse on its own. Landing in Torbay provided space and time for this, while heavy rainfall forced a slow advance regardless and to avoid alienating the local population by looting, his troops were well supplied and paid three months in advance. When he entered Exeter on 9 November in an elaborate procession, he publicly pronounced his objectives were securing the rights of his wife and a free Parliament; despite these precautions, there was little enthusiasm for either James or William and the general mood was one of confusion and distrust. After Danby had the ''Declaration'' publicly read in York on 12 November, much of the northern gentry confirmed their backing and the document was widely distributed. On 19 November James joined his main force of 19,000 at Salisbury, but it soon became apparent his army was not eager to fight and the loyalty of his commanders doubtful. Three regiments sent out on 15th to make contact with William promptly defected, while supply problems left the rest short of food and ammunition. On 20 November, dragoons led by Irish Catholic Patrick Sarsfield clashed with Williamite scouts at Wincanton Skirmish, Wincanton; along with a minor skirmish at Battle of Reading (1688), Reading on 9 December, also featuring Sarsfield, these were the only substantial military actions of the campaign. After securing his rear by taking
Plymouth Plymouth () is a port city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: ...

Plymouth
on 18 November, William began his advance on 21st, while Danby and Belasyse captured York and Hull several days later. James' commander Louis de Duras, 2nd Earl of Feversham, Feversham and other senior officers advised retreat; lacking information on William's movements, unable to rely on his own soldiers, worn out by lack of sleep and debilitating nose-bleeds, on 23rd James agreed. Next day Churchill, Grafton and Anne, Queen of Great Britain, Princess Anne's husband Prince George of Denmark, George deserted to William, followed by Anne herself on 26th. The next day, James held a meeting at Whitehall Palace with those peers still in London; with the exception of Melfort, Perth and other Catholics, they urged him to issue writs for a Parliamentary election and negotiate with William. On 8 December,
Halifax Halifax commonly refers to: *Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada *Halifax, West Yorkshire, England *Halifax (bank), a British bank Halifax may also refer to: Places Australia *Halifax, Queensland *Halifax Bay, North Queensland Canada Nova Scotia *Hali ...

Halifax
, Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham, Nottingham and Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin, Godolphin met with William at Hungerford to hear his demands, which included the dismissal of Catholics from public office and funding for his army. Many viewed these as a reasonable basis for a settlement but James decided to flee the country, convinced by Melfort and others his life was threatened, a suggestion generally dismissed by historians. William made it clear he would not allow James to be harmed, most Tories wanted him to retain his throne, while the Whigs simply wanted to drive him out of the country by imposing conditions he would refuse. The Queen and Prince of Wales left for France on 9 December, James following separately on 10th. Accompanied only by Sir Edward Hales, 3rd Baronet, Sir Edward Hales and Ralph Sheldon, he made his way to Faversham in Kent seeking passage to France, first dropping the Great Seal of the Realm, Great Seal in the
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernm ...

Thames
in a last ditch attempt to prevent Parliament being summoned. In London, his flight and Irish Frumours of a "Papist" invasion led to riots and destruction of Catholic property, which quickly spread throughout the country. To fill the power vacuum, the Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester, Earl of Rochester set up a temporary government including members of the Privy Council and City of London authorities, but it took them two days to restore order. When news arrived James had been captured in Faversham on 11 December by local fishermen, Thomas Bruce, 2nd Earl of Ailesbury, Lord Ailesbury, one of his personal attendants, was sent to escort him back to London; on entering the city on 16th, he was welcomed by cheering crowds. By making it seem James remained in control, Tory loyalists hoped for a settlement which would leave them in government; to create an appearance of normality, he heard Mass and presided over a meeting of the Privy Council.Those in attendance were William Hamilton, Duke of Hamilton, William Craven, 1st Earl of Craven (1608–1697), William Craven, 1st Earl of Craven, George Berkeley, 1st Earl of Berkeley, Charles Middleton, 2nd Earl of Middleton (Secretary of State for the Southern Department, Southern Secretary), Richard Graham, 1st Viscount Preston (Lord President of the Council and Secretary of State for the Northern Department, Northern Secretary), Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin (Chamberlain to the Queen and Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, Treasury Commissioner), John Trevor (speaker), John Trevor, Master of the Rolls and Silius Titus However, James made it clear to the Paul Barillon, French ambassador he still intended to escape to France, while his few remaining supporters viewed his flight as cowardice, and failure to ensure law and order criminally negligent. Happy to help him into exile, William recommended he relocate to Ham, London, largely because it was easy to escape from. James suggested Rochester, Kent, Rochester instead, allegedly because his personal guard was there, in reality conveniently positioned for a ship to France. On 18 December, he left London with a Dutch escort as William entered, cheered by the same crowds who greeted his predecessor two days before. On 22nd, Berwick arrived in Rochester with blank passports allowing them to leave England, while his guards were told that if James wanted to leave, "they should not prevent him, but allow him to gently slip through". Although Ailesbury and others begged him to stay, he left for France on 23 December.


The Revolutionary Settlement

James' departure significantly shifted the balance of power in favour of William, who took control of the provisional government on 28 December. Elections were held in early January for a Convention Parliament (1689), Convention Parliament which assembled on 22nd; the Whigs had a slight majority in the House of Commons of England, Commons, the House of Lords, Lords was dominated by the Tories but both were led by moderates. Archbishop Sancroft and other Stuart loyalists wanted to preserve the line of succession; although they recognised keeping James on the throne was no longer possible, they preferred Mary either be appointed his regent or sole monarch. The next two weeks were spent debating how to resolve this issue, much to the annoyance of William, who needed a swift resolution; the situation in Ireland was rapidly deteriorating, while the French had over-run large parts of the Rhineland and were preparing to attack the Dutch. At a meeting with Danby and Halifax on 3 February, he announced his intention to return home if the Convention did not appoint him joint monarch, while Mary let it be known she would only rule jointly with her husband. Faced with this ultimatum, on 6 February Parliament declared that in deserting his people James had abdicated and thus vacated the crown, which was therefore offered jointly to William and Mary. Historian Timothy J. G. Harris, Tim Harris argues the most radical act of the 1688 Revolution was breaking the succession and establishing the idea of a "contract" between ruler and people, a fundamental rebuttal of the Stuart ideology of divine right. While this was a victory for the Whigs, other pieces of legislation were proposed by the Tories, often with moderate Whig support, designed to protect the Anglican establishment from being undermined by future monarchs, including the Calvinist William. The Declaration of Right, 1689, Declaration of Right was a tactical compromise, setting out where James had failed and establishing the rights of English citizens, without agreeing their cause or offering solutions. In December 1689, this was incorporated into the Bill of Rights 1689, Bill of Rights However, there were two areas that arguably broke new constitutional ground, both responses to what were viewed as specific abuses by James. First, the Declaration of Right made keeping a standing army without Parliamentary consent illegal, overturning the The King's Sole Right over the Militia Act 1661, 1661 and City of London Militia Act 1662, 1662 Militia Acts and vesting control of the military in Parliament, not the Crown. The second was the Coronation Oath Act 1688; the result of James' perceived failure to comply with that taken in 1685, it established obligations owed by the monarchy to the people. At their coronation on 11 April, William and Mary swore to "govern the people of this kingdom of England, and the dominions thereunto belonging, according to the statutes in Parliament agreed on, and the laws and customs of the same". They were also to maintain the Protestant Reformed faith and "preserve inviolable the settlement of the Church of England, and its doctrine, worship, discipline and government as by law established".


Scotland and Ireland

While Scotland was not involved in the landing, by November 1688 only a tiny minority actively supported James; many of those who accompanied William were Scots exiles, including George Melville, 1st Earl of Melville, Melville, the Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke of Argyll, Argyll, his personal chaplain William Carstares and
Gilbert Burnet Gilbert Burnet (18 September 1643 – 17 March 1715) was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Sc ...

Gilbert Burnet
. News of James's flight led to celebrations and anti-Catholic riots in Edinburgh and Glasgow. Most members of the Scottish Privy Council went to London; on 7 January 1689, they asked William to take over government. Elections were held in March for a Convention of the Estates of Scotland, Scottish Convention, which was also a contest between Presbyterians and Episcopalians for control of the Kirk. While only 50 of the 125 delegates were classed as Episcopalian, they were hopeful of victory since William supported the retention of bishops. However, on 16 March a Letter from James was read out to the convention, demanding obedience and threatening punishment for non-compliance. Public anger at its tone meant some Episcopalians stopped attending the convention, claiming to fear for their safety and others changed sides. The 1689–1691 Jacobite Rising forced William to make concessions to the Presbyterians, ended Episcopacy in Scotland and excluded a significant portion of the political class. Many later returned to the Kirk but Nonjuring schism, Non-Juring Episcopalianism was the key determinant of Jacobitism, Jacobite support in both Jacobite rising of 1715, 1715 and Jacobite rising of 1745, 1745. The English Parliament held James 'abandoned' his throne; the Convention argued he 'forfeited' it by his actions, as listed in the Articles of Grievances. On 11 April, the Convention ended James' reign and adopted the Articles of Grievances and the Claim of Right Act 1689, Claim of Right Act, making Parliament the primary legislative power in Scotland. On 11 May, William and Mary accepted the Crown of Scotland; after their acceptance, the ''Claim'' and the '' Articles '' were read aloud, leading to an immediate debate over whether or not an endorsement of these documents was implicit in that acceptance. Under the 1542 Crown of Ireland Act 1542, Crown of Ireland Act, the English monarch was automatically king of Ireland as well. Tyrconnell had created a largely Roman Catholic army and administration which was reinforced in March 1689 when James landed in Ireland with French military support; it took Williamite War in Ireland, two years of fighting before the new regime controlled Ireland.


Anglo-Dutch alliance

Though he had carefully avoided making it public, William's main motive in organising the expedition had been the opportunity to bring England into Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg), an alliance against France. On 9 December 1688 he had already asked the States General to send a delegation of three to negotiate the conditions. On 18 February (Julian calendar) he asked the convention to support the Republic in its war against France; but it refused, only consenting to pay £600,000 for the continued presence of the Dutch army in England. On 9 March (Gregorian calendar) the States General responded to Louis's earlier Nine Years' War, declaration of war by declaring war on France in return. On 19 April (Julian calendar) the Dutch delegation signed a naval treaty with England. It stipulated that the combined Anglo-Dutch fleet would always be commanded by an Englishman, even when of lower rank; also it specified that the two parties would contribute in the ratio of five English vessels against three Dutch vessels, meaning in practice that the Dutch navy in the future would be smaller than the English. The Navigation Acts were not repealed. On 18 May the new Parliament allowed William to declare war on France. On 9 September 1689 (Gregorian calendar), William as King of England joined the
League of Augsburg The Grand Alliance is the anti-French coalition formed on 20 December 1689 between England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland t ...

League of Augsburg
against France.


The decline of the Dutch Republic

Having England as an ally meant that the military situation of the Republic was strongly improved, but this very fact induced William to be uncompromising in his position towards France. This policy led to a large number of very expensive campaigns which were largely paid for with Dutch funds. In 1712 the Republic was financially exhausted; it withdrew from international politics and was forced to let its fleet deteriorate, making what was by then the Kingdom of Great Britain the dominant maritime power of the world. The Dutch economy, already burdened by the high national debt and concomitant high taxation, suffered from the other European states' protectionism, protectionist policies, which its weakened fleet was no longer able to resist. To make matters worse, the main Dutch trading and banking houses moved much of their activity from Amsterdam to London after 1688. Between 1688 and 1720, world trade dominance shifted from the Republic to Britain.


Assessment and historiography

While the 1688 revolution was labeled "Glorious" by Protestant preachers two decades later, its historiography is complex, and its assessment disputed. Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, Thomas Macaulay's account of the Revolution in ''The History of England from the Accession of James the Second'' exemplifies the "Whig history" narrative of the Revolution as a largely consensual and bloodless triumph of English common sense, confirming and strengthening its institutions of tempered popular liberty and limited monarchy. Edmund Burke set the tone for that interpretation when he proclaimed that: In addition to Burke and Macaulay, many other historians have endorsed that view, including more recently John Morrill, who captured the consensus of contemporary historiography well when he declared that "the Sensible Revolution of 1688–89 was a conservative Revolution". An alternative narrative emphasizes William's successful foreign invasion from the Netherlands, and the size of the corresponding military operation. Several researchers have emphasized that aspect, particularly after the third centenary of the event in 1988. The invasion story is unusual because the establishment of a constitutional monarchy (a de facto republic, see Coronation Oath Act 1688) and Bill of Rights 1689, Bill of Rights meant that the apparently invading monarchs, legitimate heirs to the throne, were prepared to govern with the English Parliament. It is difficult to classify the entire proceedings of 1687–1689 but it can be seen that the events occurred in three phases: conspiracy, invasion by Dutch forces, and "Glorious Revolution". It has been argued that the invasion aspect had been downplayed as a result of a combination of British pride and successful Dutch propaganda, trying to depict the course of events as a largely internal English affair. As the invitation was initiated by figures who had little influence themselves, the legacy of the Glorious Revolution has been described as a successful propaganda act by William to cover up and justify his successful invasion. The claim that William was fighting for the Protestant cause in England was used to great effect to disguise the military, cultural and political impact that the Dutch regime had on England at the time. A third version, proposed by Steven Pincus (2009), underplays the invasion aspect but, unlike the Whig narrative, views the Revolution as a divisive and violent event that involved all classes of the English population, not just the main aristocratic protagonists. Pincus argues that his interpretation echoes the widely held view of the Revolution in its immediate aftermath, starting with its revolutionary labeling. Pincus argues that it was momentous especially when looking at the alternative that James was trying to enact – a powerful centralised autocratic state, using French-style "state-building". England's role in Europe and the country's political economy in the 17th century refutes the view of many late-20th-century historians that nothing revolutionary occurred during the Glorious Revolution of 1688–89. Pincus says it was not a placid turn of events. In diplomacy and economics William III transformed the English state's ideology and policies. This occurred not because William III was an outsider who inflicted foreign notions on England but because foreign affairs and political economy were at the core of the English revolutionaries' agenda. The revolution of 1688–89 cannot be fathomed in isolation. It would have been inconceivable without the changes resulting from the events of the 1640s and 1650s. Indeed, the ideas accompanying the Glorious Revolution were rooted in the mid-century upheavals. Thus, the 17th century was a century of revolution in England, deserving of the same scholarly attention that 'modern' revolutions attract. James II tried building a powerful militarised state on the mercantilism, mercantilist assumption that the world's wealth was necessarily finite and empires were created by taking land from other states. The East India Company was thus an ideal tool to create a vast new English imperial dominion by warring with the Dutch and the Mughal Empire in India. After 1689 came an alternative understanding of economics, which saw Britain as a commercial rather than an agrarian society. It led to the foundation of the Bank of England, the creation of Europe's first widely circulating credit currency, and the commencement of the "projector (business), Age of Projectors". This subsequently gave weight to the view, advocated most famously by Adam Smith in 1776, that wealth was created by human endeavour and was thus potentially infinite.


Impact

With the passage of the Bill of Rights 1689, Bill of Rights, the Glorious Revolution stamped out once and for all any possibility of a Catholic monarchy, and ended moves towards
absolute monarchy Absolute monarchy (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocracy, autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often hereditary monar ...
in the British kingdoms by circumscribing the monarch's powers. These powers were greatly restricted; he or she could no longer suspend laws, levy taxes, make royal appointments, or maintain a standing army during peacetime without Parliament's permission – to this day the Army is known as the "British Army" not the "Royal Army" as it is, in some sense, Parliament's Army and not that of the King. (This is, however, a complex issue, as the Crown remains the source of all executive authority in the British army, with legal implications for unlawful orders etc.) Since 1689, government under a system of constitutional monarchy in England, and later Great Britain and the United Kingdom, has been uninterrupted. Parliament's power has steadily increased, while that of the Crown's has steadily declined. Unlike in the English civil wars of the mid-seventeenth century, the "Glorious Revolution" did not involve the masses of ordinary people in England (the majority of the bloodshed occurred in Ireland). This fact has led many historians, including Stephen Webb, to suggest that, in England at least, the events more closely resemble a coup d'état than a social revolution.The importance of the event has divided historians ever since Friedrich Engels judged it "a relatively puny event". This view of events does not contradict what was originally meant by "revolution": the coming round of an old system of values in a circular motion, back to its original position, as England's constitution was reasserted, rather than formed anew. Prior to his arrival in England, the future king William III was not Anglican, but rather was a member of the Dutch Reformed Church. Consequently, as a Calvinist and Presbyterian he was now in the unenviable position of being the head of the Church of England, while also being a Nonconformist (Protestantism), Nonconformist. This was, however, not his main motive for promoting religious toleration. More important in that respect was the need to keep happy his Roman Catholic alliesi.e. Spain and the Holy Roman Emperor in the coming struggle with Louis XIV. Though he had promised legal toleration for Roman Catholics in his ''Declaration'' of October 1688, William was ultimately unsuccessful in this respect, due to opposition by the Tories in the new Parliament. The Revolution led to the Act of Toleration 1689, Act of Toleration of 1689, which granted toleration to Nonconformist (Protestantism), Nonconformist Protestants, but not to Roman Catholics. Catholic emancipation would be delayed for 140 years. The Williamite War in Ireland can be seen as the source of later ethno-religious conflict, including The Troubles of the twentieth century. The Williamite victory in Ireland is still commemorated by the Orange Order for preserving British and Protestant supremacy in the country. In North America, the Glorious Revolution precipitated the 1689 Boston revolt in which a well-organised "mob" of provincial militia and citizens successfully deposed the hated governor Edmund Andros. In New York, Leisler's Rebellion caused the colonial administrator, Francis Nicholson, to flee to England. A third event, Maryland's Protestant Revolution (Maryland), Protestant Rebellion was directed against the proprietary government, seen as Catholic-dominated.


Notes


References


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ; * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* Also published by Panther History (1968). * * A scholarly history of the era. * Articles by scholars. * * Harris, Tim (2006). ''Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarchy, 1685–1720''. Allen Lane. . * Harris, Tim and Stephen Taylor, eds (2013). ''The Final Crisis of the Stuart Monarchy: The Revolutions of 1688–91 in their British, Atlantic and European Contexts''. Boydell. . * * * * A brief scholarly biography. * * * * *


External links

* Weiss, B.
Medals of the Glorious Revolution: The Influence of Catholic-Protestant Antagonism
ANS Magazine, Vol. 13, Issue 1, pp. 6–23. American Numismatic Society, New York, 2014. * * * * * * * {{authority control Glorious Revolution, Conflicts in 1688 1688 in England Netherlands–United Kingdom relations Anti-Catholicism in England Anti-Catholicism in Scotland Anti-Catholicism in Northern Ireland Anti-Catholicism in Wales Anti-Catholicism in the United Kingdom British monarchy Rebellions in England 1688 in Ireland Invasions of England 17th-century revolutions Stuart England 1688 in Scotland Civil wars in England Succession to the British crown James II of England William III of England Mary II of England Military coups in England 17th-century coups d'état and coup attempts The Restoration