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Germania ( , ), also called Magna Germania (English: ''Great Germania''), Germania Libera (English: ''Free Germania'') or Germanic Barbaricum to distinguish it from the
Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled by a ...
s of the same name, was a large historical region in north-central Europe during the Roman era, which was associated by Roman authors with the
Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman authors. They are also associated with Germanic languages, which originated and dispersed among them, and ...
. The region stretched roughly from the Middle and Lower Rhine in the west to the Vistula in the east. It also extended as far south as the Upper and Middle Danube and Pannonia, and to the known parts of
Scandinavia Scandinavia, Sami languages, Sami: ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl'' ( ) is a Subregion#Europe, subregion in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In English usage, ''Scandinavia'' can refer to Denmark, Norw ...

Scandinavia
in the north. Archaeologically, these peoples correspond roughly to the Roman Iron Age of those regions. While apparently dominated by
Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman authors. They are also associated with Germanic languages, which originated and dispersed among them, and ...
, ''Magna Germania'' was inhabited by non-Germanic peoples as well, including
Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European peoples. "The Celts, an ancient Indo-Europe ...

Celts
and Early Slavs and their precursors. The
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...
name ''Germania'' means "land of the Germani", but the
etymology Etymology () The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time". is the study of the history History (from Greek ...
of the name ''Germani'' itself is uncertain. During the
Gallic Wars The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in Cris ...
of the 1st century BC, the Roman general
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in Crisis of the Roman Republic, the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Rom ...

Julius Caesar
encountered peoples originating from beyond the Rhine. He referred to these people as Germani and their lands beyond the Rhine as Germania. In subsequent years, the Roman emperor Augustus sought to expand across the Rhine towards the Elbe, but these efforts were hampered by the victory of Arminius at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD. The prosperous provinces of Germania Superior and Germania Inferior, sometimes collectively referred to as ''Roman Germania'', were subsequently established in northeast Roman Gaul, while territories beyond the Rhine remained independent of Roman control. From the 3rd century AD, Germanic peoples moving out of Magna Germania began encroaching upon and occupying parts of Roman Germania. This contributed to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, after which territories of Roman Germania were captured and settled by Migration Period, migrating Germanic peoples. Large parts of Germania subsequently became part of the Frankish Empire and the later Kingdom of Germany. The name of Germany in English language, English and many other languages is derived from the name ''Germania''.


Etymology

In
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...
, the name ''Germania'' means "lands where people called Germani live". Modern scholars do not agree on the etymology of the name ''Germani''. Celtic languages, Celtic, Germanic languages, Germanic, Illyrian languages, Illyrian and Latin etymologies have been suggested. The main source on the origin of the names ''Germania'' and ''Germani'' is the book ''Germania (book), Germania'' (98 AD) by Tacitus.. "[T]he origins of the name “Germani” are uncertain. Our main source for this, as for so much about Germany at this period, is Tacitus, whose Germania, subtitled On the Origin and Geography of Germany (De origine et situ Germanorum) was completed toward the end of the first century. He suggests that the name is a modern invention. “It comes from the fact,” he tells us in the second chapter of the Germania, “that the tribes which first crossed the Rhine and drove out the Gauls, and are now called Tungrians, were then called Germans. Thus what was the name of a tribe, and not of a race, gradually prevailed, till all called themselves by this self-invented name of Germans, which the conquerors had first employed to inspire terror.” It is as plausible an explanation as any..." Tacitus writes that the name ''Germania'' was "modern and newly introduced". According to Tacitus, the name ''Germani'' had once been applied only to the Tungri, west of the Rhine, but became an "artificial name" ('':wikt:invento, inventus :wikt:nomine#Latin, nomen'') for supposedly related peoples east of the Rhine., :Wikisource:Germania (Church & Brodribb)#II, II Many modern scholars consider Tacitus' story plausible, although it is doubted whether the name was commonly used by ''Germani'' to refer to themselves.


Geography

The boundaries of Germania are not clearly defined, particularly at its northern and eastern fringes. Magna Germania stretched approximately from the Rhine in the west to beyond the Vistula river in the east, and from the Danube in the south and northwards along the North Sea, North and Baltic Sea, Baltic seas, including
Scandinavia Scandinavia, Sami languages, Sami: ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl'' ( ) is a Subregion#Europe, subregion in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In English usage, ''Scandinavia'' can refer to Denmark, Norw ...

Scandinavia
. Germania Superior encompassed parts of modern-day Switzerland, southwest Germany and eastern France, while Germania Inferior encompassed much of modern-day Belgium and Netherlands. In his ''Geography (Ptolemy), Geography'' (150 AD), the Roman geographer Ptolemy provides descriptions of the geography of Germania. Modern scholars have been able to localize many of the place names mentioned by Ptolemy, and associated them with place names of the present day. Germania was inhabited by a large number of peoples, and there was not much unity among them. It appears that Germania was not entirely inhabited by
Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman authors. They are also associated with Germanic languages, which originated and dispersed among them, and ...
. Hydronymy provides evidence for the presence of another Indo-European group, which probably lived under Germanic domination.


History

During the
Gallic Wars The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in Cris ...
of the 1st century BC, the Roman general
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in Crisis of the Roman Republic, the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Rom ...

Julius Caesar
came into contact with peoples originating east of the Rhine. In his ''Commentarii de Bello Gallico'', Caesar refers to these peoples as the Germani, and the lands from where they originated as Germania. The Romans appear to have borrowed the name from the Gauls. Having defeated the Germanic chieftain Ariovistus in Gaul, Caesar built Caesar's Rhine bridges, bridges across the Rhine and conducted punitive expeditions in Germania.. "Caesar advanced into Germania..." He writes the area was composed of numerous Germanic states, which were not entirely united., :Wikisource:Commentaries on the Gallic War/Book 5#55, 5. 55, :Wikisource:Commentaries on the Gallic War/Book 6#32, 6. 32 According to Caesar, the Gallic Volcae Tectosages had once crossed the Rhine and colonized parts of Germania, but had since been become militarily inferior to the Germani., :Wikisource:Commentaries on the Gallic War/Book 6#24, 6. 24 He also writes that Germani had once crossed the Rhine into northeast Gaul and driven away its Gallic inhabitants, and that the Belgae claimed to be largely descended from these Germanic invaders., :Wikisource:Commentaries on the Gallic War/Book 2#3, 2. 3-4 In the late 1st century BC and early 1st century AD, the Roman emperor Augustus launched Early Imperial campaigns in Germania, campaigns across the Rhine, and sought to incorporate areas of Germania as far east as the Elbe into the Roman Empire. He planned to turn this area into the proposed province of Magna Germania, with headquarters at Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, Colonia (modern-day Cologne, Germany). The Roman campaign was severely hampered by the victory of Arminius at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD. The outcome of this battle dissuaded the Romans from their ambition of conquering Germania, and is thus considered one of the most important events in European history. The Rhine eventually became the border between the Roman Empire and Magna Germania. Areas of northeast Gaul bordering the Rhine remained under Roman control, and are often referred to as ''Roman Germania''. Four Roman legions were stationed there, and a Roman fleet, the Classis Germanica, was also established. The area was effectively governed as Roman provinces. Areas of Germania independent of Roman control were referred to as ''Magna Germania''. Modern scholars sometimes refer to the Magna Germania as ''Free Germania'' (Latin: ''Germania Libera'') or ''Germanic Barbaricum''. As parts of Roman social engineering (political science), social engineering efforts, large numbers of Germani, including Ubii and Sicambri, were settled within Roman Germania in order to prevent revolts by resident Gauls. Roman Germania became characterized by a mixed Celtic, Germanic and Roman population, which became progressively Romanization (cultural), Romanized. By the mid 1st century AD, between eight and ten Roman legions were stationed in Roman Germania to protect the frontiers. Many of the soldiers of these Roman legions were Germanic. In 69-70 AD, Roman Germania was heavily affected by the Revolt of the Batavi. Tacitus writes that the leader of the revolt, Gaius Julius Civilis, recruited a vast amount of warriors from his self-described "kinsmen" all over Germania, and hailed Arminius for having liberated Germania from slavery., :Wikisource:The Histories (Tacitus)/Book 4#14, 4. 14, :Wikisource:The Histories (Tacitus)/Book 4#17, 4. 17, :Wikisource:The Histories (Tacitus)/Book 4#28, 4. 28 Civilis' rebels seized Colonia, capital of Roman Germania and home of the Germanic Ubii, who according to Tacitus were considered traitors by other Germani for having "forsworn its native country". After initially seeking to raze all of Colonia to the ground, the forces of Civilis declared the city returned "into the unity of the German nation and name" and "an open city for all Germans"., :Wikisource:The Histories (Tacitus)/Book 4#63, 4. 63-65 Although initially declaring the rebels and "other Germans" their "kinsmen by blood", the Ubii eventually assisted the Romans in recapturing the Colonia. In the late 1st century AD, under the leadership of the Flavian dynasty, the provinces of Germania Inferior (headquartered at Colonia) and Germania Superior (headquartered at Mogontiacum) were created out of Roman Germania and other eastern parts of Roman Gaul. They hosted a large military force and carried out lucrative trade with Magna Germania, which greatly contributed to the wealth of Roman Gaul. ''Germania'' (98 AD) by Tacitus provided vivid descriptions of the peoples of Magna Germania. In the late 1st and early 2nd century AD, the Romans reoccupied areas lying between the Rhine, Main (river), Main and Danube rivers. This area became known as the Agri Decumates. Additional numbers of Germani were settled by the Romans within this area. The Roman fortifications on the border with Magna Germania were known as the Limes Germanicus. The 3rd century AD saw the emergence of several powerful Germanic confederations in Magna Germania, such as the Alemanni and Franks. The Crisis of the Third Century included raids on Roman Germania by Alemanni and Franks, and the area briefly became part of the Gallic Empire established by the usurper Postumus. Around 280 AD, the Agri Decumates were evacuated by the Romans and occupied by Alemanni. Under Diocletian (3rd century AD), Germania Superior was renamed ''Germania Secunda'', while Germania Inferior was renamed ''Maxima Sequanorum''. Both provinces were under the Diocese of Gaul. The provinces of Roman Germania continued to be subjected to repeated Alemannic and Frankish attacks. In the late 4th century AD and early 5th century AD, Gothic Wars in the Balkans forced the Romans to withdraw troops from Roman Germania. In 406, a large number of people fleeing the Huns Crossing of the Rhine, crossed the Rhine from Magna Germania into Roman Germania and Gaul, leading to the eventually collapse of Roman rule there, and the emigration of large numbers of Romans, particularly Roman elites. Roman Germania was subsequently occupied by Alemanni and Franks. During subsequent centuries, peoples of Germania played a major role in dismembering what was left of the Western Roman Empire. Large parts of Germania, including all of Roman Germania, were eventually incorporated into the Frankish Empire.


Archaeology

Image:Image Germania (painting).jpg, upright=1, Germania (St. Paul's Church, Frankfurt am Main), Painting of Germania (personification), Germania, the personification of Germany and the Germans, by Philipp Veit, 1849 From the 1st to the 4th century AD, Magna Germania corresponds archaeologically to the Roman Iron Age. In recent years, progress in archaeology has contributed greatly to the understanding of Germania. Areas of Magna Germania were largely Agriculture, agrarian, and display archaeological commonalities with each other, while being strongly differentiated from that of Roman Germania, largely due to the absence of cities and independent coinage. Archaeological discoveries testify to flourishing trade between Magna Germania and the Roman Empire. Amber was a primary export out of Magna Germania, while Roman luxury goods were imported on a large scale. Such goods have been found as far as Scandinavia and Western Russia.


Legacy

The name Germania is attested in Old English translations of Bede and Orosius. Since the 17th century, the most common name of Germany in English language, English has been derived from the name ''Germania''.


See also

*Scythia *Illyria *Thrace *Gaul *Dacia *Scandza *Hibernia *Thule *Germania (city)


Citations and sources


Citations


Ancient sources

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Modern sources

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Further reading

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External links


Germania
(Roman provinces) {{Authority control Germania, Historical regions Historical regions in Germany Germany in the Roman era Netherlands in the Roman era Prehistoric Poland