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Gallia Aquitania ( , ), also known as
Aquitaine Aquitaine ( , , ; oc, Aquitània ; eu, Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais Poitevin-Saintongeais (french: poitevin-saintongeais, link=no, ; autonym: ''poetevin-séntunjhaes''; also called ''Parlanjhe'', ''Aguiain'' or even ''Aguiainais'' in Fren ...

Aquitaine
or Aquitaine Gaul, was a
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
. It lies in present-day southwest
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, where it gives its name to the modern
region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The ...
of
Aquitaine Aquitaine ( , , ; oc, Aquitània ; eu, Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais Poitevin-Saintongeais (french: poitevin-saintongeais, link=no, ; autonym: ''poetevin-séntunjhaes''; also called ''Parlanjhe'', ''Aguiain'' or even ''Aguiainais'' in Fren ...

Aquitaine
. It was bordered by the provinces of
Gallia Lugdunensis Gallia Lugdunensis (French: ''Gaule Lyonnaise'') was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational e ...
,
Gallia Narbonensis Gallia Narbonensis (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be ...
, and
Hispania Tarraconensis Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman R ...
.John Frederick Drinkwater (1998). "Gaul (Transalpine)". ''The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization.'' Ed. Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth. Oxford University Press
Oxford Reference Online


Tribes of Aquitania

Fourteen
Celt The Celts (, see Names of the Celts#Pronunciation, pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European languages, ...

Celt
ic tribes and over twenty
Aquitani The Aquitanians (Latin: ''Aquitani'') were a people living in what is now southern Nouvelle-Aquitaine and southwestern Midi-Pyrénées, France, called Gallia Aquitania by the Roman Empire, Romans in the region between the Pyrenees, the Atlantic oce ...

Aquitani
an tribes occupied the area from the northern slopes of the
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of France and Spain. It extends nearly from its union with the Cantabrian Mountains to ...

Pyrenees
in the south to the ''Liger'' (
Loire The Loire (, also ; ; oc, Léger, ; la, Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world. With a length of , it drains , more than a fifth of France's land while its average discharge is only half that of the Rhône ...

Loire
) river in the north. The major tribes are listed at the end of this section.''Strabo: The Geography''
The Aquitani
There were more than twenty tribes of Aquitani, but they were small and lacking in repute; the majority of the tribes lived along the ocean, while the others reached up into the interior and to the summits of the Cemmenus Mountains, as far as the
Tectosages The Tectosages or Tectosagii (Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the ancest ...

Tectosages
. The name ''Gallia Comata'' was often used to designate the three provinces of Farther Gaul, viz. Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Belgica, and Aquitania, literally meaning "long-haired Gaul", as opposed to ''Gallia Bracata'' "trousered Gaul", a term derived from ''bracae'' ("breeches", the native costume of the northern "barbarians") for Gallia Narbonensis. Most of the Atlantic coast of the Aquitani was sandy and thin-soiled; it grew
millet Millets () are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food. Millets are important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa (especially in Indi ...

millet
, but was unproductive with respect to other products. Along this coast was also the gulf held by the Tarbelli; in their land, gold mines were abundant. Large quantities of gold could be mined with a minimum of refinement. The interior and mountainous country in this region had better soil. The Petrocorii and the Bituriges Cubi had fine ironworks; the Cadurci had linen factories; the Ruteni and the Gabales had silver mines. According to Strabo, the Aquitani were a wealthy people. Luerius, the King of the Arverni and the father of Bituitus who warred against Maximus Aemilianus and Dometius, is said to have been so exceptionally rich and extravagant that he once rode on a carriage through a plain, scattering gold and silver coins here and there. The Romans called the tribal groups '' pagi''. These were organized into larger super-tribal groups that the Romans called ''
civitates In the history of Rome, the Latin term ''civitas'' (; plural ''civitates''), according to Cicero in the time of the late Roman Republic, was the social body of the cives, or citizens, united by law (concilium coetusque hominum jure sociati). It ...
''. These administrative groupings were later taken over by the Romans in their system of local control. Aquitania was inhabited by the following tribes: Ambilatri, Anagnutes,
Arverni The Arverni (Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language The Celtic languages ( , ) are a Language family, group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic language, Proto-Celtic. They form a branch of the Indo-European langu ...
,
Ausci The Ausci were an Aquitani The Aquitanians (Latin: ''Aquitani'') were a people living in what is now southern Nouvelle-Aquitaine and southwestern Midi-Pyrénées, France, called Gallia Aquitania by the Roman Empire, Romans in the region between the ...
, Basabocates, Belendi, Bercorates, Bergerri,
Bituriges Cubi The Bituriges Cubi (Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language The Celtic languages ( , ) are a Language family, group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic language, Proto-Celtic. They form a branch of the Indo-European ...
,
Bituriges Vivisci The Bituriges Vivisci (Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Continental Europe Mainland or continental Europe is the contiguous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can also ...

Bituriges Vivisci
,
Cadurci The Cadurci were a Gallic tribe dwelling in the later region of Quercy Quercy (; oc, Carcin , locally ) is a former located in the country's southwest, bounded on the north by , on the west by and , on the south by and , and on the east by ...
, Cambolectri Agesinates, Camponi, , Cocossati, Consoranni,
Elusates The Elusates were an Aquitani The Aquitanians (Latin: ''Aquitani'') were a people living in what is now southern Nouvelle-Aquitaine and southwestern Midi-Pyrénées, France, called Gallia Aquitania by the Roman Empire, Romans in the region betw ...
,
Gabali The Gabali (Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Continental Europe Mainland or continental Europe is the contiguous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can also be referred ...
, Lassunni / Sassumini, Latusates / Tarusates,
Lemovices The Lemovices (Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Continental Europe Mainland or continental Europe is the contiguous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can also be referr ...
, Monesi,
Nitiobroges The Nitiobroges (Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Continental Europe Mainland or continental Europe is the contiguous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can also be refe ...
/ Antobroges, Onobrisates, Oscidates montani, Oscidiates campestres,
Petrocorii The Petrocorii were a Gallic tribe dwelling in the present-day Périgord region, between the Dordogne Dordogne ( , or ; ; oc, Dordonha) is a Departments of France, department in Southwestern France, with its Prefectures in France, prefe ...
,
Pictones The Pictones were a Gallic tribe dwelling south of the Loire river, in the modern departments of Vendée, Deux-Sèvres and Vienne, during the Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the preh ...
, Pindedunni / Pinpedunni,
Ruteni The Ruteni were a Gallic tribe dwelling in the southern part of the Massif Central The Massif Central (; oc, Massís Central, ; literally ''"Central Massif"'') is a highland region in the middle of Southern France, consisting of mountains and p ...
,
Santones The Santoni or Santones ( grc, Σαντόνων, Σάντονες) were a Gallic tribe dwelling in the later region of Saintonge Saintonge (), historically spelled Xaintonge and Xainctonge, is a former province of France located on the west c ...
, Sediboniates, Sennates, Sibyllates, Sottiates, Succasses,
Tarbelli The Tarbelli were an Aquitani pre-Ancient Rome, Roman tribe settled in what today is southwestern France, between the river Adour and the Pyrenees. The capital of the Tarbelli people was ''Aquae Tarbellicae'', present-day Dax, Landes, Dax. They li ...
, Tornates / Toruates, Vassei, Vellates,
Vellavi 300px, The Vellavi sited south of the Auvergne Auvergne (; ; oc, label=Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no , ), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance language ...
, Venami.


Gallia Aquitania and Rome

Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rat ...

Gaul
as a nation was not a natural unit (Caesar differentiated between proper Gauls (Celtae), Belgae and
Aquitani The Aquitanians (Latin: ''Aquitani'') were a people living in what is now southern Nouvelle-Aquitaine and southwestern Midi-Pyrénées, France, called Gallia Aquitania by the Roman Empire, Romans in the region between the Pyrenees, the Atlantic oce ...

Aquitani
). In order to protect the route to Spain, Rome helped Massalia (
Marseille Marseille ( , , ; also spelled in English as Marseilles; oc, Marselha ) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European langua ...

Marseille
) against bordering tribes. Following this intervention, the Romans conquered what they called ''Provincia'', or the "Province" in 121 BC. ''Provincia'' extended from the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
to
Lake Geneva , pushpin_map = Switzerland , image = Lake Geneva by Sentinel-2.jpg , caption = Satellite image , image_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = , location = Switzerland, France , coords = ...

Lake Geneva
, and was later known as Narbonensis with its capital at
Narbo Narbonne (, also , ; oc, Narbona ; la, Narbo ; Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European l ...
. Some of the region falls into modern
Provence Provence (, , , , ; oc, Provença or ''Prouvènço'' , ) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, ...

Provence
, still recalling the Roman name. The main struggle (58–50 BC) against the Romans came against
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
under
Vercingetorix Vercingetorix (; – 46 BC) was a king and chieftain of the Arverni The Arverni (: ''Aruerni'') were a people dwelling in the modern region during the and the . They were one of the most powerful tribes of ancient , contesting primacy ove ...

Vercingetorix
at
Battle of Gergovia The Battle of Gergovia took place in 52 BC in Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Ge ...
(a city of the Arverni) and at the
Battle of Alesia The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia was a military engagement in the Gallic Wars The Gallic Wars were waged between 58 BC and 50 BC by the Roman general Julius Caesar against the peoples of Gaul (present-day France, Belgiu ...
(a city of the Mandubii). The Gaulish commander was captured at the siege of Alesia and the war ended. Caesar seized the remainder of Gaul, justifying his conquest by playing on Roman memories of savage attacks over the Alps by Celts and Germans. Italy was now to be defended from the Rhine. Caesar named Aquitania the triangle shaped territory between the Ocean, the Pyrenees and the
Garonne The Garonne (, also , ; Occitan language , Occitan, Catalan language , Catalan, Basque language, Basque, and es, Garona, ; la, Garumna or ) is a river of southwest France and northern Spain. It flows from the central Spanish Pyrenees to the ...

Garonne
river. He fought and almost completely subdued them in 56 BC after Publius Crassus's military exploits assisted by Celtic allies. New rebellions ensued anyway up to 28-27 BC, with
AgrippaAgrippa may refer to: People * Agrippa (mythology), semi-mythological king of Alba Longa * Agrippa (astronomer), Greek astronomer from the late 1st century * Agrippa the Skeptic, Skeptic philosopher at the end of the 1st century * Agrippa Meneniu ...
gaining a great victory over the Gauls of Aquitania in 38 BC. It was the smallest region of all three mentioned above. A land extension stretching to the Loire River was added by
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
, following the census conducted in 27 BC, based on Agrippa's observations of language, race and community according to some sources. At that point, Aquitania became an imperial province and it, along with Narbonensis, Lugdunensis and Belgica, made up
Gallia Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rat ...

Gallia
. Aquitania lay under the command of a former
Praetor Praetor ( , ), also pretor, was the granted by the government of to a man acting in one of two official capacities: (i) the commander of an , and (ii) as an elected ' (magistrate), assigned to discharge various duties. The functions of the magi ...
, and hosted no legions. More so than Caesar,
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
insists that the differ from the other Gauls not just in
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...
, institutions and laws ("''lingua institutis legibusque discrepantes''") but in body make-up too, deeming them closer to the
Iberians The Iberians ( la, Hibērī, from el, Ἴβηρες, ''Iberes'') were a set of people that Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic ...
. The administrative boundaries set up by Augustus comprising both proper Celtic tribes and primeval Aquitani remained unaltered until
Diocletian Diocletian (; la, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus; born Diocles; 22 December c. 244 – 3 December 311) was from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in , Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become a commander of ...
's new administrative reorganization (see below). The Arverni often warred against the Romans with as many as two to four hundred thousand men. Two hundred thousand fought against
Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus, was a Roman Republic, Roman statesman and general who was elected Roman consul, consul in 121 BC. During his consulship he fought against the Arverni and the Allobroges whom he defeated in 120 BC. He was awarded ...
and against
Gnaeus Domitius AhenobarbusGnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus was the name of several Roman politicians: *Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 192 BC). *Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 162 BC), son of the previous. *Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 122 BC), son of the previous ...
. The Arverni not only had extended their empire as far as Narbo and the boundaries of Massiliotis, but they were also masters of the tribes as far as the Pyrenees, and as far as the ocean and the ''Rhenus'' (
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
).


Late Roman Empire and the Visigoths

Early Roman Gaul came to an end late in the 3rd century. External pressures exacerbated internal weaknesses, and neglect of the Rhine frontier resulted in barbarian invasions and civil war. For a while Gaul, including Spain and Britain, was governed by a separate line of emperors (beginning with
Postumus Marcus Cassianius Latinius PostumusJones & Martindale (1971), p. 720 was a Roman commander of Batavian origin who ruled as Emperor in the West. The Roman army in Gaul threw off its allegiance to Gallienus Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus ...

Postumus
). However, there had still been no move to gain independence. In an attempt to save the Empire,
Diocletian Diocletian (; la, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus; born Diocles; 22 December c. 244 – 3 December 311) was from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in , Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become a commander of ...
reorganized the provinces in 293, with the establishment of the ''Diocesis Viennensis'' in the south of Gaul, comprising the former Gallia Aquitania and Gallia Narbonensis. At the same time, Aquitania was divided into '' Aquitania Prima'', with its see (capital) in '''' (Bourges), '' Aquitania Secunda'' (see – ''
Burdigala Bordeaux ( , ; Gascon oc, Bordèu ) is a port city on the river Garonne The Garonne (, also , ; Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no , ), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance l ...

Burdigala
''; the later Bordeaux) and ''Aquitania Tertia'', better known as ''
Novempopulania Novempopulania (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...

Novempopulania
'' ("land of the nine peoples"), with its see in '' Elusa'' (Eauze). ''Novempopulania'' originated in boundaries set up by Caesar for the original Aquitania, who had kept some kind of separate sense of identity (Verus' mission to Rome aimed at demanding a separate province). After this restructuring, Gaul enjoyed stability and enhanced prestige. After the trans-Rhine invasion December 31 406 by 4 tribes (Alans, Sueves, Asding and Siling Vandals), the offices of the Gallic prefecture were moved from Trier to Arles even though the Rhine frontier was subsequently restored and under Roman control till 459 when Cologne was taken by the Franks. Roman attention had been shifted to the south to try to control the invaders and keep them from the Mediterranean, a policy which failed after the Vandals started to harass the coasts from their bases in southern Spain from the early 420s. In the early 5th century, Aquitania was invaded by the Germanic
Visigoths The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe a ...
. The Emperor Flavius Honorius conceded land in Aquitania to the Visigoths . According to some sources the Visigoths were Roman ''
foederati ''Foederati'' (, singular: ''foederatus'' ) were peoples and cities bound by a treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law ...
'' and Flavius acted to reward them under the principle of '' hospitalitas'' (i.e. the Roman legal framework under which civilians were required to provide quarters to soldiers). However, in 418, an independent
Visigothic Kingdom The Visigothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of the Goths ( la, Regnum Gothorum), was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries. One of the Germanic peoples, Germanic s ...

Visigothic Kingdom
was formed from parts of ''Novempopulania'' and ''Aquitania Secunda''. The death of the general Aëtius (454) and a worsening debility on the part of the western government created a power vacuum. During the 460s and 470s, Visigoths encroached on Roman territory to the east, and in 476, the last imperial possessions in the south of Aquitania were ceded to the Visigoths. The Visigothic Kingdom later expanded over the Pyrenees and into the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region ...

Iberian Peninsula
. From 602, an independent
Duchy of Vasconia The Duchy of Gascony or Duchy of Vasconia ( eu, Baskoniako dukerria; oc, ducat de Gasconha; french: duché de Gascogne, duché de Vasconie) was a duchy located in present-day southwestern France and northeastern Spain, an area encompassing the m ...

Duchy of Vasconia
(or ''Wasconia'') was formed, under a
Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman author ...

Frankish
-Roman elite, in the former Visigothic stronghold of south-west Aquitania (i.e. the region known later as
Gascony Gascony (; french: Gascogne ; oc, Gasconha ; eu, Gaskoinia) was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region ...
).


Known governors

* Quintus Julius Cordus AD 69 *
Gnaeus Julius Agricola Gnaeus Julius Agricola (; 13 June 40 – 23 August 93) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ...
74-76 *
Marcus Cornelius Nigrinus Curiatius Maternus Marcus Cornelius Nigrinus Curiatius Maternus was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of com ...
80-83 * Senecio Memmius Afer 94-96 * ucius Valerius Propinquus?Grani s ...?Grattius erealis?Geminius R stitutus?123-125 * Salvius ValensRonald Syme
"A Lost Legate of Aquitania"
''
Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik The ''Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik'' (ZPE) is a Peer review, peer-reviewed academic journal which contains articles that pertain to papyrology and epigraphy. It has been described as "the world's leading and certainly most prolific j ...
'', 79 (1988), pp. 181-187
* Quintus Caecilius Marcellus Dentilianus c. 138 *
Titus Prifernius Paetus Rosianus GeminusTitus Prifernius Paetus Rosianus Geminus was a Roman senator of the second century who held a series of posts in the emperor's service. He was suffect consul for the '' nundinium'' of May-June AD 146 as the colleague of Publius Mummius Sisenna Rut ...
142-145 * Quintus Cecilius Marcellus Dentillianus 146-149 * ..Licianus * Fidus 150s * Marcus Censorius Paullus ?157-?160 * Publius Flavius Pudens Pomponianus second half second centuryPaul Leunissen, ''Konsuln und Konsulare in der Zeit von Commodus bis Severus Alexander'' (Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben, 1989), pp. 204f * Lucius Julius Julianus during the reign of CaracallaLeunissen, ''Konsuln und Konsulare'', p. 283 * Marcus Juventius Secundus Rixa Postumius Pansa Valerianus Severus early third century.


References

{{Authority control Provinces of Roman Gaul History of Aquitaine Former countries in French history 27 BC establishments 1st-century BC establishments in Roman Gaul 20s BC establishments in the Roman Empire 5th-century disestablishments 5th-century disestablishments in the Roman Empire States and territories established in the 1st century BC States and territories disestablished in the 5th century